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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE The present perfect tense is formed with have/has + the past participle of verb. We use the present perfect tense : To show a past action which has continued up to now . Example : She has taught History for many years. To express an action that happened short a while ago. Example : The train has just left. To express a past action that happened at an unspecified time. Example : I have already heard that story before. 2. PAST PERFECT TENSE The past perfect tense is formed with had + the past participle of verb. We use the past perfect tense : To show which of two actions happened first Example : i) She had cleaned the room when the guests arrived. ii)By the time the ambulance arrived, the public had pulled out the victim from the car. To describe things we hoped or wished to do but didnt Example : I had hoped to send him flowers to congratulate him on his graduation, but I didnt manage it. 3. SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT - The singular verb is used when a collective noun is considered as a whole. Example : Our school football team is very strong. - We use the singular verb with the following expressions : each of, one of, much, every, someone, anyone or anything. Example : i) One of the students has not paid up. ii) Each of us is allowed to vote once. - We use the singular verb with uncountable or abstract nouns. Example : i) Too much sugar is bad for health. ii) Tolerance is a virtue. - The singular verb is used when a plural noun shows a fixed amount considered as a whole.

Example : Ten kilometers is a long distance to walk. - When used with expressions like with, as well as, in addition to, including and together with, the verb agrees with the first subject. Example : John, as well as his classmates, is going on the trip. - When eitheror or neithernor is used, the verb agrees with the subject nearer to it. Example : i) Either the boys or the girl has taken the reference book. ii) Neither James nor his friends are interested to go on the trip. 4. GERUNDS, PARTICIPLES & INFINITIVES i) Gerunds -are verbal nouns ending in ing (nouns formed from verbs) -function as nouns as the subject or object of a sentence -can be used after a preposition Example : 1. Baking is my mothers favourite pastime. 2. Uncle Ben goes jogging in the park every morning. 3. He called it a day because he was so tired of working. ii) Participles 1. Present Participles - are also words ending in ing - function as an adjective before a noun - can be placed after the noun or pronoun it describes - may be separated from the noun or pronoun it describes Example : - Our society will organise a dancing competition. - The teacher caught them hiding in the classroom. - The prefects are at the meeting, discussing their farewell party. 2. Past Participles - formed by adding ed to regular verbs - take other forms for irregular verbs - as an adjective - used to start an adjective phrase Example : - The lady has sent her torn blouse to the tailor. - Frightened by the mascot, the little girl refused to take part in the show.

iii) Infinitives to-infinitive & infinitive without the word to - has no present, past or future form - some verbs are actually followed by to-infinitive - some verbs are followed by the infinitive without the word to - when there are two infinitive, the to is left out in the second infinitive Example : - They are learning to bake chocolate cookies. - My sister hopes to buy a car by the end of the year. - He is so brave to climb up the roof of the house. - We dare not speak to the principal. - She loves to cook and sew. 5. MODALS a) shall/should : to express future tense with/and we, to ask for advice, to show promise, to express obligation and to show condition. Example : - I shall finish my assignment by this week. - What should we do? - I shall go to your engagement party. - All of us should chip in to help the victims. b) ought to : to advice and show obligation. Example : - They ought to stay at home and start revising for the SPM examination next week. c) need : to form negative or interrogative sentances Example : - They need not go for the meeting. d) must/have to/had to : to suggest a command or obligation Example : - All students must stick to the rules in the examination hall. e) can/could : to express possibility, ability and to make a polite request Example : - He says he can do headstand. - Could you please lend me a pencil, Andy?

f) will/would : to express determination, a wish, a request and in conditional sentences. Example : - If I win in the competition, I will treat all of you to dinner. 6. ADJECTIVES - adjectives can be formed by adding prefixes. - we add un-, dis-, in-, im-, il-, ir- to adjectives to make negative adjectives to give the opposite meaning. Example : Happy Unhappy Loyal Disloyal Valid Invalid Polite Impolite Logical Illogical Reversible Irreversible -we add bi- to adjectives to mean twice or two. Example : Lingual Bilingual Racial Biracial 7. ADJECTIVE USED AS NOUNS - some adjectives are used as with the definite article to talk about groups of people. Example : * the blind * the sick * the hearing impaired - the expression have a plural meaning 8. NOUNS USED AS ADJECTIVES -nouns are used as adjective s when they are put before other nouns. Example : * car door * school hall * ice cream

* computer room - sometimes they are written as compound word especially when the words are short. Example : * homework * toothbrush * bookshop - when a noun is used as adjective in the first noun is almost always singular. Example : * school sports * coconut husks * storybook 9. THE SIMPLE TENSES The simple tenses is used : - to show habitual action Example : She usually goes to bed at ten oclock every night. - to talk about a fact or something true about a person Example : The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. - to show a planned action Example : The plane to Perth leaves in an hour. - to warn, instruct or order Example : Keep quiet! The simple past is used : - to show an action that happened at a known time in the past. Example : He jogged around the park yesterday. - to express an unlikely event Example : If I were you, I would not go on the trip. The simple future is used : -to show a future action Example : We will visit you in London this year. - to show a likely event when used in the main clause of a conditional sentences. Example : The little boy will sleep if he is tired. - to express commands or announcements Example : Form 4 Orchid will present a sketch.

10. PREPOSITION Preposition of Place/Position -to indicate the position of a subject/thing Example : The bookshop is opposite the bank. Preposition of Direction -to indicate where something is going or moving to Example : She ran across the road to stop the bus. Preposition of Time -to indicate when something happens Example : They went home after the programme. Preposition of Purpose -to indicate the purpose of an action Example : The baby was sent to the hospital for a check-up. 11. CONJUCTIONS and, also, as well as (to show things of similar value) I keep a cat and a dog as my pets. but, yet, however, although, even though (to show contrast) Although it was raining heavily, he walked to school. because, as, since, for (to show reason) Kassim is absent because his mother is not well. both....and, neither.nor, either..or (to express a similar idea or a choice) Either my father or my mother will attend the meeting. so that, in order to (to indicate purpose) We cleaned our classroom so that we could study in a comfortable environment. unless, if (to show condition) My little brother refused to go to the playground unless I followed him. where, wherever ( to show place) The old man did not know where he could get a loan to build a house.

12. CONNECTORS i) logical connectors join words and sentences in a logical manner. besides, besides that, in addition, furthermore (to add more information or to introduce a new point) The canteen floor is very dirty. Besides that, the tables are not cleaned properly. therefore, as a result, thus, consequently (to show the result of some event or action) The rivers are heavily polluted. As a result, the government is planning to start a campaign. however, on the other hand (to introduce a contrasting point) The illegal motorist tried to run away from the police. However, they were all caught. similarly (to introduce a similar point) The government carried out the cleanliness campaign. Similarly, my school also carried out the campaign last week. ii) sequence connectors are used to connect words or sentences which follow a sequence of events. firstly subsequently meanwhile eventually then next after that finally after later

Example : - First, get some fresh apples. Then, cut them into slices. - The farmer worked very hard. Eventually, he bought a big piece of land to farm. 13. SENTENCE STRUCTURES simple sentences consists of one subject and one finite verb. Example : - I like durians. - My teacher is a Science teacher.

compound sentence contains two or more main clauses joined together by a conjuction. Example : - I like durians and all other local fruits. - My father is a Science teacher but he teaches History in his new school. complex sentence consists of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. example : - I like durians and all other local fruits that taste sweet. - My father, who has been teaching for 30 years,is a Science teacher but he teaches History in his new school.


BATCH 1996