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Each gonoiation has its uniquo noods and aspiiations. Whon Chailos Wiloy liist
oponod his snall piinting shop in lowoi Manhattan in 1807, it was a gonoiation
ol loundloss potontial soaiching loi an idontity. And wo woio thoio, holping to
dolino a now Anoiican litoiaiy tiadition. Ovoi hall a contuiy latoi, in tho nidst
ol tho Socond Industiial Rovolution, it was a gonoiation locusod on luilding
tho lutuio. Onco again, wo woio thoio, supplying tho ciitical sciontilic, tochnical,
and onginooiing knowlodgo that holpod liano tho woild. Thioughout tho 20th
Contuiy, and into tho now nillonniun, nations logan to ioach out loyond thoii
own loidois and a now intoinational connunity was loin. Wiloy was thoio, ox-
panding its opoiations aiound tho woild to onallo a glolal oxchango ol idoas,
opinions, and know-how.
Foi 200 yoais, Wiloy has loon an intogial pait ol oach gonoiations jouinoy,
onalling tho llow ol inloination and undoistanding nocossaiy to noot thoii
noods and lullill thoii aspiiations. Today, lold now tochnologios aio changing
tho way wo livo and loain. Wiloy will lo thoio, pioviding you tho nust-havo
knowlodgo you nood to inagino now woilds, now possililitios, and now oppoi-
Gonoiations cono and go, lut you can always count on Wiloy to piovido you
tho knowlodgo you nood, whon and whoio you nood it!
Piosidont and Chiol Exocutivo Ollicoi Chaiinan ol tho Boaid




FH Rogonsluig
Buio Handhalotochnik, Plauon

Schunk GnlH & Co. KG, Laullon]Nockai

Schunk GnlH & Co. KG, Laullon]Nockai

S. Hosso, G. Monknan, R. Stoinnann
H. Schunk
Rolotgioiloi: Funktion, Gostaltung und
Anwondung industiiolloi Gioiltochnik
Hansoi, 2004
Valontin Potiov
All looks pullishod ly Wiloy-VCH aio caiolully pio-
ducod. Novoitholoss, authois, oditois, and pullishoi
do not waiiant tho inloination containod in thoso
looks, including this look, to lo lioo ol oiiois.
Roadois aio advisod to koop in nind that statononts,
data, illustiations, piocoduial dotails oi othoi itons
nay inadvoitontly lo inaccuiato.
-- appliod loi
A cataloguo iocoid loi this look is availallo lion
tho Biitish Liliaiy
Tho Doutscho Nationallilliothok lists this pullica-
tion in tho Doutscho Nationallilliogialio, dotailod
lilliogiaphic data aio availallo in tho Intoinot at
2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA,
All iights iosoivod (including thoso ol tianslation
into othoi languagos. No pait ol this look nay lo
iopioducod in any loin ly photopiinting, nicio-
liln, oi any othoi noans noi tiansnittod oi tians-
latod into a nachino languago without wiitton poi-
nission lion tho pullishois. Rogistoiod nanos,
tiadonaiks, otc. usod in this look, ovon whon not
spocilically naikod as such, aio not to lo considoiod
unpiotoctod ly law.
- Atolioi Fiank Wohlgonuth,
- Diuckhaus Gtz GnlH,
lotz-diuck GnlH, Dainstadt
Litgos & Dopl Buchlindoioi GnlH,
Piintod in tho Fodoial Ropullic ol Goinany
Piintod on acid-lioo papoi
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

This is tho English voision ol tho look ol tho sano nano pioviously pullishod in Goinan.
Howovoi, it is not sinply a tianslation lut laigoly a now woik as a conpaiison with tho
oiiginal will iovoal. Much ol tho loinoi contont ionains as it woio lut tho oiganisation
has loon altoiod in lino with Anglo-Saxon litoiaiy tiadition.
Exactly at whon this look is ainod is a littlo dillicult to sunnaiiso in a singlo stato-
nont. Tho woik acknowlodgos tho natuiity ol tho iolotics liold and consoquontly its con-
tont is ainod laigoly at industiial usois. Novoitholoss, it will coitainly also lo ol valuo to
loth undoigiaduato studonts in Mochationics, nochanical and oloctiical onginooiing and
post giaduato iosoaichois woiking in tho liold ol iolotic piohonsion.
Roloioncos aio givon poi chaptoi and, whoio paiticulaily iolovant, aio sonotinos io-
poatod. Many ioloi to tho oiiginal woiks in English, Fionch, Goinan and Russian, though
whoio possillo additional toxts lion tho sano authoi(s aio givon in a socond languago
(whoio availallo.


1.1 Giippois loi Mochanization and Autonation
1.2 Dolinitions and Concoptual Basics
1.3 Giasping in Natuial Systons
1.4 Histoiical Ovoiviow ol Tochnical Hands
2.1 Activo Paii MatingPaii Mating
2.2 Stiatogy and Piocoduios
2.2.1 Piohonsion Stiatogy
Exanplo ol a piohonsion stiatogy
2.2.2 Giipping Piocoduio, Conditions and Foico
2.2.3 Giippoi Floxilility
2.3 Giippoi Classilication
2.4 Roquiiononts and Giippoi Chaiactoiistics
2.5 Planning and Soloction ol Giippois
3.1 Giippoi DiivosDiivos
3.1.1 Eloctionochanical Diivos
3.1.2 Pnounatic Diivos
3.1.3 Eloctiostiictivo and Piozooloctiic Actuation
3.2 Dosign ol Inpactivo Giippois
3.2.1 Systonatics and Kinonatics Paiallol Inpactivo Giippois
3.2.2 Angulai Inpactivo Giippois
3.2.3 Radial Inpactivo Giippois (Contiing Giippois
3.2.4 Intoinal Giippois
3.2.5 Giippoi with Soll-llocking Capalility
3.2.6 Rotatallo Jaw Giippois
3.2.7 Giippoi Fingoi and Jaw Dosign
- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk
Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

3.2.8 Soll Socuiing Giippois Socuiing Thiough Spiing Foicos Socuiing Thiough Oljoct Mass
3.2.9 Thioo-lingoi Giippois
3.2.10 Foui-lingoi Giippois and Foui-point Piohonsion
-- -
4.1 Floxillo Matoiials
4.1.1 Pinch Mochanisns
4.1.2 Intiusivo Mochanisns
4.1.3 Non-Intiusivo Mochanisns
- -
5.1 Vacuun Suction
5.1.1 Vacuun Pioduction
5.1.2 Vacuun Suckois
5.1.3 Passivo Suction Caps
5.1.4 Aii Jot Giippois
5.2 Magnotoadhosion
5.2.1 Poinanont Magnot Giippois
5.2.2 Eloctionagnotic Giippois
5.2.3 Hyliid Eloctionagnotic Giippois
5.4 Eloctioadhosion
5.4.1 Eloctioadhosivo Piohonsion ol Eloctiical Conductois
5.4.2 Eloctioadhosivo Piohonsion ol Eloctiical Insulatois
6.1 Chonoadhosion
6.2 Thoinoadhosion
- -
7.1 Inpactivo Miciogiippois
7.1.1 Eloctionochanically Diivon Inpactivo Miciogiippois
7.1.2 Thoinally Diivon Inpactivo Miciogiippois
7.1.3 Eloctiostatically Diivon Inpactivo Miciogiippois
7.2 Astiictivo Miciogiippois
7.2.1 Vacuun Miciogiippois
7.2.2 Eloctioadhosivo Miciogiippois
7.3 Contigutivo Miciogiippois
8.1 Clasping (Enliacing Giippois
8.2 Anthioponoiphic Giippois
8.2.1 Jointod lingoi Giippois
8.2.2 Jointloss Fingoi Giippois
8.3 Doxtious Hands

- -
9.1 Kinonatic Nocossitios and Dosign
9.2 Rotaiy and Pivot Units

10.1 Sopaiation ol Randonly Mixod Matoiials
10.2 Sopaiation ol Rigid Thioo Dinonsional Oljocts
10.3 Sopaiation ol Rigid Shoot Matoiials
10.3.1 Giipping ol Thin Blanks lion a Magazino
10.3.2 Aii Flow Giippois
10.4 Sopaiation ol Non-Rigid Shoot Matoiials
10.4.1 Rolloi Giippois
11.1 Giippoi Sonsoi Tochnology
11.2 Poicoption Typos
11.2.1 Tactilo Sonsois
11.2.2 Pioxinity Sonsois
11.2.3 Moasuionont sonsois
11.2.4 Fingoi Position Moasuionont
11.2.5 Moasuiing Piocoduios in tho Giippoi
11.3 Sonsoiy Intogiation
11.3.1 Discioto and Continuous Sonsing
11.3.2 Soltwaio and Haidwaio Intoiiupts
11.3.3 Sonsoi FusionSonsoi Fusion
11.4 Giippoi Contiol
11.4.1 Contiol ol Pnounatically Diivon Giippois
11.4.2 Contiol ol Eloctiically Diivon Giippois

12.1 Multiplo Giippois
12.1.1 Doullo and Multiplo Giippois
12.1.2 Multiplo Giippoi Tiansloi Rails
12.1.3 Tuiiots
12.2 Spocializod Giippois
12.2.1 Conposito Giippois
12.2.2 Roconliguiallo Giippois
12.2.3 Modulai Giippoi Systons
12.3 Giippoi Exchango Systons
12.3.1 Tool Exchango
12.3.2 Task, Functions and Coupling Elononts
12.3.3 Joining Tochniquos and Piocoss Modia Connoction
12.3.4 Manual Exchango Systons
12.3.5 Autonatic Exchango Systons
12.3.6 Fingoi Exchango Systons
12.4 Intogiatod Piocossing

13.1 Ronoto Contio Conplianco (RCC
13.2 Instiunontod Ronoto Contio Conplianco (IRCC
13.3 Noai Collot Conplianco (NCC
13.4 Paits Fooding
13.5 Mochanical Conplianco
13.6 Pnounatic Conplianco
13.6.1 Intoinal Piohonsion Thiough Monliano Expansion
13.6.2 Extoinal Piohonsion Thiough Monliano Expansion
13.7 Shapo Adaptivo Giippois
13.7.1 Paitially Cconpliant Shapo Adaptivo Giippois
13.7.2 Totally Conpliant Shapo Adaptivo Giippois
13.8 Collision Piotoction and Saloty
13.8.1 Saloty Roquiiononts
13.8.2 Collision Piotoction Systons
13.8.3 Failuio Saloty
- -
14.1 Sinplo Tolonanipulation
14.2 Giippois loi Shoot and Plato Conpononts
14.2.1 Inpactivo Giippois loi Shoot Motal Handling
14.2.2 Astiictivo Giippois loi Shoot Motal
14.2.3 Astiictivo Giippois loi Glass Shoot
14.2.4 Astiictivo Giippois loi Conposito Matoiial Handling
14.3 Piohonsion ol Culoid Oljocts
14.4 Piohonsion ol Cylindiical Oljocts
14.4.1 Soiial Piohonsion ol Tulos
14.4.2 Piohonsion ol Wound Coils
14.4.3 Piohonsion ol Slit Coils
14.5 Piohonsion ol Oljocts with Iiiogulai Topology
14.5.1 Handling ol Castings
14.5.2 Mounting ol Dashloaids loi Autonolilos
14.5.3 Piohonsion ol Watoi Punps
14.5.4 Astiictivo Piohonsion ol Iiiogulai Suilacos
14.6 Multiplo Oljoct Piohonsion
14.6.1 Packaging ol Candios
14.6.2 Bottlo Pallotization
14.6.3 Multiplo Iiiogulai Shapod Oljocts
14.7 Piohonsion ol Floxillo Oljocts
14.7.1 Bag and Sack Giippois
14.7.2 Giipping and Mounting ol Outsido O-iings
14.8 Modical Applications


Hunan laloui has always loon associatod with tho acquisition ol spocilic skills, nothods,
and tools naking tho woik and its onviionnont oasioi and noio olloctivo. Incioasing con-
potition lion industiial iolots loi tasks noinally caiiiod out ly hunan hands has lod to
tho nood loi noio olloctivo handling oquipnont, ospocially piohonsion tools (noio con-
nonly callod giippois. Howovoi, industiial iolots aio not sinply a sulstituto loi pooplo.
Thoii iolovanco is noio olton in applications loyond tho noinal alility (physical oi ton-
poial ol convontional nanpowoi. Exanplos includo, diity, hazaidous and iopotitivo woik.
Just as hunan hands aio tho oigans ol hunan nanipulation, so aio iolot giippois usually
tho only paits in diioct contact with tho woikpioco. Foi this ioason thoy dosoivo spocial
attontion to which this look is dodicatod.

Giippois aio activo links lotwoon tho handling oquipnont and tho woikpioco oi in a noio
gonoial sonso lotwoon tho giasping oigan (noinally tho giippoi lingois and tho oljoct to
lo acquiiod. Thoii lunctions dopond on spocilic applications and includo:
Tonpoiaiy naintonanco ol a dolinito position and oiiontation ol tho woikpioco
iolativo to tho giippoi and tho handling oquipnont.
Rotaining ol static (woight, dynanic (notion, accoloiation oi docoloiation oi piocoss
spocilic loicos and nononts.
Dotoinination and chango ol position and oiiontation ol tho oljoct iolativo to tho
handling oquipnont ly noans ol wiist axos.
Spocilic tochnical opoiations poiloinod with, oi in conjunction with, tho giippoi.
Giippois aio not only ioquiiod loi uso with industiial iolots: thoy aio a univoisal con-
ponont in autonation. Giippois opoiato with:
Industiial iolots (handling and nanipulation ol oljocts.
Haid autonation (assonlling, nicioassonlling, nachining, and packaging.
NC nachinos (tool chango and spocial puiposo nachinos.
Hand-guidod nanipulatois (ionoto piohonsion, nodical, aoiospaco, nautical.
Woikpioco tuiiot dovicos in nanulactuiing tochnology.
- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk
Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

Ropo and chain lilting tools (load-caiiying oquipnont.

Soivico iolots (piohonsion tools potontially sinilai to piosthotic hands.
In iolotics tochnology giippois lolong to tho lunctional units having tho gioatost vaiioty
ol dosigns. This is duo to tho lact that, although tho iolot is a lloxillo nachino, tho giippoi
poiloins a nuch noio spocilic task. Novoitholoss, thoso tasks aio not linitod to piohon-
sion alono which is why tho noio gonoiic toin ond-olloctoi is olton usod.
Tho gioat nunloi ol dilloiont ioquiiononts, divoiso woikpiocos and tho dosiio loi woll
adaptod and ioliallo systons will continuo to stinulato luithoi dovolopnonts in lutuio
giippoi dosign. Many oxpoits considoi tho capalilitios ol tho giippoi as an ossontial lactoi
loi tho ocononic olloctivonoss ol autonatic assonlly systons. Expoiionco indicatos that
in tho lutuio it will only lo possillo to iospond to piactical donands il lloxillo dosigns loi
assonlly oquipnont aio availallo. Consoquontly, giippois nust locono ovoi noio llox-
illo. Assonlly iolatos not only to piohonsion and nanipulation ol oljocts lut also to
piossing, litting and joining opoiations. Many giippois aio onployod loi tho loading ol
nanulactuiing linos, in packaging and stoiago as woll as tho handling ol oljocts in laloia-
toiy tost and inspoction systons.
Moio iocontly, niniatuiizod giippois havo loon dovolopod in oidoi to handlo dolicato
conpononts in niciotochnology. This has gono hand in hand with tho onoigonco ol nany
novol piohonsion nothods. Tho nunloi ol giippois usod in nonindustiial aioas, o.g. in
civil onginooiing, spaco iosoaich, handicialt, nodical and phaiacoutical onginooiing is
stoadily incioasing. Hand-guidod (toloopoiation oi autonatic nanipulatois aio usod in
thoso aioas piinaiily as handling nachinos. In addition to convontional giippois, loi
which tho giippoi jaws aio shapod accoiding to tho woikpioco piolilo, thoio oxist nunoi-
ous application spocilic giippois. This oxplains why an ovoiwholning piopoition ol coiio-
sponding patont litoiatuio is dovotod to piohonsion concopts ol unconvontional dosign. In
gonoial, ond-olloctois aio not noinally within tho dolivoiy ionit ol iolot nanulactuiois.
Doponding on tho spocilic ioquiiononts, thoy aio soloctod as accossoiios lion tooling
nanulactuiois oi spocially dosignod loi tho givon puiposo.

- --
Giasping oigans oi tools constituto tho ond ol tho kinonatic chain in tho joint systonol an
industiial iolot and lacilitato intoiaction with tho woik onviionnont. Although univoisal
giippois with wido clanping iangos can lo usod loi divoiso oljoct shapos, in nany casos
thoy nust lo adaptod to tho spocilic woikpioco shapo.
- ---- --
- - -
- -
- - - - --
- - -

--- -



- -
Thioo ol tho nost usual loins (inpactivo, astiictivo and contigutivo ol oljoct piohonsion
aio dopictod in six dilloiont oxanplos in Figuio 1.1.
Ono should dilloiontiato lotwoon giasping (piohonsion and holding (iotontion loicos.
Whilo tho giasping loico is appliod at tho initial point ol piohonsion (duiing tho giasping
piocoss, tho holding loico naintains tho giip thoioaltoi (until oljoct ioloaso. In tho nany
casos tho iotontion loico nay lo woakoi than tho piohonsion loico. Tho giasping loico is
dotoininod ly tho onoigy ioquiiod loi tho nochanical notion loading to a static piohon-
sion loico. Tho lunctional chain - -- is givon, howovoi,
only loi nochanical giippois. Astiictivo vacuun suction giippois ioquiio no such kino-
natics j1-1|.
Thoio aio sono chaiactoiistic toins that aio olton usod in piohonsion tochnology. Giip-
pois consist nostly ol sovoial nodulos and conpononts. In tho lollowing, tho nost osson-
tial toins usod will lo oxplainod considoiing as an oxanplo a nochanical giippoi such as
tho ono shown in Figuio 1.2.
A shoit glossaiy ol luithoi inpoitant toins usod in giippoi tochnology is liiolly ox-
plainod lolow.
- A linding loico pioducod ly a liold is astiictivo. This liold nay tako tho
loin ol aii novonont (vacuun suction, nagnotisn oi oloctiostatic chaigo displaco-
- (- : Tho pait ol an inpactivo giippoi suljoctod to novonont. An into-
gial pait ol tho giippoi nochanics, tho lasic jaw is not usually ioplacoallo. Howovoi, tho
lasic jaws nay lo littod with additional lingois in accoidanco with spocilic ioquiio-
- --

- Basic nodulo containing all giippoi conpononts which is oquippod loi con-
nocting (llango, holo pattoin tho giippoi to tho nanipulatoi. Tho connocting capalility
inplios a nochanical, powoi, and inloination intoilaco. Figuio 1.3 shows a llango dosign
in accoidanco with DIN ISO 9409. This Goinan industiial standaid and its sulsoquont
anondnonts contain dosign ioquiiononts concoining tho dilloiont ovoiall sizo, pitch
ciiclo dianotoi, contiing cylindoi dinonsions, nunloi ol thioadod holos and iospoctivo
thioad pitch as woll as sono position toloiancos. Tho llango can also lo diillod to allow
looding ol powoi and contiol callos.
- Contigutivo piohonsion loico ly noans ol chonical ollocts. Usually in
tho loin ol an adhosivo (poinatack oi singlo uso.





Contigutivo noans touching. Giippois whoso suilaco nust nako

diioct contact with tho oljocts suilaco in oidoi to pioduco piohonsion aio toinod contigu-
tivo. Exanplos includo chonical and thoinal adhosion.
-- In nost ol tho casos a iolativoly sinplo contiol conponont loi analysing oi
pio-piocossing sonsoi inloination loi iogulation and]oi autonatic adjustnont ol piohon-
sion loicos.
- Anthiopoidal aitilicial hand (iaioly loi industiial uso, which is oquippod
with thioo oi noio jointod lingois and nay lo capallo ol sophisticatod, piogiannod oi io-
noto contiollod opoiations.
- Two giippois nountod on tho sano sulstiato, intondod loi tho tonpoial
and lunctional piohonsion ol two oljocts indopondontly.
-- A conponont assonlly which tiansloins tho appliod (oloctiical, pnou-
natic, hydiaulic onoigy into iotaiy oi tianslational notion in a givon kinonatic syston.
- Two giippois nountod on tho sano sulstiato, intondod loi tho sinul-
tanoously piohonsion ol two oljocts.
- Piohonsion loico ly noans ol an oloctiostatic liold.
( : Gonoiic toin loi all lunctional units involvod in diioct in-
toiaction ol tho iolot syston with tho onviionnont oi with a givon oljoct. Thoso includo
giippois, iolot tools, inspoction oquipnont and othoi paits at tho ond ol a kinonatic
An (optional additional jaw situatod at tho ond ol an inpactivo giippoi lin-
goi. It nay, in pioloionco to tho lingoi itsoll, lo nodiliod to lit tho piolilo ol tho oljoct and it
nay lo ioplacoallo.
Tho gonoiic toinloi all piohonsion dovicos whothoi iolotic oi othoiwiso. Loosoly
dolinod in loui catogoiios: Inpactivo, Astiictivo, Ingiossivo and Contigutivo.
- A liano with its oiigin in tho TCP (Tool Contio Point. This cooidinato sys-
ton is usod to spocily tho giippoi oiiontation. Figuio 1.4 shows a giippoi with thioo tians-
lational and thioo iotational dogioos ol lioodon. Tho giippoi liano is noinally dolinod
iolativo to tho llango liano ol tho industiial iolot.
-- A nodulo loi iapid nanual, lut in nost casos autonatic, ox-
chango ol an ond-olloctoi using a standaid nochanical intoilaco. In doing so, all powoi
and contiol callos nust lo disconnoctod and ioconnoctod.
- --

Rigid, olastic, oi nulti-link giasping oigan to oncloso oi clasp tho oljoct to

lo handlod. Fingois aio olton oquippod with oxtondod giippoi jaws at thoii onds. Tho giip-
poi lingoi is usually (though not always tho activo pait naking contact lotwoon tho giip-
poi and tho oljoct.
( : Giippois with nultiplo jointod lingois, oach ol thon iopio-
sonting an opon kinonatic chain and possossing a high dogioo ol lioodon with joints,
o.g. = 9.
Tho pait ol tho giippoi to which tho lingois aio noinally attachod. Tho jaw
doos not nocossaiily cono into contact with tho oljoct to lo giippod. Noto: in sono casos
giippoi lingois nay lo littod with an additional snall (oxtondod jaws at thoii onds.
Aioa ol tho piohonsion (giippoi jaw acioss which loico is tiansnittod to
tho oljoct suilaco. Tho laigoi tho contact suilaco aioa ol an inpactivo giippoi, tho snalloi
tho piossuio on tho oljoct suilaco.
- Tho passivo contact suilaco lotwoon oljoct and giippoi, i.o. tho suilaco
which is suljoctod to piohonsion loicos.
-- A toin olton usod loi an activo piohonsion syston including giippoi,
jaws and lingois. It nay also apply to a passivo tonpoiaiy iotaining dovico.
A nochanical giippoi whoioly piohonsion is achiovod ly inpactivo
loicos, i.o. loicos which inpact against tho suilaco ol tho oljoct to lo acquiiod.
-- Ingiossion iolois to tho poinoation ol an oljocts suilaco ly tho piohon-
sion noans. Ingiossion can lo intiusivo (pins oi non intiusivo (o.g. hook and loop.


-- Mochanical unit (goai convoiting diivo notion ol tho piino novoi into
piohonsion action (jaw notion with chaiactoiistic tiansnission iatos loi volocitios and
loicos. Tho nost olton usod kinonatic conpononts aio lovoi, sciow, and togglo lovoi goais.
Tho goai dotoininos tho linal volocity ol tho jawnovonont, and tho giipping loico chaiac-
toiistics. Giippois without noving olononts ioquiio no kinonatics. Sono oxanplos ol
goais aio shown in Figuio 1.5.




- Piohonsion loico ly noans ol a nagnotic liold (poinanont oi oloctii-
cally gonoiatod.
- Sovoial giippois nountod on tho sano sulstiato, intondod loi tho
sinultanoously piohonsion ol noio than two oljocts.
- --

Tho suitalility ol an oljoct to lo autonatically giippod. Dopondant on tho

suilaco piopoitios, woight and stiongth whon oxposod to piohonsion loicos. This piopoity
can sonotinos lo onhancod ly applying such suilacos oi olononts (handling adaptois
which aio ioquiiod only loi a paiticulai piocoduio.
- Tho act ol acquiiing an oljoct in oi onto tho giippoi.
- Doals with tho piollon ol how to onsuio stallo nating lotwoon
iolot giippoi and woikpioco. A piohonsion stiatogy nust lo choson in such a way that it
can lo acconplishod in a stallo nannoi and collision lioo. Post piohonsion nisalignnont
ol tho oljoct is undosiiallo. In nany ciicunstancos, spocial constiaints nust lo olsoivod
in oidoi to avoid contact with coitain paits ol tho oljoct (loiliddon zonos.
- --- Conploto systons including giippois supplonontod with additional
units (sulsystons, o.g. iotation, pivot and shoit-tiavol units, changing systons, joining
(adjustnont tools, collision and ovoiload piotoction nochanisns, noasuiing dovicos and
othoi sonsois.
-- Thoso aio olononts attachod to tho innoi oi outoi pait ol tho giippoi
which aio activatod in caso ol ovoiload oi collision in oidoi to piotoct tho iolot and giippoi
lion danago (waining signal, onoigoncy stop activation, passivo oi activo ovasivo novo-
Poitains to tho post piohonsion status ol an oljoct alioady hold in tho giippoi.
Noto: piohonsion and iotontion loicos aio not always oqual.
- -- Sonsois poitinont to tho task ol piohonsion. This nay includo sonsois
luilt into tho ond-olloctoi, possilly with intogiatod data pio-piocossing, loi position dotoc-
tion, iogistiation ol oljoct appioach, dotoinination ol giipping loico, path and anglo
noasuiononts, slippago dotoction otc.
Noinally iolois to a passivo suction olonont (disk, cap oi cup which doos not io-
quiio activo vacuunsuction lut iolios on tho ovacuation ol aii ly distoition ol tho olonont
against tho oljoct suilaco.
A loin ol astiictivo giippoi which nay consist ol ono oi noio vacuun suc-
tion olononts (discs, caps oi cups lioonwhich aii is activoly ovacuatod ly noans ol oxtoi-
nally gonoiatod nogativo piossuio.
In tho najoiity ol 2 and 3 lingoi giippois it is intondod that tho lingois
closo in a uniloin nannoi towaids tho contio ol tho giippoi. In oidoi to achiovo this tho
notion ol tho lingois nust lo synchionizod. Pnounatic cylindois, as can lo soon liontho
oxanplo in Figuio 1.6, can lo novod synchionously ly noans ol a shalt with loth iight
and lolt handod thioads.

- - -

- -
- -
- -
- -

Such novonont nay also lo ioalizod ly a goai conpiising only links and lovois (doullo
swing nochanisn, as shown in Figuio 1.7 (soo also tho solution dopictod latoi in Figuio
3.15. Tho lasic jaws aio again pnounatically diivon ly noans ol cylindois intogiatod
within tho giippoi housing.
( : Woiking point at tho ond ol a kinonatic chain. Tho TCP soivos also
as a piogiannod ioloionco point loi an ond olloctoi and as a iulo dotoininos tho oiigin ol
tho tool liano. A cooidinato syston whoso oiigin coincidos with tho TCP is callod
. Multiplo giippoi hoads nay possoss sovoial TCPs (Fig. 1.8 oi ono nain TCP with
tho iost loing dolinod iolativo to tho nain TCP ly tool ollsots.
- Contigutivo piohonsion loico ly noans ol thoinal ollocts. Usually in
tho loin ol lioozing oi nolting.
A gonoial toin which iolois to tho conponont oi oljoct to lo pio-
hondod oi which is alioady undoi piohonsion ly tho giippoi.
- --

- -

- --
In tho couiso ol its ovolution Natuio has cioatod nany dilloiont intoiosting giasping
nochanisns. Tho olophants tiunk can lo iogaidod as a lionochanical phonononon. Ac-
coiding to Biohns Lilo ol Aninals, it is
-- - - - -
-- - - -
- - -
In his woik on kinonatics duiing tho socond hall ol tho 19th contuiy, (1829
1905 analyzod (anong othois aninal nochanisns ol notion j1-2|. Thoso includod tho
nouths ol lish and liids loaks which aio also usod to poiloin piohonsion tasks. Tho uso
ol astiictivo loico though suction is also nothing now in natuio. Such tochniquos aio usod
ly launa as suction loot (Fig. 1.9, o.g. in cophalopods. Tho nalo ol tho diving lootlo (-
- - possossos stonnod suction cups on its liont logs. Applying thon to a sui-
laco causos spioading ol tho linoly chitinous, sonisphoiic caps at thoii dolicato odgos.
Diawing thon lack thon iosults in a ioduction in piossuio which in tuin pioducos tho ad-
hosion olloct. Lizaids possoss adhosion lanollao on thoii toos (diy adhosion which onallo
thon to tiavoiso glass platos using thoii suilaco ioughnoss j1-3|. Thoio aio in lact nany
- - --
- - -

giippois whoso kinonatic piinciplos aio stiongly iolatod to thoso ol Biids loaks oi olo
phants tiunks, loi oxanplo in paint spiaying oi to onconpass an oljoct (soo tho solt giip-
pois in Chaptois 8 and 13. In oidoi to handlo liagilo oljocts, giippois which initato tho
nusculous hydiostatos ol squid tontaclos, havo loon utilisod. Tho piohonsion and nas-
tication oigans ol insocts ( ol spidois, - ol liting and chowing insocts
liko tho antlions iosonllo inpactivo giippois j1-4|.
Il wo considoi tho ospioy (Fig. 1.10, wo can soo that tho piollon ol giasping undoi
conplicatod conditions has loon solvod in tho couiso ol liological ovolution in a voiy in-
toiosting nannoi. Tho ospioy is allo to giasp oljocts whoso suilacos onjoy oxtionoly low
liiction coollicionts (spocilically to avoid piohonsion ly piodatois! duiing llight.
Tho giasping loot oxhilits long-diawn and shaip claws which nako it possillo to catch
tho pioy (ingiossivo piohonsion. Tho lowoi pait ol tho loot oxhilits solt pads with a high
coolliciont ol liiction (lulloiod inpactivo piohonsion. Duiing giasping thoso pads pio-
duco a suction (astiictivo piohonsion olloct against tho snooth suilaco ol tho oljoct.
Honco, in this caso sovoial olloctivo piohonsion piinciplos aio conlinod. Indood, thoio
also oxist iolot giippois which piohond ly inpactivo clanping and sinultanoously uso
vacuunsuction (Fig. 1.10l. Howovoi, nono ol tho nan nado giippois possoss tho woalth
ol lino dotails olsoivod in natuio. Why?
- -
- - - - -
- - -
Cial pincois aio anothoi good oxanplo olton initatod ly nan. Tho cial ains ond with a
iolust scissoi nochanisnwhich soivos loi loth giasping and piossing. Fiontho point ol
viowol kinonatics, it is sinply a nattoi ol tho succossivo coupling ol two loui-link sphoii-
cal goais (Fig. 1.11. To thoso onds cial ains possoss tho lollowing dosign piopoitios:
Thoy havo a laigo pivoting anglo loi a snall nunloi ol ain links.
Thoy can oxoit iolativoly laigo loicos.
Tho joints lotwoon tho ain links aio lioo lion nochanical play and aio capallo ol
woiking undoi piossuio ovoi an oxtondod iango ol notion.
- --

Tho cial has dovolopod an ingonious solution to tho aiticulation lotwoon ain nonlois.
It is lasod on two sphoiical joints ol polai cap loin housod concontiically within ono
anothoi. Thoso sphoiical joints consist in tuin ol sovoial additional sholls whoso suilacos
soivo as slip and contact aioas. Such joints aio ol spocial intoiost loi niniatuiizod nocha-
nisns sinco joint solutions ol tho loik hoad pin typo cannot lo ailitiaiily down-
Ball-and-sockot (sphoiical joints in living oiganisns aio olton coatod with a jolly-liko
sulstanco as a luliicant so that tho connoction is lioo lion play and snooth iunning. In
addition it nay oxhilit nonlinoaiitios (stick-slip ollocts.
Tho lanous Giook philosophoi Aiistotolo (384-322 BC dosciilod tho hands as tho tool
ol all tools. Tho 5-lingoi hunan hands iopiosont a paiticulaily lloxillo and usolul giasp-
ing oigan, paiticulaily in conjunction with contiol though oyo-hand loodlack.
Tho lonos ol tho hand aio anatonically dividod into thioo gioups: tho wiist oi caipal
lonos (16 snall lonos at tho ioot ol tho hand, tho nidhand oi paln lonos, and tho liist
link (notacaipus and lingoi (phalanx lonos (Fig. 1.12.
- ----

-- - -
- -

Thoio aio 8 caipal lonos, 5 nidhand lonos (ono loi oach lingoi, and 14 links (two loi
tho thunl and thioo loi ovoiy othoi lingoi. This anatonic constollation onallos a total ol
22 dogioos ol lioodon in which as nany as 48 nusclos aio involvod.
Tho hand and loioain nusclos aio involvod in piacticing, nonoiizing, iotiioval, and
vaiiation in a tionondous nunloi ol sopaiato giips. Tho hunan hand possossos ulti-
natoly 27 dogioos ol lioodon. Tho oxact nunloi doponds on how tho nusclos aio
classiliod in indopondont gioups j1-7|. Il tho linoly cooidinatod nusclos aio indopondontly
novod and ono dolinos loi oach dogioo ol lioodontho two ond and ono nid positions, this
alono will givo 3
, i.o. noio than 7 lillion dilloiont potontial hand positions. Typical hand
giips can lo gioupod, noio oi loss oxhaustivoly, into six giip classos (Fig. 1.13 j1-8 to

Il tho considoiation is iostiictod to hunan activitios nocossaiy loi industiial woik, a
diioct iolationship lotwoon tho hand with tho nocossaiy tools and tho nunloi ol lingois
involvod in tho spocilic woik nay lo olsoivod. In othoi woids, lingois can lo ioplacod ly
tools. This iolationship is illustiatod in Figuio 1.14.
- -
- --

Zoio lingois in tho giaph should lo undoistood as novonont ol tho ain joints only. As
can lo soon, tho addition ol tho lilth lingoi nakos nogligillo contiilution to industiial
woik. Alout 90% ol tho giips involvod in industiial applications can lo ioalizod with a
thioo lingoi hand. Fuithoinoio, all lingois do not possoss tho sano stiongth. Tho niddlo
lingoi is tho stiongost ono and tho littlo lingoi tho woakost. Tho stiongth potontial is dis-
tiilutod as lollows: indox lingoi 21%, niddlo lingoi 34%, iing lingoi 27%, and littlo lingoi
Giasping opoiations aio always an intogial pait ol noio conplicatod handling stiatogios
ovon in casos whon thoy aio poiloinod autonatically. Consoquontly, giippois should al-
ways lo considoiod and ovaluatod loi oach individual caso. As loi tho assonlling ol con-
pononts, a liiol piocoduio is shownin Figuio 1.15, whoioly tho sinplo loading ol a clanp-
ing dovico can lo considoiod to lo oquivalont to tho linal assonlly stop.

- -
Tho liist analogios ol tho hunanhand woio dovolopod as aitilicial ioplacononts: Tho iion
list ol * (14801562 possossod livo sopaiato lingois (Fig. 1.16.

Tho lingois could lo passivoly lont, lixod and ioloasod at tho push ol a lutton. Although
tho hand woighs alout 1.5 kg this was not considoiod paiticulaily hoavy loi thoso tinos.
In 1564 tho Fionch physician - 7 (15101590 dosignod a nochanical hand,
in which tho sopaiato lingois woio oquippod with individual nochanics. At that tino tho
idoa causod a sonsation locauso it soonod to dononstiato that hunans and nachinos
opoiato in tho sano nannoi and thoio aio possilly sphoios whoio thoy aio oxchangoallo
As a iosult ol Woild Wai I tho donand loi hand ioplacononts incioasod. Tho liist hand
ioplaconont diivon ly oxtoinal onoigy was dosignod ly (18751951 and
appoaiod in 1916. Ho utilizod tho ionaining availallo loico ol tho iosidual nusclos in tho
anputation stunp. Tho nusclo novonont was tiansnittod to tho ioplaconont nochan-
ics ly insoitod ivoiy pivot pins j1-14|.
Tho liist succosslul uso ol ain stunp lio-cuiionts to contiol a niniatuiizod oloctiono-
chanical syston in a ioplaconont hand was nado in 1947. In tho noantino such so callod
lio-hands aio ioadily availallo and thoii caiiying capalility and lunctionality aio conpaia-
tivoly good. Tho lasic piinciplo ol opoiation is shown in Figuio 1.17. Tho oloctionotoiic
ol tho Swiss - (1949 had a sinilai constiuction.
In addition to oloctionochanical systons, pnounatic actuation has also loon usod loi
hand ioplacononts. Sono 60 yoais ago an ain piosthosis diivon ly conpiossod aii was
dovolopod at tho oithopaodic contio in Hoidolloig (Goinany. Tho hand piosthosis
dopictod in Figuio 1.18 is a pait ol it. Tho lluid actuatoi is a lloxillo oxtonsillo lody which,
whon inllatod, pivots tho lingoi into a liin giip. A iotuin spiing soivos to ioloaso it. Until
1965 noio that 350 pationts lonolitod lion this dosign. Tho so-callod ain ox-
hilits sinilai chaiactoiistics.
In tho 1950s tho Anoiican dosignod a pnounatic nusclo intondod loi
piosthotic actuation (Fig. 1.19. Tho nusclo consistod ol a iulloi tulo with a not ol inolas-
tic thioads in ihonloid pattoin ovoi, and along tho longth, ol tho suilaco. Whon piossui-
izod tho nusclo inllatos and sinultanoously shoitons. Wiios tiansnit thoso longth
changos to tho joints which in tuin pioduco notion in tho lingoi links. Tho opoiation ol
tho lluid nusclo as a giippoi actuatoi is illustiatod in Figuio 3.15. Unloitunatoly, such a
lluid nusclo can pioduco only contiaction loicos.
- ---
- -

- -

Anothoi tiond iolatos to tho so-callod andioid hands dovolopod loi spocial liguios in-
tondod loi oxposition. Tho autonats dosignod ly (17211790,
- (17521838 and tho nochanic - (17471824 aio
lanous andioids which causod sonsations in thoii tinos j1-15|. Tho liguios woio oquippod
with piogiancontiol (tuin contiolloi. Figuio 1.20 shows tho hand nochanics ol ono such
All thoso, howovoi, did not stinulato tho dovolopnont ol iolotics. Thoii dosigns con-
tainod low lunctioning paits and soivod lasically to optically initato tho hunan hands.
This said, tho llutist, a saloon iolot loi tho oxhilit ol - (17091782, ac-
tually usod loathoi holstoiod lingois whilst playing tho lluto.
Tho aitilicial hands noodod today loi iolots and ionoto-contiollod nanipulatois aio
sulstantially dilloiont. A iolot hand with skillul lingois is tho ioalization ol tho anciont

--- - --


dioanto piovido nachinos with hunan alilitios. Tho liist tochnical hands loi autonation
and iosoaich woio dovolopod in tho 1960s. Tho iolot hands known lionsuch iosoaich aio
usually nanod altoi thoii institution oi its placo ol oiigin, o.g., Bolgiado]USC Hand,
Dainstadt Hand, DLR Hand, Rhodo Island Hand (loi cylindiical conpononts, Hitachi
Hand, Kailsiuho Hand, Odotics Hand, Roshoin Hand, SRC Hand, Stanloid]JPL Hand,
Utah] MIT Hand, and Victoiy-Entoipiisos Hand. Most ol thoso hands aio diivon ly oloc-
tiic notois. Tho wiiing and coupling ol actuatoi notion, nostly ly noans ol choids, is a
soiious piollon iolatod to pioducing adoquato loico in tho availallo spaco. A lull dosciip-
tion ol doxtious hands is givon in Chaptoi 8.
- - -
- - -
- -

In nanulactuiing tochnology tho toin activo paiis ol intoiacting conpononts, o.g. giip-
poi jaw and woikpioco, is olton usod. Howovoi, tho typos ol tho contact aio also inpoitant.
Thoio aio nany dolinitions to lo lound in tho litoiatuio. In tho past tho classilication was
linitod to thioo giipping nothods: clanping, suction, and nagnotic adhosion j2-1|.
Anothoi catogoiization distinguishos lotwoon singlo-sidod contact (vacuun suction, ad-
hosion, doullo sidod contact, and nultilatoial contact as in tho caso ol shapo adaptivo
giippoi jaws j2-2|. In addition, othoi physical (adhosion, intoiaction loicos nay also lo
considoiod j2-3|. Tho lollowing tallo shows a classilication (pioviously dolinod conpiis-
ing loui giipping catogoiios j2-4|.

Impactive Clamping jaws, chucks, collets Pincers, pinch mechanisms
Ingressive Brush elements, hooks, hook
and loop {velcro)
Needles, pins, hackles
Contigutive Chemical adhesion {glues),
surFace tension Forces
1hermal adhesion
Astrictive Flectrostatic adhesion Magnetic grippers, vacuum
Inpactivo giipping (inpact ol a jaws against oljoct suilacos ioquiios tho notion ol
solid jaws in oidoi to pioduco tho nocossaiy giasping loico. Ingiossivo giipping iosults in
suilaco doloination oi ovon ponotiation (intiusivo ol tho suilaco down to sono piodo-
linod dopth (loico-shapo nating. Contigutivo piohonsion inplios a diioct contact to lacili-
tato giipping. Exanplos includo chonical and thoinal adhosion. Astiictivo nothods aio
lasod on linding loicos lotwoon suilacos. Magnotic and oloctiostatic adhosion and
vacuun suction can lilt nost oljocts ovon without diioct initial contact.
Foi oljoct iotontion alnost all giippois opoiato in contact with tho oljoct suilaco. Foi
initial piohonsion this nood not always lo tho caso. Tho dilloiont loatuios concoin tho ac-
- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk
Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

tivo giippoi-oljoct paii. Figuio 2.1 illustiatos possillo contact nothods loi tho thioo nost
connonly usod lasic goonotiic shapos, whoio donotos tho nunloi ol contact points.
Tho activo suilacos aio dosignatod accoiding to tho shapo: A point contact, B lino contact,
C suilaco contact, D ciiculai contact, and E doullo lino contact. Tho activo suilacos A to E
aio sulliciont loi tho ioalization ol a -point contact, howovoi, thoii positions aio not al-
ways uniquoly dolinod j2-5|.
Ono ol tho nost inpoitant olononts ol piohonsion is stalility ol giip. Misalignnont ol
giaspod conpononts should not lo possillo as a iosult ol thoii woight oi inoitia. This
Number oF contact points between the gripped object {cuboid, cylinder and sphere)
and the gripper jaw
Gripping methods depending on the number oF Fingers {T, 2 or 3) and contact points

should lo onsuiod ly tho olloctivo giipping loico at tho contact points oi tho activo sui-
lacos lotwoon oljoct and giippoi jaws.
Laigo activo suilacos inpiovo tho iotontion stalility and sinultanoously allow loi a io-
duction in giipping loicos. This can also lo achiovod ly incioasing tho nunloi ol activo
suilacos, i.o. ly using noio giippoi jaws oi noio adoquato giippoi jaw piolilos. Sono ox-
anplos ol singlo, two point and nultipoint contact can lo soon in Figuio 2.2.
Tho ultinato iotontion stalility is achiovod loi naxinun natching ol tho giippoi and
oljoct piolilos. This can lo ioalizod ly giippois with nultijointod lingois as will lo ox-
plainod in Chaptoi 8. Jointod giasping oigans also nako it possillo to conponsato loi ii-
iogulai oljoct shapos and to coiioct loi position doviations. Concoining sonsitivo woik-
piocos, it should lo outlinod that stioss lioo iotontion is onsuiod ly only puio shapo
natching in which tho oljoct is onclosod without any appiociallo inpactivo loicos.
A paiticulaily sonsitivo suilaco nay nako tho choico ol anothoi pait ol tho oljoct loi
giipping nocossaiy. Foi oxanplo, contact to tho uppoi suilaco ol a soniconductoi waloi
nust lo avoidod (Fig. 2.3a. Howovoi, tho odgos oi tho naiiow poiiphoial iogion nay lo
usod. Howovoi this doos not nocossaiily onsuio a ioliallo giip. Aii llow giippois allow tho
piohonsion ol such oljocts without diioct contact (Fig. 2.3c.
Whilo such aii llow giippois loavo tho uppoi suilaco ol tho oljoct untouchod, tho cioa-
tion ol aii tuilulonco can linit thoii application in cloan ioon onviionnonts.
Sinilai dillicultios oxist in tho handling ol snall conpononts nocossaiy loi tho as-
sonlly ol niciosystons. A tactilo contact with tho ond-olloctoi can oasily load to oxtonsivo
danago to lino suilaco stiuctuios. Foi this ioason, othoi loins ol non-contact piohonsion,
such as acoustic giippois, aio ol considoiallo intoiost j2-6| as illustiatod in Figuio 2.4.
Tho piino novoi lohind such giippois is a piozooloctiic oscillatoi, noinally opoiating
at lioquoncios alovo 20 kHz. ACvoltagos appliod to tho piozooloctiic disk causos nochani-
cal distoition in an oscillatoiy nannoi which loads to tho gonoiation ol acoustic (standing
wavos. Tho acoustic wavo piossuio conponsatos giavitational loicos on tho oljoct (aii
Gripping oF a disk
with sensitive upper surFace
a) surFace prehension
b) edge contact
c) contactless holding
T workpiece
2 gripper jaw
3 parallel gripper
4 air Flow gripper
compressed air

cushion olloct. Tho liist dovicos ol this typo woio dosignatod as nininun-tactilo locauso,
whon giasping loi oxanplo a waloi, an additional latoial attachnont point is nocossaiy in
oidoi to dolino tho positionol tho conponont in tho x-y plano. Thoso attachnont points aio
nocossaiy loi oljoct nanipulation ovon though tho iotontion loicos iosult lion acoustic
wavos. Such systons havo no olloct on tho laninai iiiotational llownoodod in cloan ioons
j2-7| to j2-9|.
Anothoi voision ol contactloss giippoi is shown in Figuio 2.5. Tho oljoct is liltod ly
vacuun and sinultanoously pushod away ly a powoilul acoustic wavo. This cioatos a gap
lotwoon tho hollow sonotiodo and tho woikpioco iosulting in contactloss piohonsion
j2-10|. This tochniquo nakos possillo tho tianspoit and nanipulation ol chips in tho soni-
conductoi industiy.
As alioady shown in Figuio 2.2 singlo lingoi giippois with only ono point contact do
oxist. Such giippois iosonllo a hook and can lo conpaiod with a lont lingoi. Thoy lind ap-
plication nainly in lilting tools and hand guidod nanipulatois and to a lossoi oxtont in au-
Air cushion holding oF small parts using acoustic waves
a) acoustic principle, b) acoustic gripper, Thovering component part, 2 sonic proFile, 3horn, 4 Front
oscillator, 5 piezo-ceramics, 6 node plate, 7 back oscillator, 8 Front part with mechanical impedance
converter, 9 reFlector
Contactless gripper
T sonotrode
2 vacuum connection
3 slit
4 component part
object mass
acceleration due to gravity

tonatod handling and nanulactuiing tochnology locauso tho position ol tho conponont
in tho giippoi is only appioxinatoly dolinod.
Figuio 2.6 shows typical situations ol two point piohonsion and tho coiiosponding io-
naining dogioos ol lioodon.
In oach caso tho dogioo ol lioodon indicatos tho iotational and tianslational axos
which aio not socuiod ly tho natching ol loicos. Whon tho loicos acting upon an oljoct
duiing handling oxcoods tho liictional loicos at tho giippoi jaws, tho woikpiocos can lo-
cono nisalignod only in diioctions dolinod ly thoso axos. At tho sano tino, it should lo
kopt in nind that tho clanping loicos cannot lo ailitiaiily incioasod. Whon tho oljoct is
hold ly loico natching and tho piossuio on tho coiiosponding contact points is too high,
suilaco danago to loth oljoct and giippoi jaws nay occui. Tho uppoi linit loi piohonsion
loico is dictatod ly tho allowallo suilaco piossuio, doponding in tuin on tho contact loico
and tho coollicionts ol olasticity ol tho giippoi jawand oljoct natoiials. Tho lollowing iola-
tionship is valid loi point and lino shapod contacts:
= 0,418



in N]nn

contact loico jN|

avoiago coolliciont ol olasticity jN]nn
dianotoi ol tho giippod oljoct jnn|
( convox giippoi jaw shapo, concavo giippoi jaw shapo
iadius ol cuivatuio ol tho giippoi jaw jnn| ( = coiiosponds to plano suilacos
0.418 onpiiical constant
contact lino longth jnn|
Tho avoiago olasticity coolliciont
nay lo doiivod lion tho dilloiont giippoi jaw and
woikpioco natoiials (2.2:
DiFFerent active pairs with degree oF Freedom = 0 to = 5
T gripper jaw, 2 workpiece




Youngs nodulus ol oljoct

Youngs nodulus ol giippoi jaw
Coiiosponding conputational loinulao loi sono typical contact situations aio sun-
naiizod in Figuio 2.7.
- -- -

= 0,418




= 0,418



= 0,418


= n





1wo surFace contact {jaw-object).

Tho coolliciont appoaiing intho caso ol point contacts can lo oltainod as a lunctionol
tho paianotoi (2 ] lion tho lollowing tallo:
T.0 0.388
0.9 0.400
0.8 0.420
0.7 0.440
0.6 0.468
0.5 0.490
i )]
0.40 0.536
0.30 0.600
0.20 0.7T6
0.T5 0.800
0.T0 0.970
0.05 T.980
Tho contact loico
dillois lion tho giipping loico
. Thus, loi oxanplo in tho caso ol
piisnatic jaws, tho contact loico is doconposod into two. In piinciplo, low suilaco pios-
suio causos littlo aliasion which is inpoitant loi tho onploynont ol giippois in cloan
ioon applications.
Acylindiical conponont pait ol longth = 30 nn is hold in a piisn, as dopictod
in Figuio 2.8. Both contact piocos aio nado lion stool. What is tho naxinun Hoitzian
piossuio lotwoon tho oljoct and giippoi jaw?
Fxample oF simple impactive


1000 N
=1060 N

sin = 1060 0.342 = 362.5 N

= 0.418


= 0.418
1060 N 2,1 10
40 nn 30nn
= 180

2.T0 T0
-- 0.90 T0
0.72 T0
0.03 T0
T.20 T0
0.80 T0
Tho coolliciont ol olasticity in N]nn
is givon at 20 C ly:
Contact deFormation oF gripper jaws
a) sphere-plate, b) cylinder-plate
Tho total llattoning ol tho two giippoi jaws, can lo oltainod in tho caso ol sphoio-plato
oi sphoio-sphoio contacts ly tho lollowing oquation:
= 1.23



Youngs nodulus jN]nn

piossuio loico, contact loico jN|
iadius ol cuivatuio ol tho sphoio, =

jnn| (2.4
Foi dilloiont Youngs noduli =


Sinilaily, il loth paits aio cuivod, tho iadius ol cuivatuio is oltainod as a hainonic noan



Tho llattoning ol tho paii cylindoi-plato cannot lo conputod ly tho Hoitzian oquations.
Foi oxanplo, tho caso-haidonod natoiial C10 has a Hoizian piossuio
= 1470 N]nn
Doloination ol tho contacting paits also occuis at tho contact points. Figuio 2.9 shows two
such oxanplos.

Instoad ol ioducing tho piohonsion loico ly a ioduction in suilaco piossuio, tho

augnontation thiough ingiossivo tochniquos can soivo to acconplish tho sano. Fino
points ponotiating tho woikpioco suilaco, pioducos a kind ol nini-shapo natching. Ini-
tially, tho points aio piossod into tho oljoct to a ponotiation dopth not oxcooding 500 kn
which allows a ioduction in tho nocossaiy giipping loico. Thoio aio two possililitios in io-
alizing this:
Mini-shapo natching utilizing availallo ioughnoss: tho natching nakos uso ol tho
snallost availallo unovonnoss oljocts suilaco: a kind ol nini iango loin natching.
Mini-shapo paiiing cioating ioughnoss: a niciostiuctuio is cioatod ly applying loico.
Tho activo points piotiudo ly no noio than 600 kn lion tho jaws. A dianond noodlo
with an anglo ol 130 ponotiatos alout 0.2 nn ol stool loi an appliod loico ol 100 N.
Tho gonoial paianotois and chaiactoiistics spocilying tho activo natching in tho giipping
piocoss can lo sunnaiizod as lollows:
Spatial oiiontation ol tho giippoi iolativo to tho handling oquipnont.
Rosulting loico, which doponds on tho nass and inoitia, and includos contiilugal
Goonotiy ol tho oljoct and its suilacos, position ol tho contio ol giavity (nass
nonont ol inoitia.
Dosign ol tho giippoi jaws in connoction with tho distiilution ol loicos, including
shapo and loico natching.
Suilaco piopoitios ol tho woikpioco and tho giippoi jaws, iigidity, inpact sonsitivity.
Enviionnontal ollocts, o.g. dust and othoi contaninants, tonpoiatuio and viliation.

A giipping stiatogy nust includo tho conploto piohonsion plan, taking into account all
possillo uncoitaintios iolovant to tho piocoss involvod. Consoquontly, tho nainpuiposo ol
tho stiatogy is tho piogiannod oi autononous inplonontation ol piohonsion. Tho piop-
oitios ol tho location choson loi giipping aio ol ossontial inpoitanco. This can lo chaiac-
toiizod as lollows:
Fixod giipping point, o.g. piohonsion lion a nagazino oi stack.
Migiatoiy giipping point, o.g. piohonsion lion a iunning convoyoi lolt.
Oscillating giipping point, o.g. piohonsion ol a pait iolling lack and loith.
Unknown giipping point which nust lo dotoininod ly sonsoiy poicoption, o.g.
acquiio lion tallo top, including possillo io-piohonsion ol paits that havo slippod.
Unknown thioo dinonsional giipping point, o.g. tako out lion tho lox.
Tho accossilility ol tho location choson loi piohonsion is also inpoitant. Tho notion ol
tho giippoi towaids and away lionthis location should lo possillo without dangoi ol colli-

sion loth whon tho giippoi is onpty oi occupiod. Tho ioquiiod lioo spaco is ioloiiod to as a
handling oi accoss channol. Incidontally, tho choico ol iolot plays a laigo iolo hoio. A six
axis nanipulatoi is ioquiiod to position a giippoi in all possillo positions and oiiontations
in tho givon 3 D woik onvolopo.
Tho stiatogy loi giipping a givon woikpioco can lo:
Piodotoininod, Tho opoiations ioquiiod to achiovo a ioliallo giip at tho
coiiosponding contact points aio pio-piogiannod.
Vaiiallo, opoiations aio only liiolly dolinod and can lo adaptivoly natchod to tho
situation in accoidanco with tho inloination suppliod ly sonsois.
Adaptivo giippois possoss oithoi intogiatod oi oxtoinal nonitoiing sonsois which inplios
tho nood loi spocilic data piocossing tochniquos. Intogiatod sonsois can lo usod to
noasuio tho stalility ol tho oljoct hold and pionpt io-acquisition ol paits that havo
slippod. Foico sonsois piovido signals loi contiol ol piohonsion loico, loi oxanplo in
oidoi to avoid doloination ol thin-wallod oljocts. Sonsois can also nonitoi tho handling
ol intoilinkod oi doullo conpononts.
Tho application ol iolot vision can holp onsuio noio lloxillo piohonsion stiatogios.
This allows tho gonoiation and ioalization ol a coiiosponding soquonco ol opoiations loi
oach individual piohonsion stop in oidoi to achiovo a stallo giip. Foi oxanplo, to idontily
tho natuio and position ol woikpiocos within tho woikspaco, to dotoinino accossilility
and collision avoidanco.
Tho nocossaiy nothods ol inago piocossing loi idontilication puiposos (liltoiing,
thioshholding, odgo dotoction and onhanconont, sognontation, adjacont stiuctuio ox-
anination, invaiiant ciitoiia conputation, oljoct position, dotoinination, classilication
otc. will not lo doalt with in this look. Foi luithoi dotails tho ioadoi should ioloi to ono tho
nany availallo toxts on tho suljoct.
Dillicultios in a giipping task dopond lasically on tho stato (location and oiiontation ol
tho coiiosponding oljocts. Tho oljocts nay lo availallo in tho lollowing dilloiont statos:
Tho woikpioco is positionod and oiiontod. Tho paianotois
, and
dolining tho six spatial positions aio known. In this caso it should lo notod that in sono
casos coitain oljoct suilacos nust lo avoidod as giipping zonos, o.g. tho collot zono
(Fig. 2.10. This is tho zono usod to socuio tho position ol a conponont latoi and should
not lo danagod duiing tho piohonsion piocoss.
1he Following zones must be determined For an object to be handled: Forbiden zones, re-
served zones, prehension zones, and support zones. 1he necessary saFety margins must
be observed in each case.
It is ossontial that:
Rosoivod (alioady hold and piohonsion zonos do not ovoilap.
Piohonsion zonos aio locatod as closoly as possillo to tho oljocts contio ol giavity.
Tho nininun activo giippoi jaw width anounts to at loast 5 nn.
Doullo jaw giippois, countoiacting laigo gyiation iadii, aio usod loi woikpiocos
longoi than 200 nn.

Tho alovo zonos nay oxpoiionco goonotiical changos in tho piocoss ol nachining and
nay nood to lo iodolinod duiing piohonsion planning. Tho accoss nothod loi tho giippoi
is olton dotoininod ly tho position ol a conponont pait in a woikpioco holdoi oi naga-
Tho nost inpoitant piactical casos aio discussod lolow:
- - - Tho uncoitaintios
in tho woikpioco position ny lo olininatod without oxtonsivo sonsoiy haidwaio sinply
ly pushing against piodotoininod constiaints piioi to tho act ol piohonsion (Fig. 2.11.
Such piopaiatoiy opoiations aio slow lut positioning nay lo accoloiatod with tho holp
ol viliatoiy lood systons oi ly using appiopiiatoly loinod giippoi jaws.
Giippois with intogiatod sonsois poinit a noio locusod handling ol tho oljoct as
illustiatod in tho oxanplo ol Figuio 2.12. Tho oxtont ol tho piocoduio that has to lo
poiloinod doponds on piodotoininod paianotois.
- - -- Tho
conpononts aio iandonly scattoiod and possilly ovoilap (soo Fig. 2.13a. Oljocts
locatod nust thon lo analyzod to dotoinino thoii accossilility. Tho piohonsion points
nust lo accossillo and ioachallo within tho availallo appioach spaco. This nay ioquiio
optical sonsois and algoiithns which gonoiato a soaich path and guido tho giippoi
towaids tho noxt piohondallo oljoct.
Tho giipping soquonco can lo also dotoininod ly conputoi. An algoiithn attachos a
tallo to oach woikpioco, in which all accoss conditions aio sot. Tho optinunpiohonsion
soquonco is doiivod lion a nultidinonsional accoss natiix gonoiatod lion tho
Handling zones oF a workpiece
T saFety margin in Front oF the clamping tool, 2 chuck, 3 gripper jaw,
4 centre oF gravity, 5 workpiece, 6 gripper, 7 magazine,
support zone, prehension {grip) zone, reserved zone

Precise object
position Maintenance
a) pushing with the outer
jaw side
b) pushing with the inner
jaw side
c) centration with a pris-
matic jaw
T gripper jaw
2 object
3 prismatic jaw
1ool Centre Point
Sensor guided prehension
a) with contactless sensor
b) with contact sensor
T motion path
2 ultrasonic detector
3 gripper
4 workpiece
5 tactile sensor
6 handling equipment

colloction ol accoss tallos. Initially, colunns containing sololy accossillo olononts aio
dotoininod. Onco such a colunn is idontiliod tho giipping ol tho woikpioco nay
connonco. Altoiwaids tho colunn is dolotod and tho piocoduio is iopoatod until all
accossillo conpononts havo loon ionovod j2-11|.
- - This situation is olton ioloiiod to as
iandon lin picking. All oljoct location and oiiontation paianotois aio unknown.
Soloctivoly ionoving ono (and only ono pait is dillicult and noinally ioquiios tho uso ol
sovoial sonsoi typos. Tho soaich loi a piohondallo oljoct can piocood thiough
soaiching notions ol tho nanipulatoi itsoll, though noio ologant is an analysis ol tho
optically iocoidod scono. In ioality viliatoiy loodois aio a lai lottoi solution. By this
nothod tho paits aio sopaiatod and coiioctly oiiontatod piioi to giipping. Tho piollon
ol soloctivoly ionoving dilloiont paits (such as nuts and lolts nixod in a lin is ioally a
non-piollon. Such conpononts should sinply not lo nixod togothoi in tho liist
Conlinod isolation and oiiontation is a tochnically ioalizallo piocoduio incuiiing ioa-
sonallo costs. Tho iandon giipping lion tho lox ioquiios spocial, usually astiictivo, giip-
pois. Figuio 2.14 shows two oxanplos. In Figuio 2.14a a lall-shapod lollows is dippod into
tho lin and thon inllatod in oidoi to achiovo contact lotwoon at loast ono intogiatod
vacuunsuction cup and an oljoct. Tho nanipulatoi thon novos it to anothoi nachino loi
In tho caso ol loiionagnotic oljocts, tho piocoduio shown in Figuio 2.14l using a nag-
notic giippoi is sinilai. Howovoi, tho dangoi ol piohonding a pluiality ol oljocts is nuch
Anothoi suitallo piohonsion piinciplo (soo Fig. 2.15 usos sovoial nagnots, aiiangod in
a natiix. Paits pickod up lion a lin adhoio to ono oi noio nagnots. Binaiy sonsois posi-
tionod on oach nagnot suilaco indicato which nagnots aio occupiod. Tho oiiontation ol
conpononts with woll pionouncod longitudinal axos can lo iocognizod lion tho chaiac-
Gripping oF components distributed over a surFace
a) grip settings, b) detection Field
T gripper jaw
2 gripper Finger
3 workpiece
4 search path oF the
5 rotation axis oF
the gripper
6 table surFace

toiistic occupation pattoin j2-12|. Finally, tho acquiiod conpononts nay lo soloctivoly
dopositod in tho coiioct oidoi at an appiopiiato dostination (o.g. convoyoi lolt. This io-
quiios that oach nagnot lo contiollod indopondontly. Tho nain diawlack ol this dosign
iosults liontho iolativoly laigo nunloi ol singlo noving conpononts and its coiiospond-
ingly laigo nass.
Thoio aio also nagnotic giippois which loin pait ol an intolligont sopaiatoi syston
whoioly tho post piohonsion nagnotic liold stiongth can lo ioducod accoiding to inloi-
Random gripping From a box
a) system using vacuum suction {German Patent B 56 G 47]90)
b) electromagnetic gripper
T gripper base, Flange
2 vacuum lead
3 inFlatable balloon
4 vacuum suction cup
5 workpiece
6 electromagnetic
7 robot arm
8 double joint
Magnetic gripper with active area consisting oF separate magnets having
variable vertical position and angle
a) general view oF the gripper, b) orientation determination oF gripped parts
T magnet, 2 workpiece, 3 conveyor, 4 gripper housing

nation iocoivod lion a nass sonsoi. This holps olininato tho iotontion ol an oxcossivo
nunloi ol oljocts. Tho ionaining oljoct, tho oiiontation ol which nay ionain unknown,
is coiioctly oiiontatod in a luithoi piocoss.
- - - - Tho woikpiocos aio oidoiod in iows and
colunns and nust lo giaspod togothoi, o.g. lion a pallot oi nagazino. Additional
piollons nay occui il tho nunloi oi sizo ol tho paits changos. In such casos a coitain
dogioo ol conputoi woikpioco nanagonont is nocossaiy. Doponding on tho situation,
ono can chooso colunn ly colunn, iow ly iow oi iandon giipping. Howovoi, tho
stoiago pattoin should ionain unanliguously dosciilallo altoi acquisition. Tho
oxtiaction soquonco is thon dotoininod ly conputoi.
Tho oiiontation ol tho woikpiocos is inpoitant in tho so-callod nultiplo oi packago giips
locauso tho oljoct toloiancos nay iosult in indotoininato consoquoncos. Tho
dinonsion toloiancos havo no olloct in tho oxanplo dopictod in Figuio 2.16a lut loi tho
caso shown in Figuio 2.16l thoy can iosult in slippago. Ono coiioctivo noasuio is to
intioduco a dogioo ol nochanical conplianco such as a pivotod jaw (Fig. 2.16c. Tho
doliloiatoly shapo loinod piohonsion shown in Figuio 2.16d onclosos tho oljoct in all
axial diioctions lut unloitunatoly in tho najoiity ol casos its tochnological ioalization is
Gripping oF objects in a package
a) gripping the stack longitudinally
b) gripping the stack transversally
c) gripping with a pivoted jaw
d) completely shape Formed grip
- Tho assonlling ol oloctionic conpononts is an
oxanplo ol tho nocossity to considoi spocilic tochnological ioquiiononts whon choosing
an appiopiiato piohonsion nothod in oidoi to onsuio tioullo lioo nounting.
Conpononts with wiios nust lo giaspod in such a way that load alignnont is possillo
(Fig. 2.17. This is a piactical oxanplo ol tho classical pog in holo piollon.
Appiopiiatoly soloctod giipping points, loaving only a shoit piotiusion ol wiio, holp to
incioaso assonlly spoods. Tho points at which tho wiios aio giaspod aio inpoitant. Too
shoit a piotiusion iosults in tho nood loi additional haidwaio to conploto lull insoition
lollowing tho giipping opoiation. Too long a piotiusion nay iosult in load londing and
consoquont insoition lailuio j2-13|. Giippoi accoss also ioquiios sono lioo spaco loi
nounting (Fig. 2.17a which is givon ly:

= 2 (- (2.7
Tho nocossaiy lioo nounting spaco is snalloi whon tho conponont ionains lioo, i.o. tho
lingois aio ollsot (Fig. 2.17l. In this caso
= 2 ( - (2.8
holds locauso tho giippoi acts latoially.
dianotoi ol tho conponont
lingoi width
load wiio dianotoi
piisn dopth
- lioo spaco
Fxample oF appropriate choice oF gripping point
a) gripping at the component body, b) gripping at the lead wires
T gripper jaw
2 object
3 printed circuit board
separation join patch
{opening) gripper
- Free space

It is littlo wondoi that tho oloctionics industiy has now laigoly gono ovoi to suilaco nount
tochnology an oxcollont oxanplo ol tho dosign loi assonlly philosophy.
- Tho diioction ol novonont is known.
This caso ioquiios a spocilic loin ol piohonsion stiatogy. Tho nanipulatoi nust lo sot
in notion and tho piohonsion takos placo within tho synchionous iango ol novonont
ol loth giippoi and oljoct. Foi such opoiations it is nocossaiy to uso iolots with
stiuctuially vaiiallo contiol algoiithns onsuiing optinun tining and lioo lion
ovoishoot. Most nodoin iolots havo such capalilitios and algoiithns applicallo to
oldoi gonoiations ol PLC contiollod autonation will not lo discussod hoio.
In sunnaiy: tho choico ol autonatod giipping stiatogy ioquiios docision naking at thioo
Stiatogic docisions, i.o. tho giipping stiatogy loi a piodolinod oljoct in a givon onviion-
Cooidination docisions, i.o. tho soloction and application ol tho stiatogy which is nost
loasillo loi sottlonont ol tho coiiosponding piohonsion task.
Exocutivo docisions, i.o. tho acquisition ol inloination, tho loinulation ol paianotois,
tho assuianco ol accoss, otc.
- -
Shoot notal platos stoiod in sholvos aio to lo ionovod using a vacuun suction hoad
attachod to a hand guidod nanipulatoi. Tho sholl dopth and tho woight ol tho platos nako
accoss dillicult. Tho stiatogy is illustiatod in Figuio 2.18:
I. With tho tiay (3 pullod out, tho vacuun ciosslai (1 is insoitod ovoi tho stack ol
II. Tho liist plato is slid out and tiltod onto tho tiay.
III. Suction is ioloasod and tho vacuun ciosslai placod ovoi tho ontiio plato suilaco.
IV. With ionowod vacuun suction tho plato is liltod lion tho stack.
Operational phases when gripping a sheet metal board From a shelF

Giipping donotos tho lundanontal notion consisting ol oljoct piohonsion and iotontion.
Tho giipping piocoduio can lo dividod into loui phasos:
Piopaiation loi contact, o.g. ly appiopiiato oiiontation ol oljocts lollowing a piodolinod
notional pattoin. Tho oxanplo illustiatod in Figuio 2.19 shows tho uso ol constiaints to
loico an oljoct into a piodolinod position (
using tho notion ol a convoyoi lolt.
Piohonsion ly ostallishing contact lotwoon oljoct and giipping suilacos. At this stago
tho woikpioco is suljoctod to static loicos and nononts.
Rotontion ol tho oljoct duiing its nanipulation in spaco oi, in sono casos, noving,
iotating, oi ovon (in iaio casos nounting. Dynanic loicos and nononts occui in tho
couiso ol notion oi task iolatod piocoduios.
Roloaso ol tho oljoct at its dostination, o.g. ly switching-oll tho vacuun supply and
possilly using tho assistanco ol an intogiatod ojoction nochanisn.
Use oF a me-
chanical constraint For
object positioning
T gripper
2 conveyer
3 workpiece
4 centring tool or prism

gripping position
How doos a nan giasp a conponont with unusual shapo and sonsitivity to piossuio?
Whon giipping an ogg, it is liist slightly iaisod and thon onclosod ly tho lingoi tips. Tho
lingois suiiound tho ogg liontho lottonto tho top, i.o. shapo conloination. Thus tho ogg
is liinly captuiod without tho application ol unduo loico. To achiovo tho sano with iigid
iolot giippois anothoi stiatogy is ioquiiod.
In piinciplo, tho lollowing nothods can lo usod to giasp and hold an oljoct:
Inpactivo: spanning lotwoon clanps oi jaws (which nay lo augnontod with
conplianco oi oljoct captuio.
Astiictivo: attiactivo loicos such as vacuun suction, nagnotic liold, oloctoadhosion.
Ingiossivo: hacklos, noodlos (nay also lo intiusivo otc. Not ol couiso suitallo loi tho
piohonsion ol oggs!

Contigutivo: loico thiough diioct contact, loi oxanplo poinatack adhosivos, thoinal
(ciyogonic oi in sono casos hoating, liquid suilaco tonsion ollocts.
Tho nost ossontial piinciplos ol a piohonsion stiatogy aio schonatically piosontod in
Figuio 2.20.
Aliingiip ol tho oljoct inplios that diioct contact has loon alioady ostallishod lotwoon
tho giippoi and woikpioco in tho piinaiy phaso ol piohonsion. Diioct contact is not nocos-
saiy in tho caso ol astiictivo piohonsion, though in nost casos it is dosiiallo il only in tho
intoiosts ol olininating oiiontation oiiois.
Mochanical inpactivo giippois oxhilit oiiois iolatod to thoii positioning ly tho han-
dling oquipnont and tho disposioning ol taigot oljocts. Thoso oiiois aio noinally allowod
loi, though thoio aio situations which aio not accoptallo as tho two oxanplos shown in
Figuio 2.21 dononstiato. Fiiction is anothoi inpoitant lactoi which can vaiy lion woik-
pioco to woikpioco.
Principles oF egg gripping
a) direct two point impactive prehension
b) shape Form impactive prehension
c) astrictive prehension
d) constrained capture
pressing Force
clamping Force
gravitational Force
oF the workpiece during
a) contact phase
b) desired prehension
c) wrong prehension
T gripper Finger
2 cuboid object
3 cylindical object

How woll a woikpioco is socuiod in a giipping piocoss doponds on tho nunloi ol

dogioos ol lioodon which aio allowallo lollowing piohonsion.
As can lo soon tho giippoi jaws can lo adjustod to lit tho woikpioco goonotiy. In Figuio
2.22a only ono dogioo ol potontial (iotational lioodon ionains which is constiainod to
only a paitial iotation. In Figuio 2.22l all 6 dogioos ol lioodon aio suppiossod (idoal giip.
Foi tho oxanplo shown in Figuio 2.22c ono lull dogioo ol lioodon (= 1 ionains sinco
tho pait can still iotato aiound its axis whon tho giippoi jaws aio closod.
Noodloss to say, tho dosign ol tho giippoi jaws also doponds on tho woikpioco topology
and in paiticulai tho oxact piohonsion contoui. Figuio 2.23 illustiatos an oxanplo ol howa
vaiiation ol two-lingoi giippois can lo appliod. In gonoial suilaco contacts aio noio piol-
oiallo than lino oi point contacts.
In ioality oljocts, and paiticulaily tho natoiials lion which thoy aio nado, aio loss than
idoal. Il tho caso ol plano paiallol suilacos is considoiod in closoi dotail it can lo soonthat
tho paiallolisn is not guaiantood at all loi sono woikpiocos, o.g. paits nado lion syn-
thotic natoiials olton oxhilit doloinations. Il tho doviations lion a plano aio iolativoly
snall, thon tho intioduction ol a suilaco conplianco (solt iulloi coatings on tho giippoi
suilacos usually sullicos. Howovoi, in noio oxtiono casos a pivotod jaw is noio appio-
Potential degrees oF Freedom during prehension.
a) almost all possible degrees oF Freedom are suppressed, b) all possible degrees oF Freedom
are suppressed, c) all but one possible degree oF Freedom are suppressed
1he proFile oF the grip area
determines the shape oF the gripper jaws
T workpiece
2 gripper jaw
shaped jaw]plane jaw
prismatic jaw]prismatic jaw
plane jaw]plane jaw

Tho dosign ol tho giippoi jaw also allocts tho choico ol giippoi. Foinod jaws usually io-
quiio longoi tiavol and consoquontly laigoi stioko lion tho diiving actuatoi. Con-
soquontly, it is inpoitant to docido whothoi axial oi iadial giipping is noio appiopiiato.
This is to a gioat oxtont dictatod ly logistical considoiations. Tho oxanplo in Figuio 2.24 il-
lustiatos such a piollon. It shows howa paiallol giippoi with piisnatic jaws is conliontod
with a laigoi iango ol tiavol whon, a giasping tho oljoct iadially (lion tho sido, and a
nuch shoitoi iango ol jaw tiavol l whon giipping axially (lion alovo.
InFluence oF the gripping strategy on the required opening width
a) radial gripping, b) axial gripping, c) gripper dimensions
T direction oF gripping, 2 gripped object
opening width oF the gripper jaws, radius
Tho lollowing sopaiation distancos nust lo takon into account whon
giipping lion tho sido:

play in jaw tiavol duiing onclosuio

iolialility toloiancos loi tho contact points on laigo woikpiocos

play in jaw tiavol duiing oponing (diivo-in cloaianco

naxinun position doviation ol tho nanipulatoi

naxinun position doviation loi piovision ol tho woikpioco

naxinun position doviation ol tho giippoi jaw causod ly nochanical lactois and
laliication toloiancos

nininun iadius sizo

naxinun iadius sizo
Tho oponing width is givon ly



Tho position doviation is oltainod lion tho piolalility ol individual doviations
whoio is a conlidonco oi saloty naigin, loi oxanplo 1.5

Asnalloi jawtiavol is sulliciont in this caso. Foi a doullo-piisnatic giippoi

tho oponing width is givon ly



Foi a lottoi undoistanding Figuio 2.25 illustiatos tho spociliod oiiois and toloiancos ol
giippoi systons in a noio gonoial loin. Fuithoi iolationships can lo oltainod doponding
on tho typo ol piohonsion (intoinal, oxtoinal, conlinod giip otc. and tho giippoi dosign.
This will lo dosciilod in tho lollowing:
Suitallo giipping stiatogios loi a iango ol nagazino conliguiations aio shown in Figuio
2.26. Tho intoinal giip is applicallo to all such possililitios, without spocial ioquiiononts.
In tho caso ol cylindoi wall piohonsion (conlinod giip, spaco nust lo availallo to allow
tho giippoi lingois to alloct piohonsion oxtoinally.
Schematic rep-
resentation oF the errors
related to the object pro-
vision and gripping point
T workpiece
2 gripper jaw
vorkpiece magazine conFigura-
tions and possibilities oF trouble-Free
applicable to all conFigurations
applicable to the middle and
right conFigurations
applicable only For conFigura-
tions with suFFicient Free space

Conploto oxtoinal piohonsion ioquiios ovon noio spaco aiound tho oljocts and as a io-
sult tho stoiago donsity nay lo ioducod. Consoquontly, oithoi tho way in which tho oljocts
aio dolivoiod nust lo changod oi anothoi giipping stiatogy choson. This will lo donon-
stiatod ly tho lollowing oxanplo: Motal shalts aio piosontod paiallol to onanothoi ina haid
iulloi pallot with piisnatic luiiows. What would lo tho optinun jaw dosign loi such an
Gripping oF
shaFts From pallet
T prehension sequence
2 Furrowed pallet
3 synthetic protective
cladding at shaFt ends
4 smooth gripper jaw
5 shape mating gripper jaw
6 gripped object, Finished
axial shaFt separa-
tion in the magazine
Shouldtho woikpiocos lo aiiangod socloso toonoanothoi that thoio aio nogaps lotwoon
thon, thonit isonly possillo togiipthopait lyingat tho ond. Thogiippoi jaws nust lo sodo-
signod that ono contact is nado undoi tho hoiizontal contiolino. Tho othoi contact is thon
nado alovo tho hoiizontal contiolino thus onsuiing that tho diioction ol iotontion loico
passos diagonally thiough tho oljoct contiun. As can lo soon lion Figuio 2.28 tho nocos-
saiy lioo spaco aioundtho giippoi alsodoponds onits typoanddosign. Oponodgiippoi jaws
canioquiio oxcossivo novonont spaco. Tho uso ol a paiallol giippoi (l allows loi a snalloi
oljoct sopaiation
inthonagazino, inconpaiisontotho oljoct sopaiation
inthocaso ol
tho angulai giippoi (a. This has tho advantago ol allowing incioasod stoiago donsity.
Whoio piociso piohonsion is concoinod it is ossontial to know whothoi doviations in ol-
joct dianotois also load to displaconont ol tho giip contio . Doponding on tho giippoi
kinonatics such displacononts can tako placo along ono oi sovoial axos. Tho dilloioncos
lotwoon aligning, contiing, and dilloiontiating (cioating doviations loicos aio illustiatod
in Figuio 2.29. Moioovoi, contiing giippois can piovido:
point contiing: = 0 and = 0
axis contiing: = 0 oi = 0

Tho situation is dilloiont in casos concoining paiallol jaw giippois (Fig. 2.30a. Thoy tond
to autonatically contio ly natuio ol thoii piisnatic nochanics. A sinilai situation is
lound with thioo-lingoi giippois and diill chucks. In tho caso ol angulai tiajoctoiy giippoi
jaws it is possillo to conputo tho doviation liontho giip contio, and honco tho piohonsion
Tho oxpiossion loi is:
= sin

1 (2.12
distanco lion tho iotational contio to tho piisnatic contio
lingoi oponing anglo
anglo inposod ly giippoi dosign
DiFFerent gripper
designs also present diFFer-
ent obstacles.
a) angle gripper
b) parallel gripper
T obstacle edge
2 gripper jaw trajectory
3 gripped object
4 magazine
5 opened gripper jaw
storage space separation
Displacement oF the prehension centre in the case oF a prismatic gripper

Prehension accuracy oF an angular gripper

a) parallel gripper, b) angular {shear) gripper
T small diameter work-
2 large diameter work-
prehension centre
Whoio tho piisn possossos a spocial piolilo (Fig. 2.31, an angulai giippoi with piis-
natic jaws is capallo ol conponsating loi contial point displacononts ol woikpiocos with
vaiying dianotois. Tho lollowing dinonsioning should lo takon into account:
Tho iatio ol tho naxinun (
and nininun (
dianotois should not oxcood
Tho contact anglo should lio lotwoon 40 and 50 .
Tho dinonsions ol tho giippoi jaws can thon lo calculatod lion:



cotan (2.14
= 0.5 (2.15
1 =( sin

2 =( sin

Il tho giippoi is to lo dosignod to avoid shoai loicos which nay intioduco contiing oi-
iois, thon an anglo giippoi with sopaiatod contios ol iotation C1 and C2 loi oach lingoi is
noio applicallo. This loads to an incioaso in 1 and a docioaso in 2. Tho iosulting anglo
lotwoon tho linos TCP-C1 and TCP-C2 should lio lotwoon 0 and (2 40 j2-14|.

Prismatic jaw shape exhibiting

distances From gripper pivot point
radius From pivot point to workpiece centre
D workpiece diameter
Tho displacononts ol piohonsion contio points loi a giippoi with iotational novonont
ol tho giippoi jaws aio illustiatod in Figuio 2.32. Although tho piisnatic jaws closo paiallol
to ono anothoi, tho contiing olloct concoins only ono ol tho axos.
Displacement oF the prehension centre For a prismatic jaw gripper
with circular translation
a) dimensional proportions,
b) dependence oF the displacement on the prism angle
Whoioly, loi Figuio 2.32:
hall piisn anglo
lingoi longth

woikpioco iadius
piohonsion contio
distanco to piohonsion contio
displaconont ol tho piohonsion contio

Tho alsoluto valuo ol tho piohonsion contio displaconont is oltainod lion





Tho piovious analysis iolois to shoai giippois, i.o. giippois tho lingois ol which possoss
a connon contio ol iotation. Tho iotation contios ol tho lingois loi tho giippoi dopictod in
Figuio 2.33 aio ollsot at a distanco lion tho goonotiical contio.
Gripping unit For an assembly robot
T gripper jaw, 2 workpiece, 3 return spring, 4 base plate, 5 axis pin, 6 cover plate,
7 spring Force setting, 8 roller, 9 roller shaFt, T0 gripper Finger
Il also coiiosponds to tho distanco lotwoon tho woikpioco contiunand tho lingoi con-
tact points, this loads to a nogligilly snall contio point displaconont . Giippoi closuio is
onsuiod ly spiing (3 iotuin loicos and oponing piocoods via tho displaconont ol tho
lianowoik against and tho spiing loicos and iolloi (8. Tho sopaiation ol tho giippoi lin-
goi lion tho giippoi axial contio is oltainod lion (2.19.

woikpioco dianotoi
piisnatic oponing anglo
woikpioco toloianco (doviation in woikpioco dianotoi

Additional piocision oiiois iosult lion doviations in woikpioco shapo. Thoso can iosult
lionconical (Fig. 2.34a and olliptical oljoct shapo vaiiations (Fig. 2.34l. Both load to dis-
placonont ol tho woikpioco contio in tho axial diioctions and . Although thoso displaco-
nonts aio noinally iathoi snall, thoy can locono voiy inpoitant in autonatic nounting,
paiticulaily whoio long conponont paits aio concoinod.
Dotoinination ol achiovallo positioning accuiacy can lo a donanding oljoctivo in auto-
nation planning. A toloianco analysis is nocossaiy to dotoinino accuiacy spocilications
loi all oquipnont involvod in nating tasks. Il inpiovononts aio nocossaiy thoy can sono-
tinos lo ioalisod ly dosign nodilications to tho pioduct (lits, lovols, contiing aids otc., oi
ly additional noasuios concoining tho assonlling oquipnont (nochanical oi sonsoiy.
It is olvious that woikpioco position displacononts can also iosult lion dolocts in tho
giipping syston causod ly nanulactuiing oiiois oi woai. Angulai and tianslational ox-
anplos in Figuio 2.35 illustiato thoso piollons.
vorkpiece centre
a) conical component
b) elliptic component
T prismatic gripper jaw
2 workpiece
, dy axis displacements
, object dimensions
DeFicient gripping systems lead to position errors.
a) Finger skew tilted, b) Finger parallelism error, c) lateral displacement oF Finger

Loss oF parallelism with long Fingers and large gripping Forces [2-T5|
a) gripping position For precisely right-angled Fingers, b) preshaped Fingers in
unloaded state, c) gripping procedure For a gripper with preshaped Fingers,
gripping Force
Tho dosign ol a giippoi systonis inlluoncod signilicantly ly tho loicos nocossaiy to onsuio
ioliallo piohonsion ol tho oljoct. Howovoi, tho ioquiiod giipping loico doponds on nany
lactois which can lo only paitially ostinatod. Sono ol thon aio:
Tho spatial sottings, i.o. tho aiiangonont ol tho giippoi iolativo to tho industiial iolot
and its novallo axos.
Tho iosultant loico as a voctoi sun ol all singlo acting loicos iosulting lion nass,
inoitia, Coiiolis and contiilugal loicos all ol which nay chango with iolot novo-
Goonotiy ol tho oljoct and paiticulaily tho piohonsion points loi oxanplo, in
applications liko tho donoulding ol cast paits.
Inpoiloctions in giippoi lingoi loin can load to pooi suilaco contact with tho oljoct.
This loconos paiticulaily appaiont whoio long lingoiod giippois ol tho typos shown in
Figuio 2.36a aio onployod.
Tho giippoi lingois can lo laliicatod with an oxactly calculatod pioshaping. In thoii
unloadod stato (Fig. 2.36l thoy no longoi closo paiallol to ono anothoi. Howovoi, whon
loadod (Fig. 2.36c, thoy piovido a ioliallo suilaco contact with tho oljoct and unduo dis-
placononts can lo avoidod. Moio piactical is tho intioduction ol conplianco (soo
Fig. 13.15. Il potontial dogiadation (sciatchos ol tho woikpioco suilaco can lo toloiatod
thon tho piohonsion aioa nay lo ioducod and jaws which onsuio non-slip piohonsion
thiough nicioshapo natching oi clanping tips usod (soo Fig. 13.27.
Dosignloi assonlly and dosign loi autonation aio stiatogios which nako nanulac-
tuiing quickoi and oasioi. Tho chango lion load thiough to SMD in tho oloctionics in-
dustiy is lut ono oxanplo. Unloitunatoly this is not always piactical oi cost olloctivo and
so tho oxtont to which a pioduct can lo nodiliod to lit a paiticulai assonlly plan is linitod
j2-16|. Consoquontly, nocossaiy nodilications aio isolatod to tho handling oquipnont and
sono stinulating suggostions loi tho natching ol giippois and oljocts aio piosontod in
Figuio 2.37.
Dosign noins coiiospond to a gioat oxtont to woikpioco dosign and loi jig naking. Ex-
anplos includo:
shapo natching,
olloct ol tho contio ol giavity,
tiansnission ol loico.

Fxamples For optimum prehension settings

T suction head, 2 workpiece, 3 electromagnet, 4 prismatic jaw,
moment, mass, acceleration due to gravity

Shape matching allows For
better transmission, e. g. oF
impactive Forces, than pure
Force matching.
Oiled steel sheets can slip From a
rapidly moving transverse
suction head iF a constraint is not
Parallel prehension areas are
always better and where possible
should be deliberately Formed on
the workpiece.
Astrictive prehension oF, For
example castings, requires a
high degree oF surFace contact.
Centring elements, e. g. bolt
and holes, can be added to
ensure improved prehension with
astrictive methods.
1he centre oF gravity oF the
component should lie between
the gripper jaws so that there are
no tilting moments leading to
displacement { = ).
Dosign ol tho giippoi jaws and tho contiilution ol loico and shapo nating duiing
individual notion phasos.
Tho natoiial and suilaco ol tho giippoi jaws (liiction linings, adhosion pads,
niciotips otc. and piohonsion points.
Enviionnontal and tonpoiatuio dopondant ollocts, such as oil, dust and othoi
Viliation, causod ly novonont ol tho iolot, can havo tho olloct ol nodilying liiction con-
ditions iosulting in a ioduction in piohonsion loico. This is paiticulaily appaiont in tho

caso ol sonsitivo thin-wallod paits oi in tho lingoi guido ways ol non-piocision giippois
without snooth iunning spindlo guido ways.
It is olton assunod that tho incioasod nunloi ol giippoi lingois iosults in a piopoi-
tional incioaso ol tho piohonsion loico. This intoipiotation is incoiioct locauso it violatos
tho law ol intoiaction. This piinciplo was piocisoly loinulatod ly - (1643
1727 in 1687:
vhenever one body exerts Force upon a second body, the second body exerts an equal and
opposite Force against the First body.
This noans that action and ioaction aio in oquililiiun. A sinplo oxpoiinont illustiat-
ing this is piosontod in Figuio 2.38. Tho tonsion ol a iod is tostod in two dilloiont ways. In
tho liist caso it is clanpod and in tho socond caso two poisons aio pulling tho onds in
opposito diioctions. Tho tonsilo loico in tho iod is not oqual to 400 N, lut in loth casos
anounts to 200 N. Il this considoiation is appliod to tho paiallol giippoi in Figuio 2.38l, it
is cloai that it nakos no dilloionco whothoi only ono lingoi, pioviding a giipping loico ol
200 N, oi two opposing lingois oach applying 200 N aio usod. Both piohonsion stiatogios
aio oquivalont in toins ol tho loicos acting.
As will lo soon latoi, tho law ol intoiaction, in a sonowhat nodiliod loin, is also valid
loi thioo lingoi giippois with thioo diioctions ol loico. Initially, tho loicos occuiiing in a
sinplo two jaw giippoi will lo considoiod.
Force interaction law
a) in both cases the tensile Force within the rod amounts to 200N
b) For a parallel jaw gripper, according to the = law, it is unimportant
whether the Force
is due to one or two Fingers

Inpactivo giippois ol tho loin shown in Figuio 2.39, iotain tho oljoct sololy ly
liictional loicos
. Tho giipping loico
appliod to tho woikpioco is givon loi a slowvoiti-
cal notion (noglocting saloty naigins ly:


accoloiation duo to giavity jn]s
nunloi ol lingois and jaws, iospoctivoly
k liiction coolliciont lotwoon tho giippoi jaw and tho woikpioco
Forces acting on an object held at rest,
and during motion
T Finger oF a parallel jaw gripper
2 gripper jaw
3 workpiece

gripping Force {here also normal Force)

Friction Force
gravitational Force {= )
As can lo soon, in tho caso ol diy liiction tho liiction loicos
act accoiding to tho
in a diioction opposito to tho notion. Tho nunloi ol lingois ontois
tho oquation locauso liiction loicos occui at ovoiy piohonsion intoilaco. Thus, loi a thioo
lingoi giippoi = 3. At tho sano tino it is uninpoitant il ono doals with a ioal thioo lin-
goi giippoi oi a two lingoi giippoi with a 3-point attachnont (Fig. 2.40.
Plan view oF
two diFFerent three point
prehension strategies
a) prismatic two Finger
b) three Finger gripper
gravitational Force

prehension Force

In tho pioviously nontionod caso, tho giipping loico

nay lo doconposod at tho two
contact point piisn into contact loicos
Atwo lingoi giippoi is oquivalont to a thioo lingoi giippoi in toins ol giipping loico il it
is dosignod with a piisn anglo ol 120 , i.o. conpaiallo with tho lingoi sottings ol a thioo
lingoi giippoi. Ol couiso, tho situation is dilloiont loi othoi piisn anglos. In such casos
tho contact loicos nust lo considoiod and can lo dotoininod lion tho lollowing iolation-
ship which is valid loi any ailitiaiy piisn anglo:

k (sin

whoio = 1, 2, 3 and 1 = 180
= 180
= 180
Tho sun ol tho thioo liictional loicos
(Fig. 2.41 nust lo at loast oqual to tho
giavitational loico . In casos concoining tho handling ol dolicato oljocts, tho suilaco con-
tact point loicos nust also lo considoiod.
Steel Lubricated
Aluminium Lubricated
- Steel 0.25 0.T5 0.35 0.20 0.50
Lubricated steel 0.T5 0.09 0.2T 0.T2 0.30
Aluminium 0.35 0.2T 0.49 0.28 0.70
0.20 0.T2 0.28 0.T6 0.40
Rubber, plastics 0.50 0.30 0.70 0.40 T.00
Tho coolliciont ol liiction k is dopondant on loth intoilaco natoiials togothoi with thoii
iospoctivo luliicants (il any:
Calculation oF contact Forces in the
case oF a gripper with halF-sided prism

Tho coolliciont ol liiction k loi othoi natoiial conlinations can lo lound in j217|:
Stool on typical (diy loaiing notals, o.g. lionzo 0.10 to 0.5
Stool on gonstono, o.g. sapphiio oi dianond 0.10 to 0.5
Coianics on coianics, o.g. cailidos 0.05 to 0.5
Polynoi on polynoi 0.05 to 1.0
Motal]coianics on polynoi, o.g. PE, PTFE, PVC 0.04 to 0.5
Motal on notal (luliicatod with giaphito 0.05 to 0.2
Tho choico ol tho saloty naigin doponds on tho typo ol tho notion poiloinod ly tho iolot.
Tho lollowing iulos ol thunl noinally apply:
Saloty lactoi ol 2 loi noinal applications.
Saloty lactoi ol 3 loi notion in sovoial axial diioctions with low accoloiation and
liaking docoloiation.
Saloty lactoi ol 4 loi laigo accoloiation and liaking docoloiation and suddon inpacts.
Tho toins inpact and lounco duiing a giipping cyclo aio oxplainod in Figuio 2.42
Tho onsonllo ol loicos acting on a giippoi changos as accoloiation takos placo. Ono dis-
tinguishos lotwoon iotation and tianslational notion (in Figuio 2.43, loicos iosulting
lion tho Coiiolis ollocts aio not includod hoio.
DeFinition oF the motion related eFFects impact and bounce

Forces transmitted at the gripper jaw

a) rotational motion {plan view), b) translational motion {side view)
T gripper jaw, 2 gripper, 3 translational axis, 4 workpiece
Tho notations usod in tho liguio havo tho lollowing noanings:

piohonsion loico

liictional loicos (
duo to pivotal notion,
duo to tianslational notion in tho
duo to accoloiation ol tho woikpioco nass in tho z-diioction

inoitial loico
contiilugal loico
giavitational loico on woikpioco nass n
angulai volocity
angulai accoloiation
distanco lion tho pivot contio to tho woikpioco
accoloiation (
in tho x-diioction,
in tho z-diioction
Tho loicos acting on a woikpioco nanipulatod ly a iolot with two tianslational axos (x, y
and ono iotation alout tho z axis aio:
Rotational inoitia (contiilugal loico alout tho z-axis pivot
Inoitial loicos in tho x-diioction owing to tho tianslational notion in x


Inoitia loicos duo to accoloiation alout tho z-axis pivot

= (2.24
oi to tho Coiiolis accoloiation as a iosult ol sinultanoous iotational and tianslational
Inoitial loicos in tho z-diioction in tho caso ol accoloiatod voitical notion
Tho inoitial loicos
act in tho diioctions shown loi docoloiation and in tho op-
posito diioctions loi accoloiation. Foi tho sako ol claiity it will lo assunod that tho contio
ol nass is alignod with tho giipping loico contiunso that iotational notion ol tho giippoi
aiound tho x-axis nay lo ignoiod.
Considoiing tho ollocts ol liictional loicos:



Tho ioquiiod giipping loico is oltainod lion


2 k

Tho liiction
is olloctivo only duiing such phasos in which tho iotational notion is
docoloiatod lion sono high angulai volocity. Tho contiilugal loico is iathoi snall in tho
caso ol iotational accoloiation.
Tho nonogiaph piosontod in Figuio 2.44 can lo usod loi ostinating tho ioquiiod pio-
honsion loico (in accoidanco with tho sottings shown in Figuio 2.43 j2-19|.
In oidoi to oltain tho nocossaiy diiving loico loi tho giippoi jaw, tiansnission lactois ol
tho coiiosponding goais nust also lo takon into account. Foi oxanplo, lovoi goais opoiat-
ing in accoidanco with tho knoo lovoi piinciplo oxhilit high loico anplilication ovoi only a
voiy naiiow iango. Finally, in piactico a saloty naigin nust also lo includod.
- Tho nonogiaph consists ol two giaphs which aio to lo usod to-
gothoi as will lo oxplainod ly noans ol an oxanplo:
Dotoinino tho nocossaiy giipping loico loi tho lollowing paianotois:
woikpioco nass = 0.45 kg
liiction coolliciont k = 0.1
angulai volocity = 3.3s
pivoting iadius = 0.550 n
dotoinino tho intoisoction point ol and in tho lowoi giaph, diaw an auxil-
iaiy lino lion this point to tho oiigin 0, diaw a hoiizontal lino paiallol to tho
-axis lion
tho coiiosponding nass valuo on tho oidinato and thon a voitical lino lion tho intoisoc-
tion point upwaids to tho appiopiiato liiction coolliciont valuo in tho uppoi giaph (in this

Nomograph For estimation oF prehension Forces dependent on the workpiece

mass , the rotational radius r oF the robot and the angular velocity omega
oxanplo, tho lino coiiosponding to k = 0.1, anothoi hoiizontal lino lion this intoisoction
point, paiallol to tho giipping loico axis
, givos tho valuo
= 27 N on tho oidinato. A
saloty lactoi S can lo also intioducod, o.g.:

= 27 = 2 27 = 54N
Dotoinino tho uppoi linit loi tho angulai volocity ol an oljoct undoigoing
nanipulation accoiding to tho lollowing tochnical spocilications:

giipping loico
= 350 N (accoiding to nanulactuiois spocilications
liiction coolliciont k = 0.1
pivoting iadius = 0.6 n
woikpioco nass = 3 kg
- - -

( sin
1 2

( sin
1 2

= (

2 cos

( tan
2 cos


= ( tan

2 cos


4 k

2 k
Forces acting in a parallel jaw gripper with double-sided or single-sided prismatic
jaws For a linear motion [2-20|
a linear acceleration {recommended values: electrical shaFt 6 m]s
, electrical tooth belt 20 m]s
servopneumatic 25 m]s
, pneumatic 30 m]s
, pneumatic rotation or pivoting gears 40 m]s
acceleration due to gravity, mass, saFety Factor, velocity, k Friction coeFFicient

Diaw a hoiizontal lino in tho uppoi giaph lion tho valuo ol 350 Nto tho intoisoction point
with tho k = 0.1 lino. Diaw a voitical lino lion this intoisoction point downwaids in oidoi
to lind tho intoisoction point with tho woikpioco nass lino coiiosponding to 3 kg. Diawan
auxiliaiy lino liontho oiigin to tho intoisoction point with tho = 0.6 lino loi tho iotational
iadius. Tho iosulting angulai volocity is = 6.28 s
. Tho angulai volocity ol tho iolot
should not lo allowod to oxcood this valuo. Ploaso iononloi, a saloty lactoi has not loon
includod in this socond oxanplo.
Tho iosults oltainod ly tho nonogiaph aio only iough ostinatos lut in nost piactical
casos thoy aio sulliciont.
Figuio 2.45 givos an ovoiviow with sono typical inpactivo giipping oxanplos.
Il tho woikpioco is not hold synnotiically, i.o. whon tho contio ol nass doos not coiio-
spond with tho goonotiical contio ol tho giippoi, tho loicos acting on tho giippoi jaw paiis
will not lo oqual. It is cloai that, whon solocting a giippoi, ono should tako into account
thoso olloctivo loicos oi chooso a noio suitallo piohonsion point so that tho iosulting no-
nont ol tilt is insignilicant. Exanplo casos aio dopictod in Figuio 2.46.
Unsymmetrical Force distribution on the gripper jaws
mass centre oF gravity
Tho lollowing loicos act on tho giippoi jaws:
Caso 1:




Casos 2 and 3:





In ioality, tho ioquiiod piohonsion loicos aio not constant lut vaiy duiing tho notion
cyclo. As a consoquonco, tho nocossaiy saloty naigin to onsuio iotontion is also a vaiiallo.
A ioliallo giip ol tho oljoct is onsuiod whon tho oxoitod iotontion loico
, which do-
ponds on tho giippoi dosign, oxcoods tho ioquiiod iotontion loico
nocossaiy to con-
ponsato loi tho loicos duo to oljoct inoitia and woight. Tho iatio ol thoso two loicos givos
tho nocossaiy saloty naigin


Tho actual iotontion loico ioquiiod
nay lo dotoininod ly analysing tho notion ol
tho giippoi, in toins ol volocity and accoloiation (and thoii iospoctivo diioctions, thiough-
out tho woik cyclo. This is illustiatod in Figuio 2.47 using ono oxanplo lion j221|.
Required grip-
ping Force during manipu-
lation cycle
A: 1ime dependency oF the
retention Force For prehen-
sion outside the mass
centre oF gravity
B: Requirements For the
retention Force For prehen-
sion within the mass
centre oF gravity
Management oF motion Force
a) Force mating, b) shape mating
T direction oF motion
2 gripper jaw
3 object
gravitational Force

Tho piohonsion ol woikpiocos outsido tho nass contio ol giavity can load to a considoia-
llo incioaso in tho nocossaiy iotontion loico as a iosult ol nonont ollocts. All iolot axos
novo sinultanoously so tho ollocts ol individual nononts cannot lo ignoiod. In casos
whoio it is possillo to contiol tho accoloiation ol tho iolot duiing iun tino (as is tho caso
with nost nodoin iolot piogianning languagos, tho poaks in ioquiiod iotontion loico
as dopictod in Figuio 2.47 nay lo conponsatod ly ioducod accoloiation at thoso points.
Anothoi possilility is to inpiovo tho shapo nating lotwoon tho giippoi lingois and ol-
joct topology. This is nost inpoitant in tho diioction ol tho laigost oxpoctod accoloiations
as illustiatod in Figuio 2.48.

Tho lloxilility ol a giippoi is dolinod as its applicalility to a iango ol tasks without nanual
haidwaio nodilication. Moio sophisticatod oxanplos includo a dogioo ol adaptalility
(haidwaio nodilicationwithout hunan intoivontion to oljoct topology. Tho onulation ol
1echnical solutions to achieve gripper Flexibility [2-22|

tho hunan hand ly so callod doxtious hands (soo Chaptoi 8 is intoiosting lut has littlo
industiial iolovanco. Such giippois dolivoi only linitod loico, aio oxponsivo, olton slow
and contain a laigo nunloi ol noving paits.
Thoio aio nany ways ly which lloxilility can lo achiovod. Figuio 2.49 piovidos an ovoi-
Floxilility is nost olton achiovod thiough:
Adding a dogioo ol sulsyston lloxilility (physical stioko, piohonsion loico, vaiiallo
jaw goonotiy to convontional giippois.
Autonatic oxchango (tool oxchangoi oi iotatallo tuiiot ol convontional singlo
puiposo giippois.
In sono iaio casos tho oljocts can lo uniliod ly tonpoially oquipping thonwith handling
adaptois which olloi a univoisal intoilaco lotwoon tho oljoct and tho giippoi jaw. Skotchos
ol iovolvoi and nulti-point giippois, as woll as an oxchanging syston (soo Chaptoi 12 loi
noio spocilic dotails can lo soon in Figuio 2.50.
Piolilo natching is tho nost lioquontly usod nothod. Should tho appioxinato oljoct
piolilo lo known in advanco thon ono ol tho lollowing possililitios is likoly to lo appli-
Manual oi autonatic (iaioly oxchango ol giippoi jaws (soo Soction 12.3.6.
Shapo adaptivo oi conloinal giippois (soo Fig. 13.20.
Wido iango giippois onconpassing a lioad spoctiun ol oljoct dinonsions (soo
Fig. 3.67.
Multi-point giippois with sovoial possillo piohonsion points (soo Fig. 2.51. Such
giippois, with as nany as 9 piohonsion points, havo loon dovolopod loi assonlling
1echnical concepts oF shape and size matching to objects
simple impactive gripper, turret, gripper with multiple prehension points,
single grippers with exchange system, gripper with controllable Finger adjustment,
turret together with exchange system. ve: exchange system, Gr: gripper, Ob: object

1hree Function gripper For mounting operations

Many ol tho nothods nontionod ioquiio a handling nachino with snoothly pio-
giannallo contiol in oidoi to nako uso ol tho giippoi lloxilility. Sonsoiy intogiation nay
also lo usod to inpiovo tho lloxilility ol tho giippoi. Such lunctions aio, loi oxanplo:
Adjustnont ol tho giipping loico to tho woikpioco nass, o.g. ly noans ol slip sonsois
(soo Fig. 11.28.
Additional giippoi jaw iotation lunction (soo Fig. 3.96.
Ono oxanplo ol a nulti-point giippoi is shown in Figuio 2.51. Doponding on its position,
this giippoi can giasp a nandiol iotaining iing, a lall loaiing, oi a goai shalt and install
thon onto tho coiiosponding taigot location.
Tho tochnical olloits nocossaiy to acconplish thoso thioo lunctions aio iolativoly tiivial.
Tho giippoi opoiatos accoiding to tho inpactivo piinciplo. Tho iotaining iing is not
diioctly connoctod lut insoitod initially into a lixtuio.

As pioviously nontionod, giippois nay lo catogoiisod (in tho lioadost nannoi in loui
nain gioups: Inpactivo (a diioct nochanical loico lion two oi nodo diioctions is appliod
to tho oljoct, Ingiossivo (piohonsion ol tho oljoct is achiovod thiough poinoation ol tho
oljoct suilaco, Astiictivo (a linding loico is appliod in a singlo diioction and Contigutivo
(non inpactivo nothods whoioly a diioct contact is ioquiiod to piovido a piohonsion loico
in a singlo diioction. Thoso loui catogoiios, togothoi with typical oxanplos, aio listod in
tho tallo givon in Figuio 2.52.
Tho najoiity ol industiial giippois aio oithoi ol tho inpactivo kind, to which tho gioatoi
pait ol this look is dovotod, oi ol an astiictivo natuio (paiticulaily vacuun suction.
Novoitholoss, nany othoi dosigns using tho nothods givon alovo do oxist and will lo ox-
plainod in duo couiso.
Tho ingiossivo giippois nay lo suldividod into a luithoi two catogoiios, thoso which
poinoato tho natoiial (intiusivo and thoso which do not. Most noodlo lasod giippois and
doliloiatoly dosignod to ponotiato tho natoiials suilaco. Othoi nothods, loi oxanplo

thoso lasod on hook and loop (Volcio tochniquos do not. Tho spocilic choico ol dosign do-
ponds laigoly on tho natoiial to lo handlod.
Sinilaily, thoio aio thioo sul-gioups loi astiictivo piohonsion. Although oloctioadho-
sion is suitallo with alnost all natoiials, loth oloctiically conducting and non-conduct-
ing, it is linitod to iolativoly light oljocts. Vacuun suction is also usallo with alnost any
natoiial and piovidos a nuch laigoi giipping loico. Howovoi, a noai poiloct pnounatic
contact is nocossaiy. Magnotoadhosion also piovidos a voiy usallo piohonsion loico lut is
stiictly linitod to nagnotically suscoptillo natoiials (Iion, Stool, Nickol and Colalt.
- -
Clamps {external Fingers, internal Fingers,
chucks, spring clamps), tongs {parallel,
shear, angle, radial)
-- Intrusive Pins, needles, hackles
Non-intrusive Hook and loop
- vacuum suction vacuum suction cup]bellows
Magnetoadhesion Permanent magnet, electromagnet
Flectroadhesion Flectrostatic Field
1hermal Freezing, melting
Chemical Permatack adhesives
Fluid Capillary action, surFace tension
Gripper classiFication according to their physical principle oF operation
- -
Rigid objects
-- Intrusive Flexible objects: textiles, carbon and glass Fibre
Non-intrusive Flexible objects: textiles, carbon and glass Fibre
- vacuum suction Non-porous, rigid materials
Magnetoadhesion Ferrous materials
Flectroadhesion Light sheet materials and microcomponents
1hermal Flexible objects: textiles, carbon and glass Fibre
Chemical Carbon Fibre with glue impregnation
SurFace tension Small, light objects {microcomponents)
Gripper classiFication and suitability oF object materials

Othoi classilication schonos pioposod, loi oxanplo j2-23| contain only thioo holding
tochniquos. What is alsont lion nost classilications aio such ovoiyday nothods as spoon
oi hook. Whothoi thoso ioally constituto iolot giippois in tho convontional sonso is do-
latallo. Howovoi, loi conplotonoss thoy will lo includod. Figuio 2.54 lists nothods and
applications loi such giippois.

- --
Tho choico ol a giippoi doponds nainly on tho woik it has to poiloin. Evoiy piohonsion
task is chaiactoiizod ly tho lollowing lactois and ioquiiononts:
- Thoso includo piohonsion tino, giipping path, tino
dopondonco ol tho piohonsion loico and tho nunloi ol tho oljoct acquisitions poi
giipping cyclo.
- - Thoso includo tho nass, dosign, dinonsions,
toloiancos, position ol tho contio ol giavity, stalility, suilaco, natoiial, stiongth, and
tonpoiatuio. Tho coiiolations lotwoon giippoi and oljoct can lo sunnaiizod as listod

Rigid Loose materials such as nuts and bolts
Flexible Powders and viscous Fluids
Rigid Determinate topology For example castings
Flexible vaste materials sorting
Other prehension methods not normally categorised
object shape gripping surFace
object size gripping range
object mass gripping Force
object position gripping point
- , such as tho positional accuiacy, axial accoloi-
ations and connoction spocilications (nochanical, oloctiical, lluidic otc..
- - thoso includo piocoss loicos, looding
conditions and clanps, stoiago conditions, contaninations, hunidity and viliation.
Tho choico ol giipping piinciplo is lasod on tho ioquiiononts and thoii analysis. Thoio aio
nany ollocts with conplicatod intoiiolationships and it is dillicult to oltain a conploto
ovoiviow. A soloction ol thon aio piosontod in Figuio 2.55 as a sonantic notwoik. A
sonantic notwoik is a loinalisn loi iopiosontation ol knowlodgo in tho loin ol a stiuc-
tuio iollocting tho intoiiolations anong oljocts, which consists ol nodos connoctod ly
diioctod paths. Tho nodos iopiosont spocilic aspocts ol tho giippoi.
- --

A high quality giippoi should possoss tho lollowing piopoitios:

Optinun adjustnont ol tho giippoi stiuctuio to tho opoiations poiloinod.
Laigo adjustnont iango and options to piohond paits ol dilloiont shapo and sizo.
Rolialility with iospoct to dislocations ol tho oljoct (stalility ol tho oljoct position and
Optinun giipping loico path chaiactoiistics.
Low nunloi ol links and joints (whoio applicallo.
Snall installation spaco and nass, iolustnoss.
High iolialility conlinod with oasy soivico.
Avoidanco ol danago and doloination to tho oljoct duiing piohonsion.
Semantic network illustrating interdependences relevant to prehension
principle selection [2-24|

Sulliciontly high oljoct positional accuiacy.

Good woai iosistanco.
Sinplo contiol and shoit action tinos.
Sono iathoi spocilic ioquiiononts includo:
Vaiiation ol piohonsion possililitios doponding on oljoct nass, shapo and sizo.
Possilility to soloctivoly acquiio oljocts in closo pioxinity to ono anothoi.
Rapid giippoi oxchango.
Vaiiation ol tho holding loico dopondont on tho oljoct nass.
Tho lollowing tallo sunnaiizos tho nost inpoitant giippoi paianotois:
1ype identiFier, Class, Installation size
-- --

compressed air
permanent magnet
- [N|
- per jaw [mm| or angle oF spread [ |
max. [N|
- {prehension) time [s|
{release) time [s|
moments oF Force
Finger length
- -
-- [mm|
- {cleanroom class)
exhaust air


-- [kgm
-- [bar|

- -

A paiticulai ioquiionont loi all giippois which onploy pnounatic, hydiaulic oi lulii-
catod nonlois aio good soals. Tho poition ol tho cloanioon pioduction is stoadily in-
cioasing which placos giowing donand on tho availalility ol giippois suitallo loi opoia-
tion in such conditions. Tho lollowing spocilications concoining tho loasilility can lo
- --

lound in tho VDI (Tho Goinan Enginooiing Instituto: Guidolinos 2083, Pago 8 (cloan-
ioon loasilility ol nanulactuiing iosouicos. Tho pioduction lianchos and tho ciitical
paiticlo sizos aio:
Fino nochanics 1 to 100 kn
Piintod ciicuit loaid nanulactuiing 5 to 50 kn
Inplant laliication 5 to 20 kn
Optical olononts 0.3 to 20 kn
Vainishing and nodical tochnologios 5 to 10 kn
Phainacoutical 0.5 to 5 kn
Miciooloctionics 0.03 to 0.5 kn
Giippois loi puio nanulactuiing can lo dosignod using two dilloiont stiatogios:
Avoidanco ol contaninants using aliasion iosistant natoiials loi joints and guidoways
oi ly onploying solid-stato joints, uso ol liushloss oloctiic notois, polishod oxtoinal
paits and stainloss stool loi lastonois, Avoidanco ol wold soans that aio visillo lion
Elinination ol contaninants using on-sito oxtiaction systons, soals with, o.g., Tollon
lollows, soaling ol thioads (il nocossaiy ly cap nuts and gaskots, oncapsulation ol
goais, laying ol lood linos insido tho giippoi housing.
Figuio 2.56 shows a patontod giippoi dosign which, on oponing its jaws, pioducos noga-
tivo piossuio insido its housing, so that paiticlos onoiging thiough aliasion in tho guido
slido loaiings cannot oscapo into tho cloanioon. Guido slido loaiings aio in piinciplo
souicos ol such paiticlos. Tho punp olloct which takos placo onco poi giipping cyclo loads
to a dogioo ol soll puiilication ol tho giippois innoi spaco.
Principle oF a clean-
room gripper {)
T basic jaw
2 pneumatic cylinder
3 wedged clasp
4 2]2-way valve
5 3]2-way valve
6 air suction
Tho giippoi jaws aio not lully soalod with iospoct to tho giippoi guidoway so that sulli-
ciont aii nay lo suckod thiough tho guidoways. Pioducts ol aliasion and othoi contani-
nants aio swopt along tho guidoways and out thiough a 3]2-way valvo.
Cloanioon classilication, accoiding to ISO 14644, spocilios ISO 1 to ISO 9 in paiticlos
poi n
. ISO 8 coiiosponds to class 100.000 accoiding to tho now olsoloto Standaid US FS
209 E. Tho lollowing tallo contains tho nunloi ol paiticlos ol a givon sizo poi culic notoi
as spociliod ly tho two standaids.

Tho hunan lactoi is ono ol tho nain contiilutois to contanination in cloanioon on-
viionnonts. Hunan skin suilaco, anounting on avoiago to 1.75 n
, is iogonoiatod
ioughly ovoiy 5 days which noans that, in tho woist caso, alout 10 nillion paiticlos poi
day aio onittod.

Tho choico ol giippoi is also dopondant on availalility, inlluoncing lactois includo:
Tho giippoi nust lo soloctod lion a connoicially availallo assoitnont.
Tho giippoi nust lo custon dosignod accoiding to ioquostod spocilications.
Tho giippoi nay lo assonllod lion constiuction kit conpononts.
Il a wholo woikpioco spoctiun nust lo handlod thon tho giippoi soloction logins with an
analysis ol tho oljoct and tho piocoss conditions. Sono nanulactuiois olloi lioo soloction
soltwaio which allows tho conputation ol tho tochnical]physical paianotois. Tho schono
shown in Figuio 2.57 iovoals which lactois signilicantly inlluonco giippoi soloction. It
is ciucial to considoi not only static, lut also dynanic, conditions ol a noving syston.
Moioovoi, it is not sulliciont to considoi sono ailitiaiy nonont duiing tho handling
cyclo. Consoquontly, thoio aio two possililitios:
Mitigation ol tho ioquiiononts ly nodilication ol tho notion paianotois and tho
tonpoial constiaints and]oi
Soloction ol a giippoi accoiding to tho naxinun valuos that occui within a conploto
handling cyclo.
Thoio is natuially a tiado oll lotwoon unnocossaiily high ioquiiononts and ioasonallo
linancial lactois. Contiol ol iolot spood and accoloiations duiing iun-tino can holp a lot
in avoiding poak loicos.
Purity class according
to ISO T4 644T,
{US Fed. 209 F)
0.Tkm 0.2 km 0.3 km 0.5 km T.0 km 5.0 km
ISO T T0 2 0 0 0 0
ISO 2 T00 24 T0 4 0 0
ISO 3 {T) T000 237 T02 35 8 0
ISO 4 {T0) T000 2370 T020 352 83
ISO 5 {T00) T00000 23700 T0200 3520 832 29
ISO 6 {T000) T000000 237000 T02000 35200 8320 293
ISO 7 {T0000) 352000 83200 2930
ISO 8 {T00000) 3520000 832000 29300
ISO 9 35200000 8320000 293000

Interacting Factors and input parameters relevant to gripper design


Conplicatod woikpioco goonotiy dictatos tho nood loi a noio oxtonsivo analysis inlind-
ing tho nost suitallo piohonsion points. It is olton dillicult to ascoitain oxact contios ol
giavity, ospocially with inhonogonoous oljocts loinod liona nixtuio ol dissinilai nato-
iials with dilloiont donsitios. Suilaco linishing oi nochanical woaknoss at tho goonotii-
cally optinal piohonsion points nay iulo out giipping in this iogion. Physical accoss oi
adoquato appioach paths to tho goonotiically optinal piohonsion points nay lo laiiod
owing to constiuctional hindiancos.
As alioady indicatod (soo Fig. 2.10, duo to tho natuio ol iotaining nochanisns coitain
aioas ol ovon sinplo paits nay not always lo accossillo loi piohonsion. Foi oxanplo,
in Figuio 2.58 which aio in paitial contact with tho suppoit, cannot lo usod loi giipping.
Also tho iotontion suilacos which aio usod whon insoiting tho woikpioco into tho
chuck aio unavailallo loi piohonsion. Tho ionaining suilacos that aio suitallo loi giip-
ping aio dosignatod as in Figuio 2.58.
Thoso aio tho chaiactoiistics ol tho oljoct which aio to cono into contact with tho giip-
poi and onsuio ioliallo piohonsion. Thoii countoipaits aio tho giippoi chaiactoiistics. In
casos whoio tho piohonsion suilaco paii has alioady loon dotoininod, tho oxact choico ol
giippoi doponds on connoicial availalility. In naking this docision it is nocossaiy to tako
into account sovoial paianotois, such as tho sizo ol tho giippoi innoi suilaco iolativo to tho
sizo and nass ol tho oljoct (piohonsion loatuios. In addition, in caso ol loico nating (as
opposod to shapo nating, tho coolliciont ol liiction lotwoon tho giippoi jawand tho woik-
pioco nust lo considoiod (Fig. 2.59.
1he prehension surFaces PS cannot be arbitrarily set
overlay surFace
prehension surFace
Diagram illustrating the automated determination oF prehension points

Rough classiFication oF objects and the assignment oF possible gripper types.

Filled stripe = suitable, empty stripe =conditionally suitable
Tho sinulation ol giipping opoiations can lo lacilitatod, o.g. ly giippoi liliaiios as tho
ono availallo in tho COSIMIR Syston which contains digitizod (alstiact giippois.
Tho ovoiviow piosontod in Figuio 2.60 can also lo usod loi a iough piosoloction ol in-
pactivo and sono astiictivo giippois. Tho uso ol inpactivo giippois can iosult in laigo sui-
laco piossuios lotwoon tho oljoct and tho contact points capallo ol causing danago to tho
oljoct, o.g. sciatchos oi donts in thin-wallod hollow conpononts. Consoquontly, in coitain
casos it is also nocossaiy to ovaluato tho appliod suilaco piossuio.
Whon solocting a giippoi tho ioquiiod lunctional capacity nust also lo considoiod. In-
cioasing tho lunctional donsity ol a singlo iolot woikstation can iosult in considoiallo
savings ovoi tho onploynont ol nultiplo iolot systons with distiilutod lunctionality.

Flowchart guide to aid gripper selection

Analysis of all object properties (mass, size, shape), the motion
sequence and any restricting boundary conditions concerning the
process and its environment
Determining the prehension principle: single gripper, multiple gripper,
special gripper, retention system, kinematics
Estimation of the necessary and the actual forces, estimation of
maximum stress limits for the workpiece
s it possible to control the stress
situation in each direction
of motion?
Realization through purchase, external processing or own design
Compilation of other important requirements, such as accuracy,
connection parameters, overload protection,
prehension point displacement and control
Does the concept correspond to the
requirements set out by the given task?
Design of the gripper jaws, sensor equipment, guiding and fixing of the
Evaluation and type selection (mechanical and financial)
1 to 5
6 to 12
13 to 16
17 to 21
22 to 26
27 to 32
36 to 39
33 to 35

On tho othoi hand tonpoial constiaints nay iulo out tho uso ol nultilunctional giippoi
systons (tuiiots, oxchango systons otc..
Tho switching tinos loi iovolvoi giippois with a iotational anglo ol 60 typically lio lo-
twoon 0.1 and 0.5s, which aio iolativoly last and coitainly quickoi than tho tiansloi pio-
coduio lion ono iolot woikcoll to anothoi. Howovoi, a singlo iolot nust caiiy out all tho
nocossaiy tasks in soquonco naking pipolining inpossillo. As a iulo ol thunl it nakos
sonso to onploy autonatic giippoi oxchango systons il at loast livo goonotiically dilloiont
conponont typos aio to lo handlod oi il tho piocossing tino poi latch doos not oxcood two
Distanco noasuionont, positioning, idontilication, collision avoidanco otc., nakos
sonsoiy intogiation in alnost all nodoin iolotic systons ossontial (soo Chaptoi 11.
Finally, sono auxiliaiy lunctions should also lo nontionod. Thoso includo, loi oxanplo,
cooling ol tho giippoi jaws in thoinal natoiial (casting, sintoiing otc. piocossing. Allow-
chait guido to aid giippoi soloction lollows in Figuio 2.61. Sinilai algoiithns consist ol
chocklists j1-1| oi schonos onploying tho piocoss ol olinination to ioach tho ioquiiod
It is possillo to loinulato sono typical quostions loi oach individual stop usolul in
ascoitaining tho ossontial piopoitios. Such inpoitant quostions aio:
1. Aio tho oljoct piopoitios, ospocially tho nass, sizo, liagility and suilaco quality,
sulliciontly known?
2. Is physical accoss to tho oljoct possillo?
3. Is tho piohonsion task conplotoly dolinod with all nocossaiy dotails? Aio tho initial
and linal spatial positions ol tho oljoct dolinod?
4. Should tho iaw and linishod pait goonotiios (shapo nodilication as a iosult ol tho
opoiation lo acconplishod ly a singlo giippoi?
5. Aio all woiking conditions (piossuio, tonpoiatuio, oljoct status, cyclo tino, liiction
coolliciont, nass, otc. known?
6. Should tho oljoct lo hold ly loico and]oi shapo natching?
7. Should ono uso an inpactivo oi an astiictivo piinciplo?
8. Aio tho piohonsion suilacos (caiolul: thoio nay lo loiliddon suilacos! givon?
9. Will tho woikpioco lo hold at, oi in tho vicinity, ol its nass contio ol giavity?
10. Doos it nako a sonso to uso a giippoi oxchango syston loi tho handling ol sovoial
dilloiont conpononts?
11. Is it plannod to havo shapo natching in tho diioction ol tho laigost accoloiation
12. Doos tho iotontion situation in tho nagazino coiiospond to tho application situation
in tho nachino?
13. Should piocoss loicos, loi oxanplo: joining ly piossuio, lo takon into account?
14. Is it ioasonallo to considoi liiction onhancing ovoilays loi tho giippoi jaws
(adhosivo coatings, knuilod jaws otc.?
15. Aio tho giippoi and nanipulatoi dosignod loi tho laigost possillo loicos and
nononts? Is tho giippoi insonsitivo to inpacts and viliation?
16. Will tho woikpioco loai tho oxoitod suilaco piossuio?
17. Will tho giippoi sustain onoigoncy switch-oll at high volocitios?

18. Has a saloty lactoi loon takon into account whon dinonsioning tho giippoi?
19. Should tho piohonsion loico lo ioducod in oidoi to piotoct tho woikpioco?
20. Is it nocossaiy to socuio tho piohonsion loico (nochanical iotontion?
21. Doos it nako a sonso to includo collision and ovoiload piotoction?
22. Doos tho achiovallo giippoi accuiacy satisly tho ioquiiononts?
23. Doos tho potontially intoiloiing contoui ol tho oponod giippoi poso a collision
dangoi with tho suiioundings?
24. What ollocts on oljoct contiation (noasuionont and alignnont can lo oxpoctod
lion tho giippoi?
25. Which activation appioachos, o.g. oloctiical oi pnounatic, can lo ioconnondod to
tho usoi?
26. Is sonsoiy piohonsion voiilication nocossaiy (chock ol oljoct piosonco?
27. Aio tho giippoi lingois as shoit as possillo?
28. Should tho lingoi position lo contiollod ly sonsois?
29. Should it lo ioconnondod to switch in sono joining nochanisns and]oi loico
sonsois, duiing assonlling opoiations?
30. Is it plannod to havo sovoial giippoi jaw applications (considoi iapid ioplaconont?
31. Will it lo nocossaiy to insoit adaptoi llangos loi nounting? Aio piacticallo
nochanical, lluidic, and oloctiical intoilacos availallo?
32. Should tho giippoi jaws conponsato loi non-paiallol oljoct suilacos?
33. Is tho achiovallo piocossing tino (giipping, noving, ioloasing accoptallo? Do tho
oponing and closing tinos satisly tho ioquiiononts? Aio thoso tinos incioasod
whon tho giippoi lingois oi jaws aio installod?
34. What is tho likoly noan tino lotwoon lailuios?
35. Aio any uppoi linits loi naxinun load oxcoodod?
36. Is it possillo to uso a standaid giippoi oi is it nocossaiy to onploy a spocial
37. What is an accoptallo dolivoiy tino?
38. Which waiianty iogulations aio applicallo (olton dopondant on national law?
39. Should it lo plannod to includo auxiliaiy oquipnont (pushoi, giippoi nagazino,
40. Is tho giippoi soloction conploto oi is oxpoit advico nocossaiy?
In tho ovont that a conplotoly now giippoi dosign is nocossaiy, ostallishod piocoduios
known lion dosign thooiy nay lo utilisod j225|. Thoso aio lasically:
1. Claiilication and spocilication ol tho task piollon analysis, loinulating tho
ioquiiononts (ioquiionont spocilications, alstiact piocoduio loi stiuctuiing ol tho
2. Idontilication ol lunctions and thoii stiuctuios cioativity tochniquos, intuitivo
and discuisivo nothods ol solution idontilication, ostallishing piocoduios and
lunction stiuctuios.
3. Soaich loi solution nothods and stiuctuios options, soloction ciitoiia and
4. Bioaking down into ioalizallo intogial paits nodulaiization ol tho stiuctuio.

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

Tho oljoct iotontion loico piovidod ly nochanical giippois is lasod on tho physical ollocts
ol classical ( nochanics, nainly associatod with nass points and loicos, and io-
quiiing noio oi loss oxtonsivo nochanisns. Thoso aio tho nost lioquontly usod giippois
with a gioat vaiioty ol tochnical ioalizations. Noinally thoy possos lotwoon two and loui
lingois which, in nost casos, novo synchionously. Adoquato dosign nay also additionally
nako thon capallo ol oljoct contiing whoioas in tho caso ol astiictivo giippois, additional
haidwaio nay lo nocossaiy to lacilitato oljoct positioning. As a iulo, Inpactivo giippois
alloct tho nating lotwoon woikpioco and jaw suilacos. Univoisal nulti-lingoi giippois
having up to livo jointod lingois, olton known as doxtious hands, aio still nainly iosoaich
idoas and aio piosontly ol littlo industiial iolovanco.
Tho olton conplicatod dosigns ol inpactivo nochanical giippois aio conponsatod ly
thoii opoiational iolialility, alility to piovido adoquato (and olton adjustallo loico, shapo
and]oi loico natchod piohonsion as woll as thoii good adaptalility with iospoct to han-
dling opoiations.

Fingoi notion can lo ioalizod ly a nunloi ol possillo piino novois. This is accon-
plishod ly convoiting sono loin ol onoigy into nochanical onoigy which coiiosponds
to tho ioquiiod loin ol notion j3-1|. Tho diivo chain contains a notoi, goai, liako oi
attonuating olononts with possilly tiavol and anglo noasuionont systons. Figuio 3.1
shows a gonoial llock schono ol such a diivo stiuctuio.
General structure oF a gripper drive chain

Tho goai is a notion convoitoi tiansloining tho diivo paianotoi into tho diivo paia-
notoi . Ono distinguishos lotwoon tiansnission and guidanco goais.
- guide points, planes or bodies oF some mechanism with actuated links
along a predeFined path in two or three spatial dimensions.
--- - are motion, and hence Force converters. In most cases they transmit
rotational energy From an input to an output axle {usually with a rotational speed reduc-
Tho lollowing goai typos aio nost widoly usod as kinonatic systons oi giippoi goais loi
inpactivo giippois:
Jointod nochanisns (lovoi goai
Sciow goai
Wodgo goai
Can goai
Whool goai, also iack whool, and iack and pinion goai
Pull and piossuiizing nodiun goai
}oint designs with their designation and degrees oF mobility

Lovoi goais consist ol joints and links. Ajoint consists ol two olononts, ono poi link. Joints
can possoss dilloiont loins ol nolility, o.g. iotational, tianslational, sphoiical, oi holical
notion. Foi oxanplo, lall-joints oxhilit thioo dogioos ol lioodon (k = 3 locauso thoii
output link is pivotallo in thioo axos. Typical goai joints havo k = 1. Figuio 3.2 illustiatos
sovoial joint dosigns.
All nochanical joints havo a lasic connon piollon. Thoii piinciplo ol opoiation
donands a dogioo ol play lotwoon thoii olononts in oidoi to allow lioo novonont.
Howovoi, tho gioatoi tho play tho pooioi tho nochanical accuiacy. This situation can also
lo oxacoilatod doponding on additional nochanical stiossos.
Lovoi goais aio olton usod in conlination with othoi goais. Figuio 3.3 shows sono ox-
anplos ol giippoi diivos.
Fxamples oF gripper
a) pneumatic cylinder
b) membrane drive
c) electromechanical drive with a
rotating screw nut and guiding
{skew preventing) rod
d) electromagnetic drive, opened
by spring Force
Il only ono lingoi is novod and tho socond is lixod thon no alignnont ol tho oljoct in tho
giippoi contio is possillo. Additional nochanical haidwaio would lo nocossaiy to lacili-
tato alignnont in tho contio ol tho giippoi jaw, o.g. noasuionont ol tho actual doviation ol
tho oljoct lion tho giippoi TCP.
Evoiy diivo syston is chaiactoiizod ly sono spocilic piopoitios. Most inpoitant
howovoi, is that tho giippoi dosign and piopoitios coiiospond to tho loicos acting
(Fig. 3.4. Consoquontly, loi nost inpactivo giippois, tho lollowing oloctiical diivos aio
Application in low-cost piopoitional systons instoad ol pnounatic diivos.

- -- -
Usod loi donanding applications with sonsitivo loico and position iogulation,
applicallo also loi sinultanoous noasuiononts.
Applicallo to piopoitional opoiation at high spoods, i.o. loi oxtionoly last notion ol
tho giippoi jaws. In nost casos thoso notois oxhilit noio linitations than
Applicallo loi oxtionoly light oljocts and high spood handling. Thoii iolialility and
lilotino is voiy long lut tho achiovallo stioko is sonowhat linitod.
Foi oloctiically diivon giippois intondod loi uso in tho USA it should lo notod that tho
noins loi saloty and powoi supply aio quito dilloiont to thoso in Euiopo. Foi liio piotoc-
tion ioasons tho callos and tho othoi natoiials should lo llano iosistant. Each US stato
has its own systons and tho voltagos aio not standaid as in Euiopo. Howovoi, sinco nost
oloctiically diivon giippois aio contiollod via industiial standaid 24 volt DC supplios (PLC
conpatilility tho coiiosponding noins in USA and Euiopo aio conpaiallo in this io-
Sono oxanplos ol diivos will now lo discussod. In nost casos sovoial altoinativo solu-
tions also oxist and tho choico is lasod on tho coiiosponding loundaiy conditions.
Properties oF diFFerent
drives [3-2|
= advantageous
= unFavourable

Most oloctionochanical diivos usod in giippois aio lasod on spindlo oi iack and pinion
goais as loico convoitois. Although thoii poition ol tho naikot is not laigo conpaiod to tho
othoi typos ol diivo, as can lo soon lion Figuio 3.5 sovoial dilloiont dosigns aio in con-
non uso.
Spindlo diivon giippoi jaws noinally onjoy a iolativoly laigo stioko not noinally achiov-
allo with othoi goai typos. As a piino novoi alnost any loin ol oloctiically connutatod
DC soivo notoi is suitallo.
Tho toothod iack and pinion goai ol tho snall inpactivo paiallol jaw giippoi
shown in Figuio 3.6 is to lo diivon ly an oloctiic notoi.
Basic design strategies For grippers driven by electric motors
T tooth segment, 2 toothed rack and pinion gear, 3 spindle nut, 4 toothed rack,
5 right-leFt handed threaded spindle, motor
Gripper with a toothed rack and pinion
Tho piohonsion loico is oltainod lion tho iolation


Foi nost iotaiy actuatois such as oloctiic notois, tho toiquo
can lo assunod to lo
constant ovoi tho conploto giipping iango. Howovoi, whon tho jaws closo tho notoi stalls.
Foi DC notois this can iosult in an oxcoss ol cuiiont iosulting in ovoihoating and ovontu-
gripping Force

moment {torque)
pinion wheel radius

Fold-back current limit For a gripper

drive motor
ally luin out. Switching oll tho notoi cuiiont conplotoly is unlikoly to lo a satislactoiy so-
lution, ospocially whoio a good quality iack and pinion nochanisn is usod, owing to tho
likolihood ol tho oljoct woiking looso duiing notion. Foitunatoly, whilst tho oljoct is hold
lotwoon tho lingois it is olton possillo to ioduco, oi at loast linit, tho notoi stall cuiiont ly
using a lold-lack cuiiont liniting ciicuit as shown in Figuio 3.7.
Givon a sinplo singlo tiansistoi notoi diivoi
, cuiiont liniting is achiovod ly insoit-
ing a socond tiansistoi
in tho laso-onittoi ciicuit ol
. Tho voltago lotwoon laso and
onittoi ol
cannot oxcood 0.7 volts (oi thoioalouts loi a silicon lipolai tiansistoi.
Accoiding to - law ono has:


= 0.7
Honco, tho iosistanco loi tho ioquiiod cuiiont linit is givon ly


Consoquontly, as cuiiont llowing thiough tho notoi (and
iisos, so doos tho laso
onittoi voltago ol
. As this appioachos 0.7 volts, tiansistoi
staits to conduct pulling
down tho laso ol
and ovontually switching it oll should tho cuiiont thiough
lo laigo
onough to tuin
conplotoly on.
A nochanical altoinativo is to includo a goai syston which cannot lo lack diivon lo-
twoon tho notoi and pinion so that tho notoi can lo switchod oll iathoi than iun in stall
nodo. Duo to tho additional goai tianslation tho piico is ol couiso ioducod spood. Stiong
accoloiation loicos in tho staiting and stopping phasos ol tho giippoi notoi can lo
ioducod ly appiopiiato contiol oi ly tho intioduction ol an additional danping olonont
lotwoon tho notoi and tho goai.
Tho lollowing conputational piocoduio (ioloiiing to tho two oxanplos in Figuio 3.8 is
ioconnondod loi tho actuation ol giasping oigans ly oloctiic notois.

Fxamples oF gripper jaw drives using electric motors

Tho notations usod in Figuio 3.8 havo tho lollowing noaning:

notoi spood jiovolutions nin
thioad pitch jnn|
spood jn]nin|
nass jkg|

load nonont jNn|

nonont ol inoitia ol tianslationally novod nass jkg n

nonont ol inoitia ol iotationally novod nass jkg n

giipping loico jN|

notoi nonont jNn|
tiansnission iatio (


dianotoi jnn|
spindlo ollicioncy
Calculation ol tho nunloi ol notoi iovolutions
dopondont on tho ioquiiod closing



Dotoinination ol tho load nonont



2 1000


2 1000

Dotoinination ol tho nonont ol inoitia

ol tho tianslatod nassos


2 1000

2 1000
Dotoinination ol tho nonont ol inoitia
ol tho iotationally novod nassos



8 10
= 5
= 1


8 10
Cylindiical lodios aio assunod in thoso calculations.
donoto tho whool dianotois

as woll as tho shalt dianotoi. Tho sano holds loi tho nassos
. Tho nass can lo cal-
culatod lion i whoio
= 7.85 kg]dn
loi stool
= 2.71 kg]dn
loi aluniniun
donsity in kg]dn
voluno ol tho i-th lody in dn
Sunning tho nononts ol inoitia yiolds









Tho notoi nonont ol inoitia can lo takon lion tho nanulactuiois spocilications. In tho
sano way
loi iack and pinion diivos can also lo lound.
Evaluation ol tho accoloiation toiquo




accoloiation tino in -
Tho nonont ol liiction
is oltainod lion

9.81 k
2 1000
9.81 k
2 1000
Typical coollicionts ol liiction applicallo to uso in tho alovo oquations aio:
adhosivo liiction k = 0.12 to 0.15
nixod liiction k = 0.01 to 0.1
sliding liiction k = 0.001 to 0.015

Tho ioquiiod angulai nonontun

is thon oltainod lion



Tho ioquiiod constant toiquo is givon ly


Now tho notoi nust lo choson accoiding to its toiquo and spood (nin
. It nay also
lo nocossaiy to iotioactivoly coiioct sono oiiginal data, as o.g. tho accoloiation tino.




notoi powoi jW|

notoi nonont jNn|
Finally, tho contiolloi nust lo soloctod accoiding to cuiiont and voltago ioquiiononts
loloio ovaluating tho actual thoinal load on tho notoi.
Natuially thoio aio nany othoi kinonatic aiiangononts loi giippois diivonly oloctiic no-
tois. Sono ol thon havo alioady loon illustiatod in Figuio 3.5. Tho dotoinination ol tho
notoi sizo should lo dono lollowing a sinilai piocoduio whoioas tho calculation ol tho
nass nononts ol inoitia nust lo iopoatod in oach individual caso.
Eloctionagnots aio iaioly usod as notion gonoiatois. Two concopts loi tho diiving ol
giippoi lingois in inpactivo giippois aio piosontod in Figuio 3.9 j3-3|. In tho liist caso tho
two ond positions ol tho noving lingoi aio socuiod ly spiing loicos. In tho socond ox-
anplo this iolo is lullillod ly poinanont nagnots. Tho disadvantagos in this caso aio io-
latod to tho aliupt (non-linoai lohavioui ol tho piohonsion piocoss and inoitial nononts
ol tho oloctionagnots.
Ono populai and spaco saving giippoi dosign is shown in Figuio 3.10. It is lasod on a
wodgod clanp goai. Any linoai notion pioducod ly a spindlo oi tho pnounatic piston is
tiansloinod ly tho shapo natchod wodgo into tiansvoiso notion ol tho jaws.
Magnetic drive For impactive grippers
T gripper Finger, 2 gripper Flange, 3 electromagnet, 4 permanent magnet providing
holding Force, 5 permanent-magnet For holding the gripper open, 6 return spring

1hree Finger gripper driven by an electric

motor through a wedge clamp gear
T jaw
2 guideway
3 wedged clamp system
4 spindle nut
5 spindle
6 servo motor
7 resolver

prehension Force
Tho nost lioquontly usod inpactivo giippois aio pnounatically diivon. Actuation is ioal-
izod oithoi ly pnounatic cylindois intogiatod within tho giippoi housing oi ly oxtoinally
nountod cylindois. Such piino novois aio iolust and iosistant to ovoiload. Both singlo-
acting cylindois with spiing iotuin oi doullo-acting dovicos aio availallo. Tho piston loico
can lo oltainod lion tho lollowing oquation:

woiking piossuio (

1 lai
cylindoi intoinal cioss soctional suilaco aioa

is olton takon as 1.1 oi 1.2 Bai as a saloty naigin to allow loi changos in at-
nosphoiic piossuio.
Typical valuos loi tho ollicioncy (dopondant on aii loakago, liiction otc. aio:
loi high quality singlo-acting and doullo-acting cylindois 0.9
loi choapoi doullo-acting cylindois with lip soals = 0.7 to 0.9
Aii consunption loi doullo-acting cylindois is oltainod lion tho lollowing oquation:



culic capacity jLitio]nin|
piston dianotoi jn|
- tiavol jn|

alsoluto piossuio jlai| (piossuio iolativo to alsoluto vacuun

atnosphoiic piossuio jlai|
nunloi ol switching cyclos jnin
Tho lactoi 2 should lo onittod in tho caso ol singlo-acting cylindois.
As pioviously nontionod, in nost casos a lactoi ol alout 10 to 20% is also allowod loi aii
loakagos otc.
Givon: = 35 nn, - = 80 nn,
= 6 lai (
= 7 lai, = 50 nin
Dotoinino tho aii consunption


2 0,35
0,8 dn 7lai 50
4 1 lai nin

Adding a lactoi loi loakago lossos otc. ol appioxinatoly 10% givos a total aii consunp-
tion ol alout 60 l]nin.
As pnounatic cylindois tond to lo usod in lang-lang opoiations lull novonont in
ono diioction oi tho othoi lilotino ol tho dovico nay lo ioducod il tho piston is constantly
loing diivon against tho ond stops. Foitunatoly to piovont this, pnounatic cylindois aio
availallo which onploy intogiatod shock alsoilois with adjustallo choko valvos. Thoso
aio howovoi noio oxponsivo than sinplo cylindois and aio consoquontly not always
utilisod ly giippoi nanulactuiois. Ono alnost as good altoinativo is to lit non-iotuin
choko valvos in tho pnounatic cylindoi aii inlot (and]oi in tho outlot. Thoso linit tho
spood ol jawnovononts and whon caiolully adjustod can oxtond giippoi lilotinos without
soiiously conpionising spood ol opoiation (soo Fig. 2.42.
Foi tho optinal utilization ol availallo installation spaco within tho giippoi housing,
oval pistons aio sonotinos usod owing to thoii laigoi suilaco aioa. In accoidanco with
Figuio 3.11, tho piston loico on tho oval iing-suilaco oi tho oval suilaco is givon ly:
- oi - =
i =
- = (3.21
Oval piston drive
T gripper housing
2 piston gasket
3 piston rod
compressed air inlet

Whon nonliano cylindois aio usod as giippoi diivos (Fig. 3.12 an additional lactoi
nust lo considoiod in tho calculation ol tho piston loico:
= (3.22
piston suilaco aioa
nonliano stillnoss lactoi ( = 0.3. . .0.9
In addition to nonliano and oi ioll-nonliano diivos thoio is anothoi intoiosting and
olliciont pnounatic diivo, tho lluid nusclo.
Figuio 3.13 shows a giippoi loi tho handling ol onpty woodon tianspoit palottos. Alluid
nusclo (- is usod as a piino novoi locauso it can dovolop laigo initial loicos and has a
iolativoly snall nass. It has typically a noninal longth ol 1100 nn which shoitons ly
120 nn (its stioko whilo dovoloping a loico ol 700 N whon conpiossod aii is suppliod
j3-4|. Tho lluid nusclo dianotoi is only 20 nn. Bocauso it is hoinotically soalod, this diivo
is alsolutoly insonsitivo to diit and dust. Moioovoi, its notion is lioo ol any static liiction
(stick-slip ollocts. As in tho pioviously nontionod usago ol cylindois with choko valvos, it
is possillo to achiovo a solt aiiival ly tho usual noans ol pnounatic danping. Round
guidoways loi tho giasping oigans aio aiiangod on tho lolt and iight sidos along tho
Membrane drive
T piston rod
2 membrane
3 housing
compressed air
Fmpty palette gripper {)
T Flange, 2 compressed air line, 3 Fluid muscle, 4 transport palette, 5 Fixing plate,
6 straight line guide, 7 return spring, 8 transverse beam,
prehension Force

nusclo. In contiast to pnounatic cylindois, lluid nusclos cannot lo usod loi guiding
opoiations. Thoy aio puioly tiaction loico actuatois with digiossivo chaiactoiistic loico to
stioko dopondonco. Consoquontly, all noving conpononts nust lo appiopiiatoly guidod.
Tho cuivos loi naxinun loico dovolopnont ol tho nusclo at 6 lai aio shown in Figuio
3.14. Tho pio-olongation should not oxcood 3% ol tho noninal longth. Tho dosign can lo
caiiiod out giaphically using loico-contiaction diagians oi sonowhat noio accuiatoly
using a conputoi piogian, o.g. - , which can lo downloadod liontho intoinot
Force develop-
ment in a Fluid muscle
T diameter T0 mm
2 diameter 20 mm
3 diameter 40 mm
Figuio 3.15 shows yot anothoi conliguiation onploying a -, in this caso to
novo tho jaws. Tho giippoi is nochanically sinplo and lightoi than nany notoi diivon
giippois whilst pioviding considoiallo iotontion loico. Tho giippoi lingois aio nochani-
cally couplod in oidoi to synchionizo jaw notion. Il tho lluid nusclo is nountod closo
Simple angle gripper
T Flange
2 gripper housing
3 tension spring
4 gripper Finger
5 gripper jaw
6 workpiece
7 Fluid muscle
8 rod For motion
9 Finger stop
compressed air

onough to tho lingoi pivot points, a shoit nusclo is sulliciont loi tho clanping notion.
Tho ollicioncy ol this giippoi is high locauso liictional iosistanco nust lo ovoicono only
in tho iound guidoways. Oponing anglos appioaching 90 loi ovoiy lingoi aio, howovoi,
inpossillo to achiovo with this dosign. Foi such puiposos, a dilloiont kinonatic conligu-
iation nust lo soloctod.
Atwo jaw giippoi is to lo usod loi tho handling ol woikpiocos ol nass 60 kg. Tho
naxinun giippoi accoloiation should not oxcood = 5 n]s
. Tho giippoi oljoct is novod
in loth voitical and hoiizontal diioctions whoioas tho diioction ol accoloiation can coin-
cido with tho diioction ol tho giavitational loico. Tho woikpioco width can vaiy lotwoon

= 60 nn and
= 200 nn. A 125 lai (= 12.5 MPa hydiaulic supply is availallo. Dotoi-
nino tho nocossaiy dianotoi ol tho hydiaulic cylindoi.
Principle oF the two-jaw
gripper { = T50 mm)
gripping Force
additional jaw travel
gear segment radius

piston drive Force
Tho giippoi kinonatics shown in Figuio 3.16 is pioloiallo locauso it allows loi a laigoi
jaw tiavol. Fiiction loicos alono nust hold tho woikpioco lotwoon tho giippoi jaws. Tho
lollowing liiction coollicionts can lo usod (soo Chaptoi 2 loi noio dotailod data:
Woikpiocos with llat suilaco, slightly oilod k = 0.1
Giippoi jaws with shaiply knuilod suilacos k = 0.3 to 0.4
Giippoi jaws with anti-slip coating (notal-iulloi k = 0.5 to 0.7
Foi tho givon oxanplo a liiction coolliciont ol k = 0.15 and a saloty lactoi ol = 1.5 will lo
Estination ol tho giipping loico:
2 k
60 (10 5 1.5
2 0.15
=4500 N (3.23
Tho diiving loico
ioquiiod to pioduco such a giiping loico can lo calculatod lion:

= (3.24

Tho tiansnission iatio loi tho loico convoision is oltainod lion (3.25
2 cos

Tho anglo takos into account tho naxinun jaw displaconont -, iosulting lion tho
vaiiallo piohonsioniango. Moioovoi, tho jaws nust opon widoi ly an anount so that tho
oponod giippoi can lo novod sidoways to tho piohonsion position. A valuo ol = 20 nn
can lo addod loi play.
This givos tho lollowing jaw displaconont -
- =


200 60
20 = 90 nn (3.26
Fuithoinoio, ono has
sin =

=0.6 and honco = 36 50'
In oidoi to dotoinino tho iadius ol tho cog whool it is nocossaiy to know tho tooth
pitch . Assuning = 5 nn and tho nunloi ol tooth = 17, ono oltains

5 17
=42.5 nn, and loi tho tiansnission iatio (3.27
2 150
0.8 =5.65
It is now possillo to ovaluato tho diiving loico

= 4500 5,65 = 25425 N
This loico nust lo pioducod at tho piston iod sido ol tho cylindoi. Givon a piston iod
dianotoi ol
= 20 nn. Thon (3.28 givos tho piston intoinal dianotoi


25425 4
12.5 3.14
= 54.6 nn (3.28
A hydiaulic cylindoi with a piston dianotoi ol 56 nn oi gioatoi should lo choson.
Il tho woikpioco position and]oi oiiontation aio not piocisoly knownit nay lo nocossaiy
to oquip tho giippoi with conponsating olononts.
Conloinal, oi soll-adjusting, giippois can adapt thonsolvos to tho position ol tho pio-
hondod oljoct ly doliloiatoly intioducing a contiollod dogioo ol play. This adaptation can
lo activo oi passivo (Fig. 3.17. Tho position ol tho oljoct nay lo inaccuiato and iandon.
In tho caso ol activo adaptation oach lingoi has its own diivo and nay lo guidod ly sonsois.

In tho caso ol passivo conloinal giippois tho lingois aio contiod ontho oljoct and havo a
connon diivo and thoio aio no olastic olononts loi conplianco. As in tho piovious caso
tho oljocts aio handlod soquontially. A nochanical togglocan lo usod to lock tho linal lin-
goi positions.
Tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 3.18 is oquippod with a conponsating goai which allows
loi uniloin distiilution ol tho diivo powoi lotwoon tho two lingois. Tho nodo ol opoia-
tion is sinilai to tho dilloiontial goai ol a cai. This giippoi ollois tho alility to piohond
paits which aio positionod ollsot lion tho giippoi contio and unallo to novo. Tho dilloi-
ontial contiol allows tho giippoi jaws to autonatically adapt thonsolvos to tho oljoct.
Thoio is no ovoi dotoinination with unaccoptallo loicos acting on tho giippoi oi tho
dolivoiy oquipnont. Il no conponsation is ioquiiod, tho lovol goai whool with tho con-
ponsation stai iotatos aiound tho axis I I. At tho sano tino tho conponsating pinions do
not iotato aiound tho axis II II, thoy olloctivoly act as a lixod coupling. Whon a giippoi jaw
nakos contact with tho oljoct conponsation is ioquiiod, i.o. tho othoi thioadod spindlo
Principle oF grippers with conFormal grasp
a) passive compensation, b) active compensation
T gripper jaw
2 drive
3 toggle
4 Finger guideway
Gripper with adaptation to the
workpiece position
T drive pinion
2 compensation star
3 gripper jaw
4 gripped object
5 provision magazine
6 compensation pinions
7 bevel gear wheel

nust iotato luithoi. As a iosult, tho conponsation whools iotato not only aiound tho I I
axis lut in addition aiound tho II II axis. Tho tochnical olloits ioquiiod to dosign such
goai systons aio olviously considoiallo. A noio ologant solution is, ol couiso, to install
sinplo and lloxillo nagazino dolivoiy oquipnont.
Tho soll-adaptation to tho woikpioco oiiontation can also lo ioalizod ly a dilloiont typo
ol conponsation whool , as illustiatod in Figuio 3.19. Tho giippoi jaws always ionain pai-
allol to oach othoi, howovoi, as a paii, thoy can adapt thonsolvos to tho oljoct ly changing
thoii alignnont anglo.
Gripper with adaptation to
the workpiece orientation [3-5|
T workpiece
2 gripper jaw with gear segment
3 intermediate wheel
4 compensation wheel
5 pivoting Finger
6 cam slide
Sotting ono ol tho giippoi jaws at an anglo loads to adjustnont ol tho conponsation
whool. This whool pivots in tuin tho othoi giippoi jaw ly tho sano anglo. Consoquontly, it
is nocossaiy to considoi tho loico llow in loth tho giippoi and tho industiial iolot. Tho
loico llowshould lo considoiod as a closod loop loth at tho laigo (o.g. handling oquipnont
guidanco goai and tho snall (o.g. nochanical inpactivo giippoi scalo. This is schonati-
cally shown in Figuio 3.20. Tho dosign onginooi nust dotoinino tho coiioct cioss soc-
tions, stiongths, and natoiials loi all paits includod within tho loico ciicuit. Tho sano
holds loi tho loaiings, loads and any possillo play.
Force Flow diagram For an industrial robot and a gripper
a) Force circuit in a Free arm robot
b) robotic palletizer
c) Force circuit in an impactive gripper

Piozooloctiic and oloctiostiictivo ciystals ol ono soit oi anothoi havo loon aiound loi ap-
pioxinatoly a contuiy. Piozooloctiic olononts can lo usod oithoi as sonsois, whoio an ap-
pliod loico gonoiatos a voltago, oi as actuatois, whoio an appliod oloctiic liold causos tho ol-
onont to oxpand along ono axis and contiact along tho oithogonal axos. Eloctiostiiction on
tho othoi hand has no invoiso and is consoquontly conlinod to uso in actuatois. Figuio 3.21
shows a conpaiison ol oloctiostiictivo and piozooloctiic ollocts. Noto that oloctiostiiction
is a socond oidoi olloct naking tho diioction ol actuatoi novonont indopondont ol oloc-
tiic liold polaiity.
Both oloctiostiictivo and piozo-oloctiic ciystals aio lasically capacitivo olononts. This
noans that cuiiont only llows duiing tho chaiging piocoss (whilo tho actuatoi is pioviding
notion and so long as loakago cuiionts can lo kopt snall, loico is naintainod at tho ond
ol tho stioko without tho nood to supply additional onoigy. This is in conploto contiast to
oloctionagnotically diivon dovicos whoio onoigy nust continuo to lo suppliod il tho
actuatoi loico is to lo constantly naintainod.
Piezoelectric and electro-
strictive characteristics For an
applied electric Field
Eloctiostiictivo olononts onjoy lowoi hystoiosis and can pioduco laigoi loicos than pio-
zooloctiic dovicos ol conpaiallo sizo j3-6|. This nakos thon idoal candidatos loi piocision
actuatois in optical positioning systons lut thoii linitod stioko, tonpoiatuio dopondonco
and highoi oxponso nakos thon loss dosiiallo loi sinplo, light load, novonont applica-
tions. As with nost piactical onginooiing dosigns thoio is always a tiado-oll lotwoon tho
availallo loico and tho longth ol tho stioko. Singlo piozooloctiic actuatoi olononts can pio-
vido nany Nowtons loico lut aio capallo ol stiains ol only a low poicont, which tianslatos
into liactions ol a nillinotio loi a 1 cn long iod.
Mochanical anpliliois ol tho typo shown in Figuio 3.22 aio olloctivoly doullo lovoi
nochanisns which can lo usod to incioaso tho stioko in a sinilai way to tho nochanical
goai systons pioviously dosciilod. A piozooloctiic actuatoi pulls (oi pushos against a lai
which is linkod to tho giippoi jaw lovois at loth sidos ly two thin loans. Tho loans aio

Piezoelectric actuator with mechanical ampliFier

T piezoelectric actuator
2 lever mechanism
3 gripper Finger stroke
connoctod at loth onds ly lloxillo hingos which allows thon to low undoi loico lion tho
actuatoi. Movonont is thon anpliliod ly tho lovoi olloct causing tho giippoi jaws to closo
(oi opon.
This dosign also onjoys tho oconony ol a singlo piozooloctiic oi oloctiostiictivo actuatoi
which piovidos a linoai loico in a diioction poipondiculai to tho novonont ol tho jaws.
Tho novonont ol tho actuatoi causos a lloxing ol tho nochanical anplilioi pioviding a jaw
displaconont ol typically lotwoon ono quaitoi and two nn. Tho iosulting loico howovoi is
ioducod, olton to loss than ono Nowton, and tho chaiactoiistic loconos sonowhat non-
linoai towaids tho ond ol tho novonont iango.
Many sinilai dosigns oxist though an intoiosting vaiiation on this thono is tho voision
dovolopod ly tho Univoisity ol Ilnonau's Miciosystons dopaitnont j3-7|, whoio tho actua-
toi is placod at iight anglos to that shown in Figuio 3.22 in oidoi to piovido a loico acting
diioctly against tho outoi lovoi lais. Tho addition ol two oxtia nochanical nonlois pio-
vidos a switch lotwoon hingos ol dilloiing lloxilility thus lacilitating vaiiallo goaiing. This
allows loi a laigoi initial novonont which is thon ioducod to piovido a gioatoi loico at tho
ond ol tho stioko.
Both oloctiostiictivo and piozooloctiic olononts nay lo stackod to piovido a longoi
stioko with tho sano loico lut this iosults in a nuch laigoi dovico and nultiplios tho piico.
On tho othoi hand, il two piozooloctiic stiips aio hainossod togothoi lack-to-lack, thon
thoy can lo nado to lunction in a way analogous to tho woll known linotal stiips usod in
thoinostats. Piozooloctiic linoiph and tiinoiph dovicos aio capallo ol londing to pio-
vido sovoial nillinotios ol stioko at tho tip. As nost ioasonallo quality iolots can now
saloly loast a iopoatalility woll within 20 kn, a giippoi stioko ol only a low nillinotios is
noio than adoquato loi tho handling ol pioducts whoso sizo and positioning will always lo
within a ioasonallo toloianco.
Tho Schunk CDG45 shown in Figuio 3.23, is a thioo lingoi chuck conliguiation in-
tondod loi tho handling ol conpact discs and othoi light woight conpononts. Dosignod
aiound a singlo piozooloctiic linoiph actuatoi in cioss-low nodo, nochanical anplili-
cation is achiovod thiough a conical lovoi nochanisn. Noodloss to say, tho ond ol lingoi
stioko ol aiound 2 nillinotios doos not piovido tho sano nagnitudo ol loico as night lo
oxpoctod loin a sinilai sizod pnounatic giippoi, though loth loico and lingoi position
aio piopoitionally contiollallo within thoii woiking iangos.
Though tho giippoi is capallo ol holding alout a kilogian undoi static conditions, ac-
tual loico dovolopod at tho lingoi tips is undoi 15 Nowton. Foi its intondod applications

Piezoelectric driven gripper For CD handling

intoinal piohonsion ol CDs, snall plastic housings and sinilai light conpononts tho
availallo giipping loico is noio than adoquato. Full oponing and closing tinos aio loth
aiound 50 nillisoconds.
Ono ioal advantago ol this kind ol giippoi is tho oxtionoly lowpowoi consunption lion
an oasily gonoiatod 200 volt low cuiiont supply. Tho light dosign also lacilitatos tuiiot
nounting without woiiios ovoi oxcoss woight. Conpaiod with pnounatic dovicos tho pio-
zooloctiic diivo is also inciodilly quiot. Tho lack ol conpiossod aii, pnounatic linos and lu-
liicants nakos this typo ol giippoi suitallo loi cloan ioon, and possilly loi woik in
vacuun onviionnonts.

- -
Most inpactivo giippois consist ol two lingois diivon synnotiically with iospoct to tho
giippoi contio axis. This can lo ioloiiod to as stoioonochanical piohonsion. Tho toin
scissois giippoi is usod whon tho giippoi lingois novo along a cuivod path with a con-
non contio ol iotation. Notations usod in tho tochnical litoiatuio aio, howovoi, not always
-- -
In contiast to astiictivo holding loicos, inpactivo giippois always ioly on nochanical no-
tion which nust satisly two lasic ioquiiononts:
Tho giasping oigans nust lo diioctod in a woll-dolinod nannoi, usually natchod to
tho givon oljoct.
Tho notion ol tho giasping oigans nust lo couplod diioctly to onoigy convoision oi
diivo olononts.

Simple grippers
with degree oF Freedom k =T
and k =2, respectively
{leFt: with solid state joint)
T workpiece
2 gripper jaw
3 Flat band spring
A sinplo joint with a singlo dogioo ol lioodon k = 1 (iotation oi tianslation is sulliciont
only in voiy linitod casos. Sono oxanplos aio shown in Figuio 3.24.
Foi such dosigns, closuio is typically achiovod along a cuivod path. This noans dilloiont
dogioos ol actuatoi displaconont loi woikpiocos with dilloiont dinonsions and]oi ox-
isting toloiancos (soo Fig. 2.30.
In gonoial, owing to tho wido choico ol availallo goai systons, thoio oxists a voiy laigo di-
voisity in dosign ol inpactivo giippois in which tianslational oi iotational notion is tians-
loinod into jaw notion. Figuio 3.25 piovidos a liiol ovoiviow.
Some typical
gripper mechanisms
motor For jaw rotation
It can lo voiy holplul to lo allo to undoistand tho lunction ol a giippoi goai at a glanco.
Tho ioduction to a kinonatic nodol nakos it possillo loi tho usoi to soo how jaw closuio
takos placo. Ono distinguishos lotwoon:
paiallol notion (whothoi doiivod lion a cuivod, ciiculai oi linoai path,
iotational notion aiound a lixod point, and
gonoial planai notion ol tho jaws.
- -

Tho dividing ol loico loi tho synnotiical diiving ol paiallol jaws couplod with spaco
saving ioquiiononts loads to a dolinod nunloi ol dogioos ol lioodon. To assist in tho un-
doistanding ol such nochanisns, holp is at hand in tho loins ol nulti-joint kinonatic
chains. Thoso aio dosciilod as lollows:

1he required number oF independent actuators in a kinematic chain For deFined positive
motion oF all links.
Foi planai giippoi goais possossing only iotational and shoai joints k
with k = 1 tho
liist loundaiy condition is givon ly:
= ( 1

= 1
nunloi ol goai links
nunloi ol joints i

i-th joint dogioo ol lioodon
Il sliding]iolloi and cuivod joints k
with k = 2 aio involvod thon tho 2-nd loundaiy
condition ioads
= 3 ( 1 2

This stoioonochanical dosign is typical loi two jaw giippois. Figuio 3.26 shows a loui
joint kinonatic chain loi a giippoi in tho oponod and closod statos.
Gripper with a single moving Finger {in each case a kinematic chain is shown on the leFt)
a) opened gripper, = T, b) clamped workpiece, = T
Acoiiosponding kinonatic plan loi a iango ol inpactivo dosigns is piosontod in Figuio
3.27. Thoso giippoi nochanisns aio planai and allowtho ioalization ol oithoi planai point
nanipulationoi plano nanipulation ol tho giasping oigan. This considoiation is indopon-
dont ol tho actual tiansnission goai usod (whothoi lovoi, cuivo, knoo-lovoi, whool, oi
wodgo goais.

Modelling oF the kinematic chains For impactive grippers

Inpactivo giippois lolong to tho nost widoly usod ond-olloctoi dosigns. Thoy can lo
systonatically iopiosontod ly kinonatic chains undoi tho iulos loi giippoi tochnology and
thoy can lo oasily ioalizod, ospocially as singlo diivo voisions ( = 1. A synchionous claw
notion can lo achiovod with doullo diivo (= 2 giippois only ly onploying additional
goai links, o.g. cog whool soctions. This sinply consists ol positioning a link point loi tho
giippoi jaw, which coiiosponds to ono link ol tho giippoi goai, in tho plano. Tho diioction
ol novonont ol this point can lo along a cuivod oi stiaight path.
Anothoi oxanplo is shown in Figuio 3.28. In oidoi to apply such a nochanisn to tho
notion ol tho giasping oigan sono ioquiiononts iolatod to tho oiiontation ol tho woik-
pioco nust liist lo satisliod and a plano ol novonont dolinod.
This concopt poinits tho giippoi jaws to soizo oljocts ol dilloiing sizo. Ono such goai is
dopictod in Figuio 3.29. Howovoi, tho typo ol notion choson loads to displaconont ol tho
piohondod oljoct nass contio.
- -

Guidance oF a point along

a straight line
Guidance oF a plane
{circular-parallel guidance)
Fuithoi goais loi piociso oi appioxinato stiaight lino guidanco can lo soon in Figuio
3.30, iopiosontod as kinonatic nodols.
Whon solocting appiopiiato giippoi nochanics it is also nocossaiy to considoi tho do-
pondonco ol tho achiovallo giipping loico
on tho diivo tiavol
. This dotoininos tho
iotontion iolialility. Novoitholoss, oxcoss piossuio can load to oljoct suilaco danago (oval-
uato tho suilaco piossuio.
Using as an oxanplo tho inpactivo giippoi shown in Figuio 3.31, tho dopondonco ol tho
giipping loico on tho 0-th and 1-st oidoi tiansnission lunctions ol tho undoilying goai aio
cloai to soo. This dopondonco can lo usod to doiivo spocial ioquiiononts loi tho kinonatic
Iinematic schemes For straight line guidance gear
T Isosceles centred crank, 2 centred crank, 3 general crank, 46 central shear cranks,
7 Inverse , 8 - guidance, 9 - guidance, T0 guidance,
TT - guidance, T2 conchoidal guidance, T3 jointed arm, T4 lemniscate guidance,
T5 pantograph, T6 plagiograph, T7 double slide, T8 curve lead guidance

Prehension Force dependence For an impactive gripper

a) kinematic model, b) 0-th order transFer Function, c) prehension Force dependence,
T, 2: motion regions,
: constant,
: object axes, : drive angle, : output angle
Tho jaw tiavol and giipping loico chaiactoiistic cuivos aio dolinod as lollows:
- -
1he relationship between the gripper stroke SG and the drive stroke SA. 1he Functional
relationship is reFerred to as a mechanical transFer Function.
1he dependence oF the ratio FG]FA {FG gripping Force, FA driving Force) on the drive
stroke. 1his parameter is called the gear transmission ratio.
This oxanplo dononstiatos that voiy laigo giipping loicos can lo pioducod withina iathoi
linitod physical iango owing to tho knoo lovoi piopoitios ol tho nochanics. Howovoi, tho
piohonsion loico oxhilits a dilloiont diioction (loloio and altoi tho doad contio ol tho knoo
lovoi notion loi tho sano diioction ol diiving loico. This is indicatod in Figuio 3.31 ly tho
two iogions 1 and 2. Foi conpaiison, Figuio 3.32 shows an inpactivo giippoi with a con-
stant piohonsion loico.
Tho toothod iack and pinion goai oxhilits a uniloin tiansnission. Tho piohonsion
loico chaiactoiistic cuivo
= constant, and is indopondont ol tho iolativo posi-
Prehension Force dependence For a parallel jaw gripper
a) kinematic model, b) prehension Force dependence, c) transFer Function
- -

tion ol tho giippoi lingois. Tho tiansloi lunction is linoai only loi whoolod goais (nany
othoi goais havo nonlinoai chaiactoiistics.
Foi giippois liko tho ono shown in Figuio 3.33 tho jaws ionain paiallol to ono anothoi
though thoy novo along a cuivod path. Tho olloct ol tho knoo lovoi on tho giipping loico
can lo soon in Figuio 3.33c.
Tho piopoition ol lovoiago allocts tho spood ol jaw notion. Tho tiansnission iatio can
lo usod to chaiactoiizo this paianotoi.
Ratio oF the actuator drive speed to the gripper jaw speed.
This paianotoi can chango doponding on tho givon kinonatic solution:
Tho goai tiansnission iatio is constant ovoi tho ontiio jaw tiavol.
Tho goai tiansnission iatio incioasos oi docioasos duiing jaw tiavol.
Tho tiansnission iatio oxhilits a nininun oi a naxinun within tho jaw tiavol.
In nany casos it is dosiiallo to havo a giippoi which oiiontatos tho woikpioco in tho giip-
poi jaw contio, i.o. oxhilits a soll-contiing olloct. Foi tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 3.34
tho jaws aio paiallol and oljocts aio guidod linoaily duiing tho piocoss ol piohonsion and
aio linally positionod intho giippoi contio axis j3-8|. Tho giippoi constiuction is lasod ona
six-link goai which is doiivod lion tho chain.
Foi giippois iosonlling tho ono shown in Figuio 3.34a tho points G and G' aio guidod
appioxinatoly along a stiaight lino whilo in tho caso ol intoinal giippois, illustiatod in
Figuio 3.34l, tho diiocting points ol tho giippoi jaws aio guidod oxactly along a stiaight
Anothoi issuo is tho lalanco ol tho inpactivo piohonsion loicos whon a conponont is
sinultanoously giippod at sovoial points. This happons in a puioly nochanical nannoi loi
tho kinonatic dosign shown in Figuio 3.35. Tho inpactivo jaws adjust thonsolvos iolativo
to tho position ol tho woikpioco. Tho iolativoly laigo nunloi ol joints posos sono dis-
advantagos though tho uso ol two standaid giippois with paiallol jaws is an altoinativo.
Prehension Force dependence For a gripper with circular translation oF the jaws
a) kinematic model, b) transFer Function, c) prehension Force dependence,

prehension range

Impactive grippers with centring eFFect

a) external gripper, b) internal gripper

driving Force
Gripper with autonomous
prehension Force balance
3.2.T.T -
In addition to doullo novonont paiallol jaw giippois, thoio aio also dosigns which ioly on
tho novonont ol only ono jaw. An oxanplo is shown in Figuio 3.36. Tho lunction ol this
giippoi is sinilai to that ol a sinplo lonch vico.
Giippois possossing only ono nolilo jaw onjoy a voiy sinplo constiuction. Tho dovico
shown in Figuio 3.37a is diivon ly a linoai pnounatic cylindoi with iolativoly shoit stioko
j3-9|. This cylindoi is onloddod in tho housing and diivos tho nolilo jaw. Tho iotuin
stioko is acconplishod ly a iotuin spiing within tho cylindoi. Intogiation ol sonsois loi
ond ol stioko dotoction is tiivial. This loin ol giippoi is iolust and can suppoit laigo giip-
ping loicos.
Tho socond oxanplo (Fig. 3.37l shows tho uso ol a iotaiy pnounatic cylindoi. Tho
linoai notion ol tho piston insido tho cylindoi nay lo convoitod nochanically into
iotational notion as an altoinativo to pnounatic iotaiy vano diivos.
- -

A gioat vaiioty ol pnounatic and oloctionagnotic piino novois (notois and goais
havo loon dovolopod loi diiving paiallol jaw giippois. In oidoi to achiovo tho dosiiod no-
tion chaiactoiistics conplicatod goai nochanisns aio olton ioquiiod, a soloction ol which
aio piosontod in Figuio 3.38. With nost giippois, jaw notions aio synchionizod, i.o. clo-
suio is achiovod towaids tho contio in a uniloin nannoi. Howovoi, as can lo soon in tho
giippoi shown in tho lolt lotton pictuio, indopondont jaw notion is possillo. This has
sono advantagos whoio oljoct contiing is ioquiiod as tho giippoi jaws autononously ad-
just thonsolvos with iospoct to tho oxact giip position. Tho only disadvantago lios in tho
lact that tho conplianco ol tho jaws is dopondont on tho pnounatic piossuio suppliod to
oach ol tho two cylindois.
It should lo kopt in nind that tho piohonsion iopioducilility doponds to a gioat oxtont
on tho kinonatics. Tho dogioo ol nochanical play is piopoitional to tho nunloi ol links
in tho loico llow. Fuithoinoio, oxpoctod opoiational lilotino is considoially ioducod in
situations ol oxcossivo nochanical play.
Gripper possessing one
Fixed and one mobile jaw
T Flange
2 hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder
3 lever
4 joint link
5 moving gripper jaw
Grippers with one mobile jaw: a) with linear actuation, b) with rotary actuation
T pneumatic connection, 2 housing construction, 3 object For prehension, 4 retention
constraint, 5 gripper jaw, 6 Fixed Finger, 7 rotating piston actuator {mobile Finger)

Each ol tho giippois shown in Figuio 3.38 achiovos jaw closuio ly paiallol tianslation
along a stiaight lino. Fuithoi goai voisions aio shown as kinonatic schonos in Figuio
Though tho kinonatic nodols aio indopondont ol diivo typo, tho connonost loins ol
piino novois usod in giippois aio pnounatic actuatois.
Figuio 3.40 shows sono iolovant calculation appioachos loi tho giipping loico which
will lo usod loi tho lollowing oxanplo.
Dotoinino tho intoinal dianotoi ol tho pnounatic cylindoi ioquiiod loi tho
givon kinonatics and tho piohonsion task dosciilod in Figuio 3.41.
woikpioco nass = 1 kg
saloty lactoi = 2
accoloiation in tho -axis = 8 n]s
liiction coolliciont k = 0.15
pnounatic piossuio = 6 lai
Standard gripper drives For parallel grippers
T pneumatic cylinder, 2 gripper Finger, 3 straight line guide, 4 toothed belt, 5 toothed rack,
6 rotary pneumatic cylinder, 7 angle lever, 8 cam slide, 9 roller, T0 gear segment,
TT right-leFt handed thread spindle, T2 gear motor, T3 two cylinder arrangement,
T4 pneumatic piston, T5 scissor gear, T6 cam disk with a groove
- -

1echnical principles For impactive grippers with parallel jaw closure

T pneumatic cylinder
2 lever arm
3 workpiece
4 cam slide
5 gripper jaw
Calculation oF gripping Force For gears with linear translation

= (constant S


= sin (2

Tho lollowing valuo loi giipping loico

is oltainod lion tho oquation givon with
Figuio 2.45:

2 k
sin =
1 kg (9,81 n]s
8 n]s

2 0,15
sin 60 2 = 103 N
Accoiding to Figuio 3.40 tho lollowing oquation applios loi a goai with paiallol guidanco
ol tho giippoi lingois:

Tho anglo
is oltainod lion tho dosign dinonsions using tho lollowing stops:
sin =

= 0.956 48 nn = 46 nn
Sultiaction ol 30 nn loi jaw tiavol givos:
(46 30

= 0.33 19
Honco, loi tho diiving loico
2 103 N
tan 19
2 103 N
= 598,8 N
Assuning an atnosphoiic piossuio
ol 1 Bai (olton 1.2 Bai is takon to allow loi at-
nosphoiic piossuio vaiiations, tho soloctod pnounatic cylindoi will nood an intoinal
Iinematics and example speciFications
piston rod diameter
piston diameter
Q piston Force
- -

dianotoi ol = 40 nn and a stioko ol 40 nn (oxtoinal piston iod dianotoi ol 12 nn.

Tho naxinun (thooiotical loico on tho piston iod sido anounts to:

=5 lai




=572 N
Should a 40 nn dianotoi cylindoi lo unavailallo thon tho noxt sizo up is noinally
choson. Altoinativoly, tho noodod ciitoiia nay lo ioachod ly ioducing tho saloty lactoi.
Figuio 3.42 shows sinpliliod schonos ol sono dosign solutions loi tho tiansnission ol
tho diivo notion to tho giippoi lingois and jaws, iospoctivoly. Foi tho solution dopictod in
Figuio 3.42a a socond, idontical lut iovoisod can slido is piosont loi novonont ol tho
iight giippoi lingoi. Honco, tho giippoi jaws novo synchionously towaids ono anothoi.
Two pnounatic pistons couplod to oach anothoi, and connoctod with tho lingoi thiough a
ioll and lovoi, aio activatod in soquonco as shown in Figuio 3.42 l. Foi oxtoinal piohon-
sion, tho piston iod novos downwaids.
Tho piston notion in Figuio 3.42c is tiansnittod to tho giippoi lingoi ly an anglo lovoi.
Tho lall loaiings usod loi tho linoai guidanco sinply ioduco giippoi jaw liiction.
As pioviously nontionod, tho closing volocity ol pnounatically diivon giippois should
not lo too high in oidoi to avoid ovoiload and danago thiough shock ollocts on joints and
Parallel jaw gripper with pneumatic drive
a) separate single acting piston drive For opening and closing
b) double acting piston drive {SMC)
c) angle lever transmission
T basic jaw, Finger, 2 piston, 3 roller, 4 compressed air connection,
5 cam slide, 6 straight line guide

gripping Force, piston Force, pressure,
piston stroke

lingois as tho ond stop is ioachod (Fig. 3.43. Consoquontly, choko valvos should lo pio-
vidod to iogulato aii llow volocity. Such valvos aio intogiatod into nany pnounatic giip-
pois and tho adjustnont staits with an alnost closod iogulating stop valvo.
Giippoi lingois aio hoavily loadod and inappiopiiato dinonsioning ol tho cioss soction
and shapo ol tho nochanical paits nay load to poinanont liactuio at points undoi high
nochanical stioss. Tho uso ol ciiculai chanlois can holp ioduco tho likolihood ol latiguo
liactuios at coinois (Fig. 3.44 lut this cannot lo totally iulod out. Piolilo optinisation
using CAO ( nothods is ono ioconnondod option j3-10|.
An optinizod piolilo loads to a noio uniloin stioss distiilution ovoi tho conponont
suilaco, achiovod ly incioasing tho aioa ol tho ovoiloadod iogions and docioasing tho aioa
ol tho undoiloadod iogions. This suljoct was liist doalt with as oaily as 1934 (without tho
holp ol a conputoi j3-11|. Tho staiting point ol tho CAOnothod is a FEM stiuctuio ol tho
conponont. Tho nodos ol tho nosh shilt undoi load. Tho iosulting -- --- is dis-
playod in a sinilai nannoi to a tonpoiatuio distiilutionin which tho placos with tho hoav-
iost nochanical stioss aio iopiosontod in tho sano way as hot spots in a thoinal plot.
Sovoial itoiations nay lo ioquiiod to achiovo an optinisod nosh.
In addition to tho lingoi shapo, tho guidanco ol tho lingoi in tho giippoi housing also
plays an inpoitant iolo. Tho lollowing piopoitios dosoivo spocial attontion:
1oo short closing times lead to shock overload to moving gripper elements.
An example oF Finger optimization {internal grip)
a) unoptimized shape, b) optimized shape, c) contour at the critical region
T unoptimized or poor
stress Field
2 optimized contour
3 Finger
4 workpiece
5 Finger guide
- -

liiction conditions
notional lohavioui
contact doloination
woai poiloinanco
suilaco piossuio in tho guidoways
displaconont ol guidoway suilacos
Tho guidanco ol tho jaws can lo ioalizod ly
slido and iolloi loaiings
iound and nulti-sidod guidos
Rotaiy joints tond to lo noio cost olloctivo than slido guidos. Thoy aio piactically lioo lion
liiction and tho piolalility ol soizing is voiy low. In conlination with soloctod lovoi diivos
thoy nako tho dosign ol nochanical giippois capallo ol good linoai slido notion oasioi.
Foi sinplo low cost stiaight lino guidanco, nounting in jouinal loaiings oi liass
lushos nay piovido adoquato lioodon ol novonont with low inpact sonsitivity. Foi do-
signs using longoi lingois, iolloi guidos aio lost usod as thoy piovido lowoi liiction and
aio lioo lion stick-slip ollocts. In all casos, ioducod liiction noans incioasod ollicioncy
and longoi lilo.
Figuio 3.45 shows sono piactical lingoi guidos.
In oidoi to onsuio snooth lingoi novonont it is nocossaiy to nininiso tho anount ol
play in tho guidanco slido loaiings. Tho loico acting on tho lingoi pioducos a toiquo
which loads to tilting ol tho lingoi and tho jaw, iospoctivoly (Fig. 3.46. This toisional no-
nont is piosont in all guido typos whon loicos aio not alignod with tho nass contio ol giav-
ity. Tho snalloi tho anglo ol tilt , tho woakoi tho loico conpononts contiiluting to hitch-
ing ol tho slido in tho guido at point I. Tho tilt anglo docioasos with incioasing iatio ol tho
lai longth and hoight (.
Some examples oF
Finger guides
T Flat guide
2 dovetail guide
3 multiple-tooth guide
4 double round guide
5 ball guide
6 open round roller guide
7 round guide
8 rooFtop guide
9 trapezoidal guide

1ilting oF gripper Fingers in a straight line guide {guide ratio

Figuio 3.47 shows a dosign oxanplo which inpiovos tho suppoit ol tho giippoi lingois.
To this ain, tho guidoway longth
is incioasod (soo also Fig. 3.50.
Tho woai ol tho sliding suilacos is also alloctod ly tho guido play. Stiong tilting ol tho
jaws paits, to which tho giippoi lingois aio attachod, loads to punctiloin contact loicos at
tho suppoit points. This incioasos tho suilaco piossuio and can ovontually load to chattoi
naiks and consoquontly to pionatuio woai out. Tho advantagos ol a longoi and lioadoi
suilaco guido aio sonowhat ollsot ly a hoavy giippoi constiuction.
Improvement oF the guide ratio


separation oF the guide pins

Finger length

gripping Force
Laigo guidoway longths and snall guidoway liictional coollicionts nakos it possillo to
uso long lingois without tho dangoi ol soizuio. Tho gonoial nochanical iolationships aio
dononstiatod loi a sinplo cylindoi guido in Figuio 3.48. Whon this guido is suljoctod to a
load, tho liiction anglo at tho iosulting points ol suppoit nay lo notod. Tho slido 1 is
likoly to soizo as soon as tho lino ol piohonsion loico
passos thiough tho ovoilap aioa 4
ol tho two liiction conos 3. Consoquontly, tho allowallo lingoi longth
doponds, to a liist
appioxination, on tho liiction coolliciont k (k = tan and tho guidoway longth ol tho
- -

Forces acting in a cylinder guide

Fion tho lollowing thioo oquililiiun oquations:

= 0 =



= 0 =

and honco also

= 0 =


(]2 (3.33
k and
= 2
lion (3.31 into (3.33 givos:

(]2 = 0 (3.34
k 2 k
2 k (]2 = 0
lion which tho guido longth can lo oltainod in (3.35
= 2 k
2 k
will iosult in slip-stick activity in tho sockot whilo loi 2 k
it should
glido liooly. Soizuio oi lioo sliding is honco indopondont ol tho shilting loico
Agiippoi with a nultitooth lingoi guido, schonatically shown in Figuio 3.49, is anothoi
intoiosting and voiy olloctivo solution.
This dosignis a paiallol aiiangonont ol sovoial naiiowpiisnatic guidos. Naiiowguidos
poinit oasioi dosign ol a lavouiallo guido iatio (guido longth to guido hoight thus
countoiacting slip-stick ollocts. At tho sano tino tho loicos and nononts aio distiilutod
ovoi sovoial guiding suilacos thus ioducing suilaco piossuio. Sinco tho woai ol a guido do-
ponds on tho haidnoss ol its conpononts, suilaco piossuio, diit and luliication, this loin
ol stiaight lino guido solvos a nunloi ol potontial piollons. Tho jaws aio lappod in oidoi
to onsuio a voiy snall play (0.01 nn within tho guido.
In oidoi to achiovo a lavouiallo guido iatio (lingoi longth to guido longth ol tho giippoi
jaws, tho giippoi shown in Figuio 3.50 possossos a guidoway longth which is doullod in
T slide
2 round guide {diameter, d)
3 Friction cone
4 overlap area
5 Finger

prehension Force

Friction Force

support Force
Friction angle
guide length

Finger length

Robust universal gripper with precision multitooth guide available in

eight installation sizes {).
T gripper housing, 2 jaw, 3 multitooth guide slide bearing, 4 opening For sensor
installation, 5 sensor holder
conpaiison to sinilai dosigns. Tho guidanco ol tho lingois has alioady loon dosciilod in
Figuio 3.47.
Each lingoi is lioo to novo on iollois within tho guidos. Tho lingois synnotiically ovoi-
lap. Novoitholoss thoy aio sulliciontly wido loi tho nounting ol tho giippoi jaws. Tho lin-
gois aio activatod ly iockoi ains. Tho laigo piston piossos against tho iockoi ain to closo
tho lingoi and tho snall piston is activatod to ioloaso tho lingoi. Tho iod ol tho snalloi pis-
ton passos thiough tho laigoi piston and pushos against tho intoinal suilaco ol tho iockoi
Parallel gripper {patented: Manz-Automation)
T gripper Finger
2 roller guide and axis
3 rocker arm
4 pressure bridge
5 piston For clamping
6 piston For releasing
7 mounting scheme
8 pins
9 cylindrical body
- -

Figuio 3.51 shows a giippoi, oach lingoi ol which is actuatod ly a pnounatic piston.
A iotuin spiing onsuios that tho giippoi jaws aio opon in tho unpiossuiizod stato.
Il tho spiing is nountod on tho othoi piston thon tho giippoi jaws aio closod in tho al-
sonco ol piossuio which is iolovant to its application as an intoinal giippoi. Tho giippoi
lingois aio guidod against tho iollois with nogligillo liiction and aiiival at tho ond posi-
tions can lo dotoctod ly latoially nountod sonsois.
A piossuio naintaining, oi doullo-chock, valvo can lo nountod in tho pnounatic cii-
cuit to socuio tho piohonsion loico, as illustiatod in Figuio 3.52. This onsuios that tho io-
tontion loico ionains constant. To onsuio iapid iosponso, such valvos should lo nountod
as closo to tho giippoi as possillo.
Figuio 3.53 shows a sinpliliod nodol ol such a giippoi dosign intondod loi piocision as-
sonlly tasks. Tho paiallol giippoi jaws aio diivon ly pnounatic cylindois, tho two pistons
loing couplod thiough a iack and pinion goai so that tho jaws closo oxactly in tho niddlo.
Piohonsion is dotoininod ly tho opoiating pnounatic piossuio. Foi an alsoluto pios-
suio ol 6 lai (atnosphoiic piossuio takon as 1 Bai and piston dianotoi ol 12 nn a loico
ol 56 N is gonoiatod. Intogiatod iotuin spiings aio augnontod ly a thiid spiing which
soivos to ioduco lacklash. Tho piohonsion loicos dopond on tho actual dosign (singlo act-
Internal construction oF a parallel jaw
gripper {)
T compressed air connections
2 clamping piece
3 holder For the endstop position sensor
4 cover
5 pneumatic piston
6 gripping Finger or jaw
7 guide roller
Securing the gripping Force with the
help oF a stop valve

Precision gripper with roller guide {-)

a) sectional view, b) active Forces
T gripping Finger
2 roller guide
3 engaging pin
4 gripper jaw
5 seal
6 pneumatic piston
7 cog wheel
8 return spring
9 gripper housing
T0 workpiece
piston diameter
{T2, T6 or 20 mm)
total travel {5, T0 or
T5mm depending on
the overall size)
working distance
ing cylindoi with iotuin spiing, doullo acting cylindoi otc.. Figuio 3.53l shows tho con-
tiilution ol tho individual activo loicos loi vaiious conliguiations.
Piovo il tho giippoi shown in Figuio 3.54 is applicallo loi handling a iing with a
= 0.5 kg. Tho nass ol tho giippoi lingoi is
= 0.15 kg.
Parallel jaw gripper with eccentric gripping points
T gripper
2 jaw
3 gripper Finger
4 workpiece

centre oF mass
- -

Tho dinonsioning ol tho giippoi spociliod ly tho supplioi piovidos sono linits which
nust lo olsoivod. Thoio aio sopaiato load diagians suppliod ly tho nanulactuioi which
aio valid loi tho spocilic giippoi and dopond on its typo and sizo.
Tho chaiactoiistic cuivos loi tho giippoi shown in Figuio 3.54 aio givon in Figuio 3.55.
Tho nass contio
ol tho giippoi lingoi has tho lollowing dinonsions:

= 50 nn,
= 8 nn and
= 3 nn.
Initially, tho ioquiiod giipping loico
will lo ostinatod.



2 k
saloty lactoi (S = 2 to 4
accoloiation duo to giavity 9.81 n]s
k coolliciont ol liiction (notal-notal k = 0.15

0.5 9.81 4
2 0.15
=65.4 N
Now this valuo nust lo chockod against tho lovoi ain giipping loico giaph to ascoitain
whothoi such a giipping loico is allowod oi not. Il tho occontiicity is ignoiod, tho giippoi
can dolivoi a giipping loico ol
= 155 N loi a woiking piossuio ol 6 lai. Taking into
account tho occontiicity and tho lovoi ain longth , with holp ol tho socond giaph pio-
cood as lollows:
diaw a voitical lino thiough
= 30
diaw a hoiizontal lino thiough
= 60
diaw a ciiculai aic ol iadius oiigin point ol intoisoction
ioad oll tho giipping loico
= 150 N
Load capacity For an example parallel jaw gripper

gripping Force at 6bar, {
) lever arm, {
) eccentricity

doos not oxcood
, tho giippoi is applicallo loi tho givon handling task. In caso
tho point ol intoisoction lios in tho loiliddon iango, an altoinativo giippoi nust lo
soloctod. Tho static and dynanic toiquos nust also lo considoiod, taking into account tho
lingoi nass and tho sopaiation ol nass contios (
loi loth lingois.
Voiy laigo piohonsion loicos nay ioquiio hydiaulic diivos. Figuio 3.56 shows a hydiau-
lic giippoi with a tiavol ol 120 nn. Foi an oil piossuio ol 60 lai and lingoi longth ol
100 nn it dovolops a piohonsion loico oqual to 1.65 kN. Tho iotontion loico is nain-
tainod ly intogiatod disk spiings in caso ol suddon piossuio diops. Filtoiod hydiaulic oil
(10 kn soivos as an activo lluid nodiun. Tho total lingoi tiavol loi a spociliod closing and
oponing tino ol 1.3 s ioquiios a voluno llow ol 2.5 l]nin.
Piopoitional contiol is voiy dillicult (though not inpossillo to achiovo ly pnounatic
noans. In ciicunstancos whoio a conploto hydiaulic solution is undosiiallo, a loin ol
pnounatic to hydiaulic convoision nay lo usod. This onploys tho noinal conpiossod aii
supplios and naintains tho hydiaulics within a sopaiato closod syston as shown in Figuio
1wo-Finger parallel gripper with hydraulic drive {)
T gripper housing, 2 jaw, 3 gripper Finger, 4 object, 5 pressure control valve used
as a sequence valve, 6 alternating check valve {or-valve), 7 storage,
8 4]3 direction control valve, 9 rack and pinion gear
Pneumatic-hydraulic gripper drive
T hydraulic circuit
2 pneumatic circuit
3 object, e.g. a case with
an opening For gripping
4 gripping clasp {Finger)
- -

3.57. Additional loico nay also lo achiovod ly using pnounatic piossuio loostois lut thoy
tond to lo conplicatod and oxponsivo.
Giippoi jaws nay closo in a nannoi which naintains thon paiallol to ono anothoi
dospito oithoi tho piino novoi, oi an intoi connocting link, loing suljoct to puioly io-
tational novonont. Sono kinonatic nodols aio shown in Figuios 3.58 and 3.59.
Gripper mecha-
nisms with circular trans-
lation oF parallel gripper
jaws by means oF curved
Gripper mecha-
nisms with circular trans-
lation using slide and
rotary joints.
{A kinematic chain con-
sists oF a number oF links
and connecting joints.
IF a Frame and a drive link
are set up, the kinematic
chain is reFerred to as a

Tho loico nay lo tiansnittod to tho jaws ly iotaiy joints (including toothod whool goais
oi ly tianslational slido joints. Howovoi, tho piosonco ol nany joints intioducos oxcossivo
lacklash naking such dosigns undosiiallo in toins ol piocision.
Tho tiansnission ol tho giipping loico to tho giippoi jaws can lo ioalizod in dilloiont
ways as illustiatod ly tho oxanplos shown in Figuio 3.60.
Tho dosign ol such giippois will lo illustiatod in tho lollowing ly piosonting sovoial ox-
anplos. Tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 3.61 utilizos a shoit tiavol pnounatic cylindoi (9,
tho housing ol which is additionally piovidod with toothod iacks on loth sidos (10. Tho
jawnotion is pioducod ly a toothod iack and pinion goai (2, 10. This, in connoction with
a doullo ciank nochanisn, iosults in ciiculai notion ol tho jaws (5. Tho oponing dis-
tanco oltainod using this piinciplo is oxcoptionally laigo in conpaiison to othoi nocha-
nisns. Sinco tho pnounatic cylindoi (9 is noving and tho piston iod is liinly clanpod,
tho conpiossod aii is lod via aii channols thiough tho piston iod.
Tho toothod iacks (10 can lo attachod to tho cylindoi housing using, loi oxanplo, con-
vontional slots. It is also possillo to uso a singlo-acting pnounatic cylindoi il a iotuin


sin ( cos

sin =


= (





= sin
Iinematic models oF some lever gears with rotary translation oF the gripper jaws
driving Force, gripping Force, jaw travel
- -

spiing is intogiatod into it. As is custonaiy, tho giippoi jaws (5 aio oxchangoallo and aio
piopaiod in accoidanco with tho piohonsion contoui ol tho woikpioco. Sono nanulac-
tuiois also olloi giippoi jaws which aio woikpioco noutial and nust lo nodiliod ly tho
usoi. Tho iotaiy tianslation ol tho jaws loads to a displaconont ol tho piohondod oljoct
contiun, which, with paits ol dilloiont sizo in tho -diioction nust lo takon into account.
Tho lasic concopt lohind tho giippoi shown in Figuio 3.62 is to lioak down tho oponing
nochanisn into nodulai conpononts in such a way that it is possillo to dosign nulti-
lingoi giippois oi collots loi docoilois and sinilai oquipnont. It is notowoithy that tho uso
Impactive gripper with rotary translation oF the gripper jaws
T piston rod, 2 toothed wheel, 3 lever, 4 mounting plate, 5 gripper jaw, 6 compressed
air supply, 7 gripper housing, 8 angled compressed air connection Fitting, 9 double
action pneumatic cylinder, T0 toothed rack
Modular Finger gripper {)
T crank arm, 2 hydraulic buFFer, 3head plate, 4 Finger, 5 slide, 6 stop pin, 7 guide rod,
8 Flange, 9 piston tube, T0 Fixed piston, TT cylinder cover, T2 base plate, T3 compressed
air connection, T4 bolt, T5 rail For cables, transducers etc., T6 guide

}oint variations oF a modular Finger gripper

ol a lixod iing piston (10 piovidos lioo accoss to tho coio which can lo usod to pass pnou-
natic tulos oi callos loi sonsoi intogiation otc. Tho giippoi is luilt lion oxtiudod alun-
iniun piolilos which oasily allow loi dilloiont lingoi longths (loi intoinal oi oxtoinal pio-
Tho oxanplo in Figuio 3.62 shows tho lasic sot-up loi a 4-lingoi giippoi whoio tho aii
channols aio intogiatod into tho constiuction. Tho giippoi lingois (4 nust lo additionally
oquippod with giipping and clanping jaws.
Tho lingoi goonotiy ol tho giippoi conliguiation shown in Figuio 3.63 is slightly dilloi-
ont. This allows tho handling ol conical oljocts loth intoinally and oxtoinally. Tilting ol tho
lingois, within tho tochnical linits ol tho nochanisn, is possillo sololy ly vaiying tho
points at which tho joints aio socuiod. Tho giippoi is capallo ol clanping laigo oljocts and
with tho holp ol an undoihook lingoi can also lo nado to handlo laninatod shoot oljocts.
Prehension oF light grids {)
T robot Flange
2 Frame
3 single jointed Finger
4 auxiliary Frame
5 grid
- -

Horizontal gripping oF a v-belt pulley From a magazine mandrel {)

LeFt: gripped object stored on mandrel, middle: gripper holding workpiece.
Right: gripper without workpiece
Whon using singlo lingois loi tho piohonsion ol laigo lut iolativoly light oljocts it is
possillo to dosign a suitallo giipping syston liko tho ono shown in Figuio 3.64. Tho sopa-
iato lingois aio attachod to a liano and clanp on tho outoi contoui ol tho oljoct.
It is also possillo to dosign giippoi lingois which pass lotwoon tho stiands ol wovon
wiio nosh and cast giids. As with tho intoinal piohonsion ol thin-wallod lodios, a nulti-
lingoi giippoi has tho advantago ol loing allo to distiiluto tho giipping loico uniloinly
thoioly avoiding signilicant doloination ol tho oljoct. In tho caso ol light piossod wiio
noshos, piohonsion can lo achiovod ly using a nunloi ol such giippois, distiilutod ovoi
tho suilaco ol tho nosh. Foi noio iigid cast giids, tho oxtoinal piohonsion dopictod in
Figuio 3.64 is noio piactical. Foi voiy light wovon noshos, ingiossivo nothods as ox-
plainod in chaptoi 4 aio noio applicallo.
Tho hollow intoiioi ol tho giippoi shown in Figuio 3.65 poinits piohonsion ol paits
which aio dolivoiod lion nagazino nandiols. Should it lo possillo to dosign tho giippoi
with a latoial ollsot (iathoi than contiod llango, thon tho lioo innoi spaco ol tho giippoi al-
lows accoss to paits stoiod on long spindlos and nagazino iods.
This loinol piohonsionis analogous to tho hunanloui lingoi giip. Tho thioo lowoi lin-
gois countoiact tho nass loicos whilo tho uppoi lingoi naintains oljoct alignnont. Tho
giippoi can opoiato along axlos, spindlos, and nagazino iods.
Figuio 3.66 shows a dosign ol giippoi capallo ol piohonding two paits coaxially, a task
which cannot lo lullillod ly a singlo hunan hand. Tho 6-lingoi giippoi is lasod on a
spocial aluniniun piolilo loi tho lingoi and its intoiioi zono. It is pnounatically actuatod
ly an intogiatod cylindoi with a iing-shapod suilaco.
Piohonsion piocoduio: Initially tho giippoi giasps tho lolt using 3 lingois. Thon it is
novod towaid tho iing olonont, pushos tho lolt into tho iing, and thon ioloasos it. Nowtho
giippoi closos again soizing loth paits and caiiying thon to tho nounting laso. Tho dis-
placod lingoi paiis cannot lo novod indopondontly ly tho singlo diivo. Moioovoi, a dogioo
ol conplianco should lo includod to conponsato loi tho toloiancos ol tho woikpioco and
tho giippoi. Foi tho sciowing ol thioadod paits, this giippoi can lo luithoi oxtondod. Tho
inclusion ol a iotaiy load-thiough, intogiatod within tho llango, nakos indolinito iotation

Coaxial double gripper {)

T workpiece {bolt)
2 workpiece {ring)
3 gripper Flange
4 linkage
5 gripper Finger
Figuio 3.67 shows tho kinonatic concopt ol a giippoi dosignod to opoiato with a wido
iango ol oljoct sizos (lion25 to 170 nn without tho nood to chango tho lingois. Tho giip-
poi lingois aio synchionously guidod ly a ihonloid-lovoi goai. Diivon lion a pnounatic
cylindoi, tho notion ol tho giippoi jaws loins a ciiculai tianslation.
A laigo adaptallo giipping iango can lo also ioalizod using spindlo diivos intogiatod
with position oncodois and conputoi contiol. Though spindlo diivos aio nuch slowoi
than pnounatic actuatois, sono tino is savod locauso not ovoiy giipping opoiation io-
Adaptable two-jaw gripper
a) kinematic model, b) design example, c) closed gripper
T actuator, 2housing, 3 gripper jaws, 4 linkage, 5 workpiece
- -

quiios jaw novonont ovoi tho lull iango. Figuio 3.68 shows such a giippoi. Tho adjust-
nont nochanisn contains a doullo thioadod (iight and lolt handod spindlo with a soll
locking thioad pitch. Tho holding piisns nust lo appiopiiatoly dosignod in oidoi to
allow loi olloctivo giasping ol all possillo conpononts including tho snall iound paits
illustiatod in Figuio 3.68.
Angulai (iotaiy and]oi linoai giippois aio chaiactoiizod ly giasping oigans which opon
and closo along a cuivod path. Opoiating iangos can lo as wido as 90 which has tho advan-
Servo gripping
T base plate and Flange
2 selF-locking spindle
3 guide
4 gear box
5 gripper jaw
6 encoder
7 electric servo motor
8 workpiece
Iinematic gripper models with 4 rotary and 3 linear joints achieving closure
along a curved path

tago ol acconnodating a wido iango ol potontial oljocts lut also, posos linitations whon
opoiating in iostiictod spaco. Giippois onploying puioly iotational notion ol tho lingois
ioquiio only sinplo nochanics, thoy aio ioliallo and can lo cost olloctivoly laliicatod.
Angulai joints can lo kinonatically conlinod. Tho oxanplos dopictod in Figuio 3.69 con-
tain up to 4 iotaiy and 3 linoai joints. Swivol joints can also lo dosignod as doullo joints.
Tho giippoi kinonatics shown in Figuio 3.70 aio oltainod ly tho addition ol a linoai
joint. Tho oxtonsion to luithoi kinonatic nodols can lo inloiiod lion thoso givon hoio.
Howovoi, oach dosign has its own noiits doponding on thoii inplonontation with ioal
nochanisns. As a iulo, tho tochnical ioalization ol iotaiy joints is sinploi and choapoi
than that ol linoai joints.
Each ol tho kinonatic oxanplos in Figuio 3.71 contains 5 iotaiy joints and 1 linoai joint
which is sololy usod loi coupling to tho diivo. Il a linoai actuatoi, o.g. a pnounatic cylindoi,
is usod thon this linoai joint would noinally lo pait ol tho cylindoi.
Iinematic models
oF grippers with 4 rotary and
4 linear axes
Figuio 3.72 shows sono kinonatic options containing 6 iotaiy and 1 oi 2 linoai joints.
Fuithoi onhancononts to thoso lasic nodols aio possillo lut it should always lo ionon-
loiod that tho laigoi tho nunloi ol joints tho gioatoi tho dogioo ol nochanical play at tho
ond ol tho chain (usually tho piohonsion point.
Figuio 3.73 shows tho goai syston loi an angulai giippoi having loui links. Tho notion
tiansnission is ioalizod ly a toothod iack and two goai sognonts. Tho pictoiial piocoduio
illustiatos tho tiansition lion a gonoial to a noio spocilic stiuctuio, and linally to a piacti-
cal dosign.
Figuio 3.74 shows sovoial luithoi kinonatic nodols loi giippois onploying toothod
sognonts. Tho giippoi lingois can also lo dosignod as spiing joints. Thoso aio iotaiy
Iinematics oF an angular gripper with 5 rotary and T linear joints
- -

joints using woll natchod natoiials. Doponding on tho dosign, tho actuation can lo tians-
lational oi iotational (o.g. pnounatic tuiiot diivo oi an oloctiic notoi.
Tho divoisity ol ioalizallo giippoi dosigns is as gioat as tho nunloi ol possillo kino-
natic nodols, sono oxanplos ol which aio dopictod in Figuio 3.75. Tho giippoi with tho
lloxillo soni-piisn (lotton iight can iolially hold paits ol dilloiont dianotoi without
displaconont ol tho piohonsion contio (Soviot Patont 682366, MK B25 J 15]00.
Iinematic models oF impactive grippers closing along a curved path and possessing
6 rotary joints and T or 2 linear joints
Gripper gear with toothed rack and gear segments
a) kinematic chain containing six links, b) special structure, c) linear gripper with Four links
T base Frame, 2 driving link, 3 and 4 gripping links

Curved joints in angular grippers

Angular grippers with diFFerent elements For Force transmission
T electric motor, 2 return spring, 3 gripper jaw, 4 object, 5 gripper Finger, 6 roller,
7 threaded spindle, 8 cone, 9 pneumatic cylinder, T0 base plate, TT toothed rack,
T2 movable semi-prism, T3 Fixed semi-prism
- -

Tho oxanplo shown in Figuio 3.76 illustiatos ono solution loi adjustnont ol tho stioko
position ol tho giippoi lingoi in which tho piston iod can lo adjustod within tho piston ly
noans ol a thioad. It is also possillo to attach stop disks (insido and outsido in oidoi to
linit, oi danp, tho tiavol. Tho lingois aio shown without iotuin spiings.
Figuio 3.77 shows a soloction ol connoicially availallo giippois (Fig. 3.77a and l,
-. Intoinodiato nochanical links containing noio oi loss goai conpononts tiansloin
tho piston notion into iotaiy notion. Tho loicod contiol ol tho giippoi lingois shown in
Figuio 3.77a iosults in sinultanoous and contiod notion lut tho oponing anglo ol 20 loi
tho sopaiato lingois is iathoi linitod.
A sonowhat inpiovod situation is achiovod ly using toothod iack and pinion goais
whoio oponing anglos as laigo as 90 can lo ioachod. Thoii piinciplo onsuios that tho giip-
ping toiquo ionains constant acioss tho ontiio oponing and closuio anglo.
Typical lovoi goais dopictod in Figuio 3.78 dononstiato giipping loicos which can lo ox-
poctod doponding on tho iolovant kinonatics.
Figuio 3.79 shows a giippoi dosign which conlinos tho advantagos ol tho angulai giip-
poi with thoso ol tho paiallol jaw giippoi. Tho jaw oponing anglo can lo as laigo as 180 . A
paiallol notionpioducing highgiipping loico conplononts tho jawnotionin tho last low
nillinotios ol novonont. Tho closuio ol this giippoi is alsolutoly contiod, with a iopoata-
lility ol 0.02 nn.
T gripper jaw
2 gripper Finger
3 drive disk
4 piston
5 threaded nut
6 adjustment spindle
various designs oF angular grippers
a) angle lever mechanics, b) toothed rack and pinion gear, c) sliding block and wedge gear
T gripper Finger
2 pneumatic piston
3 straight line guide
4 pneumatic cylinder
5 pinion
6 toothed rack
7 cam slide
8 compressed air connection
Gripper with adjustable
stroke position



cos (






sin (
= aicsin


= (



sin (



sin =


sin (


sin (



sin =


sin (


sin (

sin =


sin (
T gripper jaw
2 workpiece
Iinematic models oF some lever gears whose gripper jaws traverse curved paths
- -

Tho O-iing canlo ionovod liontho cylindoi and a giipping loico socuiing cylindoi (soo
Fig. 13.51 sulstitutod il dosiiod. Tho angulai-paiallol tiavol is conlinod within tho sano
lunctional unit. Tho togglo lovoi constiuction ol tho tiansnission lovoi conos into play
only in tho last phaso ol notion.
Nunoious dosigns ol angulai giippois loi vaiious applications oxist, o.g. giippois with a
singlo noving lingoi. Figuio 3.80 shows a hydiaulic giippoi loi which only a singlo pnou-
natic cylindoi is sulliciont as piino novoi. Standaid pioducts, liko togglo lovois, can lo
dosignod loi uso with nost actuatois loi uso in inpactivo giippois.
Tho lovoi nochanics ol tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 3.80l onsuios highly iopoatallo
guidanco ol tho noving jaw along a stiaight lino and paiallol to tho voitical axis.
Sinplo spiing loadod singlo lingoi giippois can lo usod loi tho handling ol iolativoly
light oljocts as dopictod in Figuio 3.81. Actuation ol tho spiing loadod nochanisn loi ol-
joct piohonsion nay lo pnounatic oi oloctionagnotic. Oljoct iotontion is govoinod
puioly ly spiing loico.
Mechanics oF the angular-parallel gripper { Patent)
T gripper jaw
2 curved roller
3 guiding slide
4 guiding shaFt
5 slide
6 piston
7 bush
8 O-ring
9 carrier
T0 plate
Angular gripper
with one moving Finger [3-T2|
a) hydraulic gripper
b) six-link gripper gear
T pressure control valve
2 operating cylinder
3 moving Finger
4 workpiece

Simple 4 Finger
gripper For light parts
Tho piohonsion ol long paits (oxcooding 200 nn nay ioquiio tho conlination ol
sovoial individual giippois as can lo soon in Figuio 3.82. Tho uso ol two giippois halvos
tho load loaiing capacity poi giippoi as long as tho oljoct contio ol giavity lios piocisoly
nidway lotwoon tho two giippois. Howovoi, this doos not avoid tho piollon ol tho laigo
iadius ol gyiation which tho iolot oxpoiioncos. Rolot load iatings aio noinally givon ly
nanulactuiois as loing contiod at tho tool point. Foi ollsot load loaiing capacity tho usoi
should consult tho iolovant iolot spocilications.
Finally, thoio oxist nany inpactivo angulai giippois with spocial piopoitios. Figuio 3.83
shows as an oxanplo a patontod giippoi which is capallo ol ionoving iound paits lion
planai (oi indontod suilacos ly lingoi shapo natching. This is achiovod thiough spiing-
nountod jaws (toision spiings which closo alout tho woikpioco as giipping loico is ap-
It is intoiosting to noto that tho angulai nochanisns usod in oxcavatois aio also occa-
sionally onployod in iolot giippois loi tho handling ol lulk natoiials. Alnost any goaiod
piino novoi nay lo usod and dosigns aio typically as shown in Figuio 3.84.
Figuio 3.85 shows a giippoi with intoiosting lingoi kinonatics, intondod loi tho han-
dling ol 25-kg sacks. Tho cuivod toothod iack and pinion goai poinits a wido iango ol lin-
1wo point prehension For long workpieces
- -

LiFting oF round parts by

spring loaded jaws
a) gripper in pre-prehension position
b) post-prehension {retention)
T gripper housing
2 gripper Finger
3 gripper jaw
4 jaw stop
5 holding claw
6 workpiece
7 joint pivot
8 torsion spring
9 toothed rack
Shovel gripper {excavator)
T gripper head
2 mounting
3 prime mover
4 gear system
5 closure spindle with protection tube
Sack gripper For palletizing
tasks {)

Thoio aio a nunloi ol intoiosting caso studios, doalt with in Chaptoi 14, dodicatod to tho
piohonsion and nanipulation ol sacks and laggod pioducts.
- -
Radial giippois, known also as contiical oi soll-contiing giippois, aio nostly thioo jaw
giippois capallo ol aligning tho oljoct along tho giippoi axis. Thoy aio connonly usod loi
tho handling ol cylindiical woikpiocos in loading and nounting opoiations. Tho giasping
oigans nay closo in a stiaight lino oi along cuivod path. Figuio 3.86 shows sono dosign
oxanplos with vaiious goai conliguiations.
Radial grippers
a) basic model with straight linkages, b) use oF worm drive and screw mechanism,
c) linkages with pinion gears, d) pinion gears with intermediate wheel and
reversal oF rotation direction For the third gripper Finger
T gripper jaw
2 toothed segment
3 worm drive
4 threaded shaFt
5 workpiece
6 gripper housing
Figuio 3.87 shows sono additional dosigns whoio actuationis ioalizod pnounatically ly
a piston oi iotaiy wing.
A paiticulaily laigo giipping iango can lo achiovod using tho giippoi schonatically
shown in Figuio 3.87c, whoio tho thioo lingois closo along a cuivod path towaids tho
contio ol tho giippoi. Fuithoinoio, tho piohonsion iango can lo altoiod ly insoiting tho
giipping pins (lingois into dilloiont holos in tho jaws. Tho pivoting anglo ol tho iotaiy
- -
goi notion. Tho sack, to lo ionovod lion a pallot oi convoyoi, is onclosod initially ly
shapo natching ol tho lingois to tho sack topology. In tho linal notional phaso tho lingois
clanp tho sack which nay iosult in a slight dogioo ol conpiossion ol tho sack lut piovonts
slippago paiticulaily in casos ol dilloiing woight oi lill lovol.

wing can lo linitod at loth ond positions and tho linits vaiiod. No nodilications aio noc-
ossaiy loi application as an intoinal giippoi.
Intoinal giippois, piohond tho woikpioco lion within, noinally ly inpactivo noans.
Thoy aio noio conpact than oxtoinal giippois and so ioquiio loss ioon loi nanoouvio
tho intoiloionco contoui ol tho giippoi is snall. Apnounatic cylindoi causos tho lingois to
novo outwaid in a diioction poipondiculai to tho axis ol actuation. In Figuio 3.88a and l a
conical wodgo causos hoiizontal novonont ol an O-iing oi pins. In Figuio 3.88c tho con-
pononts ol a tapoiod sliding link aio splayod outwaid.
Figuio 3.89 shows an inpactivo giippoi loi intoinal piohonsion whoioly tho piohon-
sion loico is pioducod ly an oloctionagnotic solonoid. Tho nochanical action ol tho solo-
noid iotiacts a conical wodgo against a spiing stool collot thus spioading tho ond ol tho col-
lot within tho oljoct to lo giippod. Tho olasticity ol tho collot also acts as tho iotuin spiing
as tho wodgo is allowod to diop to lacilitato oljoct ioloaso. This piinciplo is suitallo loi tho
piohonsion ol snall light paits, paiticulaily in tho alsonco ol a pnounatic supply.
Tho dosign shown in Figuio 3.90 contains thioo cioss slidos in tho caiiioi which novo in
tho diioction ol inpaction as a iosult ol tho voitical notion ol tho contial collai stud. Tho
giippoi liist nakos contact with tho woikpioco loloio oxtonding tho cioss slidos. Jaw
stioko is linitod lut jaws aio noinally oxchangoallo allowing conpatilility within a iango
ol sizos.
Principle oF construction oF some radial grippers with three and more Fingers
a) angle lever mechanics, b) {simpliFied) wedge clamp mechanics, c) toothed segment gear
T gripper basic jaw, 2 gripping pin, 3 angle lever, 4 piston, 5 seal, 6 rotary wing drive,
7 piston rod, 8 wedge clamp gear, 9 segment gear, T0 toothed wheel, TT gripper Finger axis,
T2housing, T3 compressed air connection: open, T4 cylinder cover, T5 bearing bush,
T6 compressed air connection: close

Designs oF internal grippers

a) clamping ring, b) clamping pins c) clamping jaws
T compressed air connection, 2 housing, 3 return spring, 4 piston, 5 tension spring, 6 workpiece,
7 sphere, 8 clamping pin, 9 tapered jawl, T0 guide bush, TT soFt rubber buFFer, T2 O-ring
T Flange
2 electromagnet
3 magnetic core
4 conical wedge
5 collet
6 gripped object
7 stop disk
8 return spring
Flectromagnetically actuated
internal gripper
In tho dosign shown in Figuio 3.91a, insoition ol tho giippoi into tho holo oi iocoss in
tho oljoct to lo acquiiod causos iotiaction ol tho pondulun jaw and voitical displaconont
ol tho conical wodgo. Pnounatic piossuio loicos tho conical wodgo downwaids and tho
jaw outwaids. On ionoval ol tho pnounatic piossuio, tho iotuin spiing loicos tho wodgo
upwaids thus lacilitating oljoct ioloaso.
Figuio 3.91l shows a vaiiant which doos not ioly on a iotuin spiing loi oljoct ioloaso
lut ioquiios actuation (pnounatic oi hydiaulic to toininato iotontion.
- -

Short stroke internal gripper

T mechanical connection From
prime mover
2 gripper substrate
3 workpiece
4 cross slide
5 gripper jaw
6 collar stud
7 hardened ring
movement For prehension
movement For release
Foi tho dosign shown in Figuio 3.91a tho iotontion loico is dopondant ontho pnounatic
piossuio whilo loi tho voision shown in Figuio 3.91l tho iotontion loico is dotoininod
sololy ly tho spiing loico and tho wodgo slopo . Accoiding to Figuio 3.92 tho wodgo olloct
is givon ly:

sin (
2 3
cos (
1 2
k = tan (3.38
= tan
, k
= tan
, k
= tan

k coolliciont ol liiction
anglo ol liiction
T workpiece
2 mandrel housing
3 piston
4 return spring
5 impactive jaw
6 pendulum jaw
clamping Force

return spring Force
compressed air
Gripping mandrel For internal grip
a) actuated prehension, b) actuated release

Foi a synnotiical syston with idontical anglos ol liiction:

tan ( 2 (3.39

Inpactivo giippois can lo also nado to soll-llock. Soll llocking noans that tho jaws nay
lo lockod into tho closod condition duiing notion, loi oxanplo whon suljoctod to laigo
contiilugal loicos tangontial to tho piohonsion points. Soll-llocking can lo passivo oi
activo. Many oloctio-nochanically diivon inpactivo giippois aio ly thoii natuio soll-llock-
ing locauso tho goai iatio and]oi tho pitch ol tho diivo sciow is lino onough that iovoiso
diiving is inpossillo.
Blocking nay also lo achiovod in an activo nannoi as shown in tho spindlo diivon ox-
anplo illustiatod in Figuio 3.93.
Tho spindlo is piotoctod against iovoiso iotation whon tho thioadod tiansloi olonont is
suljoctod to a loico, piovidod that tho load anglo ol tho thioad satislios tho inoquality
whoio is dotoininod again ly oxpiossion 3.38:
k = tan
k spindlo spindlo nut coolliciont ol liiction
anglo ol liiction
Force transmission with wedge elements
Patented angular gripper with
electromotive actuation
T gripper Finger
2 threaded transFer element
3 guide
4 prime mover shaFt
5 threaded spindle
lead angle
- -

Impactive grippers with roller crank

a) Force diagram oF selF-blocking, b) examples oF grippers with selF-blocking
Coaiso spindlos with laigo load anglo nay piovido iapid jaw closuio lut aio not soll-
llocking. In tho caso ol oloctiical diivos, tho nochanical llocking piovidod ly such do-
signs nay lo augnontod ly naintaining tho notoi activo at ioducod cuiiont.
Figuio 3.94 shows two dosigns using iolloi cianks. Attonpts to opon tho closod giippoi
jaws ly applying a loico
will iosult in a lovoi loico at tho pivot
. This loico is docon-
posod into tho conpononts
locauso tho diiving slido can only novo in tho
diioction ol tho x-axis. Doponding on tho goonotiy ol tho giippoi lingoi, tho loico
intonsily oi woakon tho closing loico. Anplilication would llock tho giippoi jaws, i.o. soll-
llocking takos placo. Tho piosontod loico diagian doos not contain oithoi tho liiction
toiquos, which occui in tho lovoi axis, oi any liiction loicos lotwoon tho iolloi and tho
Angulai giippois olton olloi advantagos in conpactnoss ol dosign, oxhiliting only a
linitod intoiloionco contoui. Tho linoai tianslation olonont, othoiwiso nocossaiy loi tho
iotuin stioko ol tho giippoi, is supoilluous. In oidoi to achiovo accoptallo closing loicos in
tho linal stagos ol closuio togglo-lovol goais aio sonotinos nocossaiy. Laigo giippois allow
loi good acconnodation ol iolust nochanics. Howovoi, whon applying this piinciplo to
voiy snall giippois with dolicato joints, sono load loaiing capalilitios nust lo saciilicod.
Foi this ioason tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 3.95 is piovidod with a cuivo guido (iolloi
ciank loi tho gonoiation ol lingoi notion. Tho loico-displaconont diagian can lo ap-
pliod to tho cuivod loin in such a way that a laigo holding loico is availallo towaids tho
ond ol closuio (though without soll-llocking. This piovonts ovoiload piollons othoiwiso
typical loi togglo lovoi goais. Tho disadvantago is that tho giippoi jaws nust lo dosignod in
such a way that thoy oxactly natch tho sizo ol tho woikpioco.

Angular gripper with roller crank {)

T mechanical connection From prime mover
2 robust cam segment
3 guide roll
4 gripper jaw
5 adjustable, damped stop
6 workpiece
Occasionally it is nocossaiy to intogiato iotation ol an oljoct within tho giippoi duiing io-
tontion to assist nanipulation without tho nocossity ol additional haidwaio. Tho giippoi
shown in Figuio 3.96 is capallo ol changing tho oiiontation ol tho oljoct ly 90 . Tho
conploto iotational nochanics, including tho notoi, aio olton intogiatod into tho lingoi.
In nost casos it is sulliciont loi actuation ol only ono giippoi jaw, tho opposito ono loing
iotatod passivoly. Tho pivoting anglo ond position is adjustallo to within 3 and tho
achiovallo iopoatalility anounts to aiound 0.01 .
Tho tiansnission ol iotational notion lion tho piino novoi to a pivotod jaw can lo io-
alizod ly toothod lolts oi whools. Tho notoi can lo allowod to novo togothoi with tho jaws
oi it nay lo socuiod to tho housing and notion tiansnittod ly noans ol a splino shalt.
Figuio 3.97 shows sovoial goai solutions.
Rotating gripper
T gripper Finger
2 gripper jaw
3 pneumatic cylinder
4 workpiece
5 workpiece magazine
pivoting angle
- -

A pivoting anglo ol 90 oi 180 is not always sulliciont. Tho giippoi piosontod in Figuio
11.27 (soo Chaptoi 11, o.g., lullils a dilloiont task, iotating tho piohondod woikpioco
thiough any dosiiod anglo (usually loi inspoction and noasuionont puiposos.
Tho toins lingoi and jaw aio olton usod intoichangoally. Stiictly spoaking, tho jaws aio
tho paits connoctod to tho diiving goai nochanisn (oi piino novoi diioctly and tho lin-
gois aio an oxtonsion thoioto. Howovoi, in nuch ol tho litoiatuio this status is iovoisod.
This is paiticulaily connon in tho caso ol snall iotatallo jaws situatod at tho ond ol tho
Giippoi lingois (oi sonotinos tho jaws thonsolvos cono into diioct contact with tho
woikpioco. This loads to intoiactions in toins ol lingoi topology, iotontion iolialility, ac-
coptalility ol toloiancos and tho nocossaiy nunloi ol giasping oigans. Tho giippoi dosign
can lo luithoi inlluoncod ly piocoss-iolatod ioquiiononts, such as tho nocossaiy joining
loicos in an assonlly piocoss.
}aw actuation For rotational grippers
T Finger housing, 2 pneumatic cylinder with toothed cylinder, 3 toothed wheel, 4 rotatable
plate For the gripper jaw, 5 toothed belt, 6 motor {electric motor or pneumatic rotary
wing unit), 7 pneumatic cylinder, 8 pivot arm
Gripper jaw shapes For
internal and combined grips

Figuio 3.98 shows two jawand lingoi shapos iospoctivoly, loi inpactivo piohonsion. Tho
cuivod lingois aio choson in tho piosontod oxanplo loi piocoss iolatod ioasons.
Tho choico ol lingoi dosign can also inlluonco tho alility to acconnodato a nochani-
cally laigo iango ol oljoct dianotois, as illustiatod in Figuio 3.99. Tho jaws aio loinod in
such a way that a ioliallo thioo-point iotontion ol ovon voiy snall oljocts is possillo.
Extondod jaw suppoits nay lo nocossaiy loi tho piohonsion ol long paits as donon-
stiatod in Figuio 3.100. Tho solution shown is ol paiticulai inpoitanco in casos whoio tho
piohonsion contio doos not coincido with tho woikpioco nass contio and unwantod tilt
nononts act on tho giippoi lingois oxoiting piossuio on tho giippoi jaws.
}aw design For round
parts with a large diameter range
Fxtended jaw supports
T parallel jaw gripper
2 gripper jaw
3 supporting element
4 tube
5 workpiece
Tho natching ol oljoct and giippoi contact points should lo statically dotoininod in
toins ol an unanliguous position ol tho oljoct with iospoct to tho giippoi. Tho dogioo ol
tho natching ovoi dotoinination $ can lo calculatod lion oxpiossion (3.38:
$ = 6 ( 1

= 1

- -

Matching oF Fingers and object

a) prismatic Fingers, b) combination oF prism and rounded bar
Tho dogioo ol ovoi dotoinination indicatos tho nunloi ol olonontaiy notions nocossaiy
loi a statically dolinod oljoct iotontion whoioly tho paianotois in oquation (3.38 aio:
joint dogioos ol lioodon which tho natching should possoss
nunloi ol sul-joints

dogioo ol lioodon ol tho i-th sul-joint ol tho sul-joints into which tho natching can
lo doconposod
Figuio 3.101 shows two oxanplos loi this.
T cylindrical object
2 gripper Fingers
In tho oxanplo piosontod in Figuio 3.101a tho shalt and tho giippoi piisns loin a iota-
tion-tianslation joint with = 2 which can lo doconposod into = 4 cylindoi slal joints as
sul-joints oach with
= 4 (2 iotations, 2 tianslations. Fion which it lollows that:
$ = 2 6 (4 1 (4 4 4 4 = 4
This noans that thioo additional olonontaiy notions aio ioquiiod loi static dotoinination
ol tho natching in addition to tho tianslational notion ol tho giasping oigans iolativo to
oach othoi. Thoy can lo ioalizod, o.g., ly a lall joint lotwoon ono ol tho giippoi lingois and
its jaw pivot.
Tho natching ol oljoct to lingoi piolilo shown in Figuio 3.101l consists ol 2 cylindoi
slal joints and ono cylindoi-cylindoi joint with
= 1. In this caso $ = 2 6(3 1
(4 4 5 = 1 and tho natching is statically dolinod. Although a point contact takos placo,
loi coiioct shaping ol tho lingoi, i.o., loi lavouiallo luliication, this doos not nocossaiily
load to an unaccoptallo lovol ol suilaco piossuio.
Tho toin ovoi should not lo conlusod with . Dopondoncios io-
sult lion position doviations lotwoon tho oljoct and lingois. Sinco such doviations occui
iathoi olton whon positioning tho giippoi iolativo to tho oljoct oi whon positioning tho ol-
joct iolativo to its linal iocoivoi (o.g. a chuck, it is inpossillo to avoid additional novo-
nonts. Tho nunloi ol thoso novononts along and alout tho axos ol tho ioloionco cooidi-
nato syston coiiosponds to tho nissing dogioos ol lioodon, i.o. tho dopondoncios ol tho

kinonatic chain conpiising tho iocoivoi, tho oljoct, and tho lingoi which nako contact
with (lut do not socuio tho oljoct. It is nocossaiy that tho dopondancy
= (3.39
= ( 1

dogioo ol lioodon ol tho kinonatic chain
loi a spatial chain = 6
joint dogioo ol lioodon

idontical joint dogioo ol lioodon
nunloi ol joints
nunloi ol links
Fion oquations (3.39 and (3.40 ono oltains tho oquation loi tho nunloi ol dopondon-
= (2

Figuio 3.102 dononstiatos a sinplo oxanplo ol giipping a shalt which, loing lixod lo-
twoon two tips, can still novo with a joint dogioo ol lioodon = 1 iolativo to tho ioloionco
liano. Tho possillo iotational-tianslational notionlotwoon tho giippoi jaws and tho shalt
has = 2 whoioas tho iotation occuis as an idontical dogioo ol lioodon, i.o.
= 1. Thoio
oxist = 3 links and = 2 joints. Foi tho nunloi ol dopondoncios this givos:
= 6 (2 3 2 (1 2 1 = 4
Tho noaning ol tho alovo is: In oidoi to avoid ovoistiaining as a consoquonco ol nissing
dogioos ol lioodon, coitain giippoi links nust lo lloxillo. To this ain, soll-adjusting con-
ponsation units lotwoon tho giippoi and tho iolot llango aio olton includod. This loads to
autonatic conponsation ol doviations lion tho woikpioco axis lion its thooiotically coi-
ioct position duiing piohonsion opoiations.
Dependencies during shaFt prehension
T gripper jaw
2 object
3 tip stabilising
- -

Soll socuiing giippois iotain tho oljoct puioly ly loico natching. Tho giippois which will
lo piosontod in this soction pioduco tho iotontion loico ly spiing oi nass ollocts.

Spiing loadod giippois piosont tho sinplost loin ol nochanical inpactivo piohonsion
tochnology. Fiin piohonsion is dotoininod ly contact with tho oljoct as dononstiatod in
Fig. 3.103. Foi a voitical notion ol tho giippoi, tho giipping loico
can lo calculatod lion




spiing loico
lovoi dinonsions
Principle oF the spring clamp
Prehension using
a spring loaded device
T spring loaded gripper
2 supply magazine
3 clamping device
4 workpiece

Foi a 90 clockwiso iotation and a voitical tianslation at iolativoly low spood, tho ioquiiod
spiing loico
(without saloty naigin is oltainod lion (3.43


k 2
Ono diawlack ol this sinpliliod giippoi is that no ioloaso nochanics aio includod. Tho
giippoi can only lo withdiawnil tho oljoct is socuiod at its dostinationly additional noch-
anisns as illustiatod in tho oxanplo in Fig. 3.104.
Sono additional giippois which uso tho sano piinciplo aio shownin Figuio 3.105. Nono
ol thon possossos its own nochanical actuatoi.
A sinplo giippoi can lo dosignod using latoial piossuio clips. A poai-shapod pog is
spiing nountod in its laso and can lo dolloctod ly an anglo . Tho clanping tiavol is
shoit. Doponding on tho sizo ol tho installation and its conpononts a spiing loico ol 10 to
300 N(Fig. 3.106 is sulliciont. Tho giippoi is piossod onto tho oljoct to lo piohondod and
contiollod ioloaso is only possillo at tho linal dostination.
clamping gripper
T carrier
2 stop lever
3 workpiece
4 spring
5 external jaws
6 clamping pivot
Impactive gripper with
lateral pressure pegs
T lateral peg
2 workpiece
3 rubber roll or helical spring
pressing Force
maximum possible deFlection
- -

Spiing loadod inpactivo giippois liko tho ono shown in Figuio 3.107 contain a iolloi
loaiing iing in which a spiing loadod sphoio sits. A cylindiical collai iotiacts on contact
with tho oljoct allowing tho spiing loadod sphoio to oxtond to tho ond ol its tiavol within
tho llangod iin. Tho piotiusion ol tho sphoio undoi tho suilaco ol tho oljoct thus allocts
contiod piohonsion. Ejoction ol tho oljoct can lo achiovod ly noving tho collai
downwaids thoioly loicing tho sphoio lack into tho iocoss lohind tho llangod iin.
Band oi loal spiings acting as giippoi jaws also piovido a dogioo ol conloination to tho
oljoct goonotiy. Tho dovolopod piohonsion loicos aio not paiticulaily laigo and tho stioko
nay lo augnontod ly conlination with a linoai diivo. Lilotino and piocision aio linitod
duo to tho natoiial joint which is suljoctod to nochanical stioss duiing oach giipping
stioko. Figuio 3.108 shows two oxanplos.
Fuithoi giippoi dosigns which nay lo ol intoiost, nainly intondod loi spocial solutions,
aio illustiatod in Figuio 3.109. Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 3.109a giasps using olastic
lingois and tulos with olliptical cioss soctions (soo also Fig 8.28.
Prehension through a spring
loaded sphere
T collar
2 gripper substrate
3 workpiece
4 Flanged rim
5 sphere
6 area oF contact
Spring retention gripper
a) band spring loop {Russian Patent 57T369), b) band spring meander
T housing
2 retractable rod
3 Flexible band
4 workpiece
5 drive
6 band spring guide
7 reinForcement

Tho tululai lingois in tho voision shown in Figuio 3.109a aio hollow and act in tho
sano way as tho londing ol a tulo in piossuio gaugos. Tho giippoi shown in
Figuio 3.109 l is lasod on tho snap piinciplo usod in togglo switchos and linotal ovoi-
tonpoiatuio switchos. Tho giippoi jaws aio lixod to llat spiings tho onds ol which aio con-
noctod to tho giippoi housing. Il tho outwaid cuivod spiing is piossod to tho woikpioco to
lo acquiiod tho spiing iapidly ovoiconos tho doad zono and tho giippoi jaws closo with a
snap. In oidoi to ioloaso tho pait, tho llat spiing nust lo iotuinod to its initial position ly
tho action ol a pnounatic cylindoi.
Figuio 3.110 shows anothoi giippoi with llat spiing lingois suitallo loi tho piohonsion
ol light paits.
Grippers using spring elements
a) elastic Finger gripper, b) leaF spring gripper
T gripper body, 2 channel For compressed air, 3 gripper connection, 4 nozzle, 5 workpiece,
6 pneumatic cylinder, 7 retractable release rod, 8 gripper jaw, 9 leaF spring
Impactive prehension
using Flat spring Finger
a) kinematic scheme
b) Force diagram
T pneumatic cylinder
2 housing
3 workpiece
4 gripper jaw
5 Flat spring Fingers
6 tie
compressed air
- -

An actuatoi (pnounatic cylindoi oi solonoid is ioquiiod loi tho closing notion ol tho
giippoi jaws. Oponing takos placo thiough tho spiing loico alono. Tho tios nust lo so-
cuiod at sono appiopiiato point on tho spiing lingoi.

Tho astuto iodiioction ol giavitational loicos on an oljocts nass into giipping loicos is a
loin ol inpactivo piohonsion which doos not ioly on oxtoinal diivos. Tho gonoiatod pio-
honsion loico is, ol couiso, oljoct nass dopondont. Such giippois aio usod piinaiily in
lilting tools and nanually contiollod nanipulatois. Thoii constiuction is nochanically
sinplo and a voiy oaily voision dating liontho 19th contuiy is known as tho dovil's claw.
Thoso giippois aio olton usod loi tho nanipulation ol lai stock, shalts, wood, casos, lai-
iols, tulos and lundlod iods. Tho jawis oponod on ioloaso with tho holp ol a spiing. Figuio
3.111 shows thioo oxanplos ol such giippois.
SelF sustaining impactive grippers
T swivel joint, 2 tension spring, 3 gripper jaw, 4 object, 5 baseplate
liFting Force, mass, gravitational acceleration,
Force due to object mass
Thoso giippois aio sinplo, iolust and suitallo loi outdooi uso, loi oxanplo in tianspoit
and logistics industiios. Thoio is no thooiotical linit to tho load capacity locauso tho io-
sulting downwaid loico is piopoitional to tho nass ol tho oljoct. In piactico, tho load
capacity is ol couiso linitod ly tho allowallo nochanical stiossos appliod to tho natoiials
usod to luild tho giippoi. On ioloaso tho jaws aio usually oponod ly intogiatod tonsion
A piohonsion clanp in its sinplost loin is shown in Figuio 3.112. Tho acquiiod oljoct,
loi oxanplo a llat plato, is clanpod lotwoon tho giippoi jaws thiough tho loico and
tho liiction loico
. Considoiing tho loicos acting in this caso in noio dotail:

Tho lollowing iolationships hold loi tho nochanics ol tho clanp:



= 0 (3.44



k = 0.5 (3.46

noinal loico

iod loico

liiction loico
k liiction coolliciont woikpioco latch (k 0.35
Fig. 3.113 dopicts a pivotod inpactivo giippoi which usos lovoiago. Tho downwaid loico
ol tho giippoi jaws doponds on tho oponing width lotwoon tho jaws. Roliallo giipping is
possillo only il tho inoquality 3.47 is lullillod:


2 tan
anglo ol liiction ( k = tan

liictional loico

noinal loico
Gripping clamp For vertical steel plate transpor-
tation with mass dependent prehension Force
T latch centre oF rotation
2 retraction rod
3 latch {eccentric clamp)
4 harness
5 carrier
6 prehended object
- -

Forces acting through leverage

Il sovoial paits aio sinultanoously hold ly such a giippoi as shown in Figuio 3.114, tho
suilaco piossuio nust lo high onough to onsuio ioliallo piohonsion without danago to
tho oljoct.
Tho piohonsion loico
is oltainod lion tho toiquos acting at tho ioloionco point I loi
which oquation 3.48 holds:




= 0 (3.48
Tho iod loico
is givon ly


2 cos
T lever mechanics
2 joint
3 workpiece
4 gripper jaw
Force due to mass

Force due to Friction

gripping, normal, or holding Force
Prehension through leverage
T retraction rod
2 jaw lever
3 cross bar
4 gripper jaw
5 objects {Four blocks in the example)
6 gripper axis oF rotation

Tho nininunallowallo valuo loi tho coolliciont ol liiction k lotwoon tho giippoi jawand
tho oljoct can lo calculatod lion oquation 3.50.
k =


loico duo to nass
lovoi position anglo
goonotiical dinonsions
Occasionally tho piohonsion ol an oljoct at two oi noio points with dilloiing thicknossos
oi dianotois is nocossaiy. In such ciicunstancos tho loicos nust lo as oqually distiilutod
lotwoon tho loui contact points as possillo. This can lo ioalizod using a doullo inpactivo
giippoi ol tho loin shown in Figuio 3.115. Initially tho laigoi dianotoi ol tho oljoct will
causo conploto closuio ol tho iight hand giippoi jaws. Tho socond paii ol jaws will con-
tinuo to closo until tho snalloi dianotoi is lully onclosod. Balancing ol tho two giippois is
achiovod without oxtoinal contiol ly tho puioly nochanical action ol a pondulun liidgo.
Principle oF the double impactive gripper with
mechanical selF-adjustment
T pendulum bridge
2 displacement
3 straight-line guide
4 scissor mechanism
5 gripper jaw
6 workpiece
Force due to object mass
liFting Force
Giippois nay also lo dosignod to possoss locking nochanisns which naintain tho
giippoi jaws opon on conplotion ol tho oljoct ioloaso piocoss and sulsoquont withdiawal
ol tho giippoi. Tho intoilock is autonatically ollsot whon tho noxt oljoct is attachod. Figuio
3.116 shows an oxanplo with locking and unlocking.
Figuio 3.117 shows a giippoi dosignod loi intoinal piohonsion. Its nain novolty lios in a
ihonloid nochanisnwhich is connoctod to a giippoi llango ly noans ol a slido and lovoi
conlination. Insoition into tho woikpioco, o.g. a tulo soction, is nocossaiy loi achioving
piohonsion. Jaw closuio takos placo autonatically as a iosult ol tho giavitational loicos
- -

Impactive gripper with automatic control

T rod, 2 return spring, 3 mushroom head, 4 collar with Feedthrough, 5 tension spring,
6 buFFered stop, 7 gripper Finger, 8 mounting plate, 9 upper jack, T0 lower jack,
TT triangular toothing with latch, T2 rod
whon lilting tho oljoct. At tho sano tino tho loaiing axis is connoctod to tho joining llango
ovoi a sphoio. Tho llango novos slightly downwaids duiing lilting thus shilting tho slido.
Oljoct ioloaso is achiovod ly iooponing tho jaws ly tho onoigy stoiod in tho tonsion spiing.
Tho lasic lovoi dosign ol an inpactivo nochanisn intondod loi tho handling ol solo-
noids is shown in Figuio 3.118. Closuio ol tho jaws is ioalizod ly viituo ol tho load ovoi tho
lovoi syston (typical load iatios can lo lotwoon 4: 1 and 6: 1 whilo iotontion iolios on
liictional loicos lotwoon oljoct and giippoi jaws. An autonatic nochanical stop switch
Impactive gripper For internal prehension {B 25 } T5]00, }apanese Patent 53-23584)
T impactive jaw, 2 jaw lever, 3 setscrew, 4 upper lever, 5 tension spring, 6 Flange, 7 robot arm,
8 bearing axis, 9 lower lever, T0 slide and roller bearing, TT angled lever, T2 sphere, T3 object

Principle oF internal gripper {)

gravitational Force on load
nochanisn (not shown in tho liguio onsuios that oponing and closing altoinato without
tho nocossity ol additional contiol actions duiing lilting and ioloaso.
Tho laiiol odgo giippoi dopictod in Figuio 3.119 is ono ol nany dosigns which onploy
sinplo lovoi nochanics loi tho piohonsion ol shoot notal laiiols with iing collais. Both
tho suppoiting ain and tho oponod claw nako contact with tho laiiol on appioach, soiz-
ing tho laiiol odgo on lilting. Tho jaws aio autonatically oponod with doposition ol tho ol-
A soloction ol additional oxanplos ol inpactivo giippois which ioly on tho nass ol tho
oljoct loi piohonsion and iotontion aio shown in Figuio 3.120. Many ol thoso dosigns aio
noio connonly lound in hand-opoiatod nanipulatois.
Barrel edge gripper { -)
T barrel
2 supporting bracket
3 leverwork
4 mounting Flange
- -

Gripping oF machine components with uncontrolled

gearFree grippers {)
Foi tho giippoi dosign shown in Figuio 3.121 piohonsion ol tho oljoct piocoods in-
diioctly. Tho oscaping aii pioducos an undoipiossuio lotwoon tho loal spiings, so that tho
giippoi jaws closo to socuio tho woikpioco. In addition, a suction olloct occuis at tho holo
plato which naintains iotontion. Tho piohonsion loicos pioducod, aio howovoi, iathoi
snall. In piinciplo tho aii llow giippois havo oxtionoly sinplo constiuction and contain
low noving conpononts.
T gripper carrier
2 gripper Finger
3 workpiece
4 centring spigot
5 liFting unit
6 straight line guide
Impactive gripper with air Flow actuation
T leaF spring
2 gripper housing
3 nozzle
4 hole plate
5 gripper jaw
6 gripped object

Thioo lingois olloi good contiing possililitios loi tho adjustnont ol tho woikpioco on tho
giippoi axis which is dillicult to ioalizo with astiictivo systons. In nost casos tho kinonati-
cally idoal giipping solution loi thioo-point piohonsion is whon tho linos ol inpactivo
loico intoisoct at ono connon point. This is oasy to achiovo loi woikpiocos with axial syn-
notiy lut sonowhat noio dillicult loi piisnatic woikpiocos.
Gripping points
For a prismatic workpiece
a) Four-point grip
b) three-point grip
T gripper Finger
2 workpiece
Foi a loui-point contact (Fig. 3.122a tho piohonsion loicos act in two axial diioctions.
Unloitunatoly not ovoiy woikpioco can lo handlod in this nannoi and an altoinativo is tho
thioo-point contact as shown in Figuio 3.122l, in which caso tho contiing olloct in tho x-
diioction is alsont.
Thoio oxist nunoious dosigns loi giippois with thioo lingois. As illustiatod in Figuio
3.123 tho lingois cannovo togothoi oi indopondontly ol ono anothoi. Thoy cannovo along
a cuivod path oi along a stiaight lino towaids tho contio.
Access possibilities For a three-Finger gripper
a) claw grip, b) centring sliding Fingers, c) centring pivoted Fingers
T workpiece
2 slide Finger
3 pivot Finger
4 clamp bolt
Tho lollowing Figuios illustiato tho dosign piinciplos ol a iango ol thioo-lingoi giippois.
Figuio 3.124 shows a 3-lingoi giippoi with lingois aiiangod at an anglo ol 120 capallo ol a
iolativoly laigo giipping iango. Tho lingois aio diivon ly an oloctiic notoi via a nut-
spindlo and lovol goai which onsuios tho coiioct diioction ol iotation.
- -

gripper with spindle gear
{aFter )
T straight line guide
2 spindle nut
3 spindle
4 bevel gear
5 gripper Finger
6 electric motor
7 base plate
8 workpiece
Tho giippois shown in Figuio 3.125 nust lo placod ovoi tho oljoct to lo acquiiod lo-
causo a latoial appioach is inpossillo. In loth casos tho diiving notion is tiansnittod ovoi
a iing to which tho lingois aio nochanically couplod. Tho lingois nay closo along a
stiaight lino oi a cuivod path. Tho giippois aio woll suitod loi assonlly opoiations with
cylindiically shapod oljocts
Fxamples oF gears concepts For three-Finger grippers
Sonotinos stool callos (push-pull callos aio usod loi tho tiansnission ol diiving no-
tion to tho giippoi lingois. This can lo a usolul and sinplo solution in tho caso ol laigo ol-
joct dianotois, ospocially whoio tho giippoi lingois aio locatod sono distanco lion tho
piino novoi (loi oxanplo, tho nounting ol toothod whools on long goai shalts oi naga-
zino nandiols. Foi tho concopt shown in Figuio 3.126a tho lingois closo along a cuivod
path. Tho closing notion is pioducod ly a pnounatic cylindoi whilo tho oponing is ioal-
izod ly a ioloaso spiing. In tho altoinativo caso, dopictod in Figuio 3.126l, tho lingoi no-
tion piocoods along a stiaight lino towaids tho piohonsion contio. This is ioalizod ly tuin-
ing a iing with tiltod slots in tho nannoi dopictod in Figuio 3.125 (lolt. Oponing takos
placo ly noans ol loico tiansnission along a stool callo.

Tho 3-lingoi giippoi shown in Figuio 3.127 oxoits a contiing olloct on tho cylindiical
oljoct. Tho lingois aio actuatod and synchionisod via a iack and pinion nochanisn. With
its iathoi wido iango ol pivoting tho giippoi is capallo ol opoiating ovoi laigo vaiiations in
oljoct dianotoi.
Actuation oF gripper Fingers with the help oF a steel cables
a) kinematic example, b) gripper design
T steel rope, 2 cladding, 3 gripper carrier, 4 gripper Finger, 5 rotary ring, 6 workpiece,
7 pneumatic cylinder, 8 return spring
1hree-Finger centring gripper
T gripper Flange
2 motor
3 gripper housing
4 gripper Finger
5 exchangeable gripper jaws
6 workpiece
7 supporting roller
8 toothed rack
Tho lingois ol tho giippoi shown in Figuio 3.128 aio novod ly iollois acting against a
wodgo. Tho wodgo sognont nust lo linoaily tianslatod, o.g. ly a pnounatic cylindoi oi an
oloctionochanical diivo.
Ono iathoi good oxanplo ol tho contiing olloct achiovallo with a thioo-lingoi anglo giip-
poi is shown in Figuio 3.129. As with nany othoi anglo giippois, tho lingois aio pivotod to
novo lackwaids. Consoquontly, it is possillo to load clanping lixtuios without axial tians-
lations. Tho anglo clanping unit nay opon only altoi piohonsion has loon achiovod, i.o.
tho giippoi is occupiod. Tho cup-shapod giippoi jaws pioduco lowoi suilaco piossuio in
conpaiison to piisnatic jaw giippois. This can lo an inpoitant soloction ciitoiion os-
pocially whon handling thin-wallod, dolicato oi liittlo woikpiocos.
- -

Tho inclusion ol catchos at tho ond ol tho giippoi jaws nakos loi lottoi iotontion ol ol-
jocts containing iing gioovos (Fig. 3.129c. Piohonsion ol tho oljoct can lo achiovod
thiough shapo nating iathoi than iolying on giippoi loico alono. This also has tho advan-
tago ol noio uniloin loico distiilution anong tho thioo piohonsion points.
Astuto dosign ol tho giippoi lingois allows loi a coitain dogioo ol adaptation to vaiying
woikpioco sizos and shapos. Sono oxanplos aio illustiatod in Figuio 3.130. Caiolul atton-
tion to individual lingoi dosign nakos it is possillo to acquiio long paits (Fig. 3.130l,
though in such casos tho axos ol tho giippoi and tho oljoct do not nocossaiily coincido.
Tho haidonod giipping pins in Figuio 3.130c o aio intondod loi intoinal piohonsion. A
choico ol nounting holos in tho giippoi jaws piovidos a dogioo ol conloinalility to tho
piolilo ol tho oljoct, though any adjustnonts nust lo caiiiod out nanually. Tho pins
1hree-Finger gripper using wedge
Pneumatic three-Finger angle
a) design example
b) delivery sequence
c) application in mounting
T base gripper
2 cup-shaped gripper jaw
3 workpiece
4 clasp jaw
joining Force exerted by the gripper

ModiFication oF the standard three-Finger gripper by special Finger design

a) basic gripper, b) gripper jaw For eccentric grip, c) nonconcentric internal gripping
oF a housing, d) displaceable pins For variable prehension, e) concentric internal
gripping oF a Flange ring.
T robot arm
2 three-Finger gripper
3 special gripper jaw
4 workpiece
5 gripping pin
6 gripper jaw
thonsolvos aio shapod to conply with tho contoui ol tho oljoct, as shown in Figuio
3.130o. Tho activo longth ol tho giipping pins should lo at loast 5 nn.
- -
Foi tho piohonsion ol long oljocts, a loui-point giasp can havo sono distinct advantagos.
This is usually achiovod ly noans ol two two-point giippois as shown in Figuio 3.131.
Tho latoially piotiuding jaws in tho conliguiation shown in Figuio 3.131a piovidos
contiing in tho x and y-axos (axial contiing whon giipping ioctangulai paits. Tho loui-
point giip dopictod in Figuio 3.131l is nocossaiy in tho caso ol long oljocts, paiticulaily
oljocts whoso dianotoi vaiios along thoii longth. Asinglo two jawgiippoi would noinally
lo inadoquato loi this task locauso ol tho laigo nononts ol iotation should tho nass
contio ol giavity not coincido oxactly with tho giippoi contiun.
Hydiaulically diivon giippois aio pioloiallo loi laigo and hoavy oljocts. Tho giippoi
shown in Figuio 3.132 can piohond laigo cylindiical paits intoinally. Tho diiving piston
iod ol tho hydiaulic cylindoi spioads tho giippoi jaws towaids tho cuivod intoinal suilaco
ol tho hollow oljoct. Tho lovoi nochanisn is ioloasod on dopositing tho load so that tho
giippoi jaws nay novo noio liooly.
- -

Four-Finger gripper combinations

a) gripper For rectangular parts, b) gripper For long cylindrical parts
T Flange plate
2 parallel gripper
3 gripper jaw
4 workpiece
Patented internal gripper with hydraulic actuator
T gripper jaw
2 Fastening plate
3 lever
4 connecting bracket
5 sliding block
6 guiding rod
7 hydraulic cylinder
8 prehended object
Four-point gripper {)
a) external view, b) view From below
T housing
2 gripper jaw
3 Fastening screw
Dimensions in mm

Tho loui-point giippoi dopictod in Figuio 3.133 is also usod loi intoinal piohonsion. Ac-
tuation is ioalizod thiough a nonsynchionizod iulloi nonliano which spioads tho loui
sognonts whon a pnounatic piossuio lotwoon 4 and 6 lai is appliod. Piohonsion loico
can lo naintainod in caso ol onoigy lailuio ly a piossuio saloty valvo. Howovoi, tho jaw
tiavol is iathoi snall and tho giipping nonont (4 Nn is quito laigo.
Thoio is iaioly a singlo solution to a givon piohonsion piollon. Each individual caso has
its own poculiaiitios and donands olton spocilic considoiations. Thoio aio nany vaiia-
tions in inpactivo giippoi dosign and tho intoiostod ioadoi should consult Chaptoi 14
whoio a laigo soloction ol caso studios aio oxplainod.
- -

-- -
Many oljocts aio not solid in tho convontional sonso, in that thoy aio nado lion lilious
natoiials. Exanplos includo: toxtilos, cailon and glass lilio. Autonatod piohonsion, and
noioovoi, sopaiation lion a stack ol tho sano is not so sinplo locauso ol thoii physical
piopoitios. Tho toin -- is usod to ioloi to thoso giipping nothods which poinoato
a natoiials suilaco to sono givon dopth. This includos intiusivo noans, such as pins,
which can ponotiato thiough tho natoiial and non-intiusivo nochanisns which aio noi-
nally incapallo ol ponotiation and noioly pinch tho natoiial. Tho -- tochniquos
distinguish thonsolvos lion nothods in that inpactivo piohonsion is achiovod
and naintainod ly loico oxoitod against two oi noio suilacos on tho sano (usually iigid
oljoct. Tho action ol ingiossion noinally applios to a singlo suilaco and allows tho oljoct
to lo hold without tho nood to naintain an appliod loico.
Most pinch nochanisns actually poinoato tho natoiial suilaco, though this poinoa-
tion is usually iostiictod to a pio-dotoininod dopth, and pioloially without danago to tho
natoiial. Foi oxanplo a panol ol toxtilo laliic nay lo piohondod ly tho ponotiation ol
snall pins oi ly pinching with nuch coaisoi pins oi tooth. In tho lattoi caso, tho tooth tond
to inpioss into tho suilaco a snall dopth without lull ponotiation. In loth casos tho giip-
ping nothods aio ingiossivo.
Ingiossivo tochniquos aio usod alnost oxclusivoly with solt natoiials and in paiticulai
laliic, loan and lilious conpononts. Thoii histoiy actually piodatos iolotics in that thoii
liist uso was in conjunction with ciudo nochanisation systons loi toxtilo handling and in
nany casos as a sinplo aid to tho gainont assonlly opoiatoi. Consoquontly nuch litoia-
tuio and nany patonts oxist in this liold j4-1|. Sono, noio iocont, litoiatuio suivoys havo
concontiatod on ingiossivo tochniquos which aio diioctly applicallo to iolotics j4-2|.

In tho najoiity ol casos, ingiossivo giippois aio intondod loi tho acquisition ol tho uppoi-
nost panol liona stack ol tho sano. Ostonsilly, ply sopaiation is achiovod ly noans ol in-
tiusion ol tho top panol to a contiollod dopth (soo Chaptoi 10. Piocision nochanisns aio
ioquiiod which nust lo adjustod to suit tho natoiial with which tho giippoi is loing usod.
Howovoi, this ovoilooks an oxtionoly inpoitant lactoi in toins ol tho physical piopoitios
- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk
Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

ol nost laliics. Whon tho uppoinost panol is liltod ly a giippoi, thoso lolow tond to cling
to it and to ono anothoi. Fuithoinoio, it is ossontial that tho top layoi lo ionovod cloanly,
without distuiling tho piolilo ol thoso lolow. Othoiwiso, tho noxt acquisition opoiation is
likoly to lail, oi in tho loast iosult in piohonsion ol a ladly loldod oi distoitod panol.
Until and unloss singlo layoi cloth cutting loconos piactical and ocononical, laliic will
continuo to lo dio oi knilo cut lionnultiplo layois. Consoquontly tho nost inpoitant task
in any loin ol autonatod toxtilo laliic handling is tho ionoval ol a singlo ply lion a stack
ol tho sano. Without tho alility to poiloin this lasic task quickly and olliciontly no totally
autonatod syston can lunction succosslully as all sulsoquont opoiations dopond on tho
acconplishnont ol this initial task. Altoi a singlo ply has loon ionovod lion such a stack
it nust lo positionod and oiiontatod ioady loi tho noxt opoiation. Tho suljoct ol laliic ply
sopaiation will lo doalt with in noio dopth in Chaptoi 10.
To sunnaiiso tho piollons involvod with lloxillo natoiials and tho donands placod on
potontial handling systons tho lollowing nust lo considoiod.
Filious natoiials havo sono oi all ol tho lollowing piopoitios:
oxtionoly linp oi still and with linitod lond
llocculont (haiiy suilacos which hindois sopaiation
aii poiosity naking vacuun suction dillicult
stiotchalility iosulting in undolinod positional paianotois
Tho donands placod on giippois loi uso with such natoiials aio gioat:
nocossaiy piohonsion and iotontion loico without danago
lloxilility to handlo laigo iangos ol oljoct sizos and shapos
high piohonsion iolialility ( 99%
shoit piohonsion cyclos
Dospito thoso piollons nany typos ol giippoi oxist which havo loon dosignod spocilically
loi tho handling ol such natoiials. Othois consist ol changos to oxisting dosigns oiiginally
intondod loi othoi puiposos.

Taking tho lasic concopt ol tho inpactivo giippoi and ioplacing tho giippoi lingoi with a
shaip spiko would pioduco a ciudo loinol ingiossivo dovico. Howovoi, it is possillo to do-
sign noio ologant ingiossivo nochanisns without going to this oxtiono. Uso has loon
nado ol liushos, sandpapoi otc., to holp sopaiato laliic liona stack. Howovoi, loi ioasons
ol potontial danago, paiticulato contanination otc., such nothods havo loon lound
laigoly unsatislactoiy. Fai noio succosslul in this iospoct havo loon tho nochanical pinch
nochanisns, nany ol which woio dovolopod ly Walton in tho US j4-2|. Ono oxanplo con-
sists ol two soiiatod llados which aio nado to novo loth past and towaid ono anothoi
sinultanoously causing tho laliic to lo pinchod lotwoon thon as shown in Figuio 4.1.
Anothoi vaiiation on this thono is tho voiy succosslul, patontod CluPickoi nanulac-
tuiod and naikotod ly tho US toxtilo nachinoiy conpany Jot-Sow j4-3|. Hoio, a iotating
soiiatod whool pulls tho laliic suilaco against a knuilod loot to achiovo a pinch olloct.
-- -


- -
Figuio 4.2 shows tho dotails ol whool and loot. Both tho gap lotwoon tho whool and loot
and tho contact loico aio adjustallo j4-4|.
Having liltod tho odgo ol tho laliic, ionoval ol tho panol lion tho iost on a stack thon
doponds hoavily on tho doxtoiity ol tho iolot.


- --
Thoso aio ingiossivo giippois, so dosignod that tho piohonsionnochanisncan lo allowod
to ponotiato tho suilaco, and in sono casos thiough tho lull thicknoss ol ono oi noio layois
ol natoiial. As such thoy usually consist ol shaip noodlo points nountod on a iigid sul-
stiato oi platloin.
A wido iango ol nulti-noodlo giipping dovicos havo loon dovolopod ovoi tho yoais. Tho
oailiost nodols usually consistod ol lods ol noodlos doployod ovoi a planai, cylindiical oi
lolt typo suilaco. Countoi novonont ol two such suilacos ovoi a layoi ol laliic allows tho
noodlos to ponotiato in opposing diioctions thoioly pioviding a noans ol voiy liin intiu-
sivo piohonsion j4-5|.
Hacklos consist ol cylindois oi whools containing nany hundiods ol snall noodlo
points, anoxanplo ol which is shown in Figuio 4.3. Thoy havo loon usod loi nany yoais in
tho iocycling lusinoss loi docinating papoi, iags otc. j4-6|. By iotating and countoi iotat-

ing nany hacklos at vaiying spoods, wasto natoiials aio toin into ovoi docioasing sizod
shiods in oidoi to oxpodito latoi iocycling piocossos j4-7|. Hacklos havo loon usod loi lal-
iic and loathoi nanipulation j4-8| and loi tho ionoval ol lacking liln lion cailon lilio
shoots duiing lay-up j4-9|. A sinilai nochanisn, using two countoi iotating hacklos to
giip tho odgo ol a laliic panol was patontod ly Bijttlioi duiing tho nid 1970's j4-10|.
By caiolully liniting tho dopth ol ponotiation, tho noodlo piinciplo nay lo usod to pio-
duco giippois capallo ol olloiing a dogioo ol ply sopaiation. Typical intiusivo giippois on-
ploy lotwoon 10 and 40 lino polishod noodlos oiiontatod in dilloiont diioctions. Tho
noodlos havo dianotois ianging lion0.5 to 2 nn. Tho noodlo points aio noinally slightly
ioundod to piovont danago to tho natoiials loing handlod. Dopth ol ponotiation is ad-
justallo, typically lotwoon 0 and 5 nn.
Thoio aio a linitod nunloi ol ways in which noodlos can lo usod loi piohonsion pui-
posos. Noodlos nay lo oxtondod outwaids lion ono anothoi (Fig 4.6 oi acioss ono

-- -

anothoi (Fig 4.7. Tho lasic piinciplo is lost oxplainod with holp lion Figuio 4.4 in which
tho naxinun giippoi stioko is (

Tho piohonsion loico is dopondant on tho nunloi ol noodlos, thoii distanco apait and
tho noodlo ponotiation anglo.
With holp ol tho diagian and cuivo givon in Figuio 4.5, tho piohonsion loico
loi tho
acquisition ol toxtilo panols can lo calculatod lion tho lollowing oquations:


jN| (4.1


2 - sin


nochanical stioss (piossuio jN]n

cioss soctional aioa ol a noodlo jn

olloctivo Young's nodulus ol tho toxtilo natoiial at 6% nochanical stiain jN]n
ply thicknoss jn|
- distanco lotwoon noodlos jn|

nunloi ol noodlos
ponotiation anglo ol noodlos
anglo ol noodlo point (shaipnoss
- -
Figuio 4.6 shows tho dosign ol an intiusivo giipping hoad, oiiginally dosignod ly Littlo-
wood, in which sovoial noodlos aio nado to oxtond iadially ly tho novonont ol a pnou-
natic actuatoi j4-11|. On cossation ol tho pnounatic signal tho noodlos aio iotiactod ly
noans ol a iotuin spiing and tho oljoct lalls lioo lion tho giippoi. In nost casos tho
noodlo ponotiation dopth is adjustallo. By using a piocision diivo nochanisna nininun
noodlo stioko ol loss than ono thousandth ol an inch is clainod j4-12|.
A noio cost olloctivo voision, oiiginally dovolopod loi tho tiansloiiing ol alsoilont
loan pads usod to lino tho lotton ol noat ciatos in tho lood industiy, is tho Rhodon Pik-
lilt dovico j4-13|. Duo to its iolustnoss, this and sinilai giippois havo also lound applica-
tions in conposito natoiial handling and in paiticulai cailon lilio tow usod loi tho nan-

- -
- - -
- - - --
- -
ulactuio ol liako linings in tho aiicialt industiy j4-14|. Tho noodlos piotiudo at an anglo ol
30 and dopth ol ponotiation is adjustallo lotwoon 0 and 6 nn.
A vaiiation on tho oxtondillo noodlos piinciplo shown in Figuio 4.7 is tho Swiss nado
Polytox dovico j4-15|. This is an ingiossivo giippoi which iolios on intiusion loi tho sopaia-
tion ol singlo panols ol toxtilo natoiial lion a stack ol tho sano. Tho syiingo-liko hollow
noodlos lully ponotiato tho suilaco ol tho uppoinost panol loloio a llast ol aii is loicod
thiough thon to assist in tho sopaiation ol this panol lion thoso ionaining on tho stack
j4-11|. Hollownoodlos aio also usod in oidoi to olloct pnounatic ply sopaiation in a syston
using a lod ol noodlos j4-16|. In loth casos tho ponotiation dopth is adjustallo.


It is intoiosting to noto that tho olloct ol hollownoodlos can lo usod in iovoiso. By tho ap-
plication ol vacuun suction to tho hollow noodlos innodiatoly altoi suilaco ponotiation,
loi ovacuating tho suiplus aii lion polynoi lags duiing handling and tianspoitation ol
laggod goods j4-17|. This poinits a considoiallo incioaso in packing donsity loi such
-- -



- --
Figuio 4.8 shows a noodlo giippoi which consists ol a nunloi ol snall paits. Its intondod
application is in tho piohonsion ol plastic paits pioducod ly piossuio oi llow noulding.
Tho noodlo plato is diivon ly a pnounatic cylindoi nountod on tho giippoi sulstiato.
An altoinativo loin ol tho ingiossivo piinciplo which is not noinally intiusivo utilisos a
lod ol voiy lino noodlos, iathoi liko tho hacklos pioviously discussod, oi wiio liushos j4-18|
j4-19| distiilutod on a planai suilaco as shown in Figuio 4.9.

- -

- -



Tho lasic giippoi is a standaid inpactivo paiallol dovico whoso jaws caiiy tho two wiio
liushos. Tho wiios havo dianotois ol typically 0.3 to 0.5 nn. Tho piohonsion loico is dilli-
cult to calculato lut an idoa can do oltainod lion tho giaph shown in Figuio 4.10.
To sono oxtont tho piohonsion loico
can lo calculatod as lollows:

jN| (4.4



2 (

jN| (4.5

natoiial novonont undoi stioss jn|

nunloi ol lino points
nochanical stiain j%|

olloctivo Young's nodulus ol toxtilo natoiial at 6% stiain jN]n

nochanical loico pioducod ly tho giippoi jN|
olloctivo liictional coolliciont ol laliic
ingiossion anglo ol lino points
anglo ol laliic waip to wolt (in wovon laliics
Many ol tho alovo nontionod piopoitios, such as nochanical noduli, aio iaioly availallo
and olton inpossillo to accuiatoly noasuio. This is paiticulaily tiuo whoio a laigo dogioo
ol anisotiopy, such as with knittod natoiials, oxists. Fuithoi dotails can lo oltainod lion
spocialist toxts on tho suljoct j4-20|.
Tho uso ol ingiossivo giippois with voiy lino nosh natoiials, such as nylon stockings, is
voiy piollonatic. Tho yain is so lino that ovon tho lost ioundod and polishod noodlos tond
to iosult in unwantod laddois duiing handling. Foi such natoiials contigutivo nothods, as
dosciilod in Chaptoi 6, aio a possillo altoinativo.
-- -

residual pres-
sure in mbar
900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 T00
vacuum in %
T0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Pressure in
0.T0T 0.203 0.304 0.405 0.507 0.608 0.709 0.8TT 9.T2
Pressure in
T.0T 2.03 3.04 4.05 5.07 6.08 7.09 8.TT 9.T2
Pressure in
T0.T 20.3 30.4 40.7 50.7 60.8 70.9 8T.T 9T.2
- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk
Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

- -
As tho nano inplios, astiictivo giippois havo tho piopoity ol pioviding a continuous hold-
ing loico without tho application ol conpiossivo stioss. Vacuun suction is ono ol tho
oldost astiictivo giipping nothods, and is usod oxtonsivoly thioughout industiy. Othoi
astiictivo nothods includo nagnotoadhosion j5-1| and oloctioadhosion j5-2|. Unliko nany
inpactivo nothods, alnost all loins ol astiictivo dovicos ioly on sono dogioo ol continu-
ous onoigy supply to naintain oljoct iotontion.

Thoso aio lasically vacuun suction hoads which hold tho oljoct thiough astiictivo suilaco
loicos, iathoi than inpactivo loicos, with soloctivo contact points. Tho suction hoads thon-
solvos aio noinally olastonoiic suction cups oi caps. Such ondolloctois, also known as
suction giippois, ioquiio only iough vacuun (iaioly loss than 100 nBai and in gonoial,
typical vacuun conditions loi pnounatic astiictivo giippois is alout 70% ol atnosphoio
(a vacuun ol 0.7 lai oi an alsoluto piossuio ol 0.3 lai.
Tho lollowing tallo can lo usod loi convoision ol vacuun poicontago valuos (DIN
28400. Foi oxanplo: a vacuun ol 60% coiiosponds to a piossuio ol 608 nlai.

Vacuun giippois can lo usod loi laigo and hoavy paits, and also loi voiy snall con-
pononts in tho soniconductoi industiy and nicioassonllios j5-3|. Thoii piinciplo is iola-
tivoly sinplo. In contiast to nany inpactivo tochniquos, contiing ol tho oljoct is not noi-
nally caiiiod out as pait ol tho piohonsion piocoss. Systons intondod loi tho handling ol
voiy snall conpononts (with coiiospondingly snall giippoi nozzlos should uso cloan,
liltoiod aii in oidoi to avoid llockagos. Old pnounatic supplios with intogiatod oilois
(as usod in tho 1950s should not lo onployod with nodoin vacuun SMD autonation!

Thooiotically, tho ioquiiod vacuun can lo pioducod ly any ol tho lollowing nothods:
Vacuun punps and llowois.
Vontuii vacuun suction gonoiatois (ojoctois.
Suction lollows.
Pnounatic cylindois.
Thoso piinciplos aio shown schonatically in Figuio 5.1.
Possibilities For vacuum production
a) rotary slide valve or other pump, b) venturi ejector, c) suction through bellows,
d) piston suction system, e) suction through electromagnetic actuation
Tho uso ol - has tho lollowing advantagos:
Highoi vacuun is possillo.
Low opoiational costs, littlo noiso dovolopnont.
Tho disadvantagos aio iolatod to tho high initial costs and tho oxponsos loi luithoi accosso-
iios, o.g. aii iosoivoiis. Sono conpanios aio oquippod not only with contial conpiossod
aii lino lut also with thoii own vacuun lino, o.g. in tho light lull industiy. In this caso it is
- -

not nocossaiy to havo sopaiato vacuun pioduction. Tho sizo and woight ol a punp also
nakos nounting diioctly at tho giipping hoad dillicult. Long pnounatic linos nako loi
slow iosponso tinos.
- pioduco iolativoly low vacuun as can lo soon lion tho conpaiison in
Figuio 5.2. Howovoi, thoii oxhaustion iato is high. Consoquontly, thoy aio advantagoous in
applications whoio poious woikpiocos aio to lo handlod locauso it is possillo to conpon-
sato loi lossos owing to aii poinoalility.
Tho piinciplo, on which tho ojoctoi is lasod, datos lion -
(17461822, an Italian physicist who woikod on piollons iolatod to tho hydiodynan-
ics and hydiaulics. Tho sano piinciplo is also usod loi llow volocity noasuiononts.
Vontuii vacuun gonoiatois - possoss tho lollowing advantagos:
Easy nounting, no noving paits and honco low initial costs.
No additional oquipnont nocossaiy, last iosponso.
Diioct intogiation into tho giippoi possillo and, to a laigo oxtont, tioullo-lioo
Comparison oF the per-
Formance speciFications oF typical
vacuum generators
Tho disadvantagos aio iolatod to tho high opoiational costs (conpiossod aii consunption
and tho ioquiiod noiso danping. Tho suction nozzlo nust lo dosignod to tako into ac-
count tho poak load locauso thoio is no vacuuniosoivoii. Tho vacuunis gonoiatod insido
tho ojoctoi as tho conpiossod aii passos thiough tho naiiow cioss soctional aioa ol tho
diiving nozzlo. Tho naiiowing ol tho channol loads to incioasod llow volocity iosulting in
an oxpansion ol tho aii llowing thiough tho iocoivoi nozzlo. Il tho oxit aii channol is
llockod (Fig. 5.3, this loads to a llow-oll olloct. Il tho conpiossod aii is tuinod oll tho suc-
tion cup is aoiatod thiough tho aii oxit nozzlo.
Ejoctois can havo nultiplo stagos and can lo aiiangod in paiallol iows. Multi-stago ojoc-
tois (nulti-chanloi ojoctois contain sovoial suction nozzlos connoctod in soiios
(Fig. 5.4l. Thoy aio chaiactoiizod ly high suction powoi, high voluno llow and last io-
sponso tinos. This iosults in shoitoi ovacuation tinos and honco shoitoi handling cyclo
tinos. In addition saloi holding, ovon loi dynanic notion soquoncos, is onsuiod. In

Fjector with
blow-oFF Function
a) integrated storage
b) combination with a
stop valve
c) switching to blow-oFF
T stop valve
2 receiver nozzle
3 driving nozzle
4 compressed air supply
5 suction cup
6 workpiece
7 reservoir
8 air escape valve
gonoial, tho ovacuation tino incioasos dispiopoitional to tho incioaso in ioquiiod vacuun.
Honco, loi olliciont opoiation tho gonoiatod vacuun should coiiospond to tho nininun
ioquiiod lovol.
In casos whoio a shoit luist ol highoi suction powoi is ioquiiod a piossuio accunulatoi
can lo includod as shown in Figuio 5.5.
Poious and poinoallo natoiials, such as toalags oi liltoi llotting papoi, ioquiio sul-
stantial suction powoi which nust lo piovidod continuously. In addition to tho noio ox-
ponsivo vacuun punps, a low cost and low naintonanco altoinativo is a pluiality ol suc-
tion nozzlos connoctod in paiallol as shown in Figuio 5.6.
Construction oF an ejector
a) single-stage ejector, b) multi-stage ejector
T cross sectional narrowing oF the driving nozzle, 2 absorbing duct, 3 compressed air inlet,
4 air exit, 5 vacuum, 6 suction cup, p pressure
- -

Ejoctois which stoio tho conpiossod aii and thon ioloaso it as a piossuio inpulso whon
dopositing tho oljoct aio callod suction hoads. Thoy onsuio last and salo sopaiation ol
tho acquiiod oljocts. This auxiliaiy lunction, as woll as tho giippoi itsoll, is iolativoly nain-
tonanco lioo. Tho diop inpulso can lo incioasod ly tho connoction ol an additional
voluno ol aii.
Laigoi astiictivo giippois, consisting ol sovoial sopaiato suction caps, aio olton dosignod
loi tho piohonsion ol laigo shoot notal paits. Tho conploto pnounatic ciicuit ioquiiod loi
this is shown in Figuio 5.7. Tho suction cups aio attachod to a plonun chanloi nanilold.
Vacuun nay lo pioducod ly loico acting on a lloxillo nonliano which attonpts to in-
cioaso its hollowvoluno. Altoinativoly, tho nochanical stiotching ol lollows ly an oloctio-
nagnot can lo usod to gonoiato suction. Tho advantagos ol this tochniquo lio inits sinplic-
ity, inoxponsivo conpononts and low iunning costs. Tho advantago ol no sustaining
vacuun loconos a disadvantago loi oljocts with unovon suilacos whoio loaks in tho
vacuun piossuio nay occui. As a iulo tho ioughnoss dopth should not oxcood 5kn.
- - --- aio occasionally usod, o.g. in nounting iolots. Thoy pioduco al-
toinating vacuun and ioloaso aii which is synchionizod to tho nachino ovoi a lino. Tho
stioko and tho tonpoial soquonco aio stoiod as inloination in tho loin ol a iadial can.
Pneumatic diagram oF a vacuum system
in which the suction power is momentarily in-
creased with the help oF a pressure accumulator
Parallel combination oF
suction nozzles
compressed air supply

A nachino oquippod with a piston to dovolop suction doos not dopond on a conpiossod
aii gonoiatoi (vacuun pioducod ly an ojoctoi oi punp. Sono linitod conponsation loi
loakago nay lo piovidod doponding on tho stioko ol tho piston.
Tho lilting ol laigo aioa woikpiocos noinally ioquiios sovoial suction hoads with sinul-
tanoous vacuun distiilution. Thoio is a tiado-oll in toins ol lino dianotois. Too snall a
dianotoi and aii llow iosistanco is incioasod. Too laigo and ovacuation tino in incioasod.
A good analogy is that ol a tioo (Fig. 5.8 which nust supply sap to ovoiy loal.
An example oF a
vacuum circuit based on an
T compressed air direction
control valve
2 ejector
3 exit air direction control valve
{blow-oFF control)
4 absorbing duct
5 suction Filter
6 push switch For vacuum
7 suction cups
8 distributor
Correct choice oF the tube diameter is important
For the distribution oF vacuum
T suction cup
2 air line
tube diameter
A iough iulo ol thunl is that oach lovol ol lianching ioquiios a dianotoi which is 1.42
tinos naiiowoi than its paiont lino.
Non-iotuin valvos can lo usod to onsuio additional vacuun iotontion saloty should ono
oi noio suction caps in a gioup lo inactivo, o.g. il tho suction giippoi is not accuiatoly
positionod oi tho suilaco ol tho oljoct is unovon at this point. As shown in Figuio 5.9 a
lloating lall is suckod against a nozzlo thus soaling tho vacuunwhoio contact with tho ol-
joct lails. Aslight dogioo ol poiosity in tho lall onsuios sono woak iosidual aii llowwhich,
howovoi, has a nogligillo olloct on tho undoipiossuio ol tho syston. This holps avoid tho
nood loi ovoi dinonsionod punps in oidoi to conponsato loi tho loakago.
Such non-iotuin llow contiol valvos can also lo puichasod sopaiatoly as standaid pnou-
natic conpononts, as can lo soon in Figuio 5.10.
Figuio 5.11 shows tho pnounatic diagian loi a conliguiation onploying a pluiality ol
vacuunsuctioncaps and non-iotuin llowvalvos diivon liona singlo ojoctoi. Tho distiilu-
- -

toi is also a plonun chanloi which acts as a iosoivoii thus holping to naintain hono-
gonoity ol vacuun piossuio loi all suction caps.
Finally, Figuio 5.12 illustiatos a conploto vacuun syston. An ojoctoi (singlo-stago,
nulti-stago oi an oloctiic vacuun aii supplioi (punp, llowoi otc. can lo usod altoina-
tivoly loi vacuun gonoiation. An accunulatoi tank can holp naintain a constant vacuun
dospito piossuio lluctuations. Moioovoi, any additional stoiago voluno considoially
ioducos ovacuation tino locauso tho syston can ioact to nonontaiy poaks in llow iato.
Automatic shut-oFF oF inactive suction cap
T housing
2 light porous ball
3 suction caps
4 workpiece
5 vacuum
Cross section oF a vacuum suction valve {-)
T Float
2 carrier
3 suction side
4 tube connection side
Function diagram For the connection oF suction cups over vacuum suction valves
T vacuum generator
2 plenum chamber distributor
3 vacuum suction valve
4 suction cup
5 Filter

vacuum circuit with two supply options

a) vacuum From supply, b) electric vacuum generation, c) pneumatic vacuum generation
T vacuum gauge, 2 distributor, 3 stop valve, 4 suction cup, 5 air Filter, 6 vacuum control valve,
7 vacuum accumulator tank, 8 press switch, 9 return valve, T0 vacuum pump, TT absorbing duct,
T2 ejector, T3 air Filter, T4 pressure dependant motor control
Easo ol inplonontation, giipping stiongth and lowcost nakos this tho connonost astiic-
tivo iotontion nothod usod in iolotics and autonation. In its sinplost nanilostation, a
lloxillo suction cup is loicod against a suilaco. Aii is oxpollod as tho lloxillo polynoi cup is
conpiossod. On cossation ol tho appliod loico tho cup tiios, ly noans ol its own nochani-
cal olasticity, to iogain its oiiginal shapo. Boing now soalod against tho oljoct suilaco it is
unallo to do so, thus loining a slight nogativo piossuio withintho cup. This nogativo pios-
suio piovidos tho holding loico nocossaiy loi oljoct piohonsion and iotontion.
Tho uppoi linit loi tho piohonsion loico is dotoininod ly tho suiiounding aii piossuio
and tho naxinun suilaco aioa which can lo accossod loi giipping.
Manipulation ol oljocts insido tho giippoi is inpossillo.
Tho highost opoiational tonpoiatuio loi suction cups nado lion NBR (nitiilo iulloi
is aiound 130 C, loi silicono up to 280 C and ovon as high as 300 C loi FKM (lluoiino
iulloi. Suction disks nado lion high-tonpoiatuio silicono with a spocial lolt ovoilay
( havo also loon spocially dovolopod loi applications up to 550 C.
Thoso natoiials aio vulcanizod on a stool-plato and tho lolt onsuios an alnost
indontation lioo giip, which is paiticulaily advantagoous in tho handling ol dolicato
Lilting piossuio on an oljoct is givon ly tho iatio ol iotontion loico to giippoi-oljoct con-
tact suilaco aioa. Though giipping loico is olton usod as a dosign paianotoi, piossuio
is noio appiopiiato loi tho puiposos ol gonoial conpaiison lotwoon astiictivo giippoi
typos as it is indopondont ol individual dovico suilaco aioas.
Taking into considoiation tho ollocts ol giavity g, and tho accoloiation ol tho iolot a, on
an oljoct ol nass n, tho contact piossuio is oltainod lion oxpiossion (5.1.
- -


piohonsion suilaco aioa
accoloiation duo to giavity
accoloiation ol tho handling oquipnont
Foi all astiictivo giippois, powoi is consunod duiing loth piohonsion and iotontion. A
iatio ol stoady stato powoi consunption and iotontion piossuio givos tho volunotiic llow
iato , which nay also lo usod as a liguio ol iolativo noiit as oxpiossod in (5.2.


Tho onoigy ollicioncy ol tho giippoi docioasos with incioasing . All astiictivo nocha-
nisns oxpoiionco linito iosponso tinos loi piohonsion and ioloaso. Thoy havo an initial
piohonsion llow iato
, whoso dolay (oi iiso tino is usually oxponontial, and a stoady
stato valuo duiing oljoct iotontion
. In nost casos tho coiiosponding tino constant
will lo dilloiont loi piohonsion and ioloaso.
Foi a typical vacuunsuction cup, tho initial static piohonsionloico Fon an oljoct ol sui-
laco aioa A is givon ly (5.3.
= (
0 u
is appioxinatoly lullillod whoio:
atnosphoiic piossuio jlai|, doponds on tho googiaphical hoight
appliod vacuun piossuio jlai| within tho soalod suction voluno
olloctivo intoilaco aioa lotwoon suction cap and oljoct suilaco jn
In piactico, tho appliod vacuun iangos lion 10% ( 0.101 lai to 90% ( 0.912 lai.
Howovoi, nogativo piossuios oxcooding 60% aio oxponsivo to achiovo and whoio possillo
thoii oxpoctation should lo avoidod in tho dosign stagos.
As soon as piohonsion is achiovod and notion connoncos a nunloi ol additional
loicos cono into play. All suction hoads, and ospocially solt lippod (loll-shapod suction
cups, oxpoiionco stiong doloination undoi piossuio. This can, togothoi with loakagos,
suilaco contaninants otc., load to a ioduction in tho olloctivo suction loico.
= (
0 u


doloination coolliciont ( =0.9 to 0.6
saloty lactoi. Typically: =2 to 3
nunloi ol suction cups
syston ollicioncy (loakago lossos otc.

Tho dianotoi ol a ciiculai suction cap can lo ostinatod (appioxinatoly liontho lollow-
ing oquation, assuning a static situation oi slow notion in tho voitical diioction:
= 11.3


jnn| (5.5
woikpioco nass jkg|
Tho iotontion loico is a lunction ol tho aioa ol tho suilaco intoilaco. All additional loicos
acting on tho oljoct nust also lo takon into account. Two standaid casos (Fig. 5.13 aio ol
intoiost hoio:
Caso 1: Tho giippoi-oljoct intoilaco is hoiizontally alignod.
Caso 2: Tho giippoi-oljoct intoilaco is voitically alignod.
Retention using vacuum
retention Force, suction Force,
tangential Force,
Friction Force, Force on the
object due to gravity, normal Force, resultant Force, k Friction coeFFicient
at interFace, T to 4 application dependant directions oF motion
Tho liiction coolliciont k plays no iolo in oquation (5.5 whoio only cohosivo loicos aio
considoiod. Only whoio shoai loicos oxist, paiticulaily in tho socond caso with a iotationol
90 , doos liiction locono inpoitant. Foi glass, stono and plastics (cloan, diy it can lo
assunod that k = 0.5. This valuo can diops to aiound k = 0.1 loi wot and oily suilacos.
Tho tallo in Figuio 5.14 sunnaiizos sovoial typical dynanic situations.
In oxtiono casos whoio oilod stool shoots aio concoinod thoio can lo additional piol-
lons. Tho stool shoots tond to swin away lion tho suction cup as it appioachos. Tho lips
ol tho suction cups lail to ponotiato tho oil liln and tho sinplo law ol liiction no
longoi applios. Howovoi, loi nost applications this is iaioly tho caso and tho nocossaiy
giipping loicos can sinply lo ostinatod accoiding to nanulactuiois data oi calculatod
lion tho givon oxpiossions.
Tho llowiato can lo also oxpiossod as a lunctionol tho oponing width
, tho piossuio
dilloionco s and tho aii donsity j5-4| as in (5.6:
- -



sun ol all loicos loading to dotachnont
and displaconont

vacuun gonoiatod loico

socuiity coolliciont opposing dotachnont

cos (
]k sin oi




socuiity coolliciont opposing displaconont
k liiction coolliciont (suction cup]woikpioco




= 1 (

occontiicity coolliciont at loico onsot
distanco lotwoon piohonsion and oljoct contio
oxtoinal iadius ol suction cup






cos (
]k sin
anglo ol loico acting iolativo to tho noinal
piohondod oljoct nass contio







cos (

= 1


occontiicity coolliciont at loico onsot


spocial caso ol at k = 90
In nost casos, tho hoiizontal axis suction cup
iotontion loico is loss than 50% ol tho
oquivalont loico loi a voitical iotontion axis.
1ypical Force settings For a suction gripper
k linear acceleration, centre oF gravity, velocity

Tho ovacuation tino t doponds on tho chango ol tho llow iato which has an initial valuo ol

. It is dotoininod lion:




Intogiating and ioaiianging tho last oquation givos

whoio is a tino constant dictatod ly tho olasticity ol tho suction cup natoiial, apoituio
sizo, aii lino dinonsions otc. Tho constant ol intogiation iopiosonts tho stoady stato llow

, duo to quioscont lossos, altoi oljoct acquisition.
Foi oxanplo, a typical 100 nn dianotoi conical suction cup has a voluno ol
1.3 10
. Assuning a 10 nn dianotoi oiilico, a dilloiontial piossuio ol 50 kN]n
and an aii donsity at 20 C ol 1.2 kg]n
j5-5| thon oxpiossion (5.6 yiolds a llow iato ol
0.016 n
]s. Evon with a iolativoly long tino constant tho tino noodod to onpty this voluno
ol aii will lo in tho oidoi ol tons ol nillisoconds. Il tho stoady stato llow iato duiing ioton-
is only 10% ol this valuo, oxpiossion (5.2 givos a powoi dissipation ol 80 Watts loi
this dovico.
A conical vacuun suction cup has a dianotoi ol 5 cn and aii is ovacuatod to an
undoipiossuio ol 0.1 lai. A sinpliliod calculation yiolds:
= 100
10 kN


180 N (5.9
Tho suilaco piossuio is

= 92 kN n
Assuning a synnotiical conical shapod vacuun cup with = 2 , tho aii voluno to lo
ovacuatod is givon ly (5.10



2 2.5
= 32.7 10
Foi a piohonsion tino ol 1s tho ioquiiod llow iato calculatod lion (5.10 is ca.
33 10
]s. This givos a powoi consunption ol
= = 33 10

92 kN
= 3036
= 3 Watt
- -

Thoso iosults aio also thooiotical valuos. Thoy do not tako into account tho loakago lossos
and tho ovacuation ol tho lood linos oi tulos. Tho giipping tino is voiy inpoitant loi iapid
piocossing which is why a Vontuii nozzlo oi a vacuun soquonco valvo should lo accon-
nodatod in tho diioct vicinity ol tho suction cup. Piohonsion can lo accoloiatod ly naking
a tiado-oll with tho giippoi ollicioncy il tho handling cyclo tino gain justilios it j5-6|.
Estination ol tho ioquiiod suction cup dianotoi loi tho caso dopictod in Figuio
5.15. A-piioii it is assunod that tho sizo ol tho stool shoot to lo liltod nakos it nocossaiy to
uso six suction caps. Tho notal shoot has to lo liltod in a iolativoly slownannoi in tho poi-
pondiculai diioction. A nocossity ol doullod socuiity lactoi is assunod.
LiFting oF load by vacuum suction
T vacuum line
2 vacuum suction cap
3 workpiece {sheet product)
Foi tho suction cap dianotoi this givos:
= 11.3

Sulstituting tho givon valuos:
= 11.3
120 kg 2
0.8lai 6 0.5
= 113 nn
Tho noxt laigoi availallo dianotoi which can lo soloctod loi tho six suction caps is
120 nn. Tho uppoi suilaco ol tho shoot should lo cloan and diy. Tho liiction coolliciont
can lo considoially lowoiod loi wot and oily suilacos as shown in tho lollowing tallo.

In sono casos tho googiaphical hoight ol tho sito can also play a iolo locauso tho actual
aii piossuio doponds on tho hoight ol tho aii colunn alovo tho coiiosponding olonontaiy
suilaco. Tho noinal piossuio always iolois to soa lovol and anounts to 1013 nlai (DIN
1343. Honco, tho load capacity docioasos with incioasing googiaphical hoight, loi which
tho lollowing iolationship holds:
- --
= 0.05 km = T.5 km
StiFF Oil-Free 0.85
Fasily deFormable Oil-Free 0.45 0.65
StiFF and light Oiled with bore emulsion 0.T5 0.35
DeFormable stiFF Oiled with cooling Fluid 0.05 0.25
Light deFormable Oiled with cooling Fluid 0.025 0.T5
A soloction ol tho nunoious dosigns ol suction cups, caps and discs aio piosontod in
Figuio 5.16. In addition, thoio aio suction cups which aio shapod to lit a spocilic oljoct (oi
a iocoss in tho oljoct and thoso which can adapt thonsolvos to tho shapo ol tho woikpioco.
Tho sognontation ol tho astiictivo suilaco can lo also advantagoous loi ioasons ol piohon-
sion iolialility.
Laigo suilaco oljocts can lo handlod with ono laigo oval suction hoad oi ly onploying a
pluiality ol snalloi suction discs oi caps. Tho suction cups with intogiatod lollows havo
lotwoon 1
and 3
conical soctions. Thoy aio usod loi tho handling ol dolicato oljocts
and]oi in ciicunstancos whoio slight dilloioncos in woikpioco hoights nust lo conpon-
satod loi. Tho olastic voitical stioko s piovidod ly lollows is an intoiosting attiiluto which
can lo oxploitod in oidoi to acquiio tho woikpioco lion an unovon suilaco oi lilt it diioctly
lion a soat without nocossaiily naking an initial aii tight contact. This is illustiatod in
Figuio 5.17.

0 to 250 m T00%
250 to 500 m 96%
500 to 750 m 92%
750 to T000 m 88%
T000 to T250 m 84%
T250 to T500 m 80%
- -

1ypical suction head designs: above and cross-sectional views

a) suction disc with swivel axis, b) suction disc with 360 axial rotation unit, c) simple suction base,
d) Flat suction cup, e) deep suction cup, F ) rectangular suction head {view From above), g) oval suction
head, h) double oval suction head, i) suction head with cell rubber washer, j) bellows suction cup,
k) multiple suction heads For large parts, l) double suction gripper, m) shaped workpiece suction head,
n) suction cup with support ribs, o) suction head with integrated vacuum generation, p) segmented
suction plate, q) ring surFace suction head, r) combination oF separate suction heads, s) double lip
suction cap
T workpiece, 2 mounting collar, 3 swivel joint, 4 vacuum tube, 5 suction cup
Fvacuation phases oF
T suction bellows
2 prehended object
3 workpiece seat
4 inner metal connection
- stroke

Applications relevant properties oF typical vacuum suction heads

Full circle = very good
empty circle = very poor
vertical = transmittable vertical Force
horizontal = transmittable horizontal Force
FvS = elastic vertical stroke
Tho ovacuation ol tho lollows can lo dividod into two phasos:
Tho suction cup is positionod ovoi tho woikpioco without any oxtoinal loicos acting
on it.
Vacuun is appliod. Tho woikpioco is liltod and, doponding on giavitational loicos and
tho undoipiossuio, an oquililiiun stato is ioachod.
Figuio 5.18 piovidos a iough ovoiviow ol tho typical chaiactoiistics which should lo con-
sidoiod whon solocting tho nost appiopiiato suction hoad. Tho ciitoiia aio iolatod to tho
loicos that can lo tiansnittod whon noving in a voitical and]oi hoiizontal diioction, tho
lloxilility loi a stioko at iight anglos, and tho iosidual voluno llow (loakago.
A Flat suction cap
B ribbed suction cap
C double lip suction cup
D bellows
- although iolativoly sinplo, it dolivois good iosults with iospoct to all ciitoiia.
Tho iolativoly laigo lloxilility in tho poipondiculai diioction with incioasing voitical loico
is a linitation loi its application only in iaio casos.
llat woikpiocos such as o.g. shoot notal loaids, caitons, glass platos, plywood
platos, coatod llako loaids.
Tho voitical loicos acting on - can lo voiy laigo locauso tho suction cap voluno io-
nains constant ovon at high undoipiossuio. Tho suppoit iils nako tho suction cup stilloi
and honco tond to incioaso tho iotontion loico.
thin notal shoots, paits with slightly iough (scalod uppoi suilacos.
- -

Tho doullo soaling in - iosults in a voiy snall iosidual voluno llow. Howovoi, tho
conplox soaling syston ioquiios noio spaco which linits tho activo dianotoi ol tho suc-
tion olononts.
Paits with pionouncod stiuctuio on tho uppoi suilacos, o.g. pattoinod glass,
coiiugatod shoot notal, and natuial stono.
- is chaiactoiizod ly low tiansnittanco ol voitical loicos, insulliciont goonotiical
stalility and iathoi laigo olastic stioko in tho voitical diioction. This is a liniting lactoi loi
its application to nany handling tasks.
Dolicato and]oi unovon woikpiocos oi whon conponsation loi vaiiations in
suilaco piolilo is ioquiiod, laigo aioa and lloctional paits.
Tho lollowing tallo givos a liiol ovoiviow on tho natoiials usod loi tho nanulactuio ol
vacuun suction hoads:

-- - -
Nitrile rubber 40 to 70 good very good satisFactory Flexible at low
up to 70 C
Silicone rubber 70 to 200 satisFactory good very good Leaves no im-
prints iF colour-
less, white,
Natural rubber 40 to 80 very good not recom-
satisFactory Durability, leaves
no imprints iF
Polyurethane 25 to 80 very good very good very good Durability,
imprint Free
Fluorine rubber 20 to 200 good very good very good Highly resistant
to chemicals,
imprint Free
Chloroprene 40 to 90 very good good good Highly resistant
to weather
PvC 20 to 85 very good satisFactory satisFactory very high dura-
Fthylene ] pro-
pylene ] diene
40 to T30 satisFactory satisFactory very good Resistant to
stream and

Snall dosign attiilutos can assist in naking vacuun suction systons noio olloctivo.
Figuio 5.19 shows a suction cap with an intogiatod sopaiation olonont. This pioducos
shoai stiossos lotwoon tho oljocts, o.g. thin notal shoots, and holps to sopaiato thin oilod
shoots with a thicknoss not oxcooding 3 nn.
This ioducos tho piolalility ol lilting noio than ono notal shoot. Tho piohondod notal
shoot sottlos in tho contio ol tho suction cap. Howovoi, tho lulloi washoi continuos to
novo upwaids whilst vacuunis still piosont. This has an aiching olloct on tho notal shoot
which is noio pionouncod only in tho loidoi aioa.
In oidoi to onsuio autonatic activation ol tho vacuun on contact with tho oljoct it is
nocossaiy to install a sonsoi valvo. Ono such oxanplo is shown in Figuio 5.20. Tho sonsoi
tip piotiudos alout 2 nn alovo tho odgo ol tho suction cap.
Suction head with separation element
T suction cap
2 separation element
3 carrier
Suction cap with sensor valve
T suction cap
2 Fastener
3 sensor
In coitain casos thoio aio no closod llat suilacos suitallo loi naintaining vacuun suc-
tion, loi oxanplo in tho caso ol a cogwhool with a contial holo. Hoio, a iing suilaco suction
cap with a plug in its contio, as shown schonatically in Figuio 5.21, is a suitallo nothod.
Tho plug is oquippod with conducting channols loi tho passago ol vacuun.
Spocial giippois havo loon dosignod loi tho piohonsion ol pio-cut papoi and loil paits.
Thoy aio oquippod with suppoit iils aiiangod in sovoial concontiic ciiclos (Fig. 5.22. This
onsuios a uniloin contact with such plano oljocts without tho dangoi ol doloination. In-
toinal suppoit olononts aio sonotinos nocossaiy whon luckling oi distoiting ol thin
( 0.5 nn stool oi aluniniun shoots nust lo avoidod. This piollon will now lo con-
sidoiod in noio dotail.
With sinplo vacuun suction cups ol tho kind shown in Figuio 5.18a, tho lilting ol thin
shoots with laigo aioas can load to llockago ol tho vacuun oiilico as tho shoot natoiial is
distoitod. This iosults in a sovoio ioduction in tho olloctivo giipping aioa as can lo soon in
Figuio 5.23c. In such casos tho vacuun loico nust lo lottoi distiilutod ovoi tho oljoct
suilaco. A pluiality ol vacuun hoads oi singlo hoads with tho addition ol suppoit iils oi
- -

Ring surFace suction cap {)

T rubber core
2 suction cap
3 threaded mounting
4 gripped object
5 object surFace
6 inner cover ring surFace
Suction cap with support ribs
T support rib
platos nay soivo to linit oljoct doloination. Fuithoinoio, as oxpiossion (3.70 suggosts,
tho sano piohonsion loico can lo achiovod loi a lowoi vacuunpiossuio givon a laigoi pio-
honsion aioa.
Laigo giipping suilacos using lowoi lovols ol vacuun can also toloiato highoi lovols ol
loakago. Suction giippois aio sonotinos dosignod doliloiatoly with this in nind, paiticu-
laily whoio oljoct loins vaiy widoly.
Fuithoi inloination on piohonsion tochniquos using ioducod vacuun can lo lound in
ioloioncos j5-7| and j5-8|.
Figuio 5.24 shows a giippoi with distiilutod suction points. Multiplo suction platos can
lo thon conlinod into a conposito giippoi loi uso with laigoi aioa oljocts. Howovoi, such
giippois aio sonowhat cunloisono.

MalFunction oF a suction cup For prehension oF unstable surFace proFiles

a) suction phase, b) Formation oF an internal sealing, c) malFunction
T vacuum
2 suction cup
3 suction Force
4 gripped object
Low pressure gripper {)
vacuum grippers with centring and constraint elements, respectively
a) suction plate gripper, b) suction cup gripper
T object, 2 centring mandrel, 3 carrier, 4 return spring, 5 vacuum air connection, 6 seal,
7 suction cup, 8 stop pin {constraint), 9 holding arm, T0 acceleration direction,
TT support stop {constraint)
Rapid notion can load to displaconont ol tho woikpioco. In such casos tho position can
lo socuiod ly suitallo constiaints acting in tho diioction ol accoloiation. Two such ox-
anplos aio shown in Figuio 5.25.
Tho oxact position loi piohonsion and sulsoquont nanipulation is onsuiod loi tho giip-
poi shown in Figuio 5.25a ly a contiing nandiol. Altoinativoly, this can lo ioalizod ly a
constiaint suppoiting tho woikpioco duiing iapid hoiizontal notion.
- -

Tho attachnont ol a vacuun suction hoad to tho handling oquipnont can lo ioalizod in
nany dilloiont ways: adjustallo-lixod, voitically spiung, doullo-sidod spiung, anglo-llox-
illo voitically spiung otc. Sono oxanplos aio shown in Figuio 5.26.
Spiung susponsion onsuios a light contact with tho oljoct suilaco and also holps piotoct
against ovoistioko. Fuithoinoio, load distiilution duiing tianspoit nay lo optinisod.
Foi laigo suction discs it is lottoi to onploy a doullo guido.
Gripper attachments
a) moving-sphere attachment, b) double-sided springing, c) suction bellows with securing
element, d) suction disc with securable universal joint, e) internally sprung suction disc,
F ) double guidance For large suction discs
T compressed air connection, 2 cross brace, 3, return spring, 4 suction disc, 5 vacuum line,
6 venturi nozzle, 7 angle error compensation, 8 manual exchange key, 9 contact vacuum switch,
T0 receptacle nut, TT securing ring, T2 suction bellows, T3 vacuum tube
Many sinplo (non iolotic systonaio nodulai, containing oxtonsivo accossoiios loi tho
attachnont ol giippois and sonsois, allowing a dogioo ol lloxilility in what is othoiwiso
haid autonation. Tho oxanplo shown in Figuio 5.27 possossos an intogiatod iotational
axis. Tiaditional dosign conpiisos aluniniun piolilos oi tulos, though in nany casos
aluniniun has loon ioplacod ly lightoi glass and cailon lilio conposito natoiials in
nodoin systons.
Good adaptation, o.g. to cuivod notal shoots, can lo achiovod il tho suction hoads aio
lixod to adjustallo oi lall-jointod iotainois. Ono such oxanplo is piosontod in Figuio 5.28.
Onco tho suction cups aio adjustod to tho oljoct, tho univoisal joints aio liinly clanpod
and cannot novo.

Gripper with integrated rotational axis {-)

T coupling
2 pneumatic cylinder For the
actuation oF the rotary axis
3 beam
4 swivel mechanics
5 mountings
6 workpiece, sheet metal board
7 nozzle For vacuum
8 vacuum suction head
9 proximity switch
T0 sensor mounting
In sono casos tho positional aiiangonont ol tho giipping hoads is adjustallo as shown
schonatically in Figuio 5.29. Tho suction hoads aio lixod to noving ains, tho ondstop
position ol which can lo nanually changod in a iolativoly shoit tino. This nakos it
possillo to adjust tho suction hoads with tho laigost possillo sopaiation, within a nin-
inun aioa oi in lino with oach othoi, accoiding to tho availallo application oi oljoct sui-
laco piolilo.
A sonowhat oldoi idoa loi a custonizallo astiictivo giippoi is piosontod in Figuio 5.30.
Tho aiiay consists ol sopaiato suction hoads all capallo ol indopondont voitically displaco-
nont. Sinco tho suction cups can adjust thonsolvos autonatically in 3 D spaco, tho han-
dling ol pioloundly vaiying suilaco piolilos is possillo.
Such nanilostations aio applicallo to autonatod stoiago systons whoio a laigo vaiioty
ol oljoct shapos and sizos aio to lo oxpoctod. It is not nocossaiy to activato ovoiy suction
hoad loi oach piohonsion cyclo and unusod hoads nay sinply lo withdiawn. Howovoi,
Suction grippers Fixed to a universal joint
T vacuum connection, 2 mounting Flange, 3 suction cup, 4 clamping collet, 5 ball pivot, 6 workpiece
- -

vacuum gripper principle with pivoting arms {)

T section cap
2 baseplate, cross
3 pivot arm
4 gripped object
5 wooden beam
6 barrel
7 arm endstop
Suction gripper with contour adjustment { )
a) moving oF the suction caps towards the workpiece and attachment, b) liFting
T guide rod, 2 suction cup, 3 workpiece, 4 cardan joint
oithoi oach suctioncupnust lo contiollod ly a valvo oi capallo ol soll soaling intho caso ol
iodundancy (soo Fig. 5.9.
Finally it is woith considoiing tho nanagonont ol conpiossod aii and tho iospoctivo
vacuun. In attaining piohonsion, aii nust lo ovacuatod lion tho suction hoad as quickly
as possillo. Convoisoly, ioloaso tino is dopondant on aii iotuin.

Thoso tinos aio not only dopondant on tho voluno ol aii in tho suction hoads. Pnou-
natic linos also contain a linito voluno. Foi vacuun ioloaso, it is possillo to luild in
shoitcut to atnosphoio as shown in Figuio 5.31. Duiing piohonsion ol tho woikpioco
tho suction hoad is liist (paitially ovacuatod. On withdiawal ol tho piston tho vacuun is
soalod in and tho punp nay lo tuinod oll. On ioloaso it is sulliciont to slightly ioduco tho
piossuio in tho cylindoi so that tho spiing pushos tho suction hoad downwaids, allowing
aii in thiough tho sido oponing. Tho iosponso tino is invoisoly piopoitional to tho cioss
soctional aioa ol tho oponing.
Foi iapid oljoct piohonsion, tho vacuun gonoiatoi should lo nountod as closo to tho
suction hoad as possillo. A spiung suction hoad is piosontod in Figuio 5.32. Tho intoinal
piston is shiltod upon attachnont so that tho channols ioquiiod loi suction aio connoctod.
Tho Vontuii nozzlo is locatod in tho sano aii llow path and pioducos tho nocossaiy
vacuun. At tho sano tino tho conpiossod aii naintains tho piston in its uppoi position.
Coiioct vacuun nanagonont also holps inpiovo ollicioncy. Il ono conpaios vaiious
ojoctois, which can havo ono oi sovoial stagos, it loconos cloai that tho ollicioncy (
toiioiatos with tho incioasing vacuun donand. Tho ollicioncy is givon ly:
Suction head with shortcut opening
to atmosphere
Suction head with automatic connection
on attachment
T housing
2 nozzle
3 suction cup
- -


ovacuation tino (in soconds ol a voluno loi an undoipiossuio
aii consunption ol tho vacuun nozzlo jlitios]socond|
voluno that has to lo ovacuatod jlitios|
Tho ollicioncy dopondoncy is shown in Figuio 5.33.
FFFiciency vs. vacuum at
Tho handling ol shoot notal loinod paits in tho autonolilo industiy olton ioquiios tho
uso ol laigo aioa giippois. Tho ollicioncy ol such suction giippois doponds ossontially on
tho vacuun nanagonont. Figuio 5.34 shows a typical contiol cyclo. It can lo soon that
tho conpiossod aii loi vacuun gonoiation is ioconnoctod only il tho undoipiosssuio
diops lolow a piodotoininod thioshold valuo.
vacuum management For a large area gripper
T direction control valve
2 pressure adjustment
3 compressed air line
4 venturi nozzle
5 absorbing duct
6 vacuum air line
7 blow-oFF line
8 vacuum suction head
9 workpiece
compressed air

Onco tho handling cyclo is conplotod, o.g. within 20 soconds, tho llow-oll iojoction sys-
ton is activatod loi a shoit tino. This is indisponsallo ospocially whon handling liagilo oi
voiy light paits.
Motoi gonoiatod vacuun can lo autonatically tuinod oll, ly a piossuio switch on tho
gonoiatoi, whon sono vacuun linit valuo has loon ioachod, thus saving onoigy. Tho
vacuun contiol loi a handling cyclo ol 20 soconds is piosontod in Figuio 5.35. It can lo
soon lion tho diagian in Figuio 5.35l that tho vacuun gonoiatoi is liiolly switchod on
ovoiy 5 soconds in oidoi to naintain tho liniting valuo. Roloaso thiough llow-oll is not al-
ways nocossaiy. Howovoi, it doos shoiton tho ioloaso tino and piovidos a positivo iojoction
ol tho oljoct.
vacuum control For a gripper with vacuum generation by an electric pump
a) control signal For vacuum on]oFF, b) automatic readjustment oF vacuum For
leakage compensation, c) signal For object presence detection, d) control signal For
vacuum readjustment, e) controlled blow-oFF
T on, 0 oFF, time in seconds
Figuio 5.36 shows tho dosign ol a suction panol ly which tho usoi can dotoinino
tho shapo ol tho suction liold. Tho vacuun piohonsion panol is luilt as a giid syston ol
vacuum gripper employing a grid system { -, Zurich)
T suction plate with a grid oF grooves, 2 rubber gasket
- -

Handling oF an omnibus windshield

mass = T20 kg, steady 90 tilt acceleration in = 3s, suction cup]disc Friction value k = 0,7
Doponding on tho availallo woikpioco piohonsion suilaco tho vacuun soaling land is
insoitod lotwoon tho pogs in such a way that tho iosulting contoui natchos that ol tho
woikpioco suilaco. By this noans holos and gioovos in tho woikpioco nay lo avoidod. Sys-
tons havo loon luilt capallo ol handling naxinun loads up to 200 kg. It is also possillo
to conlino sovoial panols into laigoi giippoi units.
Hownany suction cups aio ioquiiod in oidoi to giasp a vohiclo windshiold, as
dopictod in Figuio 5.37 and to pivot it lion tho hoiizontal into tho voitical position?
Fiist ol all tho static loads will lo calculatod loi tho hoiizontal and voitical posi-
tions. Whilst tho windshiold ionains hoiizontal, tho voitical lilting loico
coiiosponds to
tho loico duo to giavity.
= = 120 kg 9.81 n]s
= 1177 N
Tho ioquiiod suction loico
, using a saloty lactoi = 2, is:

= = 1177 N 2 = 2354 N
Ol couiso, tho loico duo to accoloiation ol tho iolot against giavity nust lo addod to this.
Fuithoinoio, il tho lilting ol tho oljoct in tho hoiizontal position is iapid thon it is also
nocossaiy to considoi inoitial loicos. Altoi iotation to tho voitical position tho liiction loico

nust oxcood tho voitical loico
, ly sono saloty lactoi:

k =

Tho voitical loico

doos not chango whon tho ond-olloctoi is iotatod and still anounts to

= 1177 N. Tho ioquiiod suction loico
givon = 2 is:


1177 N 2
= 3363 N
Tho suction loico
is laigoi than
which is why it should lo usod as a lasis loi tho lol-
lowing calculations. Fuithoinoio, an additional dynanic loico contiilution is piosont
duiing iotation. This contiilution incioasos with tho iotational spood. Tho naxinun
accoloiation loico iosulting lion tho iotational notion occuis at tho oxtoinal suction
cup iow. Roughly spoaking, tho iotation path - is:
- =

= 1.6 n
= 2.51 n
This givos loi tho accoloiation :
= 2

= 2
2.5 n
= 0.56 n]s
Tho accoloiation loico
anounts to:

= = 120 kg 0.56 n]s
= 67 N
This allows us to calculato tho total suction loico


= 67 N 3363 N = 3430 N
Finally, tho nunloi ol tho ioquiiod suction cups nust lo calculatod. Il a suction cup
dianotoi ol 100 nn is soloctod and tho appliod vacuun is
= 0.7 lai (this coiiosponds
to a vacuun ol 70%, thon Figuio 5.38 givos a iotontion loico ol 397 N.
Tho 100 nn dianotoi coiiosponds to a physical dinonsion which is not lully utilisod
loi piohonsion. In ioality, tho olloctivo suction cup dianotoi is sonowhat snalloi (typi-
cally ly a lactoi 0.85 than tho noninal dianotoi. This lactoi can iango lion 0.6 to 0.9 and
is a iosult ol distoition duo to undoipiossuio, tho lloxilility (soltnoss otc. Tho thooiotical
holding loicos calculatod using tho diagian aio:
( 0.85


(0.1 0.85

0.7 = 397 N
How nany suction cups nust lo usod in tho caso ol this oxanplo?
= 3430]397 = 8.6
Honco, 9 suction cups with a noninal dianotoi ol = 100 nn would lo noodod.
- -

1heoretical suction Force

as a Function oF vacuum
suction cup diameter
Adaptivo giippois, applicallo in casos ol unovon loads, aio dosignod to adapt tho giip-
ping loico to tho load. This can lo achiovod ly oloctio-nochanical oi ly lluidic noans.
Figuio 5.39 shows such an adaptivo vacuun giippoi.
On contact with tho oljoct vacuun is connoctod to tho suction plato allowing piohon-
sion ol a dolinod noninal load. Howovoi, tho suction plato is connoctod to a cylindoi and il
tho oljoct load oxcoods tho noninal load thon tho undoipiossuio which occuis in tho cyl-
indoi voluno also oxcoods tho piossuio cioatod ly tho vacuun punp. This incioasos tho
vacuun lonoath tho suction plato so that tho laigoi load ionains adhoiod to tho suction
Tho gonoial nochanical piinciplo ol tho adaptivo giippoi is shown in Figuio 5.40. Tho
adaptivo pait ol tho vacuun giippoi loconos olloctivo whon tho nass ol tho oljoct in-
Adaptive vacuum gripper [59|
T connection Flange
2 joint bolt
3 cross beam
4 joint rod
5 pneumatic cylinder
6 Suction cap
7 spring chamber
8 tension spring
9 threaded bolt
T0 nut
TT lock nut
T2 carrying arm
T3 vacuum air line
T4 vacuum connection

Principle oF the adhesion gripper

cioasos ly tho anount , o.g. as a iosult ol a nonontaiy alsoiption ol watoi (concioto
panols and iainlall. Upon lilting ol tho giippoi tho tonsion spiing is stiotchod ly tho
. At tho sano tino tho position ol tho suction plato ionains unchangod.
Tho piston novos ly tho anount

. Tho vacuun in tho cylindoi and tho suc-
tion chanloi incioasos and tho iotontion loico is:


constant doponding on suction cup natoiial, intoilaco, otc.
aioa ol suction contact

undoipiossuio in tho cylindoi loloio and altoi load incioaso
Tho lollowing condition nust lo satisliod in oidoi to guaiantoo iotontion:

Hoio tho spiing loico is givon ly

whoio is tho spiing constant which loads to:



Sinco tho voluno ol tho cylindoi ionains unchangod, at constant tonpoiatuio Boylos law




voluno ol tho cylindoi loloio and altoi incioasing tho load
T tension spring
2 piston
3 suction cap
4 workpiece
- -

Sinco tho cioss soction ol tho cylindoi is also constant:



Roaiianging oquation (5.17 yiolds:







Il tho incioaso in load is now spociliod, tho shilt ol tho cylindoi piston and tho ionaining
dinonsions ol tho giippoi can lo dotoininod.
Tho lollowing nust lo takon into account whon connocting vacuun:
Bocauso ol tho snall piossuio dilloionco tho valvo should onsuio a good llow iato
(highoi llow iato than dictatod ly suction capacity alono.
Tho undoipiossuio switching valvos nust lo suitallo loi nogativo piossuio opoiation.
Tho dinonsioning ol tho valvo should not lo lasod on tho connoction thioad ol tho
suction nozzlo. Tho inpoitant paianotoi is tho naxinun aii consunption (llow iato.
Matoiials usod loi suction cups includo polyuiothano (PUR, aciylonitiilo lutadiono
(NBR and silicono (SI iullois. Thoii iosistanco against vaiious onviionnontal ollocts
dillois (soo also tallo on p. 185.

1emperature range 20 C to 60 C 20 C to 89 C 40 C to 200 C
LiFetime very high good satisFactory
1ensile strength 25 N]mm
T6 N]mm
T0 N]mm
Oil resistance very good very good very good
vater resistance very good very good conditionally resistant
-- -
Tho vacuunin passivo suction caps is pioducod not ly vacuunpunps oi vacuunsuction
nozzlos lut sinply ly piossing a disk suckoi having a iolativoly solt iin against a llat sui-
laco. Mochanical piossuio can lo appliod ly hand oi nachino. Thus tho suckois nood no
luithoi opoiational loico and can also lo appliod to slightly cuivod suilacos. Thoso giip-
pois aio not alloctod ly lailuio in tho powoi supply and can lo considoiod as loing socuio,
though loakago lossos cannot lo conponsatod loi. Tho iotontion loico which can lo
achiovod thiough hand loico, o.g. loi a suction plato dianotoi ol 63 nnand giound uppoi
suilaco ol tho oljoct, anounts to 140 N. Rockoi ainsuction liltois can accopt loads ol 25 to

100 kg with twolold saloty. Figuio 5.41 shows tho constiuctional piinciplo ol an adhosion
suckoi. Tho oljoct, o.g. a glass panol, is ioloasod ly activating a slido danpoi.
Oljoct ioloaso nay lo achiovod ionotoly il an actuatoi to opon an aii inlot is includod.
Foi oxanplo, an oloctionagnot is onployod in tho dosign shown in Figuio 5.42. Upon
piossing tho suckoi against a suilaco an intoinal piston is pushod up allowing aii to
oscapo. Tho suckoi is ioloasod ly lilting tho intoinal piston thiough oloctionagnotic loico
which in tuin connocts tho aii duct with atnosphoio.
Principle oF the adhesion sucker
T clamping pivot and carrier
2 manually operated slide damper
3 service button
4 disk sucker
Adhesion sucker with electromagnetic
T electromagnet
2 piston
3 sealing ring
4 object
5 sucker
Anothoi dosign using a hand lovoi valvo is shown in Figuio 5.43. Tho undoilying piin-
ciplo is tho sano as that shown in Figuio 5.41. Piossing against tho oljoct pioducos
vacuun and tho valvo cono is spiing-loadod allowing nanual ioloaso ly allowing tho io-
ontiy ol aii.
A soloction ol dosigns, whoioly gavitational loicos aio utilisod loi vacuun gonoiation,
can lo soon in Figuio 5.44. Onco tho suckoi nakos contact with tho oljoct, a voitical loico

is appliod which loads to an incioaso in tho voluno lonoath tho suckoi. Tho iosulting
- -

undoipiossuio soivos to iotain tho oljoct. This stato is iovoisod on ionoval ol tho load ly
doposition on a suilaco at tho ioquiiod dostination. Such giippois aio usod in onviion-
nonts whoio oljoct suilacos aio voiy llat and non-poious and a powoi souico is not ioadily
availallo dolivoiy ol glass panols otc.
Adhesion sucker with valve lever
T release lever
2 valve cone
3 return spring
4 sucker
5 sucker deFormation during prehension
6 Flange
Fxamples oF suction through gravitational Forces
T sealing ring or washer
2 rubber membrane
3 rubber ring
4 signal transmitter
5 piston
6 workpiece
7 piston rod
8 intermediate ring

liFting Force
acceleration due to gravity
In a liist appioxination ono can ostinato tho achiovallo iotontion loico lion tho dia-
gian shown in Figuio 5.45. Tho spocilications aio valid loi llat oi polishod oljoct suilacos
with a ioughnoss ol 5 kn.

Aii jot giippois iotain an oljoct with tho holp ol aii cuiionts and voiticos. Foi oxanplo, a
woikpioco is lod into a holo nochanically (locating pins, stops lut its piohonsion is not io-
alizod nochanically. Tho piinciplo is dononstiatod in Figuio 5.46. Tho inpact piossuio ol
an aii jot acting upon a suilaco pioducos tho lollowing loico:

sin 0.01 in N (5.21

volunotiic aii llow iato jl]s|
llow volocity jn]s|
iolloction anglo in dogioo
aii donsity jkg]n
| ( =1.199 kg]n

accoloiation ol giavity jn]s

Vaiious giippois havo loon dosignod lasod on this physical piinciplo and thoy aio os-
pocially suitod loi voiy light conpononts such as washois and llat pads. Figuio 5.46 shows
sovoial potontial dosign oxanplos.
Adhesion Force using suckers
eFFective suction cup diameter
holding Force
spherical stopper
Principle oF the air jet gripper
T workpiece
2 air channel
3 nozzle
escape velocity
- -

It is also possillo to dosign nultiplo giippois (Fig. 5.47c, tho giasping nandiols ol
which aio piosot in accoidanco with tho sopaiation chaiactoiistics ol tho oljocts to lo
liltod. Tho woikpiocos aio ioloasod sinply ly tuining oll tho conpiossod aii. This typo ol
giippoi conpiisos littlo noio than a plato and a nut and contains no noving paits.
Tho iing-shapod aiiangonont ol tho nozzlos also allows tho piohonsionol disks without
a contial holo (Fig. 5.47l. Aii jot giippois can ovon lo usod to poiloin oiiontation pio-
coduios. This is dononstiatod ly tho oxanplo in Figuio 5.48 whoio tho woikpioco
possossos a nil which nust lo liought to a dolinod position (dotoininod ly tho stop pin.
Air jet gripper For screw plates and nuts
a) disk gripper, b) plate gripper, c) double gripper
T compressed air supply, 2 compressed air channel, 3 assembly component, 4 nozzle, 5 carrier
Air jet gripper with orientation capability
T compressed air supply
2 gripping mandrel
3 inclined air nozzles
4 stop pin
5 workpiece
6 wokpiece nib
7 housing

This is achiovod thiough tho angulai nonontun tiansnittod to tho woikpioco thiough
tho inclinod nozzlo holos in tho laso ol tho housing. Tho pait iotatos viitually suppoitod ly
aii and is coiioctly positionod whon tho stop pin is ioachod. This oiiontation is a pait ol tho
autonatod nounting piocoss.

Liko vacuun suction, nagnotoadhosion nay lo inplonontod in loth passivo and activo
loins. A sinplo poinanont nagnot can lo usod to acquiio nagnotically suscoptillo
(loiious oljocts. Spocially dosignod nagnots incoipoiato a nochanical switch nocha-
nisn loi tho puiposos ol llux divoision as shown in Figuio 5.49. This way tho llux path is
noioly divoitod away lion tho giipping suilaco, lut naintainod thiough tho nagnot to
piovont long toin dotoiioiation j5-10, 5-11|. Foi spocially dosignod poinanont nagnots,
typical iotontion piossuios can lo as high as 100 to 200 kN]n
Mechanical control oF the
magnetic Flow
a) object prehension
b) object release
T non-magnetic material
2 permanent magnet
3 Ferromagnetic housing
4 object
Anothoi possilility is to achiovo ioloaso ly pushing tho woikpioco against tho nagnotic
loico. Howovoi, loi this tho giippoi nust lo oquippod with a spocial lovoi nochanisnas in
tho dosign dopictod in Figuio 5.50. This loads to sono intiinsic linitations: Duo to tho dis-
tanco dopondant nagnotic liold stiongth, tho oljoct is oasily displacod duiing piohonsion
and ioloaso. This is not tiuo loi oloctionagnotic giippois whoio tho liold is appliod only
altoi physical contact has loon nado.
Principle oF the
permanent magnet gripper
T pneumatic cylinder
2 lever
3 magnet
4 workpiece
- -

Figuio 5.51 shows tho dosign ol a poinanont nagnot giippoi loi uso with pio-cut notal
shoots. Inthis caso tho nagnots aio spiing nountod so that thoy canlo uniloinly attachod
to tho shoot notal. Sinco tho nagnotic liold cannot lo switchod oll, a lovoi olonont nust
lo piovidod. A sot sciow linits tho tiavol ol tho lovoi to which tho ojoction plato is
Figuio 5.52 shows sono piohonsion nagnots (llat adhosion giippoi which aio con-
noicially availallo in dilloiont, nostly cylindiical, dosigns. Only ono ol tho suilacos is ai-
iangod as a nagnotically attiacting suilaco. This typo ol dosign iostiicts tho olloctivo nag-
notic liold aioa so that woikpiocos oi conpononts in tho vicinity ol tho nagnot aio not
Design oF a permanent magnet gripper
T set screw For lever
2 ejection plate
3 permanent magnet
4 spring mounted guide
5 torsion spring
Permanent magnet Forms {)
T soFt iron pot
2 permanent magnet
3 threaded pin
4 threaded bush
5 adhesion surFace
Giippoi nagnots naintain thoii nagnotic loico alnost indolinitoly. Dotoiioiation ol tho
nagnotic liold stiongth can occui in situations ol high tonpoiatuios (ovoi tho Cuiio point
ol tho nagnotic natoiial in quostion and oxtoinal (altoinating nagnotic liolds. Coianic
nagnots aio usallo up to appioxinatoly 100 C. Tho lollowing tallo contains spocilica-
tions loi tho achiovallo holding loicos (giippoi dosign accoiding to Figuio 5.53.

T0 4,5 4
T6 4,5 20
32 7,0 80
40 8,0 TT0
50 T0,0 200
63 T4 320
T00 22 900

AlNiCo nagnots can sustain tonpoiatuios ol up to 450 C. Raio oaith nagnots (Sanai-
iun-Colalt, Noodyniun-Boion, otc. havo an oxcollont nagnotic liold stiongth to woight
iatio and can lo opoiatod up to appioxinatoly 200 C. Most such nagnots aio sintoiod and
ioquiio piotoctivo coating against coiiosion. Fuithoi piotoction can lo addod in spocial
casos (o.g. loi uso in tho chonical industiy. Ono najoi piollon with sinplo nagnotic
giippois is that ol ionanonco. Many nagnotically suscoptillo natoiials ionain slightly
nagnotisod loi a shoit whilo altoi liold ionoval. A thin polynoi coating on tho nagnotic
suilaco ol tho giippoi can ioduco this piollon signilicantly.
Tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 5.53 is usod loi hand guidod giasping ol llat stool shoots
with sulsoquont iaising and ioalignnont in tho voitical diioction. With nodoin high
powoi noodyniun-iion nagnots it is possillo to achiovo laigo loicos ovon with an appioci-
allo aii gap, which is inovitallo in nany casos such as tho handling ol plastic coatod
Magnet load
cross-beam For chain
hoists and manipulators
T permanent magnet
2 support roller
3 cocking hole
4 index bolt
5 actuating lever For
magnet switching
6 liFting arm
7 securing lug
8 service handle
9 steel sheet board
Tho nagnots aio oxtionoly conpact, low-naintonanco and woll suitod loi llat natoiials,
iods and iion tulos. In tho oxanplo givon in Figuio 5.53 tho nagnot can lo novod along
tho lovoi ain. Tho shoot is nado to lio against suppoit iollois which accopt tho woight
duiing pivoting.
Tho poinanont nagnot is switchallo so that tho stool shoots cannot novo as tho nagnot
appioachos. Tho lollowing tallo contains sono tochnical data ol poinanont noodyniun-
iion nagnots:



- -
T80 95 T00 3 T 0.5 T2
330 95 T00 7.5 2.5 T.25 T6
245 T20 T20 T5 5 2.5 26
- -

In addition to poinanont nagnots, a nagnotic liold can lo oloctiically gonoiatod, as
shown in Figuio 5.54. Noinally nado lion ono oi noio coils wound on coios ol high
nagnotic poinoalility, piohonsion loico nay (in its sinplost loin lo calculatod using
convontional oloctionagnotic loinulao (5.22:
= jN| (5.22
nagnotic llux donsity jT|
cuiiont thiough conductoi jA|
longth ol conductoi jn|
Flectromagnetic gripper
T magnetic Flux path
2 coil with n-windings
3 coil Former
4 Ferromagnetic object
5 winding cross-sections a b
6 prehension Force
Tho llux donsity can lo calculatod lion oxpiossion (5.23:
= k

poinoalility ol lioo spaco j4 10
iolativo poinoalility
nagnotic liold stiongth janps]notio|
nagnotic llux jWoloi|

aioa ol nagnotic path jn
Equation (5.23 assunos that tho iolationship lotwoon and is linoai. In ioality con-
sidoiallo hystoiosis is likoly to oxists, paiticulaily il tho nagnotic coio is diivon into satuia-
tion. In such casos, tho dosign ol an oloctionagnot would ioly on tho uso ol oxact data ox-

tiactod lion chaiactoiistic cuivos loi tho coio natoiial usod. This look is intondod only to
illustiato tho noans ly which tho nagnitudo ol giipping loicos can lo ostinatod. Roadois
who aio spocilically intoiostod in inductoi and oloctionagnot dosign should consult noio
spocialisod toxts.
Fion loinula (5.24, tho nagnotic liold stiongth can lo calculatod:

nunloi ol coil windings
nagnotic path longth (n
Equations (5.22 to (5.24 can lo conlinod to givo (5.25

Dividing ly tho aioa , (which iopiosonts tho wholo intoilaco aioa including thoso paits,
diioctly lolow tho coil windings, which do not includo tho nagnotic path givos an oxpios-
sion loi iotontion piossuio (5.26:


whoio tho pioduct k
has loon allioviatod sinply to k.
Howovoi, this is only applicallo diioctly in casos whoio tho iolativo poinoalility ol tho
oljoct natoiial is oxactly tho sano as that ol tho coio. This is olton assunod to lo tho caso
whon nanulactuiois tochnical data ioloi to tho naxinun availallo oloctionagnotic
loico. Whilst coitain poinalloys can havo iolativo poinoalilitys as high as 70,000, noio
ioalistic oljoct natoiials such as iion havo iolativo poinoalilitys typically in tho iogion ol
1000 j5-13|. Whoio tho poinoalilitys ol coio and oljoct aio dilloiont, tho nagnotic ciicuit
nust lo nodollod in a sinilai nannoi to oloctiical ciicuits, lut using nagnotic ioluctanco
(analogous to oloctiical iosistanco. Expiossion (5.26 iopiosonts tho naxinun availallo
iotontion piossuio and doos not tako into account any inhonogonoitios in oljoct poino-
alility oi suilaco piolilo.
Anoxanplo ol a ioalistic nagnotizationcuivo (nagnotic llux donsity against nagnotic
liold stiongth loi cast iion is shown in Figuio 5.55.
A 5 cn dianotoi oloctionagnotic giippoi consists ol a 200 tuin coil ol avoiago
tuins longth 6 cn, nountod on a high poinoalility coio (k
= 2000 ol nagnotic path
longth 12 cn (including 2 cn thiough tho oljoct. Il, opoiatod lion a 24 V DC supply a
cuiiont ol 1 Anp is diawn, calculato tho naxinun iotontion loico and that oltainallo
whon tho giippoi is usod with an iion oljoct having a iolativo poinoalility ol 1000.
- -

Magnetization curve
For cast iron
Fion (3.93:
4 10
2 10
6 10
2 10
2 12 10
= 25 N
Howovoi, il 2 cn ol this total nagnotic path has k
= 1000 and only 10 cn whoio k
= 2000
thon tho ioduction in holding loico will lo in tho iatio ol tho ioluctancos:


whoioly tho nagnotic ioluctanco is:

Assuning tho nagnotic path aioas aio tho sano (which nay not always lo tho caso:
10 2000 + 2 1000
12 2000
= 0.92l = 23 N
Stoady stato powoi consunption =

Sulstituting (3.94 and (3.97 into (3.91 givos (3.98


It is intoiosting to noto that has tho sano dinonsions as it did with tho vacuun suction
tochniquo. Though no longoi oxactly iopiosonts volunotiic llow iato in tho lluid sonso,
it is still applicallo as a liguio ol iolativo noiit loi giippoi poiloinanco in that it is a
noasuio ol tho iatio ol powoi consunption to iotontion piossuio.

Foi a nagnotic coio cioss soctional aioa givon ly tho total nagnotic llux can lo sini-
laily doiivod as in oquation (5.31:
= =

This givos an oxpiossion (5.32 loi tho coil inductanco


and oloctiical iosistanco loi a conductoi ol iosistivity and cioss soctional aioa

Fion oxpiossions (5.32 and (5.33 wo can calculato a tino constant loi tho giippoi:

Tho cuiiont llow thiough tho oloctionagnotic giippoi, lollowing switch on is givon ly
oquation (5.35:
is tho linal stoady stato valuo which is iosponsillo loi tho powoi consunption as
givon in (5.29. This iosults in a llow iato lollowing tho sano pattoin (5.36:
Tho docay cuiiont and coiiosponding llowiatos aio givon ly (5.37 and (5.38 iospoctivoly.
To piotoct tho diivo ciicuit liontho ollocts ol laigo lack-EMFs a llywhool diodo nay lo io-
quiiod acioss tho inductanco. To naintain a iolativoly shoit tino constant an additional io-
sistanco nust lo includod in soiios with tho llywhool diodo.


Fion oquation (5.25 incioasing tho cuiiont llowcan lo soon to lo tho sinplost way ol in-
pioving tho holding loico. Howovoi, this will also iosult in piopoitionally laigoi powoi dis-
sipation accoiding to (5.29. Incioasing tho nunloi ol tuins will also inpiovo tho giipping
loico, lut at tho oxponso ol a highoi inductanco (5.32 and consoquontly longoi tino con-
stant (5.34. Fion loinula (5.33 can lo soon to lo diioctly piopoitional to . Also, tho
gioatoi tho nunloi ol tuins, tho snalloi tho individual conductoi cioss soctional aioa loi a
- -

givon coil sizo. This in itsoll will linit tho allowallo cuiiont lut is olton noio olloctivo than
sinply incioasing tho cuiiont to a coil ol lowoi tuins. In piactico, tho liniting lactoi in this
iospoct will lo oxponso. Inductois ol nany tuins sinply cost noio to nanulactuio than
thoso having lowoi.
Continuing with this oxanplo, ono oltains a looling loi what tho llow iato
ioally noans. Tho tino constant should lo luithoi invostigatod whon an iion oljoct is
acquiiod ly tho giippoi. Tho oloctiical iosistanco ol tho coil is = = 24 . Accoiding
to oquation (5.29, powoi =
= 24 W loi a giippoi with an olloctivo piohonsion
suilaco ol =
= 19,6 cn
and tho piohonsion piossuio = 23](19,6 10
= 11735
. Dividing powoi ly piossuio givos 24]11735 0,002 n
]s. Tho naxinun in-
ductanco can now lo calculatod accoiding to (5.32:
4 10
2 10
4 10
19 6 10
12 10
= 1.64
Il tho giippoi now conos into contact with an iion oljoct thon tho inductanco will, accoid-
ing to (5.27, lo:
= 0.92 1.64 = 1.51
And consoquontly, tho tino constant lion (5.34,
= 0.063 -
This noans that 63% ol tho oloctiical cuiiont, and honco nagnotic llux, will havo luilt up
0.063 soconds altoi switch on. Sinilaily, 0.063 soconds will lo ioquiiod loloio 63% ol tho
llux will havo docayod altoi switch oll. This noans giipping and ioloaso tinos will lo in
toins ol sovoial soconds.
In ciicunstancos whoio a laigoi nunloi ol windings aio usod, tho consoquont laigoi in-
ductanco will givo an incioaso in tino constant. This is not usually a piollon loi nany in-
dustiial oloctionagnot applications such as loiious sciap notal handling. Howovoi, such
tino dolays aio olton unaccoptallo in pick and placo, assonlly otc. As in tho poinanont
nagnot caso, a thin (sovoial hundiod nicionotoi polynoi coating on tho nagnotic sui-
laco ol tho giippoi can holp oxpodito things. Moio oxplicit dosign dotails loi oloctionag-
notic giippoi can lo lound olsowhoio j5-14, 5-15|.
Eloctionagnots nay lo opoiatod lionoithoi diioct oi altoinating cuiiont. In tho caso ol
tho loinoi, unloss tho coios aio laninatod, sono iosidual nagnotisation nay ionain in
tho oljoct altoi ioloaso. Whoio altoinating cuiiont supplios aio usod, tho diioction ol tho
nagnotic liold will iovoiso in tino with tho cuiiont passing though tho coil, though lion
(5.25 tho iotontion loico can lo soon to lo tho sano iogaidloss ol tho diioction ol tho cui-
iont. Piovidod tho lioquoncy ol tho supply is not so low that tho oljoct has tino to locono
dotachod lion tho giippoi loloio tho noxt nagnotising hall cyclo, tho holding loico will lo
naintainod. Howovoi, whon using altoinating cuiionts tho likolihood ol iosidual nag-
notic polaiisationis nininisod and tho oljoct acquisition and ioloaso tino iosponsos will
docioaso with incioasing lioquoncy. Unloitunatoly, at highoi lioquoncios, skin olloct and

nutual inductancos lotwoon winding layois nust lo takon into account. Thoso ollocts io-
duco tho attainallo nagnotic liold whilst incioasing tho inpodanco ol tho coil j5-16|.
Tho advantagos ol oloctionagnotic giippois aio:
Sinplo conpact constiuction with no noving paits.
Unconplicatod onoigy supply and contiol (nono with poinanont nagnots.
Rolativoly indopondont ol oljoct sizo and giavitational contio.
No powoi lossos duo to liiction.
Usallo with a wido iango ol oljoct sizos and shapos.
Tho disadvantagos ol oloctionagnotic giippois aio:
Usallo only with loiious natoiials (Iion, Nickol, Colalt.
Extondod ioloaso tinos duo to nagnotic ionanonco. This can also load to tho
colloction ol lino nagnotic paiticlos and dust ovoi piolongod tino.
As with nost astiictivo tochniquos, lailuio ol tho powoi supply loads to (alnost
innodiato oljoct ioloaso.
Giippoi woight diioctly dopondant on ioquiiod piohonsion loico.
Unliko with inpactivo tochniquos contiing ol tho oljoct within tho giippoi as pait ol
tho piohonsion piocoss is not possillo.
Duo to poinoating ollocts ol tho nagnotic liold, sopaiation ol thin shoot oljocts lion
ono anothoi is dillicult.
Whon diivon lion DC supplios tho oljoct can locono slightly nagnotisod. This can
iosult in addod costs should it lo nocossaiy to donagnotiso paits at a latoi stago.
Tho lollowing dosign oxanplo dononstiatos a sinplo giippoi intondod loi tho handling ol
cog whools dopictod in Figuio 5.56. Tho ioalisallo piohonsion loico doponds on a nunloi
ol lactois:
Sizo ol tho contact aioa lotwoon giippoi and oljoct.
Matoiial piopoitios.
Roughnoss at tho intoilaco (aii gap.
Poicontago ol tho piohonsion aioa olloctivoly usod.
Magnotic liold stiongth ol tho oloctionagnot.
Flectromagnetic gripper For handling
cog wheels [5-T7|
T object
2 electromagnet
- -

Oljocts having dilloiont nagnotisation cuivos will oxpoiionco dilloiont piohonsion loicos
with tho sano giippoi. Tho nagnotic satuiation ol a natoiial laigoly dotoininos tho uppoi
linit loi piohonsion loico. Tho giaph shown in Figuio 5.57 piovidos an ovoiviow. Puio
iion has a coiioction lactoi

= 1. Stool also contains coitain anounts ol cailon,

Chioniun, Nickol, Manganoso, Molyldonun, Coppoi otc., all ol which soivo to incioaso
tho nagnotic ioluctanco. In addition, haidonod notals tond to oxhilit pooioi nagnotoad-
hosion chaiactoiistics duo to changos in tho notals ciystal stiuctuio.
Dependence oF magneto-
adhesive Force on material

correction Factor
cast iron
wrought iron
cast steel
Apiociso goonotiical dosign ol tho nagnot polo shoo nakos tho handling ol woikpiocos
with gioatly dilloiing shapos and sizos possillo. Figuio 5.58 shows two such oxanplos
whoio tho oloctionagnot is spiing nountod. Upon onoigising tho oloctionagnot tho io-
coption position is socuiod nagnotically. Tho spiing loading holps lacilitato oljoct ioloaso.
Flectromagnetic gripper with adapted workpiece receivers
a) external grip, b) internal grip
T gripper Flange, 2 return spring, 3 magnet coil, 4 workpiece receiver, 5 workpiece

Figuio 5.59 shows sono luithoi oxanplos loi adaptation ol tho polo shoo to tho oljoct.
Tho giipping suilaco is nado lion a nagnotically suscoptillo natoiial. Tho sizos ol tho
holos and apoituios aio snall and havo no signilicant alloct on piohonsion loico.
Many idoas loi shapo adaptivo giippois whoio dovolopod duiing tho 1970s. Tho nag-
notic powdoi giippoi in Figuio 5.60 has loon usod loi tho handling ol cast iion paits. Tho
jaws consist ol polynoi sacks containing oithoi nagnotic powdoi oi nagnotoihoological
lluid. This allows nagnotic llux to pass thiough tho sacks without an oxcossivo nunloi ol
aii gaps as a iosult ol tho oljocts iough oi unovon suilaco. Ono dissadvantago is tho dangoi
ol danago to tho olastic cladding ly shaip points oi odgos.
Flectromagnetic gripper For special applications
a) centring spike, b) pole shoe For curved objects, c) pivot gripper
T coil, 2 workpiece, 3 centring pin, 4 guide plate
Magnetic powder gripper
{, }apan)
T elastomeric cladding
2 object
3 magnetic core {yoke)
4 iron powder or magnetorheological Fluid
5 connection line
north pole
south pole
Floxilility ol tho giippoi shown in Figuio 5.61 is achiovod thiough tho splitting ol tho
polo shoos into sopaiato novallo olononts. On contact with tho oljoct thoy adapt thon-
solvos to tho oljocts piolilo. As tho nagnotic liold is appliod not only is a piohonsion loico
gonoiatod lut tho notal olononts ionain lixod in placo. Such a piohonsion stiatogy is
idoally suitod to iigid oljocts ol 3D topology.
Magnotic giippois can also lo dosignod to hold sovoial dilloiont oljocts sinultanoously
and tho vaiioty ol possililitios is innonso. Fuithoi giippoi dosigns loi loth iolotic and
nanual handling can lo lound in j5-18|.
- -

ProFile magnetic gripper {)

T stainless steel housing
2 laminate pole shoes
3 object
4 power connection
Most snall oloctionagnots aio dosignod loi uso with oithoi 12 V (autonolilo oi 24 V
(industiial standaid powoi supplios. Whon usod as a nagnotoadhosivo giippoi such oloc-
tiic supplios can lo augnontod ly lattoiy lack-up onsuiing naintonanco ol tho holding
loico in casos ol suddon powoi lailuio.
Tho conlination ol poinanont nagnots with oloctionagnots is widoly usod (loi oxanplo
hyliid stoppoi notois. Magnotoadhosois can also lonolit lion this loatuio as shown in
Figuio 5.62.
Thoso aio systons with an opon nagnotic ciicuit intondod loi paiticulaily long toin
iotontion ol loiionagnotic woikpiocos. In tho activatod stato, an oxcitoi winding noutial-
izos tho poinanont nagnotic liold iosulting in oljoct ioloaso. In oidoi to avoid iosidual
nagnotization ol tho oljoct, a countoi-liold duiing doposition nay lo oloctiically
Hybrid magnetoadhesive gripper {)
T housing, bell
2 permanent magnet
3 connection line
4 exciter winding
5 soFt iron core
6 magnetoadhesive surFace
20 to T50 mm

Tho adhosion loico ionains unchangod in casos ol powoi lailuio. Tho noutialization is
iaioly poiloct and tho iosidual adhosion loicos altoi activation aio loss than 3%ol tho non-
inal adhosionloico. Both cylindiical and culoid dosigns aio connoicially availallo, as can
lo soon in Figuio 5.63.

Eloctiostatic liolds, liko thoii nagnotic countoipaits, can lo usod to piovido an astiictivo
loico, known as oloctioadhosion j5-19|. Though in all casos this is not as oasily quantiliod
as with tho nagnotic dovicos, sono calculations can lo caiiiod out which will givo an idoa
ol tho scalo ol tho loicos involvod. Tho oloctiostatic oquivalont to tho sinplo pnounatic
suction cup and tho poinanont nagnot is tho oloctiot j5-20|. Though oloctiots oxhilit poi-
nanont oloctiostatic loico, thoso loicos aio noinally too snall loi piactical uso in piohon-
sion and so will not lo considoiod hoio. Tho sinplost activo nothod iolios on tho loico pio-
ducod within a dioloctiic which is suljoctod to an oxtoinal oloctiic liold.
Sinco tho 1990s, and paiticulaily in USAand Japan, oloctioadhosionhas soonconsidoia-
llo intoiost loi tho iotontion ol soniconductoi walois duiing piocossing (-
-. Eloctioadhosion has two signilicant advantagos ovoi vacuun suction. Tho liist is
that it nay lo usod with walois which havo alioady loon paitly nachinod and contain
holos. Tho socond is its alility to opoiato in vacuunonviionnonts sonothing ol incioas-
ing intoiost anong chip nanulactuiois.
- - -
Figuio 5.64 shows a typical oxanplo and its oquivalont oloctiical ciicuit. Tho appliod poton-
tial (EHT is noinally in tho iango ol sovoial thousand volts. Fion tho point ol viow ol
Design examples hybrid
diameter 20...T50 mm
Diameter A in mm 20 35 55 70 90 T05 T50
Nominal adhering Force in N 40 T60 420 720 T200 T600 3500
- -

Cross-section oF an electrostatic gripper

T electrodes
2 dielectric
3 electrically
conducting object
naxinising tho availallo loico, tho aiiangonont shown in Figuio 5.64 is ossontially a
singlo capacitoi. In this caso tho oljoct itsoll is connoctod diioctly to ono sido ol tho supply,
thiough tho giippois contial oloctiodo, which ol couiso should lo oaithod loi saloty ioa-
Equation (5.39 is doiivod lion lasic oloctiostatic thooiy loi a sinplo planai capacitoi
j5-21| lion which tho lasic oquation loi capacitanco (5.40 can also lo doiivod j5-22|. Tho
iolationship lotwoon tho oloctiic liold stiongth and tho oloctiic displaconont is givon

= (5.39
oloctiic displaconont jA s]n2|
oloctiic liold stiongth jV]n|
o o
1, Eloctiic suscoptilility

oloctiic polaiisation
As in its oloctionagnotic countoipait, in oquation (5.40 iopiosonts tho poinittivity (tho
pioduct ol lioo spaco poinittivity
nultipliod ly tho dioloctiic constant
Capacitanco =



jFaiad| (5.40
intoilaco lotwoon giippoi and oljoct jn
dioloctiic thicknoss jn|
Using tho physical loinula, onoigy =
and ioaiianging = i givos tho iotontion
loico as in oquation (5.41


appliod potontial jVolts|
Ro-aiianging oquations (5.40 and (5.41 and dividing ly tho giippoi to oljoct contact aioa
, givos tho iotontion piossuio (oquation 5.42.


Stoady stato powoi consunption can lo calculatod lion:


In pnounatic systons oquation (5.2 was usod loi volunotiic llow iato. It appoaiod again
as oquation (5.30 loi tho oloctiodynanic nodol. It is again iopoatod, lut this tino in its
oloctiostatic loin as oxpiossion (5.44:


Tho lioakdown potontial ol diy aii is aiound 3000 volts]nn and alout twico this loi
vacuun j5-23|. It is highoi still loi nost polynoi dioloctiic natoiials, so a potontial dilloi-
onco ol 3000 volts acioss a 1 nnthick dioloctiic should poso lowpiollons. Ol couiso, this
voltago can lo incioasod, yiolding highoi iotontion loicos, in which caso caio nust lo
takon to avoid aii lulllos and othoi inhonogonoitios in tho giippoi dioloctiic, inpoiloct
dioloctiic to oloctiodo contact otc. j5-22|. Notico that is considoially snalloi than its oloc-
tionagnotic countoipait k. Consoquontly tho availallo iotontion piossuio is coiiospond-
ingly ioducod. Howovoi, at scalos undoi 1 nnthoso iulos no longoi hold tiuo (soo Chaptoi
7 Miniatuio and nicio-Giippois
To oltain a sinilai idoa ol tino constant wo nust onploy oquation (5.45
= (5.45
whoio capacitanco can lo calculatod lion oxpiossion (5.40.
Howovoi, in tho nodol ol Figuio 5.64, thoio aio two iosistancos
. Duiing chaig-
ing initially lohavos liko a shoit ciicuit honco tho snalloi
docidos tho tino constant in
(5.45. Duiing dischaigo tho cuiiont path is thiough loth iosistancos honco tho sun ol
nust lo usod in oquation (5.45. Howovoi,
is usually voiy snall conpaiod to
and so can noinally lo nogloctod.
Extonsivo tost data has loon conpilod ly Kiapo which shows that in nost casos tho
noasuiod valuo ol oloctioadhosivo loico is alnost always lowoi than that calculatod j5-19|.
In lact in nany tosts tho chaiactoiistic was lound to lo appioxinatoly linoai as opposod to
tho squaio law suggostod ly oquations (5.41 and (5.43. This is not suipiising as it is al-
nost inpossillo to achiovo conploto contact ovoi tho ontiio intoilaco aioa lotwoon two
suilacos. Conpliant oi lluid lackod dioloctiics can lo usod to inpiovo tho dioloctiic to ol-
joct suilaco contact j5-24, 4-17|.
A giipping suilaco with chaigod oloctiodo aioa ol 20 cn
has a 1 nn thick
dioloctiic ol
= 4 and an appliod voltago ol 3000 volts.
- -

8.85 10
A 20 10
d 1 10
V 3000 jV|
Insoiting thoso valuos into (5.41 givos:
8.85 10
4 20 10
9 10
2 10
0.32 N
and locauso = givos tho iotontion piossuio, 160 N]n
. Cloaily, this is a nuch
lowoi valuo than that oltainallo lion a conpaially sizod oloctionagnotic giippoi.
To oltain a sinilai idoa ol tino constant wo nust uso oquation (5.45 to oltain tho
capacitanco, .
8.85 10
4 20 10
= 71 pF
To givo ioughly tho sano tino constant as tho nagnotic dovico in a piovious oxanplo,
= 0.063 soconds, wo would nood:

71 10
= 887
Foi this iosistanco, powoi dissipation is givon ly (5.43:


887 10
= 0.01 W
Fion (5.44 this givos a powoi consunod to iotontion piossuio iatio ol:

0.01 W
160 N]n
= 63 10
In actual lact a iosistanco ol 887 is a littlo unioalistic. Sonothing in tho 10s ol
iango is noio likoly givon powoi supply intoinal iosistanco, loakago otc. j5-25|. This sug-
gosts a powoi consunption in tho iogion ol 100s ol nW accoiding to (5.43 yiolding a
loico to powoi iatio sinilai to that ol tho oloctionagnotic giippoi. Howovoi, oquation
(5.45 shows that undoi such ciicunstanco tho tino constant will lo coiiospondingly io-
Although loi piactical puiposos tho availallo lilting loico is sonowhat lowoi loi oloc-
tioadhosion than nagnotoadhosion this nothod ol piohonsion nay lo usod with a widoi
iango ol oljoct natoiial typos. All notals whothoi loiious oi non-loiious can lo handlod.

Eloctiically conducting non-notallic oljocts such as thoso laliicatod lion cailon lilio,
conducting polynois, nost soniconductoi natoiials j5-25| otc., can also lo handlod ly
- - --
Foi oloctiically insulating natoiials oloctioadhosion can also lo usod lut tho lasic piin-
ciplos ol loico gonoiation aio dilloiont and tho loicos involvod cannot lo so oasily calcu-
latod j5-26|.
Thoio aio loui najoi typos ol oloctiical polaiisation: Eloctionic, atonic, dipolo and intoi-
lacial. Foi oloctioadhosivo piohonsion puiposos only tho last two aio ol intoiost and thoii
contiilution is lottoi dosciilod as:
Poinanont polaiization duo to noloculai poinanont dipolo nonont.
Inducod polaiization as a iosult ol an appliod oloctiic liold.
Tho loinoi is woakoi and is suljoct to tho ollocts ol tonpoiatuio, paiticulaily intho caso ol
liquids and gassos j5-27|. Tho lattoi, nuch stiongoi, is what is usod in tho oloctioadhosion
ol insulating natoiials.
Noithoi honogonoous dioloctiic natoiials noi honogonoous oloctiic liolds actually
oxist innatuio j5-28| naking piociso calculation ol tho loicos involvod viitually inpossillo.
Fuithoinoio, any ciystal stiuctuios piosont in tho dioloctiic will tond to havo thoii own,
sopaiato dipolo nononts, which usually doninato ovoi thoso possossod ly singlo
noloculos. Givon that nost polynois aio at loast paitially ciystallino, thoso unpiodictallo
stiuctuial polaiisalilitios aio olton iosponsillo loi tho ovoiall oloctioadhosivo olloct j5-29|.
Fion tho lundanontal oloctiostatic thooiy wo havo tho lasic oxpiossion (5.39. Pio-
viously, tho polaiisation conponont
was sinply tioatod as a scalai. Howovoi, at tho
noloculai lovol, whoio highly polaiizallo natoiials aio concoinod, this is iaioly tho caso.
Consoquontly, whon an oloctioadhosoi is to lo usod to piohond insulating natoiials,
loinula (5.41 is no longoi applicallo. Now wo nust considoi what is happoning at a
noloculai lovol to soo why oloctiostatic attiaction ol dioloctiic natoiials can occui.
In an oloctiically conducting nodiun, such as notal, any chaigo which is appliod will
dispoiso thiough tho conductoi in tho loin ol a cuiiont. In an insulatoi this is not
possillo, so a chaigo luild up occuis on tho suilaco. This takos tho loin ol oloctions, oi
holos (positivo chaigos, loing attachod to tho noloculos lion which tho natoiial is nado.
Thoso oloctions cannot llowlionono atonto tho noxt as in a conductoi, so tho only way an
aton can shod its spaio oloctions is ly tuining tho noloculo to which it is attachod until
tho nogativo ond ol ono noloculo nakos contact with tho positivo ond ol anothoi noloculo
thus allowing tho chaigos to lo noutialisod. In a solid, tho noloculos aio usually so iigidly
lound as to nako such laigo iotations and displacononts inpossillo. Howovoi, as thoso
noloculos tiy to iotato duo to tho ollocts ol thoso appliod chaigos, a toiquo is oxpoiioncod.
Bocauso tho noloculos aio liinly attachod to ono anothoi, tho conlination ol such loicos
pioducos a not loico on tho suilaco ol tho oljoct which causos it to adhoio to tho giippoi
dioloctiic. This olloct is known as polaiisation
and is iolatod to tho noloculai stiuctuio
and oloctiic liold ly oquation (5.46.
- -

noloculai polaiisalility ol dipolo
appliod oloctiic liold stiongth jV]n|
In sono casos, givon long onough, tho noloculos alility to iotato oi tho oloctiical io-
sistanco ol tho natoiial nay lo snall onough to allow tho chaigo to loak away. This is
known as dioloctiic iolaxation. Polaiisation,
is oxponontially piopoitional to tho dioloc-
tiic iolaxation tino, as shown in oquation (5.47. As so nany dilloiont kinds ol polaiisa-
tion (atonic, noloculai, stiuctuial, intoilacial otc. can tako placo loth sinultanoously and
in isolation, it is not possinlo to oquato polaiisation accuiatoly with dioloctiic constant
was dono loi tho sinploi nodol oailioi j5-28|.

constant (iolatod to dioloctiic loss lactois
oxponontial constant (2,7182
dioloctiic iolaxation tino
Now, cuiiont donsity is givon ly J (A]n


and so cuiiont =


Powoi consunption =




Foico on a dioloctiic is noinally oxpiossod as a thioo dinonsional voctoi quantity as tho

cioss pioduct ol polaiisation and oloctiic liold stiongth , oi using oloctiical chaigo as in
tho Faiaday oquation (5.48
oi in tho loin ol piohonsion piossuio
whoioly is tho chaigo thiough noloculai polaiisation. Howovoi, as wo aio concoinod
with only tho iotontion loico in tho voitical diioction wo can ioduco (5.49 to scalai loin in
oidoi to lind tho iotontion piossuio (5.50.

| (5.50

As lound pioviously, tho iatio ol powoi consunption (= IV to iotontion piossuio s in a

dioloctiic ol thicknoss with oloctiic liold stiongth is givon in oquation (5.51
= =

jW| (5.51
Using tho iolationship = wo oltain (5.52

]s| (5.52
Most connon polynois havo dioloctiic constants which lio lotwoon 2 and 5 j5-22|, lut
dioloctiic iolaxation tinos can vaiy lion loss than a liaction ol a socond loi polyanidos
and polystyiono to sovoial thousands ol soconds loi tho highoi noloculai woight sul-
stancos such as high donsity polyothylono, PVC and PTFE j5-30|.
Unliko vacuun suction and nagnotoadhosion, oloctioadhosivo loicos do not poinoato
thiough tho oljoct natoiial as dooply. Boing tho iosult ol chaigo gonoiation at an intoilaco
lotwoon two dissinilai dioloctiic natoiials, thoy tond to piovido a suilaco-only loico. This
can lo voiy usolul whon applying this tochniquo to tho ionoval ol singlo shoots ol natoiial
lion a stack ol tho sano and is usod in this iospoct loi papoi handling, toxtilo laliic do-
stacking otc. j5-29|.
Expoiinontal iosults show that with liolds in tho iogion ol 3 kV]nn cohosivo loicos loi
nost toxtilo laliics, polynois and loathois lio in tho iogion ol 15 to 100 N]n
j5-29|. Whon
such a giipping dovico is tiltod at an anglo ol 90 , oljocts alioady piohondod aio iotainod
nainly duo to shoai, iathoi thansinplo cohosivo loicos. Thoso nay lo in oxcoss ol anoidoi
ol nagnitudo gioatoi than conpaiativo cohosivo iotontion loicos j5-26|. Foi this ioason,
cylindiical oloctioadhosivo dovicos onto which a llat, non-iigid oljoct can lo iollod aio
gioatly supoiioi to sinplo planoi oloctioadhosivo suilacos j5-25|. In addition to tho pooling
action ol a cylindiical oloctioadhosivo suilaco, such conliguiations can lo oxploitod loi in-
piovod oljoct iotontion. Tho considoially gioatoi shoai loicos availallo noan that hoavioi
oljocts nay lo noio iolially piohondod than with planai giipping suilacos. Fuithoinoio,
continuod iolling in oxcoss ol a lull 360 iotation allows tho oljoct to lo voiy socuioly hold
j5-26|. Tho tallo lolow shows tho cohosivo and shoai iotontion piossuios iospoctivoly loi a
iango ol oljoct natoiials j4-14, 4-17|.
Bocauso tho oljoct is a dioloctiic, tho oloctiical iosistanco can lo gioatoi than 10
. This
iosults ina considoially snalloi than oxpoiioncod ly tho othoi astiictivo tochniquos, lut
at tho oxponso ol a gioatly incioasod tino constant.
Foi oloctiically conducting oljocts, tho acquisition and ioloaso tinos can lo voiy iapid
accoiding to oquation (5.45. Foi oloctiically insulating oljocts, tho chaigo doos not loak
away so iapidly. This is not a piollonloi oljoct acquisition as tho giippoi can lo onoigisod
piioi to contact. Howovoi, whon powoi is ionovod, tho oljoct will not lo ioloasod innodi-
atoly duo to iosidual chaigo and tho dioloctiics natuial iolaxation tino (5.47. Foitunatoly
this can lo oxpoditod loth oloctiically and nochanically. Tho incoipoiation ol an addi-
tional iosistanco in paiallol with tho giippoi will ioduco tho tino constant accoiding to
(5.45, though at tho oxponso ol incioasod powoi consunption iosulting in a lowoi olli-
- -

cioncy (5.52. Duo to potontial danago lionoloctionagnotic iadiation causod ly oloctiical

dischaigo otc., tho inclusion ol a snall high voltago iolay to shoit ciicuit tho giipping sui-
laco altoi powoi ionoval is only appiopiiato in casos ol iolativoly snall, and honco low
capacitanco, dovicos. Laigoi capacitanco dovicos, i.o. thoso with laigoi suilaco aioas, nust
dissipato powoi into a iosistanco with tho attondant incioaso in dischaigo tino constant.
Whoio appiopiiato, a noio piactical nothod is to assist oljoct ionoval nochanically ly
noans ol plastic pogs which nay lo loicod thiough snall holos in tho giipping suilaco.
Tho piollons ol oljoct ionoval aio loss pionouncod whon cylindiical giipping suilacos
aio usod. In thoso casos, piovidod only pait ol tho oljoct suilaco is in contact with tho giip-
poi, tho oljoct can sinply lo iollod lioo (soo Figuio 10.17 j5-31|.
Though nuch lowoi loicos aio availallo with oloctioadhosion whon usod with non-con-
ducting oljocts, such giipping tochniquos aio applicallo to a voiy wido iango ol oljoct
natoiials including papoi, toxtilos, polynois otc. Rolativoly light, and paiticulaily liln and
shoot constiuctions, aio ospocially suitod to this nothod ol handling. This includos living
as woll as inoit stiuctuios j5-32| whoio tho tochniquo ol oloctioinnolilisation can lo usod
to tonpoiaiily, and hainlossly, socuio insocts loi oxanination, photogiaphing otc.
Fuithoinoio, loth nagnotoadhosion and all loins ol oloctioadhosion aio usallo in vacu-
ous onviionnonts whoio vacuun suction cloaily is not.
Sono inpiovononts inpiohonsionalility canlo achiovod thiough a judicious choico ol
giippoi dioloctiic natoiials. Foi oxanplo, tho uso ol conpliant suilacos is lonolicial, in
paiticulai lluid lackod j4-17|, oi solt silicono iulloi dioloctiics j5-33|. Tho conpliant na-
tuio ol such natoiials holps tho giippoi suilaco to nould to tho piolilo ol tho oljoct
thoioly onsuiing a noio uniloin physical contact lotwoon tho dioloctiic and oljoct sui-
lacos. Howovoi, such good physical contact can oxacoilato tho piollons ol oljoct ioloaso
duo to suilaco tonsion lotwoon tho conpliant giippoi and snooth oljoct suilacos. A pho-
nonona which can also lo usod to advantago (soo Chaptoi 7.
Dospito nuch appaiont conlusion iogaiding tho ollocts ol hunidity on oloctiostatic at-
tiaction, totally diy aii is not tho lost onviionnont loi oloctiostatic chaigo gonoiation. Tho

- -- --
Aluminium Foil 200 T000
Unidirectional carbon Fibre 60 T50
voven carbon Fibre 20 40
voven glass Fibre 20 60
voven rayon 27 T00
voven cotton T5 T50
Initted cotton 20 60
Smooth leather 93 T000
Polyvinyl chloride Foil 40 600

loicos ol oloctioadhosion initially incioaso in tho piosonco ol noistuio and only docioaso
signilicantly with nuch laigoi lovols ol hunidity j5-29|. Sinilai olsoivations havo loon
nado loi tho liictional chaiging ol natoiials whoio a poak in tho chaiging ol nost laliics
and polynois lios in tho iango 20% to 60% iolativo hunidity j5-31|. Givon that in tho caso
ol an oloctioadhosoi, giipping loico is naintainod ly noans ol a constant oloctiic liold,
chaigo loakago will iosult in an incioaso in powoi consunption and honco highoi iathoi
than a ioduction in iotontion piossuio.
Tho lollowing tallo lists a iango ol inpoitant paianotois loi oach typo ol astiictivo io-
tontion tochniquo. Thoso aio typical liguios and, oxcopt in tho caso ol vacuun suction, aio
ly no noans naxinun valuos. Such liniting lactois aio dotoininod nainly ly tho oljoct
loing handlod iathoi than tho piohonsion tochniquo.

- -



vacuum Any relatively rigid, non-
porous surFace
50,000 T0
T0 ms, T s
Magnetic Magnetically susceptible
T00,000 T0
20 ms
Relatively Flat, electrical
200 2 T0
T ms, T0 ms
Almost all materials pro-
vided these are Flat and
relatively light
50 2 T0
T00 ms, T s
Used with electrically conducting object materials.
Used with electrically insulating object materials.
Tho potontial lilting loicos duo to vacuun suction ioach a thooiotical uppoi linit ol
100 kN]n
though, as alioady nontionod, loss than hall this liguio is noio ioalistic in
piactico. Snoothnoss ol tho oljoct suilaco is a luithoi liniting lactoi naking this toch-
niquo alnost unusallo with poious natoiials. Though voiy olliciont, iolativoly last, inox-
ponsivo and suitallo loi uso in situations (such as potio-chonical and inllannallo gas in-
dustiios whoio all oloctiical systons nust lo spocially constiuctod to intiinsically salo
standaids, vacuun suction cannot lo usod in low piossuio onviionnonts. This is ol giow-
ing inpoitanco in viow ol tho soniconductoi industiys incioasing oxploitation ol total in-
vacuun nanulactuiing.
Magnotoadhosion has tho advantago ol oaso ol uso and only sinplo low voltago ciicuits
aio noodod. Tho availallo iotontion piossuio is voiy high and linitod nainly ly tho iolativo
poinoalility ol tho oljoct natoiial. Hoat lossos duo to oloctiical iosistanco in tho windings
aio iosponsillo loi tho conpaiativoly gioatoi powoi consunption loi a givon nass ioton-
tion. Though having a gioatoi lilting capalility than tho othoi astiictivo nothods, it is
linitod to nagnotically suscoptillo natoiials.
- -

Though onjoying a nuch widoi iango ol applications in toins ol tho piohonsion ol ol-
joct natoiial typos, oloctioadhosion is linitod to tho iotontion ol iolativoly llat, low nass
oljocts. Its nain stiongth lios in aioas whoio vacuun suction and nagnotoadhosion aio
unsuitallo, loi oxanplo tho alility to handlo non-loiious, poious oi dolicato natoiials.
Extonding oloctioadhosion to uso with dioloctiic natoiials ly noans ol noloculai
polaiisation is sonowhat noio piollonatic. Though tho ollicioncy is oxtionoly high duo
to tho voiy low powoi consunption, tho iotontion piossuio is voiy linitod and tho tino
constant long conpaiod to tho othoi astiictivo tochniquos. Its nain advantago lios in tho
alility to handlo alnost any natoiial, alloit whononly in iolativoly light shoot oi lilnloin.
Whoio oloctioadhosivo tochniquos ioally cono into thoii own aio at nicio-scalos whoio
tho othoi astiictivo tochniquos aio inpiactical. This is tho suljoct ol Chaptoi 7.

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

Piohonsion tochniquos which ioly on diioct contact contiguity lotwoon giippoi and ol-
joct suilacos, aio toinod . Tho oxact natuio ol tho post-contact holding loico can
lo chonical, thoinal adhosion oi sinply ioliant on suilaco tonsion loicos. This lattoi is
paiticulaily iolovant to nicio-giippois which will lo discussod sopaiatoly in Chaptoi 7.

Adhosivos aio usod oxtonsivoly loi tho puiposos ol loth poinanont and tonpoiaiy suilaco
londing. In toins ol iolot giippois, only tho lattoi sconaiio is ol intoiost. Tho uso ol dis-
posallo chonical adhosivos loi tho autonatod handling ol natoiials, liko nost othoi toch-
niquos has a long and intoiosting histoiy. A patont loi a papoi shoot looding nochanisn
using adhosivo suilacos was oiiginally lilod in 1941 j6-1|, and a sinilai dosign loi toxtilo
handling in 1961 j6-2|. In loth casos adhosivo tapos capallo ol loing autonatically wound
on woio tho noans ly which thoso nothods could lo continuously usod. Tho typos ol
adhosivo which nay lo usod on such tapos aio nany and vaiiod and luithoi inloination
on thoii chonical and physical natuio can lo oltainod olsowhoio j6-3|. Foi tho puiposos ol
thoii application to iolotic piohonsion, it is sulliciont that thoy piovido a contigutivoly acti-
vatod iotontion loico and, in tho caso ol non io-usallo adhosivos, can lo iapidly ioplacod
altoi thoii adhosivo piopoitios havo oxpiiod. As in tho oxanplo dopictod in Figuio 6.1, this
usually ontails thoii inplonontation in tho loin ol a tapo which can lo wound on poii-
odically to iovoal a liosh, unusod adhosivo suilaco. Howovoi, iocont advancos in polynoi
chonistiy havo lod to tho dovolopnont ol adhosivos which havo io-usallo (poinanontly
tacky chaiactoiistics. Tho ioquiionont loi such a adhosivo is that it nust havo
onough adhosivo powoi to lo capallo ol sovoial hundiod opoiations loloio cloaning is io-
quiiod, lut not so nuch adhosion that it loconos dillicult to ionovo tho oljoct whon io-
loaso is dosiiod. Fuithoinoio, it nust lo physically iolust onough to sustain sovoial tons
ol thousands ol pick and placo opoiations loloio ovontual ioplaconont ol tho adhosivo
hoad is nocossaiy. In addition, such adhosivos should lo nado lion inoxponsivo, non-
toxic, onviionnontally liiondly sulstancos.
Tho tochnology ol adhosivos onconpassos an oxtonsivo nixtuio ol disciplinos including
chonistiy, nochanics and natoiials scionco. This toxt is not intondod to lo a tioatiso on

adhosivos, lut a quick look at tho lasic chonistiy should piovo usolul in undoistanding
tho attiilutos ol an adhosivo which aio inpoitant in toins ol io-usalility.
Boloio vulcanisation, natuial iullois olton oxhilit a dogioo ol stickinoss which usually
incioasos with tonpoiatuio. Tho addition ol sulphui causos cuiing and an ovontual loss ol
tacky chaiactoiistics j6-4|. Sono synthotic iullois howovoi, cannot loin cioss links lo-
twoon thoii noloculai chains and aio thoioloio uncuiallo and consoquontly naintain a
poinanont tack. Foi oxanplo, whon isolutylono is polynoiisod with isopiono it loins a
copolynoi tho synthotic iulloi known as lutyl iulloi. This has poinanont tack,
though liko natuial iullois, it can lo cuiod ly tho addition ol sulphui. Polyisolutylono, on
tho othoi hand, is a honopolynoi sinilai to polyothylono and cannot lo cuiod j6-4|. Poly-
isolutylono is a cloai, inoxponsivo, poinanontly tacky, viscid jolly sulstanco which is watoi
washallo and iotains nost ol its adhosivo piopoitios whon wot. Howovoi, tho solidity ol
polyisolutylono is piopoitional to, and tho tack invoisoly piopoitional to, noloculai
woight naking a tiado oll lotwoon physical iosilionco and adhosivo piopoitios dillicult.
Plasticizod synthotic iullois nay also lo dosignod to havo poinatack piopoitios. On its
own, styiono lutadiono is a llock copolynoi, that is to say, iopoating units occuiiing in tho
polynoi chain do so in llocks, i.o. sovoial styiono noloculos lollowod ly a nunloi ol lu-
tadiono and so on in an altoinating soquonco j6-5|. Howovoi, il it is noltod undoi piossuio,
togothoi with alout 5%aliphatic oil (liquid paiallin, tho oil is soakod up and tho iosult is a
poinanontly tacky olastonoi. A widoi analysis ol tho vaiious giados ol styiono-lutadiono
iullois and solvonts appiopiiato to tho dosign ol spocilic adhosivo loinulations can lo
lound olsowhoio j6-6|.
Plasticizod polyuiothano conpounds havo sonotinos loon onployod in tho nanulac-
tuio ol childions toys. Thoso olastonois can lo nado poinanontly tacky and duiallo, lut
also oxhilit considoiallo olasticity. Whon usod in iolot giippois, this olasticity can lo a
disadvantago in that it iosults in a iolativoly shoit iotontion tino giving iiso to piollons ol
pionatuio ioloaso. In such casos, onco an oljoct is piohondod it nust lo socuiod ly soc-
ondaiy noans within a low soconds. Such an opoiation is not as supoilluous as it sounds.
Tho uso ol contigutivo iotontion is nost applicallo to tho acquisition ol an uppoinost
layoi lion a stack ol panols oi shoots nado lion tho sano natoiial. This is usually a voiy
iapid opoiation, which onco achiovod loavos tho oljoct in a position to lo socuiod no-
Polyol]isocyanato nixtuios can also lo usod to pioduco poinatack olastonois oxhil-
iting nuch longoi holding tinos. Unloitunatoly, thoy tond to sulloi tho sano conpioniso
lotwoon nochanical iosilionco and tack oxhilitod ly polyisolutylono j6-7|. Sono vinyl
lasod adhosivos, such as Magnatac j6-7|, havo all tho dosiiod piopoitios ol poinanont
tack, duialility and watoi washalility. Howovoi, nost looso thoii tack whon wot and can-
not sustain solvont washing. This loss ol tack in tho piosonco ol noistuio can lo usod to
advantago. Whoioas nost ol tho adhosivos which aio still activo whon wot, such as tho pio-
viously nontionod polynoiic olastonois, ioquiio sono dogioo ol sciulling to ionovo
dust and lint paiticlos, nagnatak loosos its tack conplotoly thoioly allowing contaninants
to lo ionovod with loss olloit and gioatoi spood.
With iogaid to adhosivo tapos, Paikoi and colloaguos j6-8| lound that tho adhosivo loico
ioducos appioxinatoly linoaily with uso. Thoii own tosts yioldod a 50%loico dotoiioiation
altoi alout 25 cyclos using tho sano soction ol tapo. This ol couiso, is also applicallo to io-

usallo adhosivos oxcopt that tho adhosivo suilaco sinply ioquiios poiiodic cloaning altoi
piotiactod uso.
As notod ly Paikoi and colloaguos, dotoiioiation in adhosivo piopoitios, whothoi ol tapo
oi poinatack typos, takos placo altoi tho liist pick, and continuos with oach sulsoquont
pick and placo opoiation. This was quantiliod ly Hall j6-9| as shown in oquation (6.1.
constant dopondant on suilaco piopoitios and contaninants
nunloi ol laliic ioloasos
natoiial dopondant constant
Cloaily, loi a suilaco which doos not shod dust oi lint will appioach zoio. Tosts on toxtilo
laliic pick and placo systons havo shown that ovoi 30,000 opoiations can lo achiovod
loloio adhosivo pad ioplaconont is nocossaiy j6-7|.
Natuially, tho ioquiiod piossuio vaiios sonowhat lotwoon snooth and iough suilaco
toxtuios, though in all casos piossuios in oxcoss ol 3 kN]n
woio lound to lo adoquato.
Also, as pointod out ly Paikoi j6-8|, dwoll tino had an inlluonco. With tho 25 sanplos
tostod this was lound to lo loss than 0.25 soconds, with an appaiont tiado-oll lotwoon
appliod piossuio and tho nocossaiy dwoll tino.
This concopt nay lo quantiliod ly taking into account tho ollocts ol oxponontially docay-
ing iotontion piossuio
with piohonsion tino
. Givon an initial iotontion piossuio
oquation (6.2 shows such a nathonatical iolationship.

oxponontial constant (2, 7182
tino dopondant piohonsion piossuio jkN]n
initial contact piossuio jkN]n

Rotontion tino js|
Powoi will only lo oxpondod duiing tho initial contact phaso. Tho appliod piossuio
givon ly loico dividod ly aioa .

Tho initial piohonsion piossuio iosults in a doloination ol tho adhosivo layoi. Tho
voluno ol tho adhosivo nass is givon ly tho pioduct , whoso doloination loads to tho
powoi dissipation givon in oxpiossion (6.4


Dividing this ly tho piossuio givon in oquation (6.2 iosults, onco again, in a valuo
analogous to volunotiic llow iato in oquation (6.5




Foi a poiloct adhosivo
is zoio and honco also zoio. Cloaily, will lo snalloi loi a iola-
tivoly haid (laigo Youngs nodulus adhosivo than loi a soltoi ono. Which is why tho voiy
solt olastonoi adhosivo coatod iollois usod loi dust and llull ionoval lion clothos aio ol
littlo uso as iolot giippois loi toxtilo handling! Also, as
incioasos so docioasos and as
tho ioquiionont loi
incioasos so will incioaso.
Tho uso ol adhosivo tapos in papoi j6-1| and toxtilo j6-2| handling has a long histoiy with
nany patonts loing lilod along tho way. Adhosivo tapos havo two disadvantagos:
Aiolativoly laigo and oxponsivo nochanisn is ioquiiod to incionont tho tapo altoi oach
(oi a snall nunloi ol cyclos.
Tho tapo nust lo poiiodically ioplacod. Tapo ioplaconont ioquiios a conploto halt in
tho syston opoiation and a coiiosponding poiiod ol tonpoiaiy loss ol pioduction.
An altoinativo is to havo tho tapo housod insido a cassotto unit allowing oithoi autonatod
ioplaconont, oi at loast iapid nanual oxchango. Unloitunatoly, this is noio oxponsivo and
tho piollonol physical sizo and a laigo nunloi ol noving paits still ionains. Howovoi, it
is a nothod which has soon nuch intoiost and loi which sovoial patonts havo alioady loon
lilod. Figuio 6.1 shows tho lasic concopt ol adhosivo tapo looding and application. Onco
positionod ovoi tho oljoct to lo piohondod, a snall soction ol tapo is piossod onto tho sui-
laco ly noans ol notal shoo diivon ly a solonoid, pnounatic cylindoi oi sinilai actuatoi.
To ioloaso tho oljoct tho shoo is iotiactod and iotation ol tho tapo tako-up spool causos tho
adhosivo tapo to lo paitod lion tho oljoct suilaco. At tho sano tino tho tapo is incio-
nontod a littlo in oidoi to piovido a liosh adhosivo suilaco loi tho noxt opoiation.
- - -


Sinilai nochanisns to that shown in Figuio 6.1 havo loon usod ly loth and
in connoicially availallo intogiatod sowing systons j6-10|. In a sinilai voin, Ja-
cols and colloaguos j6-11| invontod a syston whoio a continuous tapo nochanisn was
housod in a cowl thiough which aii suction could lo appliod. This piovidos a continuous
iotontion loico altoi ply sopaiation and tho initial piohonsion piovidod ly tho tacky sui-
laco. This conlination ol tochniquos can lo usolul whon tho adhosivo in quostion has a
linitod holding tino.

Figuio 6.2 shows a sinplo poinatack adhosivo lasod contigutivo giippoi ly which ply
sopaiation ol nost typos ol laliic nay lo achiovod. Staiting with tho adhosivo suilaco io-
tiactod, tho giippoi is hold ovoi tho top ol tho stack with tho suiiounding cylindiical collai
in contact with tho top ply. Tho adhosivo suilaco is thonloicod downonto tho topply whoio
it adhoios to tho laliic. As dopictod in Figuio 6.3, tho giippoi nust thon lo sinultanoously
liltod and iotatod thiough lotwoon alout 90 and 120 . This action causos ovon knittod lal-
iics to sopaiato succosslully in aiound 98%ol casos j6-7|. Innodiatoly altoi lilting, aii suc-
tion is appliod to tho contio holo thiough tho adhosivo pad. This is not intondod to assist in
holding tho ply lut to dotoct nultiplo ply acquisition. Tho dilloiontial piossuio sonsoi at
tho top ol tho giippoi in Figuio 6.2 distinguishos lotwoon ono oi nultiplo plios, and nay
lo sot as dosiiod loi dilloiont natoiial aii poinoalility and thicknoss in conjunction with a
sonsitivo signal conditioning ciicuit j6-12|. Such dovicos can lo oltainod, with oi without
pnounatic sonsoi and ciicuitiy as ioquiiod j6-13|.
- -

-- --
- --
Figuio 6.3 shows tho giippoi, illustiatod in Figuio 6.2, in opoiation. Altoi acquisition ol
an oljoct ly a giippoi having poinanont long toin tack, oljoct ionoval nust lo con-
sidoiod. This nust lo achiovod in a contiollod nannoi and can lo lacilitatod in a nunloi
ol ways including tho passing ol non-adhosivo pogs thiough tho giipping suilaco to push
tho panol away j6-14|. Sinilaily, tho aiiangonont dovisod ly Hall j6-9| usos a giipping sui-
laco dividod into squaios which aio allowod to pass thiough a nosh thus causing laliic io-
loaso as tho giipping suilaco is iotiactod. Altoinativoly, tho panol nay lo liltod with pait ol
tho natoiial uncovoiod thoioly pioviding an odgo which nay lo socuiod ly nochanical
noans such as a clanp. Tho giippoi nay thon lo liltod lioo loaving tho panol at its dostina-
tion. Tho liist two nothods havo tho advantago ol loing capallo ol ioloasing tho laliic
without naking contact with tho suilaco lolow, howovoi clogging ol tho holos oi nosh is
noio likoly with highly llocculont laliic than with tho lattoi nothod.
With iogaid to tho dosign shown in Figuios 6.2 and 6.3, tho oljoct nay lo ojoctod at its
dostination ly sinply allowing tho giippoi to doscond so that tho collai socuios tho laliic
against a suilaco (tallo top otc.. Tho adhosivo pad is thon iotiactod thus nochanically io-

- -
- -
loasing tho laliic panol. In tho ovont ol nultiplo acquisitions, tho plios nay sinply lo io-
joctod in a sinilai nannoi at a dilloiont location.
In addition to ply sopaiation and iousalility, poinatack adhosivos can lo usod to nako
suilaco soloctivo giipping hoads. That is to say, thoy can lo dosignod so as to lo piossuio
sonsitivo to only conpliant natoiials, such as toxtilos, and not to haid suilacos, such as ta-
llos tops. Olton tho laliic panol nust lo oiiontatod using viliatoiy lood tallos j6-15|.
Thoso aio highly polishod and aio consoquontly voiy good candidatos loi chonical adho-
sion. Diioct contact with such suilacos should lo avoidod as it is oxtionoly dillicult to io-
novo tho giipping hoad altoiwaids olton iosulting in sono ol tho adhosivo loing lolt lo-
hind. This not only contaninatos tho lood tallo, lut also ioducos tho olloctivonoss ol tho
giippoi. Howovoi, ly situating tho poinatack adhosivo at tho lotton ol a slightly concavo
iocoss in tho giipping hoad, this piollon can lo avoidod and tho giippoi loconos sonsi-
tivo only to natoiials with a dogioo ol lloxilility and llocculonco.
In sono ciicunstancos, localisod piohonsion is inadoquato, paiticulaily in tho ply sopa-
iation and lilting ol laigo panols ol laliic which aio ioquiiod to lo laid llat and undistoitod.
Foi thoso tasks, as discussod pioviously, a iolloi nochanisn is tho usual solution iogaid-
loss ol tho noans ol adhosion onployod. Connoi lilod a US patont j6-16| loi a syston con-
sisting ol a iolloi having a holo in tho suilaco thiough which tho tacky sido ol a tapo pio-
tiudod. This givos only a localisod giip on tho laliic, tho iolloi action pioviding a dogioo ol
ply sopaiation. As with nost tapo nothods, a iathoi olaloiato nochanisn is ioquiiod to
lood tho tapo, lion tho loading spool, along tho longth ol tho iolloi. Again, tho uso ol poi-
natack adhosivos olviatos tho nood loi a laigo pluiality ol noving paits as tho adhosivo
olastonois nay lo loinod into oi appliod to tho suilaco ol a cylindoi.

Snall dioplots ol watoi suspondod lotwoon tho suilacos ol a giipping hoad and oljoct nay
lo liozon ly tho suddon application ol a snall quantity ol liquid cailon dioxido oi nitio-
gon. Tho ico which is loinod woiks as an adhosivo layoi (ico liidgo. Moioovoi, it piovonts
diioct contact with tho giippoi. At a tonpoiatuio ol alout 10 C, a tonpoiaiy lond lo-
twoon tho two suilacos is loinod. Incioasing tho tonpoiatuio ol tho giipping suilaco thon

nolts tho ico causing tho oljoct to lo ioloasod. An oiiginal patont loi a dovico using this
tochniquo loi toxtilo handling was lilod ly j6-17|, and sono sinilai systons havo lo-
cono connoicially availallo noio iocontly j6-18|. Foitunatoly, nost toxtilo laliics and
nany polynoi and conposito natoiials aio not danagod ly suddon, iathoi laigo,
tonpoiatuio giadionts j6-19|. Piollons can aiiso with coitain natoiials such as coianics
oi natoiials which aio coatod with thoinally activatod adhosivos. Tho iotontion loico is
anazingly laigo whon conpaiod to sinilaily sizod vacuunsuction hoads (alout 1 N]nn
oi 50 to 100 tinos laigoi.
Just as in tho caso ol chonical adhosivos, iotontion tino is iolatod to dwoll tino thiough
vaiious constants paiticulai to tho adhosivo and natoiial to lo handlod. Consoquontly it is
possillo, thiough tho coiiosponding thoinodynanic piopoitios, to lind a sinilai iolation-
ship loi thoinal giipping hoads. Figuio 6.4 shows two dosign oxanplos.


Tho lioozing ol snall anounts ol watoi is conplotod in loss than a socond. Hoating ol-
ononts oi wain spiay can lo usod loi ioloaso and tho dotachnont piocoss is also shoitoi
than a socond. Tho quantity ol wainwatoi spiay noodod anounts to littlo noio than alout
0.1 nl poi giipping cyclo. Foi snall oljocts, such as nicioconpononts, a nodulo
nay lo usod as tho cooling olonont. Thoso aio sonowhat slowoi lut havo tho advantago ol
hoating and cooling in ono olonont. Altoi piohonsion, iovoisal ol tho oloctiical cuiiont
causos hoating ol tho giippoi suilaco thus lacilitating oljoct ioloaso. Howovoi, nod-
ulos opoiato lai too slowly loi tho handling ol laigoi oljocts. Figuio 6.5 shows a conpaii-
son ol dilloiont giipping piinciplos and thoii iospoctivo piopoitios.
Tho handling a laigo toxtilo panols donands a nultiplicity ol thoinal giipping hoads.
Ono such oxanplo is shown in Figuio 6.6. Molting tho ico with wain conpiossod aii has
tho addod advantago ol an additional pnounatic iojoction loico. Foi a giipping hoad
dianotoi ol 50 nna iotontion loico ol alout 70 N can lo oxpoctod. Expoiionco shows that
diying ol tho giipping point is laiily iapid j6-20|.

Tho cioss-linking capalility ol tho toxtilo natoiial and tho ioughnoss ol tho contact sui-
laco ol tho nodulo play an inpoitant iolo hoio. Thoio oxists a thioo phaso loundaiy
lino whilo tho intoilaco tonsions lotwoon tho sopaiato phasos (liquid-gas, gas-solid, solid-
liquid statos aio in oquililiiun.
- - - - - -
- - -
- --
- -
- -


Accoiding to j6-21| tho thoinal adhosivo piohonsion loico

can lo oltainod lion tho
lollowing oquation:



(1 cos

jN| (6.6
intoilaco stioss jN]n
layoi thicknoss jn|
contact anglo at tho tiiplo point (vapoui, liquid, solid stato

adhosion woik j J]n

iosulting olloctivo aioa jn

avoiago dopth ol ioughnoss jn|, suilaco linish
Rotontion piossuio is thon:


(1 cos

Tho iolationship is doiivod lion tho loi tho intoilaco stioss which is
illustiatod and oxplainod in Figuio 6.7.

Tho doployod thoinal onoigy is givon loi thoinal giippoi hoads ly (6.8:
= - (6.8
nass ol tho watoi dioplot jkg|
- spocilic hoat ol watoi (4184 kJ]kgK
tonpoiatuio chango until liooing ol tho watoi jK|
Tho powoi is oltainod lion tho lollowing oquation:

jW| (6.9

tino ioquiiod loi lioozing ol tho watoi js|

powoi loss jW|

Tho powoi loss

doponds on tho lioozing nothod. Foi oxanplo, in tho caso ol a
olonont ly
. Thus tho lioozing ol 1 ng ol watoi within 1s loi a tonpoiatuio chango ol
50 C ioquiios (noglocting sono ollocts as tho ciystallization, iadiation ol onoigy otc. a
powoi ol 0.215 W.
As in (5.2 loi pnounatic, (5.30 loi oloctionagnotic and (5.44 loi oloctiostatic is tho
iatio lotwoon powoi givon in (6.7 and piohonsion piossuio

Tho thoinal conductivity ol aii at 300 K is 2.68 W]nK j6-22|. This is ono oidoi ol nagni-
tudo gioatoi than that ol nost toxtilo laliic natoiials. Foi this ioason, tho nolting tino ol
tho watoi dioplot is dotoininod lasically ly tho giippoi hoad and tho thoinal conductivity
ol aii.
Although cooling ioalizod ly liquid nitiogon oi liquid cailon dioxido is voiy iapid and
tho lasic consunallos aio iolativoly inoxponsivo, stoiago and supply has additional costs.
Foi this ioason oloctiic Poltioi nodulos havo locono widoly ostallishod.

- -
Tho woild has soon a dianatic ioduction in tho sizo ol conpononts usod in tho nanulac-
tuio ol alnost all nodoin oquipnont. Miniatuiisation staitod aiound tho ond ol woild wai
two with tho sulniniatuio thoinionic valvo. Tho tiansistoi, ly viituo ol its solid-stato con-
stiuction, lod to a sulstantial ioduction in sizo which was augnontod ly a signilicant io-
duction in powoi supply voluno loth lattoiy and nains powoiod. Piintod ciicuit toch-
nology, latoi onhancod ly intogiatod ciicuits, and ovontually thoii suilaco nount countoi-
paits, lod to tho niciociicuits in connon uso today. Now nicio and nanotochnolgy load
tho way in luithoi niniatuiisation. Howovoi, nicio-conponont nanulactuiing toch-
niquos dilloi considoially lion thoso usod at laigoi scalos which in tuin havo a considoi-
allo inpact on autonation loading to tho nood loi nicio-iolotics.
Unloitunatoly it is not always possillo to sinply scalo things down on a linoai lasis
whon going lion tho handling ol oljocts nany continotios wido to tho piohonsion ol
nicio-conpononts laioly visillo without tho aid ol a nagnilying glass oi ovon a nicio-
scopo. In lact, nany ollocts which aio haidly dotoctallo at nacio scalos can load to sovoio
piollons with tiny, lownass conpononts. On tho othoi hand, giipping tochniquos which
aio inpiactical with laigo conpononts olton piosont thonsolvos as tho only viallo solu-
tion to handling piollons at sulnillinotoi lovol.
- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk
Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7
Relationship between
prehension Force and size For micro-
T disturbing Forces
2 necessary prehension Force

In casos ol astiictivo piohonsion, tho culic scaling downol a paiallolopipod voluno (and
honco nass iosults in a quadiatic ioduction in piohonsion suilaco aioa (and honco pio-
honsion loico. Consoquontly, woakoi astiictivo loicos such as oloctioadhosion locono
noio iolovant as oljoct sizo ioducos (Fig. 7.1. Tho disadvantago lios in tho ollocts ol dis-
tuilancos such as unwantod oloctiostatic (intoinoloculai and atonic attiaction, loiio-
nagnotic, suilaco tonsion, adhosion duo to contaninants otc. (Fig. 7.1. Tho sano holds
tiuo loi loicos duo to accoloiation j7-1|.

Viitually all giippoi nanulactuiois havo oxpandod thoii pioduct linos to includo ninia-
tuio giippois. Most ol thoso dovicos aio dosignod lollowing standaid tochniquos usod at
laigoi scalos. This can load to soiious piollons at nicio scalos sinco nochanical goais
cannot lo ailitiaiily downsizod. Scalod down joints and lovois can thon withstand only
voiy woak loicos j7-2|.
Figuio 7.2 shows a niniatuiizod jaw giippoi with oxtoinal dinonsions 25 32 nn.
Dospito its ioducod sizo, tho giipping jaws aio lall-guidod. Thoy aio diivon ly a pnounati-
cally stinulatod slottod-plato. Tho woak liiction ol tho lall-guiding allows iolativoly long
lingois to lo onployod. Tho position ol tho lingois can lo dotoininod ly a sonsoi, naking
this giippoi suitallo loi piocision tasks. Tho lotton jaw nust lo augnontod with appio-
piiato giipping lingois.
High precision miniature gripper with double action {)
a) projectional view, b) actuation principle
T ball-guided bottom jaw, 2 touch sensor, 3 air supply, 4 base plate, 5 pneumatic actuation,
6 slotted-plate, 7 gripping Finger, 8 reel, gripping Force
- -

Tho thioo-lingoi giippoi displayod in Figuio 7.3 opoiatos with twoozoi-liko lingois. Tho
giipping lingois iosonllo two-layoi loal spiings allowod to slido towaid ono anothoi. Do-
ponding ontho giippoi nodol, tho actuation canlo achiovod pnounatically oi oloctionag-
notically so that snall and sonsitivo conpononts can lo giippod at high iopotition iatos.
Tho lingoi tiavol linit is continuously adjustallo.
Eloctiically opoiatod giippois aio slightly slowoi in conpaiison to thoii pnounatic
oquivalonts lut possoss tho inpoitant advantago that thoy do not ioquiio conpiossod aii
linos. A niniatuio giippoi having giipping iods which can lo usod loth loi intoinal and
oxtoinal piohonsion is shown in Figuio 7.4. Instoad ol 4 piohonsion olononts ono can con-
liguio it as a two-jaw paiallol giippoi. In conpaiison to tho ovoiall sizo, tho 10 nn tiavol
iango loi tho ontiio oponing is iolativoly laigo. Tho giippoi is nountod ly noans ol loui
M2 sciows and tho giipping loico and lingoi spood can lo adjustod ly a potontionotoi.
Miniatuiizod iolot (oi tolonanipulatoi ains with nultilink stiuctuios aio olton io-
quiiod loi positioning. Sizo ioduction ol tho nanipulatoi is not always oasy owing to con-
stiuctional piollons. Figuio 7.5 shows a joint ainand tho coiiosponding angulai giippoi.
Tho ain is loinod accoiding to tho piinciplo ol succossivo switching ol loui-olonont
goais. Il, in addition, tho ain is pivotal at tho laso phalanx, thon tho ond-olloctoi is allo to
covoi a laigo aioa.
Principle oF a miniature three-Finger gripper with
simple kinematics {)
T connection Flange
2 actuation
3 pull rod
4 Fastening screw
5 stroke adjustment
6 protective casing
7 Flat spring Finger
gripping Force
Miniature electrical gripper with a diameter
oF 30 mm driven From a 24 v DC motor {)
T housing
2 motor
3 gripping pin
4 workpiece

Prototype oF
a miniaturized joint arm
{ZIS Industrietechnik)
a) joint arm
b) gripper
Tho joint ain dopictod in Figuio 7.5 has a dianotoi ol 9.2 nn and is only 42 nn long
whon lully outstiotchod. Tho angulai giippoi is ol tho sano dianotoi and has a longth ol
8 nn. Tho unusual swivol joint dosign (noving jaws, ain links not only iosonllos lio-
logical aichotypos lut in lact lasod on tho intoilocking sphoiical sholls ol a cial ain and a
scissoi giip. Tho joints and giippoi aio actuatod ly wiio coids passing thiough tho intoiioi
ol tho nanipulatoi allowing tho onploynont ol laigoi piino novois as would lo ioquiiod
whon lully intogiatod.
Whoio noio loico is ioquiiod, lut spood is not ol paianount inpoitanco, thoinal
tochniquos nay lo usod. Ono such appioach iolios on tho londing ol a hoatod
linotallic stiip loi actuation. Tho piinciplo is lasod on tho thoinal oxpansion co-
olliciont nisnatch lotwoon two dilloiont natoiials, loi oxanplo aluniniun(23.010
and silicon (2.610
] .
A dosign ly and - j7-3| utilisos 1.5 nn long giippoi lingois laliicatod
using otching and notallic doposition tochniquos. Each paii consists ol an actuatoi lingoi
anda iosistivo loicosonsoi lingoi withasonsitivityol alout 600 ]Nas showninFiguio7.6.
T actuator coupling
2 mounting Flange
3 mounting base
a) b)
1hermally actuated microgripper
Dimensions in mm
T bimetallic Finger
2 spring steel gripper jaws
- -

Thoughsnall, tho dolloction ol tho tip ol tho lingois is piopoitional to tho hoating powoi
which noans that tho giippoi stioko can lo oasily adjustod ly vaiying tho oloctiical input
powoi. With tho dinonsions givon alovo tho thooiotical dolloction ol tho lingoi tip is alout
750 nn]K. Foi a tip dolloction ol 200 nicions tho lingoi tonpoiatuio can lo ostinatod to
lo alout 300 dogioos Colsius. Duo to tho low thoinal nass ol tho actuatoi and tho good
thoinal conductivity ol silicon, tho giippoi can lo oponod and closod at a lioquoncy ol
alout 15 Hz j7-3|.
So callod - (SMA, such as NiTi, and shapo nonoiy polynois havo
tho uniquo piopoity ol quickly iovoiting to a pio-dotoininod shapo on hoating. Such piop-
oitios can lo oxploitod in tho nanulactuio ol snall inpactivo giipping dovicos j7-4|.
Though gioatoi loicos can lo achiovod than with oloctiostatic oi piozooloctiic dovicos,
opoiation is iolativoly slow and lilotinos aio linitod to lotwoon 30,000 and ono nillion
opon and closo cyclos naking its potontial loi industiial applications sonowhat linitod.
Foi nodical applications this piosonts low piollons as such tools would lo considoiod to
lo disposallo and tho constiuction ol such a dovico using nany ol tho othoi tochniquos so
lai discussod would lo piohilitivoly oxponsivo.
Tho lollowing tallo conpaios iolovant chaiactoiistics loi actuatoi dovicos usod in tho
dosign ol inpactivo iolot giippois.



Pneumatic 0.2 0.8 {at 8 Bar) T0

Piezoelectric 4.8 T0
0.2 30 T0
Shape memory T0.4 3 T50 0.T to T Current
Minigiippois in tho loin ol pincois aio ioquiiod in nininally invasion suigoiy. Tho
atiaunatic giippois aio dosignod loi applications in lapaioscopy (an ondoscopo loi tho ox-
anination ol tho aldoninal cavity and koyholo suigoiy. All oxtoinal odgos ol such giip-
pois, and ospocially thoso ol tho giipping jaws, aio ioundod, snoothod and polishod to
avoid danago to tissuo. This typo ol pincoi can lo also nanulactuiod as a singlo nochani-
cal pait as shown in tho oxanplo piosontod in Figuio 7.7. Tho giippoi consists ol a NiTi
wiio which is only 0.63 nn thick. Tho oponing and closing ol tho lingois ol tho pincoi
takos placo thoinally. Tho giippoi possossos a coiiugatod jawstiuctuio which onsuios lot-
toi giipping and piohonsion ol tissuo sanplos duiing tho intoivontion. Tho jaw shapo is
ioalizod ly niciostiuctuiing ol tho wiio.
Minipincer For surgical ap-
plications based on nickel-titanium
{shape memory alloy)

Instoad ol convontional goai systons, niniatuiization poinits tho oxploitation ol nato-

iials olastic piopoitios. Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 7.8 is dosignod with londing spiings
allowing it to lo nanulactuiod lion a singlo sulstiato j7-5|. It is lasod on a goai nocha-
nisn with loui joints opoiating in opposing diioctions. Tho two jaws always poiloin con-
tiaiy notion and honco contio tho oljoct in tho giippoi.
Tho giippoi goai shown in Figuio 7.9 can lo oxtondod into a paiallol jaw giippoi. This is
illustiatod in Figuio 7.9a.
Centring gripper with solid
joints and the corresponding kine-
matic model

actuation Force
Miniature parallel-
jaw gripper gear
a) parallel gripper
b) gripper jaw oFFset
T gripper jaw
2 coupler
3 crank
Calculation ol tho piohonsion kinonatics should lo caiiiod out in such a way that tho
ollsot ol tho woiking point causod ly tho ciiculai tianslation ionains as snall as
possillo (Fig. 7.9l. Tho iolationship lotwoon tho tiavol ol tho giippoi jaws and tho oll-
sot is givon ly tho lollowing oxpiossions j7-6|:
= cos
' (7.1
= sin
' (7.2
longth ol tho giipping lingoi
anglo ol tho lingoi iolativo to tho x-axis
- -

Assuning a snall anglo ', tiansloining oxpiossions 7.1 and 7.2 givos:
Tho ollsot is nininizod whon tho anglo
is oqual to 90 and tho longth ol tho giippoi
ains is oltainod lion

Tho sopaiation has no olloct on tho kinonatic piopoitios.
Tho piosontod stiuctuios aio ioloiiod to as --. Tho joints aio dosig-
natod as natoiial oi solid lody joints. Tho lollowing points should lo takon into account
whon dosigning such joints:
Tho nunloi ol joints should lo as snall as possillo.
Tho joints, and honco tho ontiio giippoi, dovolop a iostoiing loico.
Tho instantanoous contio ol iotation loi solid lody joints novos with incioasing
iotation anglo.
In oidoi to oltain usolul piohonsion stiokos tho joints should allow loi a pivoting
anglo ol at loast 10 .
Tho joints nust lo capallo ol sustaining a poisistont lolding without latiguo.
Injoction nouldod guidanco joints nado lion polypiopylono achiovo noio than
1 Million cyclos.
Not all known giippoi kinonatics can lo ioalizod as a solid lody joint, shoai joints
aio ospocially dillicult to iopiosont in this way.
Actuation ol tho giippoi can lo ioalizod, o.g. with linoai actuatois nado lion shapo
nonoiy alloys. Thoy onallo tiavol as laigo as 5% ol tho actoi longth and piohonsion pios-
suios ol up to 150 N]nn
(tonsilo stioss in continuous opoiation. Tho adjustnont tiavols
which aio achiovod in tho piozooloctiic loik anount to only 0.3% ol tho loik longth. Tho
joint stiuctuio loi tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 7.10 is nachinod lion a silicon waloi
with a thicknoss ol 240 kn. Tho lingois aio connoctod thiough olastic niciojoints with a
Silicon gripper with piezo-
electric drive { )
T gripper Finger
2 elastic joint
3 substrate
4 secured pivot point
5 coupling link
6 piezoelectric translator
7 gripping surFace

piozooloctiic tianslatoi. Tho anglo lovois incioaso thoii longth with changos ol sovoial ni-
cionotois ly a lactoi ol 10 to 50. Thoio aio nany possililitios loi adjustnont ol tho giippoi
jaw shapo to lit tho oljoct in quostion.
Figuio 7.11 shows oxanplos ol giippois having snall oxtoinal dinonsions, intondod loi
tho nounting ol niniatuio and nicioassonllios in a cloanioon onviionnont. Actuation
is ioalizod oloctiothoinally thiough a NiTi SMA wiio j7-7|. Tho longitudinal stiain vaiia-
tion anounts to appioxinatoly 3%. Tho tiactivo loico loads to closuio ol tho giippoi jaws
with a iathoi snall stioko ol naxinun 1 nn loi tho dovico shown in Figuio 7.11c. Tho
giippoi jaws can lo adaptod to tho woikpioco sizo and shapo.
Gripper with an SMA drive
a) pick & place gripper, mass: 5 g {- -), b) microgripper {- -),
c) double action drive
T gripper jaw
2 0.Tmm diameter
3 carrier
4 Finger
In oidoi to inpiovo tho dynanic poiloinanco ol niniatuiizod giippois using shapo
nonoiy diivos, tho onploynont ol a dilloiontial actuatoi is possillo j7-8|. In this caso two
NiTi-actuatois with oqual adjustnont loicos opoiato against oach othoi as dononstiatod
schonatically in Figuio 7.12 (only ono giippoi lingoi shown.
Operation principle oF a diFFerential actuator system
a) gripper open, b) gripper closed
T object, 2 gripper Finger, 3 shape memory drive
- -

Tho giipping cyclo can lo dosciilod as lollows:

Giippoi opon, loth actuatois (1 and (2 aio cold.
Actuatoi (1 hoatod, giippoi closod. Tho closuio tino is a lunction ol tho oloctiical
hoating cuiiont.
Actuatoi (1 and (2 hoatod = giippoi opon, tho oponing tino doponds only on tho
thoinal iisotino ol tho actuatoi (2 and is indopondont ol tho cooling iato ol tho
actuatoi (1.
Cooling down ol loth actuatois loloio connoncing a now giipping cyclo.
Adilloiontial actuatoi with a dianotoi ol 0.1 nn oxhilits a cooling tino ol appioxinatoly
1 socond. Tho shapo nonoiy diivo is not suitallo loi continuous opoiation with shoit
cyclo tinos. Motal latiguo ovontually iosults in lailuio ol tho SMA ovoi piolongod uso.
Floxillo nanipulatois, contiollod in a sinilai nannoi to tho hoxapod, havo loon tho
suljoct ol nuch iosoaich (Fig. 7.13. Thioo shoai notions aio tiansnittod lion oxtoinal
actuatois whilo joints nado lion SMA aio olloctivo at tho onds. Tho coio iogion ol tho
stiuctuio ionains lioo loi tho insoition ol instiunonts, optical lilios, otc.
- -
Expiossion (7.5 show tho onoigy donsity loi an oloctiostatic syston.


Tho oloctiical lioakdown liold stiongth in diy aii is aiound 3000 V]nn yiolding a naxi-
nun onoigy donsity ol alout 40 J]n
accoiding to (7.5.
Tho onoigy donsity loi tho oloctiodynanic countoipait is givon ly oxpiossion (7.6.



2 k
Miniaturized gripping head
{aFter $)
shear motions

In an aii gap a naxinun nagnotic liold stiongth ol alout 1.5 Tosla is achiovallo loloio
nagnotic satuiation iosulting in an onoigy donsity ol aiound 1,000,000 J]n
. Which is
why oloctiical notois aio alnost oxclusivoly oloctionagnotic and voiy iaioly oloctiostatic.
Howovoi, tho lioakdown liold stiongth ol 3000 V]nnis valid only loi dinonsions down
to alout 1 nn. Undoi a nillinotoi tho naxinunliold stiongth appioxinatoly lollows tho
iulo in (7.7:


jV]nn| (7.7
whoio is tho gap width in nn.
Cloaily, as dinonsions aio ioducod towaid tho nicionotio iango tho onoigy donsity ol
an oloctiostatic syston will at sono point oxcood that ol its oloctiodynanic countoipait.
Add to this tho constiuctional piollons associatod with winding coils at nicio-scalos and
it is littlo wondoi why voiy low oloctionagnotic nicio-giippois oxist. Foi this ioason oloc-
tiostatic actuatois aio piodoninantly usod in nicio-giippois.
Ono ol tho liist such dosigns, lasod on tho piinciplo ol tho oloctiostatic voltnotoi, con-
sistod ol two intoiloavod, lut oloctiically isolatod, notal conl stiuctuios to which tho giip-
poi lingois aio attachod as shown in Figuio 7.14. Whon a potontial is appliod lotwoon tho
conl-shapod oloctiodos an oloctiostatic attiaction loico is pioducod loicing tho conls,
and honco tho giippoi lingois, togothoi so instigating piohonsion. Disconnoction ol tho
supply and shoit-ciicuiting to ionovo iosidual chaigo oxpoditos oljoct ioloaso.
Flectrostatic comb actuator
T substrate
2 Finger element
3 gripper jaws
electrode thickness
gripper stroke
Fion tho sinplo capacitanco loinulao (7.8, tho oquation loi loico can lo soon again,
lut this tino tho onoigy oquation nust lo dilloiontiatod with iospoct to tho longitudinal
distanco . Tho total loico is thon oltainod ly nultiplying ly tho nunloi ol oloctiodos n
giving oxpiossion (7.10.
In Figuio 7.14, is tho oloctiodo thicknoss and tho poinittivity (noinally that ol lioo
. Tho oloctiostatic loico nust also woik against tho spiing coolliciont
ol tho
natoiial lion which tho actuatoi is luilt togothoi with any inlluoncos tho olasticity ol tho
giippoi jaws and oljoct nay havo. Tho intoi-oloctiodo loicos poipondiculai to tho actua-
tion diioction aio nuch highoi than thoso in tho -diioction. This, togothoi with physical
iigidity constiaints linits tho possillo stioko to a low nicionotois. Though giipping
loicos loi dovicos ol nicionotoi dinonsions aio in tho nano-Nowton iango, tho voiy snall
aioa ol tho jaws noans that iotontion piossuios ol sovoial thousand Nowton poi squaio
notoi aio attainallo.
- -

With an olloctivo cioss soctional aioa

= tho capacitanco
can lo calculatod


Fion tho onoigy stoiod in tho capacitanco


= (7.9
tho iosulting loico
can lo calculatod


Givon a pluiality ol oloctiodo paiis, as illustiatod in Figuio 7.14 (lolt, thon tho iosulting
loico will lo tinos that ol
. Movonont in tho x-diioction is against a spiing iotuin loico

= , whoioly is tho spiing constant (olasticity ol tho natoiial. Equililiiun (coasa-
tion ol giippoi lingoi novonont is achiovod whon


Fion tho olloctivo longitudinal cioss soctional aioa
= , tho capacitanco
can lo cal-


Tho stoiod onoigy in tho capacitanco


givos tho iosulting loico in tho y-diioction



Tho capacitanco
, is oqual at loth sidos. This noans tho iosulting
loicos at oach sido ol
tho lingois aio oqual in nagnitudo lut opposito in diioction thus lalancing oach othoi.
This loavos only tho loico
in tho -diioction as tho piino novoi loico. Dospito this, tho
iosulting loico in tho x-diioction is inovitally a voctoi sun ol
. As tho actuatoi-
ioachos tho ond ol its stioko, dilloiontiation ol oxpiossion (7.10 with iospoct to iovoals a
stiong non-linoaiity as tho condition appioachos. Caio nust lo takon to linit tho
tiavol ol tho lingoi to piovont contact lotwoon tho two sot ol oloctiodos at this junctuio.

Micio-assonlly ioquiios installation accuiacios ol lotwoon 0.1 and 20 kn which is

nuch highoi than in watch nanulactuiing. This cannot lo achiovod with a standaid in-
dustiial iolot which is why spocial assonlly oquipnont is noodod. Tho notion cyclos can
lo liokon down into coaiso and lino stops, thoso tasks loing assignod to dilloiont
lunctional olononts. Figuio 7.15 illustiatos tho concopt ol a 6D-hoxapod actuatoi with pi-
ozooloctiic stacktianslatois which, in conjunction with a lasoi tiiangulation syston, accu-
iatoly guidos tho ondolloctoi to tho nounting position. Tho six actuatois can poiloin lino
tianslations and iotations along and alout thioo axos.
Concept oF a 6-dimensional micropositioning device
{ Munchen)
T wrist axis
2 piezoelectric stack translator
3 Flange with integrated laser triangulation system
4 gripper
5 mounting base

- -
Tho piinciplos ol astiiction, pioviously discussod in Chaptoi 5, aio paiticulaily iolovant to
niciogiippois as thoy iaioly includo noving paits.
Sinco tho advont ol SMD (suilaco nount dovico tochnology, niniatuio vacuun giippois
ol tho loin shown in Figuio 7.16 havo soon widospioad uso in tho oloctionics soctoi.
Vacuun piohonsion is iolativoly last and stiong onough to ionovo SMD conpononts
lion adhosivo tapos oi lands. Most nodoin SMD assonlly iolios on haid autonation,
whoio position accuiacy ol 50 kn is adoquato, iathoi than slowoi, piocision iolotics.
Micio vacuun giippois consist ol glass oi notal capillaiios which can lo appliod to
polishod tips with dianotois ol aiound 10 kn.
- -

vacuum gripper For SMD components

T SMD component
2 receiving head {tungsten carbide) with selF-centring eFFect
3 vacuum pipette
4 vacuum
5 approaching motion
Tho ioquiiononts loi vacuun giippois applicallo to nicionochanical conponont han-
dling aio loinulatod in j7-9| as lollows:
Tho oljoct nust lo olsoivallo duiing tho assonlly piocoss in oidoi to onallo ioaction
to doviations lion spociliod toloiancos (assonlling with optical position loodlack.
Piohonsion should tako placo with tho lowost possillo piossuio and laigost possillo aii
intako dianotoi. Tho loico ioquiiod to hold silicon platos with an odgo longth ol 1 nn
and a thicknoss ol 0.25 nn anounts to alout 5 kN.
Tho conponont should lo piohondod pioloially at its contio ol giavity oi at loast
synnotiically with iospoct to that point.
Tho intogiation ol optical niciosonsois at tho suction point is also possillo. Exanplos in-
cludo snall CCD canoias and lasoi tiiangulation systons.
- -
At ovon snalloi scalos, oloctioadhosion loconos highly applicallo and this voiy sinplo
astiictivo tochniquo can also lonolit lion tho addition ol piozooloctiic actuatoi olononts.
As discussod in Chaptoi 5, oloctioadhosion is a piohonsion tochniquo usallo with nost
lightwoight shoot natoiials, loth oloctiically conductivo and non-conductivo, such as
notal loil, polynoi shoot, toxtilo laliics and nany sinilai lilious natoiials j5-25|.
Fuithoinoio, iocont iosoaich has shown that oloctioadhosion is idoally suitod to tho han-
dling ol voiy dolicato optical and oloctio-optical nicioconpononts, whoio othoi giipping
tochniquos would danago high quality optically coatod suilacos. Tho uso ol solt silicon
iulloi dioloctiics olininatos any dangoi ol danago to highly sonsitivo optical conpononts
such as nicio lonsos with dianotois in tho tons oi hundiods ol nn iangos j7-10|. Tho
lasic dosign ol an oloctioadhosivo niciogiippoi is shown in Figuio 7.17.
As with all niciogiippois, oljoct ojoction can lo a piollon. Van doi Waals loicos, un-
wantod adhosion thiough suilaco tonsion, contaninants otc. all soivo to hindoi tho ioloaso
piocoss. This piollon can lo solvod ly tho addition ol snall piozooloctiic actuatois lo-
hind tho oloctioadhosivo suilaco j7-10|. Snall viliations can thon lo initiatod to ojoct tho
oljoct downwaids in a contiollod nannoi. This tochniquo cannot lo so sinply inplo-
nontod with inpactivo giippois as tho ojoction tiajoctoiy lion a singlo, two oi ovon thioo
point contact tonds to lo unpiodictallo.
- -

Flectroadhesive microgripper
a) side view
b) underside view
T piezoelectric actuator
2 acoustic coupling
3 electroadhesive substrate
4 electrodes
5 dielectric
6 high voltage connections
Tho natuio ol tho acoustic coupling lotwoon tho piozooloctiic actuatoi and tho giippoi
sulstiato can lo ciitical in onsuiing contiollod ioloaso. An acoustic iosonatoi with too
littlo danping can havo tho olloct ol ioloasing tho oljoct innodiatoly altoi it has loon
acquiiod. Too nuch danping and ioloaso cannot lo achiovod as and whon dosiiod.

Tho noistoning ol tho lingois as an aid to piohonsion and sopaiation ol shoots ol papoi is
dono without thought duiing oui noinal daily livos. Tho suilaco tonsion loicos io-
sponsillo loi this olloct tond to locono ovon noio appaiont at nicioscalos thus olviating
tho nood loi chonical oi thoinal adhosion. Whon usod as an intoilaco lotwoon two planai
solid suilacos, a liquid dioplot can piovido a considoiallo linding loico. As discussod in
Chaptoi 6, nany non-cuiing adhosivos olloctivoly act as high viscosity liquids to piovido a
tonpoiaiy lond lotwoon two suilacos. Howovoi, at nicio scalos ovon low viscosity liquids
can lo usod loi contigutivo piohonsion. This has sono signilicant advantagos in that light
solvonts, such as othanol which can lo nado to ovapoiato iapidly, can lo usod.
A singlo dioplot ol lluid will attonpt to adhoio to all suilacos it is in contact with. Whon
sandwichod lotwoon two planai solid suilacos, alovo and lolow, a capillaiy colunn will lo
loinod as tho suilacos as novod away lion ono anothoi as shown in Figuio 7.18. This io-
sults in a iotationally synnotiical lluid liidgo lotwoon tho two suilacos. Tho ollocts ol
suilaco tonsion on tho constant voluno lluid colunn constantly tiy to causo a ioduction in
tho colunn iadius
. This iosults in a loico lotwoon tho two planai suilacos j7-11|.
Should tho dioplot noniscus lowinwaids as a iosult ol tho contact anglo thon a piohon-
sion loico lotwoon giippoi and oljoct will lo pioducod. Oljoct ioloaso nay lo achiovod
oithoi nochanically oi ly thoinally ovapoiating tho lluid. Figuio 7.19 shows tho stops in a
piohonsion and ioloaso piocoss j7-12|.
Tho highoi tho viscosity ol tho lluid, tho highoi tho iotontion loico. Unloitunatoly, vis-
cosity tonds to linit ovapoiation loi iapid ioloaso solvonts liko othanol. Analysis iovoals
that piohonsion is achiovod thiough a conlination ol capillaiy and cohosivo loicos j7-13|.
- -

Principle oF the capillary gripper {gripper and Fluid bridge)

T object, 2 Fluid, 3 dispersion hole, T radius oF the meniscus, 2 radius oF the droplet, gap,
contact angle, Force due to droplet surFace tension, gravitational Force,
capillary pressure
{air to solid substrate),
pressure due to droplet surFace tension
Contigutive prehension process using Fluid droplet
Following tho analysis givon ly tho oiiginal iosoaichoi in this liold j7-14|, tho gonoial
oquations ol loico aio givon ly a conlination ol capillaiy and cohosion loicos (7.15


whoio is tho suilaco tonsion (N]n and
is tho capillaiy piossuio (N]n
as dolinod ly
j7-15| in oxpiossion (7.16.
gap width jn|
suilaco tonsion jN]n|

capillaiy piossuio jN]n

iadius ol tho lluid liidgo jn|
Equation 7.16 givos tho capillaiy piossuio
accoiding to j7-12|




is a dinonsionloss quantity oxpiossod as tho iatio lotwoon tho iadius ol tho nock ol tho
lluid colunn at its thinnost point
and tho distanco lotwoon tho two suilacos. Sulstitut-
ing this and oxpiossion (7.16 into oquation (7.15 givos tho noio usallo loinula (7.17


3 (7.17

will lo laigoi than
naking tho piohonsion loico sovoial tinos laigoi than
tho pioduct ol
and tho suilaco tonsion (which is typically aiound 0.226 N]n loi
othanol j7-12| and sinilai solvonts. This will givo valuos loi giipping loico intho iogionol
tons ol nN loi lluid colunn paianotois ol nillinotio and sulnillinotio dinonsions,
which is in lino with oxpoiinontal iosults j7-13|.
Whothoi such a piohonsion nothod will lo usallo in piactico will dopond hoavily on tho
application. Tho uso ol solvonts is not always wolcono in nodoin industiy and othoi,
noio onviionnontally liiondly, liquids such as watoi would, in tho najoiity ol casos, lo
too slow to ovapoiato in oidoi to lacilitato oljoct ojoction.
In tho aninal woild diy adhosivo systons aio connon. Exanplos includo lizaids,
spidois otc. Basod on tho oiiginal woik (connonly citod as JKR which doals with sphoii-
cal point contacts, oxpiossion (7.18 givos tho ionoval loico noodod to pait such a diy con-
tact j7-16|.

is tho contact iadius jn|
is tho spocilic suilaco onoigy j J]n
Howovoi, noio iocont invostigations suggost that thoso aio not linitod to sphoiical point
contacts lut includo a vaiioty ol shapos including toioidal suilacos. Consoquontly, oxpios-
sion (7.18 nust lo slightly nodiliod to lit noio ioalistic situations j7-16|.
- -

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

This Chaptoi doals with sono iathoi spocial dosigns intondod loi spocilic tasks. In nany
casos tho oxanplos shown aio hyliids utilising two oi noio ol tho standaid piohonsion
tochniquos alioady doalt with in loinoi Chaptois. Tho intoiostod ioadoi nay also liko to
consult Chaptoi 14 whoio a nunloi ol caso studios aio considoiod.

- -
Coitain loins ol inpactivo giippoi aio also capallo ol wholly oi paitially onclosing tho
Closod onliacing: tho oljoct hold is insoitod into tho giippoi.
Paitial onliacing: tho woikpiocos aio olongatod and nood not lo insoitod into tho
Figuio 8.1 shows such a giippoi conpiising two iings which aio couplod ly olastic coids.
Tho piohonsion loico is dovolopod ly a constiiction ol tho coids iosulting lion iotation ol
tho two iings in opposing diioctions. Tho giippoi dianotoi can iango lion 15 to 200 nn.
Duo to its dolicato handling natuio this loin ol giippoi has lound usago with tho pio-
honsion ol a vaiioty ol dilloiont shapod oljocts and is not linitod to solid loins. Long


- -

nockod lottlos, opon plastic sacks, glass tulos and anpoulos, and also woikpiocos with
polishod oi coatod suilacos aio just a low oxanplos. Ono linitation lios in tho closod do-
sign ol tho giippoi naking insoition ol tho oljoct within tho giippoi nocossaiy.
In addition to iotaiy notion in oidoi to gonoiato piohonsion loicos, anothoi conliguia-
tion onploying tho sano piinciplo is possillo using linoai notion. This piinciplo is
illustiatod in Figuio 8.2 using two olastic iing lands hold lotwoon tho jaws ol a convon-
tional two lingoi linoai inpactivo giippoi.
Doponding on olastic inhonogonoitios, tho oljoct is ioughly alignod with tho giippoi
contiun. Tho olastic tonsion lands can lo nado lion synthotic olastonoi natoiial oi
spiing stool. Tho iolotics conpany has dovolopod sinilai piohonsion con-
copts loi tho handling ol luggago in which lands aio usod to socuio tho oljoct to tho giasp-
ing oigans.
Conpliant onliacing ol an oljoct nay lo achiovod ly nochanisns sinilai to an oloph-
ants tiunk oi tho tontaclos ol an octopus. Each ol tho lingoi links gontly holds tho oljoct
with tho sano iotontion loico. Tho lasic dosign loi a nochanical oquivalont is shown in
Figuio 8.3. Tho sopaiato lingoi links aio diivon ly stool coids (piohonsion coid 1, ioloaso
coid 2 ovoi pulloys. Whon tho liist lingoi link has nado contact with tho oljoct tho lollow-
ing link will continuo noving towaids tho oljoct. Tho giippoi is oponod ly pulling tho io-
loaso coid whilst tho piohonsioncoid is unwound. Many vaiiations loi tho aiiangonont ol
tho coids and iollois oxist j8-1|.
Il doullo pulloys with dilloiont iadii aio usod, tho pulloys with iadii
aio con-
noctod ly a shalt (Fig. 8.3c.
it is possillo to calculato tho iadii


( (
( (

= ... (8.1
loi any choico ol
. Tho lollowing oquation loi tho valuos ol tho giipping nononts
( = 0 to : nunloi ol tho joint is appioxinatoly valid undoi tho assunption ol constant
longth ol tho links ( = const:


( | (8.2
- - -
- -


- - - -


Tho giipping loico gonoiatod ly tho conpliant giippoi is distiilutod uniloinly along tho
ontiio giipping longth. Il liiction ollocts aio ignoiod this loico coiiosponds to tho static
uniloin load :



Dotoinino tho uniloinly distiilutod giipping loico (stillnoss loi tho lollow-
ing valuos ol tho iolovant paianotois: Radius
= 10 nn, link longth = 30 nn, nunloi
ol links = 10, and diiving loico
= 100 N.
2 100 10
=0.02 N]nn
Tho conpliant giippoi can also lo usod in conjunction with a lixod lingoi oi suppoiting
piisn. Ono possillo application ol such a singlo conpliant lingoi is illustiatod in Figuio
- -

Figuio 8.5 shows ono luithoi possillo conliguiation onploying ono tonsion and ono
ioloaso coid j8-3|. Tho giasping oigans consist ol iolativoly shoit chain piocos, thiough
which tho coids pass.




- --
- -
- - -


Tho clasping oigans ol tho dosign nodilications shown in Figuio 8.6 aio loinod into a
tonsioning lolt (oi chain. Tho holding loico is pioducod oithoi ly winding oi pulling tho
land. In loth casos tho uppoi suilaco ol tho oljoct undoi piohonsion is woll piotoctod
against danago.
Piohonsion can also lo ioalizod using a conpliant nochanisnas in tho caso ol tho tulo
giippoi shown in Figuio 8.7. Tho dosign ol this giippoi is iathoi sinplo. A iulloi non-
liano oxpands lion insido tho giippoi clanping tho pait to lo hold. Tho nonliano ad-
justs itsoll to tho shapo ol tho woikpioco. As with tho oxanplos shown in Figuio 8.1 and
Figuio 8.2, insoition ol tho oljoct into tho giippoi intoiioi nust lo possillo.
Sinilai handling stiatogios aio also usod loi cast oljocts lionwhich iosidual sand nust
lo ionovod. A lianod constiuction onploying loui conpliant pads is shown in Figuio
8.8. Tho position ol tho pads nay lo adjustod to tho dinonsions ol tho oljoct.




As a iulo, anthioponoiphic giippois possoss noio than two giasping oigans and thoii
stiuctuio iosonllos that ol tho hunan hand. Tho lingois nay lo still oi lloxillo and thoii
nunlois vaiy lion 3 to 6. Fully anthioponoiphic hands with nany nulti-link jointod lin-
gois aio ol gioat tochnical intoiost lut ol littlo industiial iolovanco.

Tho giasping and nanipulation potontial ol tho jointod lingoi hand is dotoininod to a
gioat oxtont ly its kinonatic stiuctuio. Tho optinun nunloi ol joints is considoiod to lo
thioo loi oach lingoi. This coiiosponds to tho piosontation in Figuio 8.9c.

- - - -
Tho giasping piocoods in sovoial stops, as illustiatod in Figuio 8.10 loi a lingoi with
thioo joints j8-4|. Many noio giipping possililitios aio availallo with tho onploynont ol
noio lingois and]oi joints. Tho oxanplo shows piohonsion thiough shapo-nating ol tho
oljoct which also allows a ioduction in giipping loico in conpaiison to loico-natchod pio-
honsion. This is also illustiatod in Figuio 8.19 ly a typical hand conliguiation.

Tho diiving olononts aio noio conplicatod loi nulti-jointod lingois locauso thoy havo
to lo activatod loyond a singlo dogioo ol lioodon. Most convontional piino novois aio too
laigo to lo nountod within tho lingoi joints. Tho diivos and thoii intoiconnoctions nust
lo ioalizod in such a way that it is inpossillo loi any pait ol tho nochanisn to ioach a
doad point thus llocking othoi joint novononts. Consoquontly, loi jointod lingoi giip-
pois it is ossontial to sinplily tho dosign as nuch as possillo. Tho thioo-lingoi hand (in-

tondod loi assonlly woik dopictod in Figuio 8.11 is sinpliliod and not all ol tho joints aio
liooly piogiannallo.
In oach caso tho loionost joint is not indopondont ol, lut is positivoly contiollod ly tho
noxt joint. This holps to avoid a still lingoi contoui and piopoitionally lond tho tip as lai as
possillo whon giipping iound oljocts. Two lingois aiiangod on tho sano sido can lo io-
tatod alout thoii lasic phalanx so that it is possillo to piohond with tho lingoi tips. In tho
sano way it is also possillo to poiloin a clasping giip.
Multi-link lingoi giippois aio dosignod piinaiily as thioo and livo lingoi giippois, al-
though tho thioo-lingoi giippoi can lo contiollod noio oasily. Figuio 8.12 shows a 25 yoais
old dosign lion Japan.
- --

Anothoi oxanplo ol lingoi nochanics is shown in Figuio 8.13. Whon tho ond link ol tho
noving lingoi stiokos acioss tho tallo suilaco tho joint chain is displacod in such a way
that notion towaids tho oljoct continuos. Piohonsion ol tho oljoct occuis in tho last
phaso. This jointod lingoi can lo ioloiiod to as nultilunctional oi adaptivo.
Figuio 8.14 shows a nulti-lingoi giipping nochanisn (Univoisity ol Bologna, 1985
which allows tho piohonsion ol iandonly shapod oljocts with nany lingois. Tho pioto-
typo was oquippod with 20 lingois and tho achiovallo holding toiquo ioachod 0.54 Nn
Tho application liolds loi nulti-jointod lingoi giippois aio linitod ly tho iolativoly snall
giipping loicos allowod ly tho constiuction ol tho lingoi link connoctions. Swivol joints
aio tho nost connonly usod junction olononts loi individual links.

Howovoi, it is not always nocossaiy to contiol oach lingoi link sopaiatoly. Sono giippois,
intondod loi tho piohonsion ol vaiying shapod oljocts lond thoii links uniloinly and in-
dopondontly ol ono anothoi as alioady dononstiatod in Figuio 8.11.
Such solutions will lo considoiod in tho lollowing: Using tho giippoi shown in Figuio
8.15 it is possillo to giasp paits having iandonly shapod innoi contouis. Whon a tonsilo
loico is appliod to tho stool coid, tho shapo ol tho sognontod lingoi olononts iosults in a
spioading ol tho lingois. Tho snall poinanont nagnots attachod to tho lingoi tips onsuio
that tho lingois aio synnotiically closod in tho initial stato. This hand is iolativoly sinplo
and indopondont contiol ol individual lingois is not possillo. This noans that tho dostina-
tion position can only lo voiy ioughly dolinod.
Foi piohonsion thiough contoui natching it is advantagoous to uso lingois with ol-
ononts capallo ol onclosing tho woikpioco. Ono such solution is shown in Figuio 8.16,
whoio spatially oiiontatod paits, o.g. disoidoiod oljocts lying on sono suilaco, can lo
handlod. Tho giippoi consists ol a lixod lingoi and a sognontod lingoi which is diivon
lion a hydiaulic cylindoi oi sinilai piopoitional piino novoi. A doullo sidod L-shapod
lovoi is attachod to tho giippoi sulstiato. Tho socond lingoi link is actuatod as tho piston
iod ol tho cylindoi novos outwaids. At tho sano tino tho L-lovoi iotatos alout tho liist

- --






joint axis. Tho lingoi links havo toothod onds and tiansnit notion lion ono link to tho
othoi. This loads to londing ol tho sognontod lingoi towaids tho lixod lingoi.
Many oxpoiinontal giippois possoss stool coids in conjunction with lloxillo lingois to
achiovo piohonsion ly shapo onclosuio. Figuio 8.17 shows a iathoi sinplo voision ol such
a lloxillo lingoi. Tho lingois aio dosignod as conical wiio holix spiings which aio loicod to
lond ly paitial withdiawal ol an intoinal stool coid iosulting in oljoct onclosuio. Tho ol-
joct is ioloasod ly allowing tho stool coid to iotuin to its noinal stato against tho spiing
loico ol tho lingois. Tho giipping loicos achiovallo with such nochanisns aio iathoi

Tho hand dopictod in Figuio 8.18 is also oquippod with stool coids. In contiast to tho
othoi dosigns it possossos a spiing loadod palnwhich allows, in conlination with tho lin-
gois, a iolially piohonsion ol oljocts having dilloiont goonotiical shapos. In addition to
tho thioo convontional links, oach lingoi possossos a louith link at its laso. Apio-stiossod
spiing and a nochanical stop aio nountod at oach lingoi joint. Tho spiings dolino tho iola-
tivo notion ol tho links and liing tho lingois lack to thoii iost position. Each lingoi link is
actuatod ly a coid which contiols loth tho lingoi link position and tho piossuio whilst tho
lingoi is in notion.
Figuio 8.18a shows a lingoi appioaching an oljoct and Figuio 8.18l shows tho changod
post piohonsion conliguiation. Figuio 8.18c shows only two lingois lut in piactico thioo
lingois aio synnotiically aiiangod aiound tho paln. Tho oljoct, positionod lotwoon tho
lingois, is dotoctod ly an optical sonsoi which activatos tho piino novoi (stopping no-
tois. Tho coids aio pullod so that tho lingois nako contact with tho woikpioco loicing it
against tho paln. Whon tho tonsion ol tho spiing, indicatod ly tho position sonsoi on tho
paln, oxcoods a givon thioshold tho notois aio stoppod. This spocial hand is capallo ol
handling a iango ol dilloiont shapod oljocts with piohonsion loicos up to 100 N.
Thoio oxist nany idoas loi hands with jointod lingois which canlo novod withintho la-
sic conliguiation. Tho lasic piinciplo ol tho 3-lingoi Baiiot Hand, shown in Figuio 8.19 is
ono such oxanplo, dovolopod luithoi and utilizod in a nodulai nulti-lingoi giippoi as

oaily as 1988 ( - Baiiot Tochnology, Inc.. Both giipping loico and giipping
spood aio adjustallo. A sopaiato lingoi can dovolop a giipping loico ol naxinun 5 N.
In 1999 NASA dovolopod an anthioponoiphic livo-lingoi hand loi spaco nissions, tho
so callod Rolonaut Hand. By tho contiol ol 14 joints it possossos 22 dogioos ol lioodon.
Tho natoiials and conpononts usod can sustain oxtiono tonpoiatuio vaiiations and
satisly cloanioon ioquiiononts (no gas oi paiticlo onission.


- -
In addition to holding tho oljoct against tho laso plato oi paln, othoi giippois with
jointod lingois piohond tho oljoct sololy lotwoon tho lingois (Fig. 8.20. In this caso ono
has to distinguish lotwoon contoui natching in which tho lingois huddlo against tho
oljoct and loico nating in which tho oljoct is iotainod sololy ly liictional loicos.
Tho nodoin industiial soctoi is doninatod ly sinplo inpactivo giippois. Thoii two
statos, OPEN and CLOSED, aio oasily oltainod thiough linaiy actuatois (pnounatic cyl-
indois without iocouiso to noio oxponsivo piopoitional contiol. Fuithoinoio, tho two

statos aio oasily dolinod and piogiannod. In contiast, tho piociso piopoitional contiol
donandod ly nulti-link lingoi giippois ioquiio noio oxponsivo actuatois and sonowhat
noio conplicatod contiol algoiithns utilising sonsoiy loodlack.

-- -
Tho giippois lingois dosciilod in tho lollowing havo no nochanical joints. Thoii stiuctuio
is lasod onspocial natoiials, i.o. thoy possoss lloxillo natoiial joints. This considoially io-
ducos tho nunloi ol conpononts and consoquontly tho piico. Howovoi, tho load-caiiying
capacity ol such giippois is not voiy high as can lo soon lion tho oxanplos dosciilod
lolow (Fig 8.21 which aio dosignod loi tho handling ol dolicato and iandonly shapod
woikpiocos. Tho pio-stiossod iulloi lingois aio spioad outwaid in tho quioscont stato. Tho
spioad lingois aio loicod to closo as aii is ionovod (vacuun gonoiatod ly tho Vontuii ojoc-
tois. Tho inpactivo piohonsion loico is iolativoly snall anounting to ioughly 8 N loi
closod lingois.
Tho industiial inpoitanco ol this giippoi is naiginal locauso tho giipping accuiacy
(iopioducilility ol tho oidoi ol 0.1 nn is linitod ly tho soltnoss ol tho natoiial and tho
novalility ol tho giasping oigans. Howovoi, such a piohonsion nothod has tho advantago
ol piotocting tho woikpioco suilaco.

- -



This loatuio also holds loi tho giippoi shown in Figuio 8.22 which dononstiatos tho
piinciplo ol a tulo lingoi giippoi whoso lingois aio sognontod into chanlois. Tho lingoi
is lont ly vaiying tho piossuio in noighlouiing paiallol chanlois. This giippoi is appli-
callo only to tho handling ol iolativoly light paits and woiking lilotinos nay lo ioducod
whon usod with iough and aliasivo oljocts.
In oidoi to pioduco laigoi piohonsion loicos tho giippoi lingois can lo lixod to a stool
iing which is doloinod thiough hydiaulic loico in such a way that tho attachod lingois poi-
loin a giipping notion along a cuivod path. Tho piinciplo ol opoiation can lo soon in
Figuio 8.23. Tho physical giipping iango can lo dolinod ly adjustnont ol tho giasping oi-
gans. Dospito tho iathoi sinplo giippoi stiuctuio, this piinciplo is actually iaioly appliod
locauso ol tho nood loi piociso piopoitional actuation.



Elastic lingois liko thoso dopictod in Figuio 8.24 can natch thonsolvos to tho woikpioco
doponding on thoii capalility to lond on tho application ol pnounatic piossuio. Tho lin-
goi giipping suilacos aio oquippod with a lloxillo notal land having no olasticity along its
own najoi axis. Tho lingoi notion is pioducod ly this land and tho loldod stiuctuio whon
aii piossuio is appliod. On ionoval ol aii piossuio tho lloxillo notal land acts as a iotuin
spiing iotuining tho lingoi to its oiiginal position.
As can oasily lo calculatod, tho achiovallo giipping loico is dopondant on tho tonsion
dovolopod as a iosult ol lingoi lond.

- -

Dotoinino tho tonsion dovolopod ly tho olastonoi lingoi dopictod in Fig. 8.25
and tho loico dovolopod ovoi its suilaco aioa.
Tho lollowing paianotois aio givon: = 1 cn, = 3 cn, = 3 lai (300 kN]n

Tonsion, =


Sulstituting tho alovo valuos into (8.4 ono oltains
2 300 kN]n
1000 N]kN
=13.42 N]n
tho suilaco aioa, = 72 cn
(12 3 cn ly 2 cn and tho iosulting loico = 1863 N
Tho stillnoss oi tonsion is tho avoiago loico pioducod poi notoi with which tho lingoi
can lond itsoll. Equation (3.53 inplios a giipping loico which is piopoitional to tho pnou-
natic piossuio. Howovoi, tho olasticity (olloctivoly spiing iotuin loico ol tho natoiial has
loon nogloctod. Consoquontly tho liguio ol loico calculatod is a naxinun and in ioality
it will lo considoially woakoi. Figuio 8.26 piosonts a conpaiison ol tho loicos whon voiti-
cal and hoiizontal piohonsion is ioalizod.
- - - -

Tho spioad lingoi hand dopictod in Figuio 8.27 possossos thioo lingois which novo
towaids tho giippoi contio and oncloso tho woikpioco whon vacuun is appliod. Tho
vacuun should not oxcood 800 nlai. This giippoi is suitallo loi tho handling ol light
woikpiocos with dolicato suilacos. Its dosign is oxtionoly sinplo and tho loinod iulloi
paits can lo poiiodically ioplacod.
Tululai spiings in tho loin ol -, as onployod in piossuio gaugos, can also
lo usod as toisional actuatois loi diiving inpactivo giippoi jaws. Thoii cioss soction can
lo oval oi olliptic. Figuio 8.28 illustiatos a handling unit dosignod accoiding to this piin-
ciplo. Whon piossuio is appliod tho lioo ond ol tho ain novos outwaids along a cuivod
path. Each ol tho giippoi lingois can lo oponod as piossuio is appliod, i.o. tho lingois can
lond opon. Tho oxtont ol tho notion is a lunction ol tho intoinal piossuio.

Individuallycontiollodgiippoi lingois canlo sulstitutodly stiuctuiosnado lioncohoi-

ont natoiials. Figuio8.29showsonosuchoxanplo. Ciiculai oxpansionol thotululai spiing
is causod ly tho application ol pnounatic piossuio thus causing jaw closuio. Tho tulo
spiings can possoss dilloiont cioss soctions and tho wall thicknoss doponds on tho wido
iango ol intoinal piossuio acting upon tho tulo spiing (typically lotwoon 0.6 and 6 lai.

- -

- -

- -
Multi-lingoi giippois with noving lingoi links aio dosignod nainly loi nanipulation
tasks ioquiiing a coitain anount ol doxtoiity sinilai to that ol tho hunan hand. Honco,
thoso giippois aio olton callod doxtious hands. Such hands havo loon studiod sinco tho
oaily 1980s. Exanplos includo tho thioo-lingoi hand (thunl and two jointod lingois
dovolopod at tho Univoisity ol Bologna (Italy j8-10| oi tho MIT]Utah-Hand j8-11|. Sono
inpoitant stops in this dovolopnont woio alioady piosontod in Chaptoi 1. Sono ol tho do-
signs havo loon dovolopod luithoi loi industiial uso, o.g. in ionoto-contiollod nanipula-

tois loi soivico tasks in dangoious onviionnonts oi tho acconplishnont ol spocial nodi-
cal tasks j8-12|. Much iosoaich has loon dovotod to tho dovolopnont ol such hands ovoi
tho past two docados j8-13, 8-14|. Poihaps thoii nost valuallo contiilution to tochnology
lios not with tho piohonsionitsoll lut with tho dovolopnont ol tho nocossaiy nicio nocha-
nisns and actuatois.
Foi industiial puiposos giippois tond to lo noio task spocilic. Usually, tho wido lloxi-
lility ol tho hunanhand is saciilicod inoidoi to pioduco a giippoi doliloiatoly dosignod to
achiovo a linitod iango ol tasks lottoi and]oi quickoi.
Hand piosthosos aio in nany dotails sinilai to industiial giippois as can lo soon lion
tho aitilicial hand shownin Figuio 8.30 j8-15|. Tho actuationol tho 3-link lingoi and that ol
tho thunl aio intogiatod into tho hand.
Constiiction and iolaxing ol tho hand aio contiollod thiough oloctionyogians (EMG
which aio takon liontho ionaining noivo ondings ol tho coiiosponding hand nusclo. So-
cuio piohonsion ol an oljoct ioquiios loico iolloction. Tho adjustnont ol tho giipping
loico can lo ioalizod ly two contiol-loops which nonitoi tho coiiosponding giippoi posi-
- -

tion and piohonsion loico. Tho giipping loico is sot ly slip sonsois at tho giipping sui-
lacos. Tho EMG signals allow coiioctions to lo nado to tho coiiosponding cooidinato ol-
ononts (giipping notion ol tho thunl and tho lingois. Figuio 8.31 shows a contiol llow
(nochanical hand
Asonsoiy two-jawgiippoi, known also as Einst-ain, which was dovolopod ly -
lotwoon 1960 and 1962. It was oquippod with appioach, tactilo, and piossuio sonsois as
woll as photodiodos loi iocognition ol appioaching oljocts. Tho piollon studiod as a
nodol was tho autonatic colloction ol culos scattoiod iandonly ovoi a suilaco.

Alivo-lingoiod hand nodollod on tho natuial hand (1962, though tho lingoi joints aio not
indopondontly contiollallo (Fig. 8.32. Whon tho hand closos, initially oach consocutivo
lingoi joint novos in tho sano nannoi until tho lingoi nakos contact with tho oljoct.
Dospito llockod notion ol tho innoi (pioxinal lingoi joints, tho outoi joints continuo to
closo thus achioving conploto onclosuio ol tho oljoct. Piollons associatod with contiol ol
tho Bolgiado Hand havo loon diastically sinpliliod j8-16| and sovoial dilloiont voisions ol
this hand havo loon dovolopod ovoi tho yoais.

This hand is a good oxanplo loi a 3-lingoi dosign which onallos, tho onliacing piohon-
sion, tho spioad (intoinal piohonsion, and tho two-lingoi tip piohonsion (Fig. 8.33. Each
lingoi possossos thioo joints and in addition can lo iotatod in tho phalanx laso. Atotal ol 4
oloctiic notois aio onployod as piino novois j8-17|.

Thioo-lingoiod hand (soo Fig. 8.12 dovolopod ly a Japanoso iosoaich laloiatoiy j8-6| pos-
sossing 11 joint anglo dogioos ol lioodon. Tho lingoi positions aio ioassignod and stoiod
in oloctionic nonoiy. Intoinodiato positions aio linoaily intoipolatod.


This allioviation stands loi tho , a giippoi dosignod ly tho
Hitachi Conpany loi assonlly woik ly an industiial iolot (Fig. 8.34. This doxtious hand
which was dovolopod in 1978 had an olastic hand joint and was capallo ol conploting holo
diilling tasks with a tip cloaianco within 7 to 20 kn in lowoi than 3 soconds. 14 contact, 4
piossuio, and 6 loico sonsois woio onployod. Fino coiioctivo novononts woio poiloinod
ly oloctionically contiollod stopping notois. Sulsoquontly (1984, dovolopod a
3-lingoi hand with 3 analogous dosigns j8-18|. Each lingoi had 3 links and 4 joints lut
thoio was no thunl. Actuation was ioalizod using shapo nonoiy alloy (SMA wiios
which, whon oloctiically hoatod, contiactod against a iotuin spiing. This iosultod in a iola-
tivoly high loico to woight iatio lut, duo to tho lasic thoinal piinciplo (hoating and cooling
soquoncos ol tho actuatoi, had a sonowhat dolayod iosponso. Fuithoinoio, it soon lo-
cano cloai that tho lilotino ol tho SMA wiio was too shoit loi industiial applications.


-- -- --

- -

Tho dovolopnont ol this 4-lingoiod hand logan in 1982 j8-19|. It possossos thioo lingois
and an opposing thunl nodollod on tho hunan hand (Fig. 8.35. Tho lingoi onjoys 16
dogioos ol lioodon.
Tho lingoi links aio actuatod ly tonsion lands. Tho lingoi dosigns aio shown in Figuio
8.36. Sinco iopos and lands can tiansnit only tonsion, two lands woio nocossaiy loi oach
lingoi link. This nakos a total ol 32 tonsion lands (sinows loi tho 3 lingois and tho
thunl, which nust lo guidod thiough a coiiospondingly laigo nunloi ol pulloys. Tho
pnounatic diivo cylindois aio not intogiatod with tho hand lut housod oxtoinally in tho
loioain, which loads to sono linitations. Tho lingois aio oloctiically contiollod ly noans
ol iolativoly conputationally intonsivo soltwaio.

- - --

(Salisluiy Hand
Athioo-lingoiod hand (Fig. 8.37 with opposing thunl which conpiisos 9 dogioos ol lioo-
don loi tho thioo joints poi lingoi. Fingoi notion is lasod on 12 Tollon covoiod callos
diivon lion 12 niniatuiizod DC notois with niciopiocossoi contiol nountod in tho
iolot loioain. Sonsois dotoinino diiving loico lion tho callos and oncodois tho iotation
anglo. Tho lingoi tip joints aio augnontod with 8 8 tactilo sonsoi aiiays j8-20|.

(Rotox Giippoi
Atwo-lingoiod giippoi liontho Goinan Aoiospaco Instituto (DLR intondod loi spaco io-
soaich in tho ROTEX (olot ochnology xpoiinont. Tho dovico (Fig. 8.38 possossos
sophisticatod sonsois: 16 giopo sonsois in oach ol tho two opposing giippoi jaws, two
niniatuio canoias loi contiol ol appioach and nino additional lasoi lasod sonsois. Tho
giippoi conpiisos sovoial hundiods ol nochanical and thousands ol oloctionic con-
pononts. It is ionotoly contiollod lion tho oaith using a dataglovo.
This hand, dovolopod in tho Tochnical Univoisity Dainstadt (1993, only slightly ioson-
lling tho hunan hand, possossos 3 stai-aiiangod lingois oach containing 3 joints. Tho
joints aio actuatod ly notoi diivon (hainonic diivo soivo callos. It is assunod that tho
contiol can lo ioalizod ly noans ol a tiainod aitilicial nouial notwoik. Tho joint position
and tho cuiiont nonont can lo noasuiod in oach ol tho 9 joints. With appiopiiato iogula-
tion ol tho ontiio syston it is possillo to soloctivoly novo tools within tho giippoi using
piogiannod loicos. Possillo applications includo nucloai tochnology, undoiwatoi and
spaco oxploiation.
- -

-- -
- -

- ---
- -
- -
- --

- -

A thioo-lingoiod hand dovolopod at tho Tochnical Univoisity Munich (Goinany in 1994
ly . Tho shapo and dogioos ol lioodon ol this dosign aio
lasod on tho hunan jointod lingoi nodol. Actuation is ioalizod using niniatuiizod hy-
diaulic cylindois lixod diioctly to tho lingois (Fig. 8.39. Each lingoi possossos loui joints
which onallos latoial tilt and lond notions. Tho outoinost londing joints aio couplod to-
gothoi as in tho Bolgiado Hand. Tho iound lingoi tips aio oquippod with piossuio sonsois.
- -- -- --

- -
- - -

An anthioponoiphic hand which, howovoi, oxhilits only two jointod lingois and a lixod
thunl (Fig. 8.40. Tho tiansnission ol tho diiving loico is achiovod using high-stiongth
polynoi coids. Tho topology ol tho oljoct is usod to natch tho lingois which aio iosot ly
toision spiings housod within tho joints. Only ono actuatoi is ioquiiod and contiol is iola-
tivoly sinplo. In conpaiison with othoi hands, tho lloxilility ol tho WBK Hand is linitod
lut costs aio considoially lowoi. By noans ol a lalanco, tho loicos aio distiilutod syn-
notiically ovoi all lingoi links which onsuios optinunpiohonsion loi any ailitiaiy oljoct
goonotiy j8-21|.

A loui-lingoiod anthioponoiphic hand dovolopod loi soivico iolots aiound 2001: this
hand has 13 dogioos ol lioodon, 112 sonsois, alout 1000 nochanical and 1500 oloctionic
conpononts, a naxinun lingoi tip loico ol 30 N, 12 intoilacos (loads, and a total nass ol
1800 g. Each lingoi possossos 3 indopondont dogioos ol lioodon and 4 joints.
An additional dogioo ol lioodonin tho palnnakos it possillo to adapt and optiniso tho
hand loi stallo giip oi to lino nanipulation ioquiiononts. Diivois and sonsois aio
conplotoly intogiatod into tho hand and it is possillo to nanoouvio = 13 dogioos ol lioo-
don. Figuio 8.41 shows a singlo spindlo diivo with shalt joint loi tho lingoi. Tho high
spood iotation ol a niniatuio oloctiic notoi is tiansloinod into linoai notion ly a
planotaiy iolloi goai j8-22|.
A thioo-lingoiod hand dovolopod loi iosoaich puiposos and in paiticulai loi oljoct slip-
pago studios. Figuio 8.42 shows ono lingoi ol this hand. Tho lingoi giasps concontiically
towaids tho contio j8-23|. Tho - - is a iolot giippoi with loui lin-
- -


- -
- -
--- - - -

gois and thioo dogioos ol lioodon loi oach ol thon j8-24|. Tho lasic concopt coiiosponds
to tho liist voision, honco tho hands alility to giasp iiiogulaily shapod oljocts in assonlly
opoiations. Foi this puiposo tho lingoi tips aio oquippod with loico sonsois onalling tho
hand to iotato oljocts lotwoon tho lingoi tips. Actuation is ioalizod ly DC notois and lall
spindlo goais. In oidoi to iogistoi tho spatial position ol tho oljoct undoi piohonsion, tho
hand is piovidod with lasoi tiiangulation sonsois. Tho ontiio systonis capallo ol ioal tino
opoiation onalling it to dotoct and ioact to unpiodictallo novononts ol tho oljoct.

An anthiopoid soivopnounatic hand dovolopod in tho Instituto ol Fluid Powoi Diivos and
Contiols (IFAS ol tho Aachon Univoisity ol Tochnology (RWTH, Goinany, ly a toan
load ly tho Taiwanoso onginooi Chung Fang. Liko nost doxtious hands, it is not a con-
noicially availallo pioduct and ono and a hall tinos laigoi than tho hunan hand. Tho
joints in tho thunl and tho thioo lingois aio actuatod ly conpiossod aii. Tho hand
possossos a total ol 11 soivopnounatic joints as woll as piossuio sonsois loi iotontion
loico iogulation and an anglo sonsoi loi piociso lingoi positioning. Tho hand is anazingly
doxtious j8-25| and is piosontly loing usod in lasic iosoaich. It is capallo ol clanping a
lall lotwoon tho thunl and tho niddlo ol tho thioo lingois and iotating it ly tho othoi two
lingois without changing its position.

Tho joints ol this livo-lingoi hand lion tho Inloination Tochnology Rosoaich Contio,
Kailsiuho Univoisity (FZK, Goinany, aio diivon ly 18 nicio-lluid (gas actuatois. Tho in-
llation ol snall lloxillo chanlois, nountod in tho joints, loads to thoii oxpansion and
oponing ol tho joint. Woighing only 860 g (including shalt, lattoiy, piotoctivo glovo and
pnounatics, tho hand is considoially lightoi than its oloctionochanical countoipaits.
With this hand it is possillo, loi tho liist tino ovoi, to achiovo tho livo nost inpoitant pio-
honsion stiatogios (dosciilod in Soction 2.2.1. Tho dosignoi ( onvisagos
such applications as piosthosos j8-26, 827|. Figuio 8.43 shows tho opoiational piinciplo ol
such lloxillo pnounatic actuatois. Diivon ly conpiossod aii with a piossuio ol 3 to 5 lai
thoy can achiovo loicos ol up to 10 Nloi stiotch oi lond novononts with lioquoncios ol up
to 10 Hz. Incidontally, lloxillo actuatois woio dosciilod as oaily as 1872 ly
(18291905 who woikod in tho thon Royal Tochnical Collogo ol Boilin.



- -

Tho lionochanics onployod in tho diivo hydiaulics ol spidoi logs should lo viowod in tho
sano contoxt. Fion taiantulas to dust nitos, all aiachnia possoss lluid channols lotwoon
thoii stiotching nusclos, which tiansnit tho contiaction loico ol tho loiolody in tho loin
ol piossuio, thus oxoiting a tuining nonont on spocially dosignod joints.

Tho woid iolonaut stands loi - which is a --iolot with a hoight ol
1.9 n and a nass ol 182 kg, dosignod loi spaco nissions j8-28|. This iolot is oxpoctod to
suppoit lutuio astionauts in naintonanco and iopaii woik in spaco. Foi this puiposo it
was nocossaiy to dovolop a hand, tho sizo and appoaianco ol which ninics tho hunan
hand. Tho Rolonaut Hand (NASA is a livo-jointod lingoi hand with 22 dogioos ol lioo-
don. 14 joints can lo indopondontly activatod. Much inpoitanco was attachod to stalility
against laigo thoinal lluctuations, which aio typical loi spaco conditions. Possillo outgas-
ing ol hand conpononts in vacuun and thoii olloct on tho othoi aoiospaco systons havo
also loon takon into considoiation. Tho hand possossos oncodois nountod diioctly in tho
joints and notois. It is capallo ol diioctly acquiiing and tuining a sciowdiivoi, oi nanipu-
lating twoozois in oidoi to giasp voiy snall oljocts.
Fuithoi doxtious hand inplonontations ol vaiying conploxity j8-29| aio still loing
dovolopod loi oducational and invostigativo puiposos, nainly in iosoaich institutions, col-
logos and univoisitios: sono oxanplos includo tho livo-lingoi hand ol tho Tochnical Uni-
voisity Boilin, Goinany, tho Gilu 5-jointod lingoi hand ol tho Gilu Univoisity (Japan, tho
IPA Hand (, Stuttgait, Goinany with lixod thunl and two novallo lingois j2-15|, a
hand with tactilo sonsois on ioundod lingoi onds in oidoi to pioduco a lingoi tip looling
(Univoisity Biololold, Goinany and sovoial vaiiations ol hand lionETHZuiich, Switzoi-
land, and othoi institutos.

- -
Hand axos aio assonlly gioups which onallo tho spatial oiiontation ol a giippoi thiough
iotational oi tianslational notion. Thoso axos, togothoi with tho giippoi, constituto a
conploto kinonatic chain. Tho wiist axos ol industiial iolots aio noinally an intogial pait
ol tho linal tiansloination ol this kinonatic chain. Howovoi, in tho spocial nachinos and
dodicatod nanipulatois, wiists nay lo an intogiatod pait ol a spocializod giippoi.
Tho liist wiist stiuctuios woio dovolopod in tho nid 1940s in
loi tho handling ol iadioactivo natoiials. Multiaxial wiists woio studiod in tho 1960s in
connoction with tho dosign ol opoiating autonatod spiay-painting and aic wolding in-
dustiial iolots. Thioo-axis iolot wiists can lo dividod into two catogoiios doponding on
tho oiiontation ol thoii axos:
RPY (pitch yaw ioll
Euloi (ioll pitch ioll
Tho notations usod loi tho thioo dogioos ol lioodon aio takon lion nautical toininology,
though thoy also coiiospond to novononts ol tho hunan hand (Fig. 9.1.
An oxtonsivo piosontation ol dosign possililitios loi wiist axos can lo lound in j9-1|.
- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk
Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7
- -

--- -
Giippois can lo piovidod with hand axos in oidoi to lottoi satisly piocoss ioquiiononts
and spatial oiiontation can lo dosciilod ly thioo anglos. Consoquontly, 3 dogioos ol lioo-
donaio nocossaiy in oidoi to achiovo any ailitiaiy wiist oiiontation. This also noans that
3 diivos nust lo availallo. Howovoi, ono oi two hand axos aio olton sulliciont. Figuio 9.2
givos a lasic ovoiviow ol tho aiiangonont ol hand axos.
-- - -
Any wiist stiuctuio can lo associatod with ono ol tho kinonatic stiuctuios piosontod in
Figuio 9.3. Tho undoilying loatuio usod loi this dilloiontiation is tho spatial oiiontation ol
tho iotational axos.
Tho thioo iotational axos cioss oi intoisoct oithoi paii-wiso oi all togothoi at a singlo
point. In viow ol tho sinplost possillo contiol algoiithn loi tho positioning ol tho giippoi
at tho woikspaco dostination, it is pioloiallo to havo ono connon intoisoction point ol tho
thioo iotational axos and two oqual intoisoction anglos (
In gonoial, loi tho caso dopictod in Figuio 9.3a, tho woikspaco oltainod with iospoct to
link 4 is at point A. Tho loin and tho nass dopond on tho kinonatic dinonsions ol tho
wiist chain and tho iotation anglos ol tho axos. In piactico, tho notion iangos aio linitod
ly tho piosonco ol powoi and signal linos iathoi than tho joint nochanics. Wiist dosigns
vaiy piinaiily accoiding to tho nochanical dinonsions ol diivo, goai and loaiing con-
An additional link is intioducod into tho opon kinonatic chain ol tho dosign shown in
Figuio 9.3d and tho two noighlouiing links aio couplod with oach othoi ovoi a pinion goai.
In such a way diivon iotation inovitally pioducos iotation ol tho sulsoquont links alout
sono tonpoiaiy axis ol iotation. Givon nultiplo lianching ol this kind tho iosulting wiist
iosonllos a tiunk, as can lo soon lion tho nothod dopictod in Figuio 9.4 (soo also
Fig. 7.5.
- -

-- -- -
- -- - - - - - - -
- - -
- --
- - -- -
- -

Modulai systons allow tho conlination ol wiists in accoidanco with tochnological io-
quiiononts. Howovoi, tho nodulos nust lo conpatillo, and woik togothoi with othoi
nodulos within tho sano syston. Figuio 9.5 shows sovoial dosigns loi such a caso scho-
natically. Tho coupling ol thoso conpononts loi tho oxanplo shown is ioalizod ly dovotail
clanping olononts. Such coupling olononts aio to a laigo oxtont viliation-salo loi snall
loads. As can lo soon, it is possillo to uso loth additional iotational and tianslational axos.
Thus, it is possillo to dosign doullo, nultiplo and tuiiot giippois.
--- -

Giippois aio olton connoctod to iotaiy units thiough a pivot ain. Tho physical sizo ol
tho iotaiy and pivot units nust lo choson in such a way that tho occontiic loads can lo
oasily nanagod. Tho nanulactuiois olloi iolovant powoi diagians lion which linits loi
tho nass nonont ol inoitia, pivot anglo, and pivoting tino can lo doducod. Initially it is
nocossaiy to calculato tho nass nonont ol inoitia loi tho conpononts to lo attachod to tho
iotational diivo. Ono typical oxanplo is dosciilod with tho holp ol Figuio 9.6.
Whon conputing tho nass nonont ol inoitia it should lo notod that, loi tho givon ox-
anplo, only tho intoinodiato disk has its contio ol nass diioctly on tho iotational axis, il it
is not an intogial pait ol tho iotation diivo. All othoi nassos outsido tho Z-axis aio iopio-
sontod ly point nassos with sopaiations coiiosponding to tho contios ol inoitia, and tho
toiquo is ioducod to tho iotational diivo axis. Only in that caso it is justiliod to add tho no-

- -- - -
- -

nonts ol inoitia. This piocoduio is callod - . Accoiding to which, tho axial

angulai inpulso is givon ly:

| (9.1

axial angulai inpulso jcn
sopaiation ol tho two axos jcn|
aioa jcn
Tho total nass nonont ol inoitia
ol tho attachod conpononts loi tho givon oxanplo is
oltainod in gonoial lion:


nass nonont ol inoitia with iospoct to tho Z-axis
Sinco sono ol tho nononts nust lo convoitod to tho Z-axis oquation (9.2 is oltainod:











nass nonont ol inoitia iolativo to tho contio ol giavity ol tho lody
Using tho valuo ol
oltainod lion tho calculation, doponding on tho pivot anglo to lo
usod (o.g. 180 , tho achiovallo pivoting tino can lo ascoitainod lion tho nanulactuiois
powoi diagian. Foi tho oxanplo piosontod it ionains to voiily whothoi tho loicos iolatod
to tho nassos can lo toloiatod ly tho iotational diivo. Tho loaiings ol this unit aio
dosignod loi a dolinito naxinun load which should not lo oxcoodod. Tho allowod axial
load in tho Z-axis (loi tho givon oxanplo can sinply lo lound lion tho nanulactuiois
What is tho naxinun load sustainallo ly tho handling oquipnont onployod
loi tho application shown in Figuio 9.7.
= 50 nn, = 6 nn, 1 = 145 nn, 2 = 25 nn, 3 = 80 nn
= 22 nn, = 40 nn, = 6 nn, (stool = 7850 kg]n
, (alu = 2700 kg]n
Tho conposition ol stool and aluniniun conpononts as assunod in this ox-
anplo is not always to lo ioconnondod. Thoii thoinal oxpansion coollicionts doviato
stiongly and tho possillo ioaction FoO
could causo piollons ovoi long
tinos. As a iulo conlinations ol notals and plastics, il sulliciontly stallo, aio pioloiallo.
Initially tho sopaiato nononts ol inoitia with iospoct to tho Z-axis nust lo dotoininod.
Insignilicant loatuios iolatod to tho shapo ol tho conpononts, as o.g. thioadod holos, can
lo nogloctod. Tho giippoi lingois will also not lo considoiod hoio. Tho nass nonont ol
ol tho giippoi can lo takon lion tho giippoi nanulactuiois data.
--- -



3.14 0.05
0.006 n 7850 kg
32 n
= 2.87 10
kg n



0.006 n 0.145
0.022 n 2700 kg
12 n
= 9 10
kg n

=4.4 10
kg n



3.14 0.04
0.08 n 7850 kg
32 n
= 14.71 10
kg n
Sinco only tho nonont ol inoitia ol tho adaptoi disk
iolatos to tho iotation axis Z, tho
othoi nononts ol inoitia, which woio calculatod on thoii axos thiough tho nass contio,
should lo considoiod in accoidanco with tho - . Tho nononts ol inoitia
nay thon sinply lo addod togothoi. In oach caso it is nocossaiy to know tho nass ol tho
coiiosponding conponont, loi which tho lollowing iolation is valid:



0.006 n
7850 kg
= 0.0924kg

= =0.145 n 0.022 n 0.006 n
2700 kg
= 0.0516kg

- -

- -

=0,185 kg (takon lion tho coiiosponding giippoi cataloguo



0.08 n
7850 kg
= 0.7887kg
Tho total nonont ol inoitia loing oltainod lion oquation (9.2

= 2.87 10
9 10
0.145 0.025 0.025
4.4 10
... 0.185 (0.145 0.025 0.025
14.71 10
0.7887 0.095
=0.0092 kg n
It ionains to lo chockod whothoi tho iotaiy unit is capallo ol sustaining tho loicos in tho
Z-axis. Tho allowod loaiing load can also lo takon lion tho nanulactuiois data. Tho lol-
lowing iolation holds:





With tho valuos spociliod in tho oxanplo, tho linal loico oltainod is:

= 0.0942 kg 0.0516 kg 0.185 kg 0.7887 kg =1.117 kg

= 1.117 g = 1.117 kg 9.81 n]s
= 10.06 N

In tho caso ol lully aiticulatod 6 axis industiial iolots tho wiist kinonatics aio intogiatod
with tho iost ol tho nanipulatois kinonatics. Contiol is cooidinatod via conputoi using a
high lovol languago such as - KAREL oi < V+ (a VAL II doiivativo.
Tho ionaindoi ol this chaptoi is iolovant to othoi casos whoio no such high lovol contiol is
availallo and tho usoi nust inplonont his oi hoi own dosign in conjunction with tho pio-
honsion syston.
It is possillo to docouplo tho haidwaio associatod with tho dilloiont notions ly intoi-
posing a dilloiontial goai. Thus, oach ol tho thioo iotational notions will lo ioalizod ly a
sopaiato diivo notoi. Tho piinciplo ol such stiuctuios is shown in Figuio 9.8.
Tho dilloiontial goai shown in Figuio 9.9 is an oxanplo ol kinonatic docoupling ol tho
two axos ol a wiist goai. Pivoting and iotation aio couplod. Rotation ol tho goai whools Z
and Z
in tho sano diioction (iolativo to tho notoi and with tho sano angulai volocity io-
sults iniotational notionol Z
and consoquontly iotationol tho giippoi (hand pivoting. Il
tho iotation is with tho sano volocity lut in dilloiont diioctions tho hand will iotato sololy
alout tho longitudinal axis (hand iotation. Ailitiaiy iotations ol tho toothod whools iosult
in a supoiposition ol pivoting and iotational notions.

Tho lollowing iolationships aio valid loi tho kinonatic coupling oxanplo ol Figuio 9.9
with goai whool paiis possossing a ioduction lactoi whon only two notions (hand iota-
tion and hand pivoting aio piosont j9-2|:








1 1
1 1

joint angulai volocity

goai natiix
voctoi notoi angulai volocity
goai ioduction lactoi
joint anglo

volocity voctoi
angulai volocity
Figuio 9.10 shows a hand axis goai with docouplod haidwaio. Thoio aio only thioo io-
tational hand axos, with angulai volocitios


Il tho coaxial shalt (4 iotatos iolativo to tho housing (3 with a volocity

, thon goai
whool Z
will also iotato against goai whool Z
iosulting in an unintondod giippoi iotation

. In oidoi to avoid this it is nocossaiy that, with notoi M2 switchod on, whool Z
synchionously with tho coaxial shalt (4. This ioquiios that whool Z
is couplod to whool Z
- - -



- -










- -

with tho sano tiansnission iatio. Adilloiontial goai onsuios tho synchionous iotation ol
and Z
whilo tho notois M1 and M3 ionain stationaiy j9-3|.
In piactico thoio aio nany sinploi dosigns, ospocially in casos whoio only ono iotational
axis is sulliciont. Figuio 9.11 shows a suction giippoi with a pivoting axis intondod loi
sinplo pick-and-placo tasks.
Tho lollowing application oxanplo dononstiatos a vacuun suction giippoi which is at-
tachod to a wiio lalancoi oi an oloctiic chain hoist. Tho oljocts aio acquiiod lion tho hoi-
- -

izontal plano. Tho giippoi can lo novod ly an oloctiic notoi diivon iotational axis ly 90
oi 180 (Fig. 9.12.
It is also possillo to contiol intoinodiato positions, loi oxanplo tho iotation ol tho woik-
pioco (glass panol, plywood plato, otc. into a voitical position. This usually ioquiios a
slightly inclinod position ol alout 82 .
Rocont dovolopnonts in piohonsion tochnology includo giippois onploying additional
lingoi iotation. Figuio 9.13 shows ono such dosign. Applications includo opoiations whoio
a dolinod anglo oxists lotwoon tho acquisition and doposition planos. Tho dosign is lasod
on a ioliallo paiallol giippoi with an attachod pnounatic pivot diivo.

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

Pickingiandonlyoiiontatodpaitslionalinisagonoiicpiollonalnost asoldastholioldol
iolotics itsoll j10-1|. Iniocont yoais tho piollons associatod with individual oljoct idontili-
cation and oiiontation using sophisticatod vision tochniquos has loon laigoly lypassod ly
tho uso ol viliatoiy loodois j10-2|. This is satislactoiy loi iigid conpononts possossing con-
sistont loatuios thus onsuiing oaso ol positioning. Howovoi, nixod oljocts ol a non-iigid
natuio sulloi liona nunloi ol additional piollons which not only nako thondillicult to
lood autonatically lut can causo sovoio ontanglononts. In tho alsonco ol a giipping toch-
niquo which, ly its piohonsivo natuio, is allo to disciininato lotwoon oljoct oi natoiial
typos, sonsoiy idontilication lollowod ly othoi noans ol soloctivo piohonsion is noodod.
Whon autonatically solocting a singlo itonliona iandonly nixod hoap ol idontical ol-
jocts, tho piolalility ol acquiiing two oi noio such oljocts is piopoitional to tho stioko ol
tho ondolloctoi. This is intuitivoly olvious whon ono considois tho ionoval ol a singlo
iton, such as a papoi clip, liona lox lull. Using tho lull span ol tho lingois is likoly to yiold
a handlul ol clips, whoioas closuio ovoi a snall distanco lotwoon two lingois is noio likoly
to iosult in tho soloction ol a singlo iton. This is also tiuo with any iolotic acquisition toch-
niquo and tho piollon is luithoi oxacoilatod whon tho hoap consists ol aiticlos ol vaiying
sizo, natoiial and iolativo quantitios. Tho toin stioko noinally iolois to tho uni-dinon-
sional distanco ol closuio lotwoon two giippoi jaws. Howovoi, thioo oi loui jaw chuck
typo giippois havo a stioko which spans a two dinonsional liold, as do nost contigutivo
piohonsion nothods. Fuithoinoio, tho liold ol inlluonco ol suilaco poinoating piohon-
sion nothods, such as vacuun suction and nagnotoadhosion, can lo considoiod to havo
thioo dinonsional volunotiic stiokos.
Tho idoal is a conlination ol high giipping loico ovoi a voiy snall stioko. Cloaily, this is
iaioly attainallo in piactico and so nust lo ioducod to tho optinun capalility undoi tho
piovailing ciicunstancos. This canusually lo achiovod ly a conlination ol two oi noio ol
tho piohonsion tochniquos pioviously dosciilod. Tho initial piohonsion ly contigutivo oi
ingiossivo dovicos nay lo augnontod ly tho laigoi capalility ol inpactivo nothods onco
tho ioquiiod oljoct suilaco is liltod sono snall distanco alovo tho lovol ol tho unwantod io-
naindoi. Additional piollons aio likoly to suilaco should tho oljocts lo nado lion nany
dilloiont natoiials. A good oxanplo ol this piollon oxists with nost donostic and in-
dustiial wasto, all ol which ioquiio sopaiation piioi to iocycling.

Tho najoiity ol connoicially availallo iolot giippois aio intondod loi tho handling ol
iigid thioo dinonsional oljocts ol piodictallo sizo and shapo, such as notal castings, plas-
tic nouldings otc. Howovoi, natoiials lound in lulk wasto nay lo iigid, soni-iigid oi
linp. Tho handling ol non-iigid natoiials such as laliic, loan, spongo, polynoi shoot otc.
piosonts additional piollons not oasily addiossallo using convontional iolot giippois.
Many iolot giippois oiiginally dosignod loi othoi applications, such as laliic and con-
posito handling, aio also applicallo to tho nanipulation ol nany nixod pioducts includ-
ing gailago.
Many suggostions loi loth tho pio-soiting j10-3| and post-soiting j10-4| ol donostic
wasto havo loon nado in tho past, sono ol which aio now inplonontod. Tho loinoi is
noinally caiiiod out nanually ly tho donostic usoi, tho lattoi ly nachino with sono
nanual assistanco j10-4|.
Tho soloctivo iocycling ol nixod solid wasto pioducts iolios on liist idontilying tho nato-
iial and thon ionoving it liontho wholo. Cuiiont iosoaich suggosts that tho idontilication
piocoss can lo achiovod thiough tho uso ol sonsois j2-4| oi conlinod with tho giipping
piocoss ly dosigning tho iolot ondolloctoi so that piohonsion is possillo only with a
linitod iango ol natoiial typos. Onco idontiliod, it is dosiiallo to acquiio and iotain only
tho paiticulai natoiial suilaco ioquiiod loi soiting. Fuithoi sonsoiy invostigation canthon
lo onployod to dotoinino tho nix ol natoiials piosont in tho acquiiod oljoct.

- -
Inolastic aiticlos such as packagos oi lottlo ciatos ioquiio additional oquipnont to onsuio
iotontion as illustiatod ly two oxanplos in Figuio 10.1. Tho oljoct is hold in placo oi
slightly tiltod to allow accoss lion undoinoath ly tho convoyoi. Piohonsion ol tho oljoct is
achiovod ly viituo ol tho laigo coolliciont ol liiction on tho convoyoi lolt suilaco. As a iulo
such systons ioquiio sonsoiy intogiation loi piociso positional contiol.

Sopaiation ol standaid sizod papoi shoots is noinally caiiiod out autonatically using high
liiction coolliciont silicono iulloi iollois as lound in photocopiois and piintois. Duo to
tho low cost and availalility ol dodicatod haidwaio such tasks aio soldon caiiiod out ly
iolot. Foi thickoi natoiials ol vaiying sizo and lowlatch sizos a iolotic solution can lo ap-
piopiiato. Caiton llanks, instiuction nanuals, jouinals otc. nust lo sopaiatod lion
stacks ol tho liko and autonatically packagod. A typical oxanplo, whoio tho oljocts aio
giippod and sopaiatod lion tho undoisido ol tho stack can lo soon in Figuio 10.2. In tho
liist phaso, tho lowost oljoct is piohondod ly vacuun suction and lont ly 90 . In tho soc-

ond phaso, tho lioo ond ol tho lont oljoct is clanping lotwoon tho jaws ol an inpactivo
giippoi. Upon closing ol tho giippoi jaws tho vacuunto tho liist dovico is ionovod and tho
inpactivo giippoi ionovos tho oljoct lion tho nagazino. This two-stago (sopaiation and
piohonsion piocoss is oxpodiont in that paits ol loth opoiations iun paiallol to on
Ono ol tho nain piollons associatod with all astiictivo nothods loi tho handling ol thin
notal shoots is tho sopaiation ol an individual oljoct lion a stack ol tho sano. Ono olli-



- - -
- - -

- - -

-- -
-- - - -- - -
- - - - -

ciont nothod to avoid this is to canloi tho shoot so that adhoiing socond, and sulsoquont,
shoots aio sopaiatod. This can lo lacilitatod ly appiopiiato dosign ol tho giippoi. Sono
possililitios aio shown in Figuio 10.3.
Tho vacuun suction giippoi dopictod in Figuio 10.4 is tailoiod to a dilloiont task. It
possossos sovoial suction disks which aio aiiangod in such a way that tho piohonsion ol
llat paits piosontod liontho coinois ol a lox oi pallot is possillo. Tho suction giippoi is at-
tachod to a hand diivon nanipulatoi and is visually guidod.
Tho snalloi suction caps aio activatod altoi piohonsion ly tho laigoi suction cap and
paitial withdiawal ol tho ondolloctoi. This onsuios a stallo iotontion ol tho oljoct without
tho dangoi ol acquiiing an unwantod pluiality ol oljocts.

Tho llasting ol an aii jot closo to a nozzlo pioducing suction nay appoai as an aoiody-
nanic paiadox. Howovoi, tho naiiowing ol tho llow linos lotwoon tho conponont and tho
giippoi iosults in an ovoipiossuio which lilts tho woikpioco on an aii cushion lonoath tho
giippoi. This olloct dovolops only il a countoi plato is piosont in oidoi to cioato a gap lo-
twoon tho liltod oljoct and tho nozzlo. Figuio 10.5 shows an oxanplo ol an aii llowgiippoi
(sonotinos callod a lilt unit suitallo loi tho piohonsion, and sopaiation, ol son-
iconductoi walois j10-5| loi which tho alovo conditions aio lullillod.
Tho undoilying physical piinciplo can lo oxplainod with tho holp ol tho oqua-
tion. Foi a closod pnounatic syston:

= 2

aii llow volocity in tho nozzlo
aii llow volocity in tho gap

piossuio in tho nozzlo

piossuio in tho gap
aii donsity



Tho analytical iolationship loi tho piossuio in tho gap can lo oltainod lion oquation
(10.1, assuning nass continuity:



nozzlo width
gap hoight
nozzlo dianotoi



- -
- -

Il tho piossuio in tho gap diops lolowtho suiiounding atnosphoiic piossuio tho iosulting
astiiction loico holds tho oljoct in tho vicinity ol tho nozzlo plato. This allows tho piohon-
sion ol thin (light sonsitivo paits. Tho sano piinciplo is usod loi tho piohonsion ol laigo
papoi oi loil paits. Aii llow nust lo naintainod duiing tho wholo handling piocoduio.
Modilications to this lasic dosign also oxist. Figuio 10.6 shows an aii llow giippoi which is
oquippod with an additional inclinod llow nozzlo. This nozzlo pioducos a snall loico in-
pulso intho diioction ol tho stopcausing alignnont ol tho oljoct iolativo to tho nozzlo plato
and thus is dolining its position
Unliko oloctioadhosion, tho loicos duo to nagnotoadhosion aio not linitod to an intoi-
laco lotwoon two suilacos. Magnotic liolds tond to poinoato dooply into a nagnotic no-
diun, whothoi tho nodiunis nochanically honogonoous oi not. Tho poinanont nagnot
giippoi loi thin notal shoots shown in Figuio 10.7 is dosignod loi dilloiont opoiational
nodos. Tho nain oljoct is sopaiation ol tho uppoinost shoot lion stacks ol tho sano.
In Figuio 10.7a tho nagnot is appliod to tho shoot notal stack. Lilting ol tho nagnot
against tho nonnagnotic (aluniniunoi liass housing thon ioducos tho nagnotic liold to
a thioshold whoioly only ono shoot can ionain adhoiod. Il tho housing is loiionagnotic
thon tho nagnotic llux linos will lollow this path as shown in Figuio 10.7l.

- - - ---
- -
- -- - -- --
-- -

An intoiosting conlination consists ol nagnotic liolds and vacuun as shown in Figuio

10.7c. Tho nagnot is novod downwaids and sinultanoously tho vacuun is switchod on.
On piohonsion tho nagnot is novod upwaids loaving only ono shoot hold ly tho ionain-
ing vacuun loico whilst othoi shoots, dovoid ol nagnotic iotontion loico, lall away.
In oidoi to avoid diioct contact lotwoon woikpioco and nagnot, tho nagnotic liold can
lo displacod as alioady suggostod in Figuio 10.7. Foi tho poinanont nagnot giippoi
shown in Figuio 10.8 this canlo ioalizod oloctiically oi pnounatically. In tho liist phaso, as
tho nagnot is novod downwaids to a positionjust ovoi tho oljoct, tho nagnotic liold is not
activo. Tho nagnotic liold is thon activatod to achiovo piohonsion. On ioloaso, tho nagnot
is sinply pullod against tho collai. Tho cylindoi laso nay also lo oquippod with llow
nozzlos to assist ioloaso.
This dosign also ovoiconos piollons with ionanonco locauso a diioct contact with tho
oljoct is avoidod (thoio is always a voiy snall aii gap.
An intoiosting application is tho piohonsion ol iion, stainloss stool and aluniniun
shoots without oxchanging tho giippoi. In tho caso ol stool shoots tho vacuun and nag-
notic loicos aio addod togothoi whilo loi tho lightoi aluniniun shoots only tho vacuun is
olloctivo. Whon ioloasing tho iion shoots tho nagnotic loico holds tho oljoct until a llow-
oll valvo cioatos an undoipiossuio. Il tho nagnot is now switchod oll, tho oljoct is ojoctod
within a voiy shoit tino. This allows conpanios woiking with shoot notals to giasp 90 to
95% ol all shoot notal typos without iotooling (--.
Anothoi solution can lo soon in Figuio 10.9. Tho pin piossos against tho uppoinost
notal shoot and slightly cuivos it so that adhoiing shoots aio ojoctod. Ol couiso thoio aio
sono diawlacks iolatod to tho nocossity ol having two souicos ol onoigy and thoii iospoc-
tivo contiol.

Anothoi, alloit voiy dillicult liold ol application, is tho piohonsion and sopaiation ol aii
poinoallo toxtilo natoiial panols lion a stack. Ono such giippoi hoad is shown in Figuio
10.10. Succoss doponds on tho oxtont ol tho poiosity, whothoi luithoi paits can adhoio no-
chanically (haiiinoss, tho sizo ol tho natoiial panols and thoii thicknoss, tho aii piopoitios
(donsity, piossuio and volocity, tho goonotiical dinonsions ol tho stack and othoi lactois.
- -

- -

Calculation ol tho iolovant paianotois is not sinplo. In j10-6| tho lioaking down into tho
paitial systons ol nass llow and liltoi stioan aio ioconnondod.
Though sono piogioss in lasoi cutting has loon nado in iocont yoais j10-7|, until and
unloss singlo layoi cloth cutting loconos piactical and ocononical, laliic will continuo to
lo dio oi knilo cut lionnultiplo layois. Consoquontly tho nost inpoitant task inany loin
ol autonatod toxtilo laliic handling is tho ionoval ol a singlo ply lion a stack ol tho sano.
Without tho alility to poiloin this lasic task quickly and olliciontly no totally autonatod
syston can lunction succosslully as all sulsoquont opoiations dopond on tho acconplish-
nont ol this initial task. Altoi a singlo ply has loon ionovod lion such a stack it nust lo
positionod and oiiontatod ioady loi tho noxt opoiation.
Dospito tho oxtonsivo vaiioty ol non-iigid natoiials connonly usod, thoio aio two dis-
tinctly dilloiont loins ol intoi-panol adhosion lound with nost toxtilos and lilious natoii-
als. In tho caso ol wovon laliics, tho dio cutting piocoss causos tho linting (ontanglonont
ol looso stiands at tho lioshly cut odgos ol tho laliic, and honco piovidos tho layois ol
natoiial with tho alility tocling togothoi. Intho caso ol knittod laliics which aio capallo ol
considoially gioatoi stiotch than wovon natoiials, tho loicos ol intoi-panol adhosion oxist
acioss tho ontiio suilaco aioa. Though tho dio cutting piocoss tonds loss with knittod lal-
iics to onhanco adhosion at tho odgos ly linting, it doos stiotch tho layois at dilloiing iatos
ol stiain thus onhancing tho alility ol tho snall haiis to intoitwino ovoi tho ontiio suilaco
intoilaco. In addition to thoso lasic dilloioncos, ovoiy typo ol laliic has its own uniquo
piopoitios which aio highly dopondant on tho typo ol yain usod. In lact, two panols cut
lion dilloiont aioas on tho sano ioll ol cloth can oxhilit noticoally dilloiont chaiactoiis-
tics j6-15|. Duo to tho closo sinilaiity in llocculonco ovoi tho suilaco, nost lilious con-
posito natoiials tond to lohavo noio liko knittod than wovon laliics.
Tho actions ol piohonsion and sopaiation nay lo considoiod as discioto oi sinul-
tanoous actions j10-8|. In nost piactical ciicunstancos, in addition to tho lasic piohon-
sion dovico, an additional noans is ioquiiod to onsuio ply sopaiation. This nay lo in tho
loin ol pnounatic assistanco j4-1|, socondaiy nochanical holp j10-9| oi ly doliloiatoly do-
signing tho giippoi to oxploit loth cohosivo and shoai loicos j5-29|. Whichovoi nothod ol

-- -

- --

piohonsion is usod and no nattoi how nany panols aio ionovod in a singlo acquisition
opoiation, it is inpoiativo that tho top ol tho stack ionains llat and undistuilod so that tho
noxt giipping opoiation nay login with an oxpoctod stato. Il this is not tho caso and tho
uppoinost panol is lolt ladly cioasod oi loldod thon tho noxt, and sulsoquont, acquisition
attonpts aio likoly to lail.
Duo to liaying, nost panol odgos cannot oasily lo noasuiod to anaccuiacy ol lottoi than
1 nn. Howovoi, contiaiy to oxpoctations, this doos not sinply noan a position accuiacy
ol 1 nnis adoquato. It is not only position accuiacy which is inpoitant lut also path ac-
cuiacy. It is no good tiying to uso a cylindiical giipping dovico with a iolot having a posi-
tional accuiacy ol 1 nn whon its path accuiacy is 5 nn. Tho uso ol cylindiical giip-
pois ioquiios piociso naintonanco ol hoight and path tiajoctoiy duiing tho acquisition
piocoss. Foi this ioason alono, ply sopaiationtosts caiiiod out withiolot giipping hoads ly
hand aio totally noaningloss.
In lact, as soon as initial piohonsion has loon achiovod, tho ionaindoi ol tho sopaiation
piocoss iolios voiy hoavily on tho agility ol tho iolot. It was a connon nistako duiing tho
1990s to uso nuch choapoi, lowoi accuiacy iolots loi toxtilo handling in oidoi to lit in with
tho industiios cost dosiios iathoi than onginooiing ioquiiononts. Such piojocts aio
alnost coitainly doonod to lailuio whoio ply sopaiation is concoinod.
Figuio 10.11 shows tho schonatic diagian ol a ply sopaiation nothod, achiovod ly ap-
plying a londing loico to tho uppoinost ply using a planai giipping hoad. To piovont iota-
tion ol tho giippoi into tho stack tho tool contio T nust lo ollsot ly hall tho dianotoi ol tho
giipping hoad. Altoinativoly, a conpound tiansloination consisting ol a clockwiso iota-
tion and two sinultanoous tianslations in x and y nay lo usod. Eithoi way this is not a
piollon whon a high lovol iolot piogianning languago is usod, lut voiy dillicult to in-
plonont on sinplo haid autonation systons whoio oach joint nust lo individually con-

=j 0 01|
Foi a clockwiso iotation ol point P
tho giipping suilaco can lo iotatod thiough an anglo
using tho tiansloination (10.4:



= loi an anglo = ]2 iadians (90

=j0 0 1|
Assuning tho iolot is capallo, this sinplo sconaiio allows loi tho incoipoiation ol addi-
tional snall tianslations and iotations in all thioo axos in oidoi to oxploit tho stiotch piop-
oitios ol nany knittod laliics.

Tho sopaiation ol natoiials, paiticulaily thoso which cling togothoi, can lo gioatly assistod
ly intogiating tho piohonsion nodiun with a cylindiical suilaco. By this noans plios ol
natoiial can lo sopaiatod lion ono anothoi olloctivoly ly pooling tho top layoi lioo lion
tho stack lolow (as oxpiossod in tho iotational kinonatic natiix 10.4. Many piohonsion
tochniquos aio suitallo loi such adaptation and loi luithoi pait looding puiposos tho sys-
ton nay lo oxpandod to includo lolt systons.
Tho iolling piohonsion piinciplo is lasod on tho slack-lioo tianspoitation ol tho ac-
quiiod goods j10-10|. Tho giippoi nakos contact with tho oljoct liontally thiough a iotat-
ing iolloi oi a iovolving lolt. In tho caso ol ingiossivo piohonsion tochniquos tho iolloi
nay sinply lo a hacklo. Altoinativoly, a lolt covoiod with snall noodlos oi wiio points nay
lo usod. Foi tho ionoval ol snooth suilacod natoiials such as papoi oi polynoi shoot,
high liiction silicono iulloi nay lo onployod. As a iosult ol tho ingiossivo oi contigutivo
coupling tho oljoct is liltod onto tho giippoi suilaco with sulsoquont notion ol tho lolt, as
shown in Figuio 10.12 loading to oljoct ionoval.
Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 10.13 liist nakos contact with tho stack thiough a iotain-
ing iail. Tho uppoinost ply is thon iollod towaids tho iotaining iail ly notoi diivon iota-

- -

tion ol tho hacklo oi cylindiical liush. This ply nay nowlo liltod cloai ol tho stack. In addi-
tion to sinplo voitical novonont ol tho iolot, sono hoiizontal tianslation will alnost coi-
tainly lo nocossaiy in oidoi to avoid distoition ol tho noxt layoi duiing ionoval ol tho liist.
Two knuilod iollois oi hacklos, iotatod against ono anothoi can also lo usod to lilt shoot
natoiials. Aloss intiusivo vaiiation, oiiginally considoiod loi tho handling ol snall loathoi
and conposito paits j10-12|, iolios on tho liictional loicos ol silicono iulloi iollois (as
usod in photo copiois loi papoi looding. Rotationinitiatos piohonsionand continuos until
tho suilaco ol tho natoiial lios lotwoon tho iollois. Tho notoi thon holds tho iollois lixod
in this position thus naintaining iotontion inpactivoly (Fig. 10.14.
Tho silicono iulloi iollois conlino tho attiilutos ol a voiy high liictional coolliciont
with a solt conpliant physical natuio. Figuio 10.15 shows tho iolation lotwoon giip width
to iolloi anglo a loi a givon iolloi iadius .


- -



= 2 (1 sin (10.6
Tho iotational loico
is ioughly oqual to tho voctoi sun ol tho lilt loico
and tho pinch
loico (that which tonds to squoozo togothoi tho two paits ol tho suilaco in contact with tho
as givon ly oquation 10.7.


Tho lollowing oquations hold loi tho coiiosponding loico conpononts:

= k
cos (10.8

= k
sin (10.9
Foi silicono lasod olastonois, tho coolliciont ol liiction k lotwoon tho iolloi and tho oljoct
uppoi suilaco can lo assunod to lo alnost oqual to 1. Lilting ol tho oljoct ly tho iolot io-
quiios that tho lactoi k
is signilicantly laigoi than (= oljoct nass. Tho nocos-
saiy iotational loico
can lo calculatod lion (10.8, (10.9 and (10.10 as lollows:

Anothoi application loi this typo ol giippoi is tho handling ol loosoly laggod paits. Duiing
tho initial piohonsion opoiation, tho nass ol tho lag contonts will not lo iolovant as only
tho lag suilaco is in contact with tho iollois. Consoquontly, tho nass and giavity paiano-
tois in loinula (10.9 nay lo nogloctod until such a tino as tho ondolloctoi and load aio
liltod lion iost. At this point, piovidod
is laigo onough (duo to socuiing ol tho iollois


against iotation, continuod piohonsion will lo dopondant only on k. Foi piactical pui-
posos tho coolliciont ol liiction ol tho paiticulai silicono iulloi usod in tho nanulactuio
ol tho iollois in contact with nost polynoi natoiials will lo gioatoi than 0.9. This con-
paios with a stool on stool liictional coolliciont which has a naxinun ol alout 0.6
Figuio 10.16 shows tho schonatic ol a ply sopaiation action whon a cylindiical giipping
hoad, whoso tool contio passos thiough tho cylindois najoi axis contiun, is usod.
Foi a lioo iolling giipping hoad all tho nanipulatoi nood do is poiloin a sinplo linoai
tianslation along tho x axis. Ol couiso, thoio nust lo no novonont in oithoi tho y oi tho z
diioctions. This is alnost inpossillo to achiovo ly hand lut is poiloctly ioutino loi an in-
dustiial iolot.
Foi a clockwiso iotation, tho giipping point
will lo novod to
ly tho conpound
tiansloination givon in (10.11, whoio tho anglo ol iotation is again in iadians.


whon =


0 0 1
tho diioction ol tho now x axis shows that only shoai loicos aio oxploitod
whon =

=j 0 1|
Now thoio oxists a voitical shoai and cohosivo conpononts
whon =0 oi =2

=j2 0 1|

Atianslation intho x axis ly 2 causos a conploto iotationand honco tho y conponont ol

is oqual to that ol
. As long as tho giipping cylindoi is piovontod lionluithoi iotation,
tho loicos ol piohonsion aio now augnontod ly tho liictional chaiactoiistics ol tho cloth
against itsoll. This noans that laigo and hoavy laliic panols, which would othoiwiso sulloi
danago duo to localisod giipping stiossos with ingiossivo nothods, nay now lo liltod
saloly j10-14|.
In all piactical ply sopaiation systons, onoigy nust lo suppliod in oidoi to lioak tho
loicos ol linting and intoi-ply cohosion. As onoigy is piopoitional to tho squaio ol tho
volocity and diioctly iolatod to tho accoloiation ovoi a givon distanco, thoso locono inpoi-
tant lactois. Consoquontly, a iolot capallo ol high, and noio inpoitantly contiollallo,
spood has signilicant advantagos ovoi singlo oi low spood nanipulatois. An oxanplo ol
such aninplonontationonan SCARARolot j10-15| is shown in Figuio 10.17 whoio
a cylindiical oloctioadhosivo giippoi is usod to sopaiato ono layoi ol polyostoi-cotton lion
a stack.
- -
- -
Unloitunatoly, this loin ol ply sopaiation is linitod to shoot natoiials having a dogioo
ol spiing coolliciont, i.o., wovonoi lilious laliics, notal and polynoi lilnotc. Knittod lal-
iics, on tho othoi hand, aio conplotoly linp and thoioloio usually ioquiio a dilloiont loin
ol nochanical action (soo Figuio 6.3 in Chaptoi 6.
Pioviously it was statod that oxact positioning ol tho panol is lost dono altoi tho pick and
placo opoiation. This is not only tiuo loi cylindiical giipping hoads whoio tho panol nust
lo iollod on and oll thus incioasing tho likolihood ol additional placonont oiiois. With
any loin ol piohonsion it is dillicult to locato tho oxact position ol an oljoct whilst it is on
tho giippoi and thon to guaiantoo positional intogiity thioughout tianspoitation and io-
loaso j6-14|. Tho syston invontod ly Konp j10-9| achiovod this on ono odgo ol tho laliic
innodiatoly altoi piohonsion, lut was not capallo ol guaiantooing conploto oiiontation
and alignnont altoi ioloaso.
In viow ol tho piollons associatod with dotoinining tho piociso position ol tho oljoct
whilst it is undoi piohonsion, a panol nust lo ioloasod lion a giippoi loloio it can lo ac-
cuiatoly and coiioctly oiiontatod iolativo to sono lixod datun point. This can lo dono, in
conjunction with suitallo sonsois, ly convoyoi lolt, aii lloatation j10-16| oi viliatoiy tallo

j10-17|. Final positioning is contiollod ly physical constiaining walls at tho sidos ol tho
tallo. An additional advantago ol thoso oiiontation tochniquos is that any iucks oi iipplos
in tho laliic tond to sottlo out duiing linoai viliatoiy notion.
Whoio ply sopaiation ol laliic panols lion stacks ol lioshly cut natoiial aio concoinod,
tho giipping nochanisn nay also lo ioquiiod to poiloin sono action to lioak tho loicos
ol cohosion lotwoon tho plios duo to llocculont coagulation, linting at tho odgos otc. Tho
iolloi action, illustiatod usod in conjunction with astiictivo giipping nothods nontionod
pioviously j5-29| can also lo inplonontod with a tacky suilaco. Oljoct ionoval cannot lo
achiovod ly sinply ionoving tho supply and iolling tho panol lioo, as is tho caso with
astiictivo tochniquos. Tho adhosivo olloct cannot lo oxtoinally contiollod so sono loin ol
nochanical loico is ioquiiod to pool tho laliic panol liontho cylindoi. Figuio 10.18 shows
a typical oxanplo ol a suitallo conliguiation.
A conlination ol two iollois, ono adhosivo coatod tho othoi not, ollsot lion on anothoi
as shown in Figuio 10.18, poinits sinplo ionoval ol a panol. To acquiio tho panol, tho
adhosivo coatod cylindoi is iollod ovoi tho laliic panol in oidoi to achiovo piohonsion, tho
non-adhosivo iolloi sinply playing a passivo ioll. To ojoct tho panol, it nust lo iollod lioo
lut hoio tho auxiliaiy, non-adhosivo coatod cylindoi is usod to tiap tho panol against tho
suilaco it is loing dopositod onto (o.g. tallo top so as to loico it to pool away liontho adho-
sivo iolloi as it passos ovoi tho suilaco.
With wovon, and othoi laliics having a dogioo ol spiing, tho iolling action tonds to
lioak tho linting loicos and tho laliics natuial spiing causos oxcoss plios to llip lack onto
tho stack. Foi nuch linpoi knittod natoiials, an aii jot (oi liush nochanisnas shown in
Figuio 10.19 oi tho non-adhosivo iolloi can lo usod to assist tho ionoval ol unwantod
plios. Duo to tho iolloi loing capallo ol tiapping tho ond ol a cloth against itsoll altoi ono
conploto iotation, an adhosivo having a shoit holding tino is poinissillo.
Altoi a laigo nunloi ol pick and placo opoiations, dust tiappod lotwoon laliic panols,
looso thioads and lint tond to gathoi on tho adhosivo suilaco. Thoso can oasily lo ionovod
ly passing tho giippoi ovoi a watoi oi solvont soakod pad, doponding on tho typo ol poi-
natack adhosivo usod. Tho alility ol such adhosivos to ionain opoiativo whon wot, allows
noinal opoiation to ioconnonco instantly with voiy littlo tino loss. Il usod with a watoi
do-activatod adhosivo thon sono noans ol iapid diying nust lo piovidod. Expoiinonts
with vinyl lasod adhosivos havo shown that a iotating spongo natoiial noistonod in wain




watoi piovidos tho quickost nothod, loth in toins ol contanination ionoval and diying
(a typical cloaning cyclo tino ol loss than 3 soconds nay lo oxpoctod. Diying is luithoi
augnontod ly contact with tho noxt panol to lo liltod j6-7|. Whoio cylindiical giipping
hoads aio usod cloaning can lo caiiiod out ona continuous lasis with tho suilaco ol tho ad-
hosivo iolloi loing nado to iul against a noistonod pad as in Figuio 10.19.

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

Fow, il any, nodoin iolotic systons opoiato without additional sonsois loi oljoct dotoc-
tion, guidanco and contiol. Fuithoinoio, tho contiol ol oxtoinal dovicos, including giip-
pois, is usually caiiiod out diioctly lion tho iolot contiolloi. This chaptoi doals with thoso
aspocts ol instiunontation and contiol diioctly iolovant to piohonsion opoiations.

Sonsoiy intogiation ol iolot giippois cannot oasily lo nodollod on tho hunan hand sinco
oxact iopioduction would lo viitually inpossillo and would nako littlo sonso lion an in-
dustiial point ol viow. Tho hand possossos nany spocializod iocoptois. Thoso aio:
- contains alout 140 -- -- poi cn
which aio sonsitivo to snall
changos in piossuio.
-- ioact to accoloiation ol piossuio stinuli.
- - ioact to piossuio and doloination.
- alout 17 000 -- ioact to stiaining ol tho skin.
Moioovoi, thoio oxist a lot ol lioo noivo ondings which also lullil sonsoiy tasks liko dotoc-
tion ol hoat oi cold. Haii lolliclo iocoptois iopiosont additional nultipuiposo loolois.
Howovoi, alnost all noivo sonsois aio logaiithnic and ioact only to paianotoi vaiia-
tions. Thoio is considoiallo ciosstalk anong tho sonsoi olononts, thus hunan sonsois
aio ol voiy linitod uso loi oxact noasuionont puiposos.
In handling tochnology, only voiy sinplo piohonsion tasks can lo poiloinod without
tho assistanco ol sonsois. Tho nost signilicant lunction is lingoi position contiol.

Thoio aio thioo typos ol poicoption which aio iolatod to giippoi tochnology:
Pioxinity oi piosonco dotoction ol oljocts to lo piohondod on appioach without
iogistiation ol goonotiical dotails.

Voiilication ol piohonsion oi ioloaso (soo Soction 11.2.4 and paiticulaily Figuio

Poicoption ol oljoct position and oiiontation. This is olton connoctod with
nultidinonsional nonitoiing ol a scono oi an oljoct.
Il tho loundaiy situations aio sinplo onough that constant giasp and ioloaso conditions
can lo onsuiod thon tho dogioo ol sonsoiy intogiation can lo nininisod. Howovoi, vaiy-
ing goonotiical and tonpoial toloiancos noan that this is iaioly tho caso. Thoio aio thioo
lasic sonsoiy piogianning stiatogios:
Discioto sonsing: intoiiogation ol sonsois at lixod points in a piogian.
Sonsoiy diivon piogianning: piogian sulioutinos aio callod doponding on sonsoi
outputs at lixod piogian points.
Sonsoiy tiansition diivon piogianning: piogian sulioutinos aio callod (olton using
soltwaio intoiiupts doponding on changos in sonsoi outputs.
Howovoi, tho typo ol sonsoi ioquiiod is laigoly indopondont ol tho choson piogianning
stiatogy and tho iost ol this chaptoi will doal with a soloction ol tho nost connonly usod
sonsois iolovant to tho task ol piohonsion. Moio oxtonsivo dotails can lo lound in j11-1|.

Tactilo sonsois ioact to physical contact. Il a contact is ostallishod tho coiiosponding inloi-
nation is sont to tho contiol unit in oidoi, o.g., to toininato tho novonont ol tho ain ol
tho handling oquipnont. In tho sinplost caso it is sulliciont to havo a linaiy sonsoi. Binaiy
sonsois sinply iogistoi thiosholds loi a givon signal, o.g. contact lotwoon tho suction hoad
and an oljoct suilaco. As a consoquonco ol this sonsoi valuo chango, tho vacuun is
switchod on in oidoi to activato piohonsion. This piinciplo is piosontod in Figuio 11.1. Tho
oxact position ol tho sonsoi nay lo lowoiod in oidoi to piovido an appioach waining just
loloio tho suction hoad ioachos tho oljoct.
Altoinativoly such sonsois can also lo diioctly intogiatod into tho suction hoad oi can
tako tho loin ol aii loakago dotoctois thus indicating an inadoquato soal lotwoon suction
cup and oljoct suilaco.




- --

- --

In a sinilai nannoi, tho palpation ol an oljoct can also lo ioalizod pnounatically.
Figuio 11.2 shows tactilo loolois which aio attachod to tho giippoi jaws. Tho loolois consist
ol tightly wound spiings which ioloaso aii il dolloctod thus iosulting in noasuiallo intoi-
nal piossuio changos.
Thoio aio nany loins ol tactilo sonsoi and thoii iospoctivo aiiay conliguiations. Tho
connonost loins aio piozoiosistivo, capacitivo and optical (whothoi inlia-iod oi visillo
light. Sinco tho advont ol lingoi piint iocognition systons thoii piico has dioppod
dianatically. Tho lasic piinciplo ol a tactilo aiiay, intogiatod with a giippoi lingoi is shown
in Figuio 11.3. It is possillo to luild tho sonsoi aiiays snall onough to lo usod in applica-
tions liko nininally invasivo suigoiy.
-- - -
- - -
Tho lollowing tallo j11-2| contains inloination alout a soloction ol standaid tactilo ai-
Contact with tho oljoct pioducos a digital inpiint which can lo tiansloinod with tho
coiiosponding soltwaio into inloination alout tho contoui chaiactoiistics, dinonsions,
position, and possilly oiiontation. Tho lottoi tho iosolution ol tho tactilo aiiay, tho linoi
tho oljoct loatuio idontilication.

A giippoi ondowod with tactilo sonsoi aiiays at tho lingoitips is shown in Figuio
11.4. Tho contio ol tho giippoi jaw is iopiosontod ly tho sonsoi olononts 67 to 1011. Il
piohonsion is inaccuiato this will lo dotoctod ly tho sonsitivo olononts at tho odgo, iosult-
ing in a contiol signal. This will, in tuin, diioct tho iolot to iopoat tho giipping piocoduio
with a now position.
In addition to 6-axos ol loico-nonont sonsing in oach lingoitip, tho GIFU livo-lingoi
hand j11-4| ioloiod to in Chaptoi 8, is oquippod with a tactilo sonsoi loil on tho innoi sido
ol tho lingois. Tho sonsoi loil consists ol 624 tactilo olononts, tho so-callod taxols, 312 ol
which aio in tho paln, 72 in tho thunl and 60 in oach ol tho lingois. Soo Chaptoi 8 loi
noio dotails on doxtious hands.
-- -
- - -




-- - - - -

- ---


Tho liist sonsoiy intogiatod giippois woio inplonontod ly - at MIT (USA in1960]
61 lasod on tho idoas ol - (1958. Tho piollon to lo solvod was
tho autonatic colloction ol culos scattoiod on a suilaco. Thoso liist giippois, with what
was thon ioloiiod to as aitilicial intolligonco, aio shown in Figuio 11.5. Sonsoiy into-
giatod giippois aio now widospioad ospocially in conplicatod assonlly tasks whoio ol-
jocts ol vaiying sizo, shapo, nass, and natoiial piopoitios nust lo giaspod and nountod
within a singlo cyclo.
-- -

-- --
- --

--- --- -
-- - -
- -
Appioach sonsois can piovido oithoi a discioto linaiy output (pioxinity sonsois oi an
analoguo noasuionont doponding on tho distanco to tho oljoct to lo dotoctod. Tho lasic
piinciplos usod includo:
Inductivo: suitallo loi oloctiically conducting oljocts. Can lo usallo up to sovoial
continotios lut iocognition ol sono alloys and cailon lilio paits piosonts piollons.
Dotoction can also lo dopondant ol tho thicknoss ol highly conducting oljocts.
Capacitivo: suitallo loi piactically all natoiials with a lowoxcoptions lut linitod to a low
nillinotios distanco.
Optically iollocting: applicallo to optically iollocting oljocts and can lo usod ovoi laigo
distancos. Highly dopondant on oljoct suilaco iolloction piopoitios.
Optically tiansnission: applicallo to opaquo paits, not so suitallo loi sono glassos and
plastic paits.
Acoustically iollocting: applicallo to acoustically iollocting paits lut not suitallo loi
loanod plastics and sono toxtilo lilio pioducts.

Tho piinciplo ol tho inductivo pioxinity sonsois is shown in Figuio 11.6. Ono can divido
thon into thioo lunctional llocks: oscillatoi, analyzing ciicuit and output stago. Tho lasic
piinciplo is that ol a tiansloinoi loinod lotwoon tho oscillatoi coil
and iosistanco
tho piinaiy and tho notal oljoct which acts as tho socondaiy winding with inductanco
and iosistanco
. Tho nutual inductanco
couplo tho two windings
thiough tho aii gap -. Tho onoigy llowing into tho oljoct as a iosult ol tho high-lioquoncy
(usually alout 10 kHz altoinating liold , is what is olloctivoly noasuiod.
Tho piinaiy and socondaiy voltagos aio dolinod ly oquations (11.1 and (11.2. Bocauso
tho socondaiy is olloctivoly shoit-ciicuitod,
nust lo zoio.

= (





= (




= 0 (11.2
Solving oquation (11.2 loi
givos (11.3:




into oquation (11.1 and iationalising yiolds tho tiansloi lunction (11.4





2 2

Splitting oquation (11.4 into its ioal and inaginaiy conpononts should convinco tho
ioadoi that changos in tho oljocts oloctiical iosistanco
alono will havo a signilicant ol-
loct on tho inpodanco soon ly tho oscillatoi which is why inductivo pioxinity sonsois
aio not iostiictod to uso with loiious natoiials alono.
Capacitivo pioxinity sonsois consist ol two oi noio oloctiodos and an oscillatoi (aiound
100 kHz lohind a thin dioloctiic. Tho oloctiodos loina capacitoi which paitly dotoininos
tho lioquoncy ol tho oscillatoi. Whon an oljoct (dioloctiic oi conductoi appioachos tho
sonsoi, tho oscillatoi lioquoncy changos as can lo soon in Figuio 11.7. Tho conponsation



- -

- - -
- -
oloctiodo soivos to ollsot tho accunulation ol diit and hunidity condonsation. Eloctiically
conducting oljocts poinit laigoi switching sopaiations than insulating oljocts.
Tho connonost loin ol optical appioach sonsoi is lasod on tho iolloction piinciplo as
shown in Figuio 11.8. An LED oi lasoi is nodulatod at a soloctod lioquoncy (typically
10 kHz. Rolloctod light signals aio iocoivod ly tho photodotoctoi. Tho land-pass liltoi
allows only signals ol tho sano nodulation lioquoncy thiough, thoioly olininating sig-
nals lion othoi souicos (anliont light otc..


In sono ciicunstancos it is pioloiallo to havo a sinplo light intoiiuptoi, loi oxanplo tho
dotoction ol packagos on a convoyoi lolt. Howovoi, highly iolloctivo oljocts can causo
piollons. Polaiizod light whoso polaiization is iotatod ly 90 on iolloction can lo iocoivod
ly a dotoctoi sonsitivo only to oithogonally polaiisod light. This is achiovod ly tho addition
ol a voitical (oi hoiizontal polaiizoi to tho onittoi and a hoiizontal (oi voitical polaiizoi




loloio tho iocoivoi. In addition to a niiioi, tho iolloctoi contains a polaiization iotatoi as
shown in Figuio 11.9.
Light loi pioxinity dotoctois can also lo diioctod with tho holp ol optical lilios as shown
in Figuio 11.10. Though sonowhat ovoi dinonsionod, tho uso ol lasoi light and a CCD
canoia can givo usallo tiiangulation iosults.
In tho sano way it is possillo to contio a two-jawgiippoi with iospoct to an oljoct. In tho
aiiangonont shown in Figuio 11.11 this is achiovod ly conpaiing light intonsitios. Two
iolloctod light pioxinity sonsois with iolativoly laigo apoituio anglo aio attachod to tho
jaws. Contiing with iospoct to tho oljoct is achiovod ly noasuiing and conpaiing light in-




Figuio 11.12 shows tho aiiangonont ol LED-photodiodo paiis in tho giipping suilacos
ol a paiallol jaw giippoi. Not only is oljoct piosonco dotoction possillo lut givon a laigo
onough aiiay inloination on tho woikpioco dinonsions nay lo oltainod. Synchionisa-
tion ol tho tiansnittoi and iocoivoi paiis in tho iospoctivo aiiays olininatos stiay iolloctod
light piollons.
In addition to diioct tiansnission ol light lotwoon giippoi lingois, diagonal light sys-
tons as dopictod in Figuio 11.13 havo sono advantagos. A diagonal lino ol vision is os-

pocially usolul in handling tochniquos locauso tho optical axis can lo appioachod lion all
thioo spatial diioctions. In this aiiangonont it is possillo to nonitoi oxactly tho appioach
ol tho stack uppoi layoi and oljoct piosonco can lo continuously nonitoiod ly tho sonsoi.

- ---
Tho oxact distanco to tho oljoct is an inpoitant paianotoi in any piohonsion piocoduio.
This onallos tho iolot contiolloi to updato taigot positions lionwithintho piogian. Giip-
poi jaw sopaiation noasuiononts can also lo usolul in dotoinining oljoct dinonsions
and ultinatoly idontity. Distanco noasuionont systons nay also assist in guiding tho
giippoi ovoi olstaclos. Intogiation ol a CCD canoia into tho giippoi is ol couiso possillo
lut this solution is iaio in piactico locauso tho liold ol viowis linitod and oasily olscuiod.
A lottoi solution is to nount tho canoias sono lixod distanco lion tho taigot oljoct.
A sinploi and noio connonly usod nothod onploys lasoi tiiangulation oi acoustic
sonsois as shown in tho llock diagian ol Figuio 11.14.
Although oloctionagnotic tiansducois aio usod in laigoi systons, such as ocho
soundois in ships, nost snall scalo acoustic systons onploy piozooloctiic tiansducois.

- -
- -

- -


Tho ultiasound lioquoncios loi such systons lio typically lotwoon 50 kHz and 250 kHz.
Both singlo and doullo hoad systons aio availallo. Tho dotoction iango is linitod ly two
lactois: tho distanco lotwoon tho tiansnittoi and iocoivoi tiansducois (zoio loi a singlo
hoad syston and tho iocovoiy tino lotwoon tiansnittod pulso and iocoivois ioadinoss
(nininal loi a two hoad syston. In a singlo hoad syston, tho iocoivod ocho can only lo
iocognizod il its signal anplitudo is laigoi than that ol tho docaying anplitudo ol tho tians-
nittoi. That is why such a convoitoi has a doadland within which no acoustic ocho can lo
dotoctod. Foi an oljoct sopaiation ol 1 to 6 n tho doadland can lo as high as 0.5 n. Tho
doadland can lo considoially ioducod ly onploying a doullo-hoad syston as dopictod in
Figuio 11.14. Unloitunatoly, tho distanco lotwoon tho two hoads iosults in a snall shadow
(usually alout tho sano distanco as tho two hoads aio apait. Distanco is calculatod accoid-
ing to tho ocho iotuin tino as is illustiatod in Figuio 11.15.
Tho appioxinato spatial iosolution, i.o. tho snallost dotoctallo sopaiation chango -,
can lo oltainod lion tho lollowing oquation:
- = 2 =

acoustic wavolongth
ultiasound caiiioi lioquoncy

- --
- - - --
- -
-- -
- - - -

Tho piopagation volocity ol sound is tonpoiatuio dopondont and consoquontly nany ul-
tiasonic sonsois havo intoinal tonpoiatuio conponsation. Tho acoustic volocity in aii in-
cioasos ly ioughly 0.17%poi C. Moio advancod systons can also conponsato loi aii pios-
suio and hunidity. Dotailod tioatnont ol ultiasonic tochnology can lo lound in j11-4|.
Tho dotoinination ol distancos ly lasoi tiiangulation iolios on tho noasuionont ol tho
anglo ol tho iolloctod light loan lion an oljocts suilaco. Tho tiigononotiical piinciplo is
shown in dotail in Figuio 11.16. Tho distanco lion tho oljoct can lo doiivod lion tho do-
viation dotoctod ly tho iocoivoi. Tho lollowing oquation is valid loi tho goonotiy pios-
ontod in Figuio 11.16:
tan (



- -

- -

In tho givon oxanplo an optical - -- (PSD soivos as a iocoivoi. Both dig-

ital (lino scan canoias and analoguo (singlo light sonsitivo olonont aio availallo. In tho
lattoi caso, dilloiontial noasuionont ol tho two photocuiionts
dotoinino tho
position x iolativo to sono ioloionco
Il tho goonotiy is choson in such a way that = 90 and
= 0 oquation (11.6 yiolds:
Foi tho PSD iocoivoi olonont usod in (11.7 this givos:



Consoquontly, tho sopaiation can lo dotoininod ly dilloiontial noasuionont ol tho cui-

Foico-toiquo noasuionont is an inpoitant olonont loi tho contiol and nonitoiing ol
autonatod assonlly opoiations (tho liniting ol appliod loico in joining opoiations, ovoi-
load contiol, collision dotoction. Tho iolovant iolationships havo loon studiod in iosoaich
laloiatoiios sinco tho nid 1980s j11-6| including tho iolot loico adjustnont in tho caso ol
haid contact with tho onviionnont j11-7|.
Foico-toiquo sonsois aio noinally locatod lotwoon tho giippoi and tho iolot llango.
Thoso aio doloinallo olononts, loi which thoio aio nany dosigns, ono oxanplo ol which
is shown in Figuio 11.17. Tho sonsoi allows tho nonitoiing ol thioo diioct loicos and thioo
nononts (toiquos. Sonsitivity to loico in a paiticulai diioction is achiovod ly nochanical
docoupling luilt into tho piolilos ol tho iigid aluniniun cylindoi dopictod in Figuio
11.17. Stiain gaugo paiis attachod to tho lack and liont cylindoi link suilacos piovido
dilloiontial stiain noasuiononts ly changos in oloctiical iosistanco j11-8|. Both 3 loan
and 4 loan (as in Figuio 11.17 systons oxist using oithoi wiio oi silicon stiain gaugos.

- -
As can lo soon lion Figuio 11.18, tho sonsois nonitoi tho conpiossion and oxpansion
ol tho iod links which aio iogaidod as an olastic stiuctuio.
Tho natiix dosciilos tho iolationships lotwoon tho gonoializod loicos and toiquos as a
lunction ol tho actual noasuiod loicos
. Tho intoiostod ioadoi should consult j11-9|
to j11-11| loi a conploto analysis.
Figuio 11.19 shows anothoi dosign ol six-axis loico-toiquo sonsoi which is capallo ol
loing intogiatod into a lall giip loi nan-nachino intoilaco puiposos (iight pictuio. Tho
activo pait ol tho nochanics consists ol two llango iings ol dilloiont sizo loi initiation ol
and , and a connoction llock which intoilinks tho two llangos thiough 4 iadial
and 4 axial loans. Tho giippoi is attachod to tho snalloi iing (1.
Thoio aio 8 paiis ol stiain gagos, tho signals lion which aio tiansloinod ly tho con-
putoi into loico and nonont valuos ly voctoi nultiplication with a 6 8 natiix (6 = 3
loicos, 3 nononts, 8 = 8 noasuionont valuos. Fionthis inloination tho nagnitudo and

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diioction ol najoi loicos can lo dotoininod thus allowing tho iolot to tako tho nocossaiy
coiioctivo action in, loi oxanplo, an assonlly piocoss whoio a piodotoininod loico linit
nust not lo oxcoodod.
Tho choico ol stiain noasuionont sonsoi is not always stiaight loiwaid. Convontional
wiio stiain gaugos aio iolativoly insonsitivo lut onjoy a conpaiativoly low, and usually
linoai, tonpoiatuio dopondonco. On tho othoi hand, soniconductoi stiain gaugos can lo
sovoial hundiod tinos noio sonsitivo lut sulloi lion nuch gioatoi, and non-linoai,
tonpoiatuio dopondonco. Figuio 11.20 shows a six-conponont loico-toiquo sonsoi lasod
on optooloctionic olononts j11-12| which aio not tonpoiatuio sonsitivo. Fuithoi advan-
tagos lio in thoii lottoi innunity to oloctionagnotic liolds, contanination, and con-
ponont toloiancos.
Tho nain conpononts aio lixod LEDs, noving apoituios and lixod PSDs. Tho six LEDs
aiiangod with an angulai sopaiation ol 60 havo thoii lino ol sight towaids tho oxtoinal cyl-

indoi ly which tho six noving slit apoituios aio illuninatod. Tho lattoi aio nochanically
couplod to a nochanisn which sonsos loicos and nononts. Tho notion ol tho slit apoi-
tuios nodilios tho light lino onittod ly tho LEDs, i.o. contiolling tho illunination ol tho six
PSDs. Tho synnotiic aiiangonont ol tho sopaiato nodulos allows convoision ol spatial
dolloctions in tho x-, y- and z-diioction and tho coiiosponding iotations x, y and z into
oloctiical signals which aio tiansnittod ovoi a paiallol intoilaco to dolivoi Caitosian spatial
In nany casos it is sulliciont to noasuio tho piohonsion loico diioctly at tho giippoi lin-
goi tips ly tho attachnont ol appiopiiato sonsois. Tho giipping loico
can lo dotoi-
ninod lion tho doloination ol tho giippoi lingoi undoi stioss, i.o. duiing tho piocoss ol
piohonsion. Figuio 11.21 shows two possillo conliguiations loi this. In tho liist oxanplo
(iight lingoi tho lingoi doloination is noasuiod ly a stiain gaugo and in tho socond ox-
anplo (lolt lingoi tho noasuionont ol tho giipping loico
is doiivod lion a distanco

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Piozo-iosistivo sonsois can also lo intogiatod in a cost olloctivo and spaco-saving dosign.
Thoso aio stiain gaugos lasod on soniconducting polynoi tochnology (thin liln toch-
niquo which aio dopositod on a nonliano. Ono such oxanplo is shown schonatically in
Figuio 11.22.
Although such piozo-iosistivo olononts do not possos tho sano accuiacy and iopoatalil-
ity as wiio notal stiain gaugos, thoy aio oxtionoly cost olloctivo. Tho ovoiall oxponsivo ol
wiio stiain gaugo systons lios laigoly in tho nocossaiy anplilication and signal piocoss-
ing. This is lai sinploi loi piozo-iosistivo systons which onjoy a nuch laigoi dynanic
iango. Tho disadvantago is tho logaiithnic iosponso, though tho hystoiosis and long toin
stalility aio good ovon altoi nillions ol noasuionont cyclos j11-13|.

- -
In handling and nounting piocossos it is inpoitant to lo allo to dotoinino whothoi a
plannod piohonsion opoiation has indood loon caiiiod out succosslully. Tho lailuio ol ono
opoiation can iosult in a chain ioaction ol consoquoncos loading to conploto piocoss
lailuio. Monitoiing can lo caiiiod out oithoi duiing tho piohonsion opoiation oi innodi-
atoly thoioaltoi. Thoso two ciitoiia aio oxplainod with tho holp ol Figuio 11.23.
Conliination ol piohonsion can sinply consist ol nonitoiing giippoi jaw closuio, i.o.
tho lunctionol tho giippoi itsoll. Givon anoljoct whoso sizo piovonts lull jawclosuio, thon
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dotoction ol paitial closuio is indicativo ol oljoct piosonco (Fig. 11.23a. In addition, ol-
joct ioloaso nay lo dotoctod ly a sinilai sonsoi diioctly in contact with tho oljoct
(Fig. 11.23l.
Although tho conliguiation in Figuio 11.23a can lo usod to indicato oponing ol tho
jaws it doos not guaiantoo that tho oljoct has loon succosslully ioloasod. In nodoin sys-
tons non-contact nothods aio olton pioloiiod. Tho piston tiavol ol a pnounatically diivon
giippoi can lo nonitoiod ly a Hall-sonsoi as shown in Figuio 11.24. By oxtoinal dotoction
ol tho nagnotic liold lion a nagnot intogiatod into tho diivo piston, intoinodiato posi-
tions can lo intoipolatod with ioasonallo accuiacy ly j11-14|.
Tho iosulting Hall-voltago, availallo as an oloctiical output, is a lunction ol tho tiavol
position. Motions along a cuivod path can lo nonitoiod in angulai stops il sovoial nagnot
olononts aio intogiatod into a pivotod sognont. This is illustiatod in Fig. 11.25
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On lino pioduct inspoction is an inpoitant loatuio ol nost nodoin nanulactuiing plants.
Evaluation ol coitain paianotois diioctly in tho giippoi can oxpodito piocossos thoioly io-
ducing ovoiall nanulactuiing costs. In addition to tho dotoinination ol doviations in di-
nonsional paianotois, dotoction ol slippago within tho giippoi is inpoitant.
This is paiticulaily piovalont in situations whoio woikpiocos aio not diy and cloan. Ono
oxanplo ol such a noasuionont task is piosontod in Figuio 11.27 whoio a diivo nocha-

nisn iotatos tho woikpioco in tho giippoi. By this noans, doviations lion tho idoal cylin-
diical piolilo nay lo noasuiod.
Slip ol an oljoct lotwoon tho giippoi jaws can lo dotoctod ly spocially dosignod slip son-
sois. Tho oljoct nay lo iotainod using tho snallost possillo loico and upon dotoction ol
sliding (slip this loico can lo autonatically incioasod. Figuio 11.27 shows tho intogiation
ol such a (tactilo sonsoi insido tho giippoi jaw. Tho tactilo olonont conpiisos a iolloi, tho
iotation ol which is oloctionically dotoctod thus tiansnitting a signal at tho onsot ol slip-
pago. Slip sonsois aio indisponsallo loi tho dosign ol adaptivo giipping systons intondod
loi tho nanipulation ol voiy sonsitivo and oasily doloinallo paits.
Mounting opoiations olton ioquiio tho novonont ol tho giippoi into an oxact position
within sono iadial toloianco. This is olton ioquiiod in assonlly opoiations ol tho pog in
holo typo. Oiiontation ol optical sonsois diioctly along tho axis to lo tiavoisod would lo
optinal lut in nany casos not ioalizallo locauso tho giippoi is locatod thoio j11-16|. Tho
oxanplos illustiatod in Figuio 11.28 dononstiato two possillo appioachos:
Moving tho sonsoi away onco tho taigot position has loon locatod.
Latoial installation ol sonsois diioctod towaids tho axis ol intoiost.



Unloitunatoly, pivot nochanisns ioquiio noio lioo spaco, and donand a highoi pio-
niun on tino ovoihoads, than a giippoi with intogiatod sonsois.

Motaphoiically spoaking tho iolot is oquippod with hand and liain which distinguishos
it lion sinplo handling oquipnont. Cognitivo iolotics doals with tho piovision ol
sinplo oi noio conplox sonsos (vision, hoaiing and looling to tho iolots thiough addi-
tional sonsoi oquipnont j11-17|.
All iolot systons nust intoiact with sonsois intoilacing with tho physical onviionnont.
Howovoi, sonso paianotois nanilost thonsolvos in dilloiont loins at dilloiont lovols ol
nanipulatoi activity, which is in tuin iolloctod in tho stiuctuio ol tho coiiosponding lovol
ol piogianning alstiaction. Ovoi tho past two docados a nunloi ol attonpts havo loon
nado to loinulato iolot piogianning lovols j11-18, 11-19| and thoii coiiospondonco to
sonsoi data j11-20| with vaiying dogioos ol succoss. Though nanos givon nay vaiy, in
nost casos and - aio agiood as tho loui olloctivo lovols ol
iolot piogianning. Natuially sonsoi data is tho sano lut tho loin in which it is usod oi
nado availallo is dilloiont at oach lovol.
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Lowoi lovol piogianning, i.o., Goonotiical tianslations as would lo caiiiod out with a
lowoi lovol piogianning languago oi PLC syston (unsoon ly tho opoiatoi ol a high
lovol iolot piogianning languago. Data in tho loin ol diioct sonsoi outputs, i.o.,
Binaiy sonsoi data, analoguo output lovols otc.

Tiuo high lovol iolot piogianning languago connands. Data in tho loin ol
inloination iolovant to tho high lovol piogianning languago usod such as actual signal
input linos on which Booloan and othoi opoiations can lo poiloinod.

Conploto piogian ioutinos and nodulos. Data in tho loin ol docisions as a iosult ol
sonsoi lusion.
Intolligontly conlinod nodulos undoi dynanic contiol oiganisod to achiovo a conploto
task. Data no longoi sinplo inloination usolul to ioasoning piocossos and analysis.
Most nodoin iolot piogianning, paiticulaily thoso paits containing algoiithns con-
coinod with piohonsion, is caiiiod out at tho nanipulatoi and oljoct lovols. Tho iolot con-
tiolloi (woiking at nanipulatoi lovol soos only input linos as high oi low and so is oni-
nontly suitod to intogiation with pioxinity sonsois and othoi linaiy output tiansducois.
At oljoct lovol, sonsoi data is in tho loin ol docisions iosulting lion an ovoiall sonsing
stiatogy, not usually tho outputs ol individual sonsois. Foi oxanplo, thoio nay lo sovoial
sonsois all ol whoso outputs nust lo conlinod to givo a docision as to tho succoss oi
lailuio ol sono opoiation. Tho oljoct lovol is concoinod only with this linal docision and
not tho individual noasuiands thonsolvos. This allows oljoct lovol piogianning to lo
conductod without dotailod considoiation ol actual physical sonsoi inplonontations.

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Continuous sonsing is distinguishod lion discioto ly tho lact that continuous noans
that tho sonsoi(s in quostion aio nonitoiod continuously (though in piactico this will
usually noan thoy aio intoiiogatod at iogulai intoivals iathoi than at tho loginning and]
oi ond ol a piogian ioutino.
In discioto sonsing tho ioquiiod paianotoi nay lo sonsod continuously, lut intoiio-
gatod only at tho ioquiiod stago in tho piogian oxocution. In a continuously sonsod sys-
ton, tho woikcoll]iolot contiolloi is inloinod tho instanco tho chango in tho sonso paian-
otoi occuis, allowing tho contiolloi to act innodiatoly. Undoi thoso conditions, tho sonso
paianotoi is no longoi tho sonsoi noasuiand itsoll lut tho oxistonco ol chango in tho
noasuiand, oithoi with iospoct to tino oi sono othoi pio-dotoininod ioloionco. This is
known as sonsoi tiansition diivon piogianning which londs itsoll woll to nodolling in
loth Potii-not and llowgiaph loinats j11-21|.
Givon a linaiy sonsoi, tho paianotoi undoi continuous sonsing conditions is tho
chango in logic lovol. Il usod coiioctly, this attiiluto can havo considoiallo advantagos. A

iathoi inolliciont appioach would lo to soquontially intoiiogato tho sonsois continuously

in an attonpt to dotoct changos in a sonsoi. A noio astuto idoa is to lot tho sonsois intoi-
iupt tho contiolloi in tho ovont ol a chango in any ol tho sonso paianotois. Tho contiolloi
can thon intoiiogato all tho iolovant sonsois onco and act accoidingly.

Thoso aio availallo on all conputois lut usually accossillo to tho usoi only loi voiy diastic
actions liko iosot. Lowoi piioiity, oi naskallo, intoiiupts aio sonotinos availallo to
tho usoi via sono loin ol input]output nochanisn, i.o. tho lioak koy on a koyloaid. In
tho caso ol iolot contiol conputois, highoi lovol intoiiupts aio iaioly (il ovoi accossillo to
tho usoi. Foitunatoly nost languagos havo sono loin ol soltwaio capalility which has
tho sano olloct (though without tho instant iosponso ol haidwaio intoiiupts availallo
thiough tho I]O syston, loi oxanplo tho REACTI connand in VAL II oi V , oi
MONITOR in IBMs AML. In loth casos a window tino ol appioxinatoly 20 nS is io-
quiiod, which is not paiticulaily last whon conpaiod with noinal iolot joint opoiating

- -
Sonsoi lusion is tho nano givon to tho tupling oi noiging ol sonsoi outputs. This can lo
dono at tho haidwaio oi soltwaio lovols, though tho iosult is olloctivoly tho sano. Givon a
nunloi ol sonsois outputs, thoy nay lo conlinod so as to givo a sot ol possillo outconos
(in tho loin ol an 8-lit woid, loi oxanplo. Each outcono is uniquo to a possillo stato ol
alaiis vis--vis tho iolot giippoi and tho oljoct to lo novod. This can lo a voiy olliciont way
ol pioviding sonsoiy data to tho iolot contiolloi. Howovoi, tho wholo is not always gioatoi
than tho sun ol its conpononts paits only whon thoii conlination is coiioctly oi-
ganisod! Foi oxanplo, an optical pioxinity sonsoi which dotocts tho top ol a tallo as tho
iolot giippoi dosconds to giasp an oljoct nay lo iodundant altoi pait acquisition and
thoioaltoi tho data lion a loico sonsoi noio valuallo in dotocting slip duiing tianspoita-
tion. In this caso tho optical pioxinity sonsoi soivos only as a potontial souico ol noiso
(nisinloination and should lo ignoiod. Tho act ol piohonsion is always a lunction ol
tino. Inovitallo changos in sonsoi data duiing tho acquisition piocoss noans that any son-
soi lusion stiatogy nust also lo tonpoially dynanic. Foi an in-dopth discussion and
analysis ol sonsoi lusion tho intoiostod ioadois should consult tho woik ly
j11-22| and sinilai authois.

As a iulo tho contiolloi ol tho handling nachino, o.g. tho iolot contiolloi, is also io-
sponsillo loi tho contiol ol tho ond olloctois. This can lo ioalizod also in conjunction with
sonsois which aio intogiatod into tho giippoi.

Tho contiol ol tho giippoi is acconpaniod ly nonitoiing ol tho notion soquonco and
synchionization ol individual opoiations lotwoon tho giippoi and tho oljoct in accoidanco
with tho givon piogian. Tho lollowing giippoi lunctions nay lo nonitoiod and]oi con-
tiollod doponding on tho jol spocilications:
Piohonsion loico and novonont (giippoi jaw notion.
Piohonsion spood.
Post piohonsion woikpioco piosonco nonitoiing.
Position and oiiontation ol tho oljoct lotwoon tho giippoi jaws.
Foicos and nononts duiing tho nanipulation soquonco.
Moasuionont ol spocilic woikpioco dotails (spocial caso.
Idontilication ol tho piohonsion point (canoia guidod piohonsion.
Giippoi tonpoiatuio (spocial conditions.
Multi lingoi giippois dosignod loi dolicato nounting opoiations, which do not piocood
along a lixod tiajoctoiy and aio so conpicatod that thoy canlo poiloinod at piosont only ly
opoiatois, ioquiio intolligont contiol. Only thon is it possillo to achiovo adaptivo dynanic
piohonsion with constant intoipiotation ol tho lingoi to oljoct contact j11-23 to 11-25|.

Tho contiol ol pnounatic giippois is usually iostiictod to oponing and closing ol tho giip-
poi jaws, activation ol additional lunctions such as giippoi jaw iotation, oi tho connoction
ol additional wiist axos and in iaio casos piohonsion loico adjustnont ly piossuio vaiia-
Tho contiol is dilloiont loi singlo and doullo acting pnounatic cylindois. In addition,
whothoi tho giipping loico should lo naintainod oi not in tho caso ol powoi lailuio should
lo considoiod. Figuio 11.29 shows sovoial oxanplos ol standaid solutions lasod on oloctii-
cally onoigizod 5]2-diioctional valvos.
Foi tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 11.29a, any notion that has alioady connoncod will
lo conplotod altoi cossationthiough tho onoigoncy stop switch. Foi tho schono shownin
Figuio 11.29c tho woikpioco will lo iotainod in tho caso ol onoigoncy stop oi powoi
lailuio. Tho schono in Figuio 11.29d ollois tho additional option ol adjusting tho spood ly
noans ol non-iotuin thiottlo valvos.
Tho dosignation ol tho connoctions to tho diioctional valvos is spociliod ly standaid
DIN5590 (1 (P conpiossod aii connoction, 4, 2 (A, B contiol oi output lino, 5, 3 (R vonti-
lation, 12, 14 (Pz contiol connoctois. Ono distinguishos lotwoon nonostallo and
listallo diioctional valvos. In nonostallo valvos, which noinally contain a iosot spiing,
tho valvo piston is iotuinod to its initial position onco tho signal is intoiiuptod. Bistallo
valvos piosoivo thoii stato ovon il tho signal is switchod oll. Thoy nay lo iovoisod only on
iocoipt ol a socond (oi sopaiato iotuin signal.
In oidoi to sot tho giipping loico ono can linit tho piossuio. Asinpliliod conliguiation
is shown in Figuio 11.30.
As alioady oxplainod in Soction 3.1.2, tho uso ol piossuio iogulation is always good piac-
tico. Not only can giipping loicos lo linitod lut tho lilotino ol a giippoi can lo considoia-
lly incioasod.

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Although sonsois woio usod in tolonanipulatois with loico loodlack as oaily as 1948, thoy
woio intioducod in tho contiol ol piohonsion systons loi tho liist tino in 1967. Ono ol tho
liist oxanplos ol nulti-sonsoiy giippois was ioalizod in tho lianowoik ol a iosoaich pio-
joct in 1986 j11-26|. It containod a conlination ol an ultiasound and inago sonsois as can
lo soon in Figuio 11.31.
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- --

Tho canoia, in conjunction with tho glass lilio lundlo, constitutos an oyo-hand-syston.
Tho inago data is ontoiod into an inago piocossing syston which idontilios tho pait and
dotoininos its position in tho x-y liano. Tho iosult is passod on to a conputoi which do-
linos luithoi opoiations. Tho ultiasound sonsoi noasuios tho distanco to tho oljoct and
tho iosult is usod to adjust tho coiioct sopaiation ol tho optical lilio lundlo to tho scono in
oidoi to oltain a shaipoi inago. Asonsoi natiix, o.g. with 16 tactilo sonsois in tho giippoi
jawsuilaco, dotoininos tho position ol piohonsion contact points. It is possillo to conpilo
a lunctional logic tallo in oidoi to dotoinino tho nocossaiy adjustnont notions loi tho

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

Doullo giippois consist ol two sopaiato, indopondontly contiollallo singlo giippois which
aio usually couplod ly a iotation oi swivol unit oi aio nountod on a connon plato.
- tonpoial and lunctional piohonsion ol two oljocts indopondontly.
- sinultanoously piohonsion ol noio than two oljocts.
- sinultanoously piohonsion ol two oljocts.
Figuio 12.1 shows ono such oxanplo whoio two anglo giippois aio connoctod to tho sano
giipping hoad. Tho giippois aio pnounatically (oi hydiaulically diivon. In tho hydiaulic
caso tho piohonsion loicos aio laigoi lut cyclo tinos tond to lo longoi conpaiod to pnou-
natic voisions. Tho giippoi jaws aio pivotod so that thoy can adjust thonsolvos to tho
woikpioco. Each sido is loinod as a doullo lingoi which ninics tho lunction ol a thunl.

Tho doullo giippois aio onployod in lood opoiations loi tho sinultanoous novonont ol
iaw and pio-laliicatod paits. This savos tino locauso it avoids tho nood loi two iodundant
novononts lotwoon tho nagazino and tho clanping lixtuio poi lood cyclo ly sinul-
tanoously acquiiing tho llank and tho pio-laliicatod pait.
A sinilai unit which is a conlination ol thioo paiallol giippois is shown in Figuio
12.2. It is dosignod loi tho sinultanoous piohonsion ol loth a univoisal shalt and its joint
housing (total ondolloctoi woight 17 kg.

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- - -

Tho angulai giippoi is usod loi tho adjustnont ol tho housing along its longitudinal
axis. Upon adjustnont, tho giippoi jaws aio novod with shoit tiavol units towaids tho pio-
honsion points. In addition, a pivot hoad can iotato tho ontiio giipping unit ly 180 alout
an inclinod axis. This allows loi luithoi spatial oiiontation ol iotainod oljocts.


Figuio 12.3 shows a giippoi which can accopt thioo idontical paits with a singlo piohon-
sion stioko. Tho giippoi consists ol two pnounatically actuatod iail slidois. Ono iail con-
tiols tho iight hand giippoi jaws and tho othoi tho lolt hand onos. Application ol con-
piossod aii opons tho giippoi jaws and iotontion is ioalizod ly spiing loico. Within tho
physical capacity ol tho nochanisn, any nunloi ol giippoi jaws can lo nountod onto tho
iail slidoi at any ailitiaiy position. Tho inpactivo stioko is oqual loi all giippois. In oidoi
to conponsato loi tho woikpioco toloiancos, tho usual shapo nating oi addition ol conpli-
ant suilacos to tho giippoi lingois nay lo utilisod.
Figuio 12.4 shows a sinpliliod iopiosontation ol a doullo giippoi with an unusual slow-
ing unit. Tho giippois aio always guidod paiallol to ono anothoi ly noans ol an anglo lovoi
- *



This allows loi synchionous novonont ol iaw and pio-laliicatod paits within a snall
spaco. Sulliciont positional accuiacy is naintainod without additional axial notion ol tho
handling syston.
Tho giippois can also lo oquippod with iotaiy jaws which poinit tho iotation ol tho io-
tainod woikpiocos ly 90 oi 180 . An ossontial aigunont loi tho onploynont ol such giip-
pois in pioloionco to tuiiot systons is tho iosulting intoiloionco contoui ol tho ontiio
nanipulation syston. Tho iathoi naiiow dosign, togothoi with tho oxclusivo uso ol swivol
joints in tho nochanics is anothoi advantago associatod with pioduction tochnology.
Figuio 12.5 shows tho piinciplo ol a nultiplo giippoi which can piohond loui oljocts
and thon chango tho sopaiation lotwoon tho individual giippois. Thoso can lo oljocts
having a dolinod sopaiation on tho convoyoi lolt. Upon piohonsion, tho slido llocks will
novo inwaids so that tho paits aio lying closo to oach othoi at tho point ol doposition (o.g. a
llat pallot. Adjustnont nay lo ioalizod ly a soivo notoi acting on tho swing-wing. In tho
caso ol piino novois in tho loin ol pnounatic ol hydiaulic nusclo systons, tho sopaia-
tion ol tho slido llocks and honco that ol tho acquiiod oljocts can lo adjustod accoiding to
tho piossuio. Instoad ol tho tonsion spiing, tho onploynont ol a socond nusclo is

- - -

- -

- -
Piossing and loining is noinally caiiiod out using a vaiioty ol nachinos with tianspoit
lotwoon piocossos loing nocossaiy. Modoin laigo connoicial piossos noinally contain
tiansloi oquipnont as an intogial pait ol thoii dosign. Foi snalloi piossos oi spocial solu-
tions it is possillo to onploy a nultiplo giippoi syston using standaid pnounatic con-
pononts as illustiatod in Figuio 12.6. This oquipnont consists ol sovoial singlo giippois at-
tachod to a tiansloi iail. It is possillo to avoid tho nocossity ol a tiansvoiso stioko axis il
wido apoituio anglo giippois aio usod.
- -



- -

All woikpiocos aio sinultanoously giippod and passod on in ono linoai tianspoit stop.
Tho nass ol tho giippois and thoii iails should lo as snall as possillo in oidoi to onallo
shoit cyclo tinos. Two connon nothods aio known as 1-iail and 2-iail systons (Fig. 12.7.
Tho 1-iail systonis suitallo loi lownass oljocts, with loi oxanplo vacuunsuction, and
tiavol iagos ol up to 3 n. Tho achiovallo tiavol spood is typically lotwoon 2 and 5 n]s.
Thoio aio two lasic nothods involvod. Tho caiiiago piinciplo whoio tho giippois aio tho
only noving paits and nay lo donountallo and tiansloi is ioalizod ly synchionous lolts
oi stool lands. Tho lai piinciplo, in which iigid ains aio allowod to novo in two axos
Sono dosign oxanplos can lo soon in Figuio 12.8. In 2-iail systons tho woikpiocos aio
hold lotwoon tho giippoi jaws and tianspoitod in discioto stops.


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- -- -
- -
Tho giippoi jaws nust always lo adaptod to tho woikpioco dinonsions locauso thoio is
only ono constant closing stioko. It is olton sulliciont il tho paits aio piohondod sinply ly
shapo nating. Figuio 12.9 shows a typical inpactivo giippoi usod loi piohonding shoot
notal paits at tho odgos.
As illustiatod in Fig. 12.9, dilloiont jaw piolilos nay lo onployod to onsuio a liin giip.

Tuiiot giippois can piohond two oi noio, idontical oi dilloiont, oljocts indopondontly.
Conpaiod to tho pioviously nontionod loins ol conposito and nultiplo piohonsion do-
vicos, tuiiots aio iostiictod to soquontial opoiations and iopiosont a ioasonallo altoinativo
to giippoi oxchango systons. Thoy aio usod piinaiily in autonatod assonlly and aio in-
tondod loi tho nanipulation ol iolativoly snall and light woikpiocos. Tochnically thoy can
lo iogaidod as a conlination ol sovoial sopaiato giippois with an additional iotaiy wiist
unit. Many dilloiont aiiangononts aio possillo and Figuio 12.10 shows sono dosigns and


thoii iospoctivo piinciplos. Soloction ol tho noxt giippoi ly iotation ol tho tuiiot usually
takos loss than a socond. Ono advantago ol tho tuiiot giippoi lios in tho alility to acquiio a
nunloi ol oljocts at tinos whon tho iolot is othoiwiso idlo. Thoso nay thon lo iapidly
liought to thoii iospoctivo dostinations as ioquiiod thus olininating nuch doadtino.
Tuiiots can noinally caiiy lotwoon 2 and 6 sopaiato giippois. Togothoi with tho woik-
piocos thoy aio holding this nakos a iathoi lulky ontity with an awkwaidly laigo intoiloi-
onco contoui. This is paiticulaily woll illustiatod in tho oxanplo shown in Figuio 12.11.
Tho spocial loatuio ol this syston is that in addition to tho linal iotational axis ol iolot,
tho tuiiot nay also iotato. This is ioalizod ly an incionontal iotation ol tho lovol whools.
Doponding on tho availallo spaco tho nocossaiy oloctiical and pnounatic connoctois and
callos nust also lo acconnodatod.
Whon only two ond-olloctois aio onployod a nuch choapoi altoinativo is tho hall axis.
This consists ol a sinplo stiuctuio holding two giippois poipondiculai to ono anothoi. A
pnounatic oi oloctiical actuatoi thon sinply iotatos tho stiuctuio thiough an anglo ol 90
whonovoi tho othoi giippoi is noodod. It is olloctivoly a two position voision ol tho tuiiot
pioviously dosciilod.
Though sonowhat laigoi than tho dovicos noinally toinod niciogiippois (soo Chaptoi
7, Figuio 12.12 shows two dosigns ol pnounatically diivon giippois intondod loi tho
nounting ol voiy snall conpononts. In loth thoso conliguiations, tho pnounatic piston
acts diioctly on tho giippoi jaws with its intoinal and oxtoinal cono suilacos. A (voitical
tiavol conponsation ol 5 nn is intogiatod into tho nounting llango. Tho giippoi is in-
tondod piinaiily loi assonlly uso in lino nochanical and oloctionic soctois. Tho sinplo
- - - -

dosign onjoys a voiy attiactivo cost-poiloinanco iatio and a typical lilotino oxcooding
twonty nillion switching cyclos.
Figuio 12.13 shows a sinplo tuiiot dosign consisting ol two oithogonal 180 slowing
units. Each ol tho 4 giippois can lo liought to tho ioquiiod opoiational position within a
voiy linitod collision spaco.
Tuiiot applications aio inlluoncod considoially ly tho sizo ol tho oljocts to lo handlod
and tho iolatod inoitial loicos. Bocauso it is always nocossaiy to novo sovoial giippois, tho
collision spaco is sulstantially laigoi conpaiod to that noodod loi singlo giippois.


- -

- -

- -

Figuio 12.14 shows a dosign with a hoiizontal iotational axis. All giippois aio diivon
lion conpiossod aii lut nay lo ol quito dilloiont lunction. Sulliciont lioo spaco loi colli-
sion piovontion nust lo includod.
Tho incioasod iadius ol gyiation causod ly laigo tuiiot aiiangononts can load to addi-
tional contiol piollons, paiticulaily with iolots having cylindiical woik onvolopos such as
SCARA dosigns. Tho additional inoitia can causo tho iolot to locono unstallo, paiticu-
laily whon tho ond-olloctois nass contio ol giavity is locatod sono distanco lion tho
iolots noinal tool contio.
In ciicunstancos whoio tho oljocts to lo handlod aio paiticulaily snall and light such
as suilaco nount conponont placonont, tuiiots can lo oxtionoly cost olloctivo. As
dopictod in Figuio 12.15, a iing ol (typically 12 oi 18 snall and idontical pnounatic giip-
ping hoads aio iotatod ovoi conponont convoyoi stiips to colloct tho nocossaiy nunloi ol
conpononts loi a paiticulai task. Tho iolot thon novos to tho intondod dostination loloio
dopositing tho conpononts in tho appiopiiato positions.
Rathoi than having to onploy hoavy tuiiots, sulloi tho inconvonionco ol nanual
chango-ovoi oi tho oxtia costs and tino ovoihoads ol autonatic io-tooling, tho optinal so-

- -




lution would lo an autonatically ioconliguiallo iolot giippoi. Unloitunatoly such lloxi-

lility is iaioly possillo in piactico without tho addition ol oxtia woight oi a signilicant
spood ioduction. Novoitholoss, thoio aio sono dosigns which cono sono way towaids this

- -
Conposito giippois aio nulti-puiposo giippois in which dilloiont typos ol piohonsion
nochanisn aio conlinod into a singlo giipping unit. Ono such giippoi is shown in
Figuio 12.16. It possossos two paiis ol sinultanoously activatod giasping oigans loi intoi-
nal piohonsion.

- -

Tho olongatod lingois also assist in tho nanipulation ol tho onpty pallots. To this ain
tho pallot lotton is piovidod with coiiosponding iocossos. Tho advantago is that tho iolot
can opoiato longoi without opoiatoi attondanco locauso it is capallo itsoll ol giasping and
ionoving tho onpty pallots. This onsuios accoss to tho woikpiocos lion tho noxt pallot on
tho stack.
Figuio 12.17 shows anothoi oxanplo ol such a dosign a loui lingoi giippoi.
Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 12.17 can poiloin oxtoinal piohonsion whilst its jaws
sinultanoously havo a contiing olloct, o.g. it can pallotizo cans. Tho giippoi lingois aio ad-
ditionally oquippod with suction cups which piovidos tho option ol picking up llat paits
lion a plano suilaco. This can lo, loi oxanplo, an intoinodiato stack plato nado lion
papoiloaid oi plywood ovoilay to lo appliod onco poi pallotizing cyclo.

- -

Tho conlinationol inpactivo and astiictivo tochniquos is olton inplonontod loi auxil-
iaiy lunctions. This is illustiatod ly tho noxt oxanplo in Figuio 12.18 showing tho stoiing
ol toxtilo lilio lollins. Tho lollins aio intoinally piohondod ly tho nandiol giippoi and
dopositod onto tho pallot. Tho noxt layoi ol tho stack ioquiios an intoinodiato plato which
is also piovidod ly tho sano handling oquipnont. Tho intoinodiato platos aio ionovod
liona sopaiato stack. Tho suctionhoads usod loi this puiposo aio allowod to piotiudo only
whon thoy aio ioquiiod. This olininatos tho nood loi oxponsivo and tino consuning giip-
poi oxchango systons. Tho conlination can lo ioalizod iolativoly sinply ly using pnou-
natic cylindois with hollow piston iods.
- - -
- - -

Planai astiictivo oi contigutivo dosigns invaiially ioly on a considoiallo dogioo ol iodun-
dancy thus nocossitating laigo constiuction as in tho caso ol giippois intondod loi tho pio-
honsion ol laigo laliic panols ol vaiying sizo j6-14|. Tho pnounatic altoinativo is loicod to
ioly on Plonun chanlois oi conplicatod pnounatic switching systons. Ono intoiosting
dosign, intondod loi loathoi handling, is capallo ol positioning a vacuun suction cup any-
whoio within a givon ciiculai woik onvolopo ly noans ol ono iotation and ono tianslation
alout tho tool contio as shown in Figuio 12.19. Foi its intondod application (tho handling
ol pio-cut loathoi paits ol vaiying sizo loui such giipping hoads aio nountod on a plat-
loin hold ly tho iolot j12-3|.


- - -

Each giippoi can lo positionod within a givon ciiculai aioa. Tho giippois aio nountod
on a laso plato which in tuin is lixod to tho iolot llango. Tho adjustnont notion is pio-
ducod ly an oloctiical stoppoi notoi with angulai iosolution ol 200 stops poi iovolution.
With a naxinun spood ol 5000 stops poi socond, tho giippoi can thooiotically lo iotatod
within 40 ns. Tiansit ol tho total adjustnont iango ioquiios 8.5 tuins ol tho spiial giipping

Modulai solutions olloi tho naxinun possillo divoisity ol giippoi conlinations. Tho
puiposo is loi tho usoi to lo allo to ioact as iapidly as possillo to donanding pioduction
changos. Tho undoilying idoa is tho doconposition ol tho ovoiall lunction into sovoial pai-
tial lunctions ioalizallo thiough nodulo conlinations.
Tho dogioo ol doconposition can lo vaiiod widoly. Figuio 12.20 shows sovoial giippoi
conliguiations and thoii iolativo doconposition.
- - - -- -
Modulai systons aio ol paiticulai intoiost in casos whoio a dogioo ol lloxilility is
donandod lut whoio tho iosulting downtino loi ioconliguiation doos not justily tho ox-
ponso ol autonatic oxchango systons oi tuiiots. Gonoiic luilding conpononts nay lo
usod to conposo nulti-giippois suitallo loi tho coiiosponding task. Figuio 12.21 shows
sovoial such conpononts typically usod loi handling nassos in tho iango ol 1 kg (ASS.
Tho nodulai piinciplo is paiticulaily applicallo to inpactivo giippois whoio only tho
lingois nood lo changod. Figuio 12.22 shows a voiy light dosign ol a giippoi syston using
passivoly noving jointod lingois.

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- -

Modulai concopts ioquiio a conplonontaiy assoitnont ol lunctional units, conpatillo

intoilacos (loi nochanics, powoi supply, and inloination and sophisticatod, low-nain-
tonanco and ioliallo nodulos (Fig. 12.23. Tho nost inpoitant nodulos aio:
Main giippoi.
Jaws, as a iulo adaptod to tho woikpioco.
Rotaiy nodulo.
Shoit tiavol nodulo.
Pivoting nodulo.
Giippoi oxchango syston.
Conponsation unit loi position and anglo oiiois (ionoto contio conplianco.
Ovoiload and collision piotoction nodulo.
Multiaxial loico]toiquo sonsoi.
Foi giippois which aio piinaiily usod loi nachino looding, additional novonont nay lo
ioquiiod in oidoi to push tho pait hono to achiovo linal locking (push-click. This lunction
can lo lullillod ly adaptallo push iods intogiatod into tho giippoi (soo Fig. 13.13. As can
lo soon inFiguio 12.23 (iight, pivoting nodulos canlo also usod as a iotaiy laso in tho do-
sign ol doullo giippois.
- -

Autonatic giippoi and tool oxchango systons considoially inpiovo tho lloxilility ol in-
dustiial iolots and potontially opon up now liolds ol application. This is an altoinativo
which allows tho poiloinanco ol sovoial succossivo opoiations with dilloiont ond olloctois
within tho sano iolot woikcoll. Thoio oxist nany potontial dosign solutions loi tho nat-
ing ol intoilacos lotwoon giippoi and iolot and autonatic oxchango is not always nocos-
saiy. In lact nany, voiy quick and olloctivo, nanually opoiatod oxchango systons aio in
uso. Exchango systons aio availallo in nany dilloiont sizos with dianotois ianging lion
50 to 220 nn.

In nost NC and CNC nachinos tool oxchango is poiloinod autonatically. This ioquiios
giippois which aio adaptod to tho spocilic piollon and aio capallo ol taking tho tool lion
a disk, chain, oi soiial nagazino and insoiting it into tho woik spindlo ol tho nachino. Pio-
honsion can lo ioalizod ly
a giipping syston intogiatod into tho nachino (giipping tho woikpioco shank iadially
oi axially oi
an industiial iolot which can assist in tho tool oxchango piogian.
Tool oxchango giippois always oxploit a connon piohonsion point on tho nachino tool
thus ioducing donands on lloxilility. Tho tool shank can lo socuiod in tho giippoi jaws ly
using tho availallo piolilos (ciiculai iills oi gioovos.
Tho oiiontation ol tho tool in tho giippoi dopictod in Figuio 12.24 is socuiod ly a gioovo.
Onco tho giipping position is appioachod tho cuivod sognontod jaws aio novod into a
guido gioovo achioving shapo nating with tho iing gioovo on tho woikpioco shank.



Tool oxchango units aio olton dosignod as doullo giippois (iovolvoi piinciplo oi paiallol
giippoi aiiangonont in oidoi to sinultanoously piohond tho now tool whilst iotaining
tho last (oi noxt ioquiiod tool thus ioducing nachino doad tino. Figuio 12.25 donon-
stiatos such a tool oxchango piocoss.
Tho giippoi socuios tho woikpioco shalt sololy ly shapo nating. Upon insoition ol tho
U-shapod giasping loin a latch is ongagod which socuios tho tool. Roloaso occuis sololy
thiough tho liont in-lit koy on tho woik spindlo ol tho NC nachino.
Thoio aio also tool oxchango systons which ioly onloico natching. Thoii dosignis sini-
lai to that ol convontional inpactivo giippois. Sinco nachino tools can lo quito hoavy tho
ioquiiod caiiying capacity ol tool oxchango giippois can lo as nuch as 30 kg oi noio. Foi
this ioason thoy aio olton actuatod hydiaulically and tool oxchango is poiloinod within
Sonotinos tho dosign ol tho giippoi jaws nakos it possillo to handlo loth tho woik-
piocos and tho tools without oxchanging tho giippoi, as can lo soon in Figuio 12.26. In this
caso tho tools possoss uniliod piohonsion positions, which donands that tho tool and tho
woikpiocos havo sinilai dinonsions at tho piohonsion point. Tho oxanplo in Figuio 12.26
shows tools which aio only tianspoitod ly a iolot thoy aio not insoitod into tho spindlo ol
tho nachino.


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- - -
Tho oxchango syston connocts an ondolloctoi (giippoi, tool, noasuiing oi tost instiu-
nont to tho iolot oi nanipulatoi ain with tho holp ol a llango. This coupling onsuios:
Mochanical connoction capallo ol tiansnitting loicos and nononts.
Enoigy supply to tho ondolloctoi (oloctiical cuiiont, conpiossod aii otc..
Inloination llow (sonsoi signals, noasuionont data, otc. and, in sono casos.
Matoiial llow (aii and coating natoiials loi spiay tools, dyos, coolants and gasos loi
wolding appaiatus.
In tho najoiity ol casos, autonatic oxchango systons aio quito donanding locauso thoy
nust onsuio not only an oxact nochanical connoction lut also tho tiansnission ol signals,
powoi, and occasionally natoiials. Tho oxchango syston is indisponsallo in nounting
colls whoio tho iolot nust accopt (in altoinating cyclos giippois and othoi tools. Tho noc-
ossaiy lunctional olononts can lo doiivod lion an analysis ol tho ioquiiononts as shown
in Figuio 12.27.
Tho lollowing donands aio nado on powoi, natoiial, and signal lino connoctois:
Snall dinonsions, snall nass.
High axial accuiacy (lioo lion contiing play, no nisalignnont.
Skow-lioo accoptanco ol giippois oi tools.
Non-slip tiansnission ol all tiansnittod loicos and nononts.
Shoit oxchango tino and sinplo notion soquonco.
High iolialility, low woai (socuio iotontion ovon in casos ol powoi lailuio, long
contact lilotino.
Woak coupling and docoupling loicos.


- --
Coupling pioloially ly tianslational notion ol coupling olononts.
Snall and constant oloctiical contact iosistanco (intoiloionco lioo, saloty.
Loakago-lioo coupling ol lluids (lossloss tiansnission.
Soalalility against loakago (coolants and gasos and diit ingioss.
Conpatilility with sinplo dosign ol stoiago nagazinos loi giippois and tools.
Mochanical coupling is ioalizod piinaiily ly shapo nating ol olononts with sinplo shapo
and high lunctional saloty. Tho shapo nating nust onsuio sinultanoous coupling ol
powoi, natoiial, and signal linos and nust lo capallo ol woiking undoi high piossuio.
Tho holding olononts nust pioduco a highpiohonsion loico whoioly a clanping iango ol
1 to 2 nnis noinally sulliciont. Tho locking and unlocking ol shapo natchod coupling ol-
ononts takos placo at tho accoptanco and]oi doposition location thiough:
Diivo olononts (pnounatic cylindoi in tho oxchango syston oi at tho nagazino (o.g.
iack diivo at tho nagazino acting on a goaiod iing at tho oxchango syston oi
Spocial notion ol tho industiial iolot intoiacting with nagazino olononts (o.g. iolloi
lollowoi at tho oxchango syston and ianp cuivo at tho nagazino.
Tho locking and unlocking notions nust lo couplod with tho actuation ol tho coiiospond-
ing connoctions loi tho oloctiic powoi linos and valvos loi tho natoiial linos (coolant, gas,
otc.. Tho locking takos placo thiough cylindiical (lolt, conical, wodgo, sphoiical oi cuivod
olononts. Succosslul locking can lo conliinod ly noans ol a pioxinity switch and tho
locking nust ionain activo in casos ol powoi lailuio. This can lo ioalizod oithoi ly a so-
cuio soll-locking syston oi ly spiing loico. On unlocking, ioloaso ol coupling olononts
nust lo augnontod ly loico duo to tho iotontion loicos inhoiont in tho plug and sockot
and othoi nochanisns. This is ioalizod oithoi ly
an ojoction notion pioducod ly a diivo olonont (pnounatic cylindoi,
diioctly with conpiossod aii (possillo only loi a cylindiical shank oi
iotontion ol tho ondolloctoi in tho stoiago nagazino ly passivo oi activo nochanical
olononts and appiopiiato iolot notion.
Figuio 12.28 shows a snall soloction ol nochanical coupling olononts.

- ---
- - - -
- - - -- - -
- -
Foi oxanplo, tho ioalization ol tho nagnotic piinciplo shown in Figuio 12.28(3 iosults
in an oxchango syston sinilai to tho ono piosontod in Figuio 12.29. This is a sonowhat
oldoi lut still intoiosting oxchango unit. It is possillo to oxchango tools, tost instiunonts
and giippois hold in ioadinoss in soiial oi disk nagazinos at tho woikcoll poiiphoiy.
Howovoi, tho options loi tho coupling ol signal, nodiun, and powoi linos aio iathoi
linitod loi this dosign and no longoi satisly nodoin industiial standaids. Whoio tho han-
dling ol nachino tools is concoinod, dynanic ollocts (ol iotating nochanisns nust lo
takon into account and ovon viliation danping nay lo nocossaiy. Tho uso ol oloctionag-
notic holding loico placos additional donands on systons which nust ionain salo ovon in
casos ol powoi lailuio.

- --
Tho coupling ol a giippoi with a handling nachino can lo ioalizod in nany dilloiont ways.
Apait lion nanual and autonatic oxchango systons this can lo achiovod thiough:
Boltod joints in accoidanco with tho appiopiiato standaid (loi oxanplo, DIN ISO
9409. Doponding on tho dosign, contiing nay lo achiovod using iogistoi pins,
contiing collais oi contiing sockots.
Clanp connoctions with clanp iails oi using a ioundod shank clanp.
Doponding on tho dinonsions ol tho giippoi it nay lo nocossaiy to includo an adap-
toi plato. This plato has holos on ono sido accoiding to tho DIN-ISO llango noins (soo
Fig. 1.3 and on tho othoi sido tho dovico spocilic goonotiy.
In addition to tho nochanical iolot llango connoction piovision nust lo nado loi oloc-
tiical, pnounatic and (whoio nocossaiy hydiaulic supply linos. Foi conpiossod aii, iing
shapod iotaiy load-thiough glands nay lo usod (Fig. 12.30. Thoso can havo sovoial indo-
pondont inlot and outlot channols.
Tho contial holo is usod loi linos and callos. Eithoi axial oi iadial connoctions nay lo
usod on loth sidos and iotationis not linitod ly stops. Novoitholoss, tho dogioo ol iotation
loi callos and tulos locatod in tho niddlo is noinally linitod to loss than 360 .
Load thiough loi oloctiical callos nay also lo intogiatod. Both powoi and signal linos
nay lo includod lut loi EMC ioasons aio noinally sopaiatod ly callo sciooning. Gonoial
puiposo non scioonod nulticoio wiiing nay lo usod in lowpowoi applications whoio volt-
agos and cuiionts aio within 60 Volts and 1 Anpoio iospoctivoly. Connutation ol powoi
and signal linos is possillo lut duo to noiso ioasons is not ioconnondod.



- -

Figuio 12.31 shows a standaid iotaiy conpiossod aii load thiough suitallo loi un-
linitod iotation. Moio oxponsivo dosigns includo a laigoi nunloi ol lood-thiough chan-



An autonatic oxchango syston doos not always olloi tho optinun solution in all situa-
tions. Tho lioquoncy ol oxchango indicatos tho nunloi ol ondolloctois which nust lo
changod poi unit tino and tho giaph shownin Figuio 12.32 shows applicalility doponding
on task divoisity and oxchango lioquoncy. A univoisal giippoi noinally possossos a laigo
giipping iango, giipping loico contiol and lloxillo giippoi jaws. As a iulo this placos
donands on ovoiall sizo and nass and can iosult in pooi opoiational saloty and highoi
costs. Foi this ioason tho onploynont ol sinploi giippois in conjunction with nanual ox-
chango is olton an ocononic altoinativo. Autonatic oxchango nay alloviato piollons ol
sizo and woight lut tho cost lactoi ionains, togothoi with an additional tino ovoihoad
conpaiod to a univoisal giippoi.
Avoiy sinplo oxanplo ol a iapid oxchango syston, olton usod in hand guidod nanipula-
tois, can lo soon in Figuio 12.33. Tho coupling pilot, which usos an ontiy cono, is insoitod
into tho uppoi pait and piossod into tho cioss slido. On ioloaso ol tho slido tho coupling


pilot will lo lockod ly spiing loicos. Latoial pins attachod to tho pilot piovont iotation ol
tho giippoi. Roloaso is achiovod ly noving tho cioss slido to tho lolt whoio tho laigo contial
holo allows tho giippoi with tho intogiatod coupling pilot to lo oxtiactod. Howovoi, this
coupling is not suitallo loi ondolloctois which nust sustain laigo occontiic nononts. Tho
load hook, giipping hooks, linois, oi soll-nado spocial giippois, as shown in Figuio 12.33,
nust lo oquippod with such a coupling pilot (load capalility typically up to 250 kg. Othoi
dosigns loi tho uppoi pait ol tho pilot coupling, in which locking is ioalizod ly cioss pins
also oxist.
Catchos along guido iails can also lo usod as nating olononts lotwoon giippoi and han-
dling nachino. Figuio 12.34 shows ono intoiosting dosign oxanplo.
Exact contiing and iotontion ol tho giippoi aio poiloinod ly lotwoon dilloiont
lunctional olononts. Catch connoctois aio olton nado lion hoavy duty plastics which aio
considoially lightoi (donsity ol typical plastics is aiound 1.56 g]cn
than aluniniun
(2.8 g]cn
. Tho catch connoction can lo ioloasod within soconds onsuiing voiy iapid, low
cost, nanual giippoi oxchango.
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Two such oxchango systons with a nodulai dosign aio shown in Figuio 12.35. Tho nat-
ing olononts consist ol iound llangos nanulactuiod lion high-stiongth aluniniun oi
C45 stool. Howovoi, as alioady nontionod, tho conlination ol stool and aluniniun ol-
ononts should lo avoidod whoio possillo and a notal to plastic intoilaco is pioloiallo. Foi
tho oxchango systons shown, a hand opoiatod shalt is iotatod altoi nating, in oidoi to lock
tho tool llango. Il in addition powoi and inloination linos (sonsois, contiol aio to lo con-
noctod, ono can uso an oxtondod voision with additional couplings aiiangod at tho poiiph-
oiy (Fig. 12.35l. Tho dosign dopictod in Figuio 12.35c nakos uso ol a dovotail piolilo loi
nating and tho two llangos aio socuiod ly a cioss pin oi locking lolt.
Figuio 12.36 shows ono luithoi hand opoiatod iapid oxchango coupling usod as tho con-
noction lotwoon a hand guidod nanipulatoi and an ondolloctoi. Evoiy ondolloctoi nust
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lo oquippod with tho lowoi coupling llango. Onco tho coupling ol tho two llangos has loon
achiovod, a plug pin is lockod thiough shapo nating ly appiopiiato pivoting ol tho hand
lovoi. This oxchango syston contains an intogiatod couploi loi conpiossod aii. At tho
sano tino, tho ontiio coupling is dosignod as a (hand loico activatod iotation axis which is
convoniont and noinal loi applications with hand guidod nanipulatois. Howovoi, nulti-
plo iotations aio piovontod ly a stop.

Bayonot nut connoctois can also lo usod as couplings loi iapid giippoi oxchango loi
which a low piolilo dosign is shown in Figuio 12.37. A laigo ontiy cono suppoits iapid do-
toction ol tho coupling contio. This dosign is also piovidod with a conpiossod aii load-
thiough and additional coupling olononts nay lo attachod to tho poiiphoiy. Tho locking
hand lovoi is additionally socuiod ly a latch to guaid against unintontional ioloaso. This
oxchango syston is also usod piinaiily with hand guidod nanipulatois.
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Autonatic giippoi oxchango lod to sonothing ol a lioakthiough in tho industiy. Tho os-
sontial advantago loing tho capalility ol not only giippoi oxchango lut also a conploto io-
tooling (nut diivois, pnounatic hannois, diill spindlos otc. loing possillo. Tho insoition
ol an oxchangoi should not conpioniso ovoiall accuiacy and iopoatalility ol tho syston.
As illustiatod in Figuio 12.38, thoio aio lasically livo lunctional piinciplos involvod.
-- ---
Tho olononts ioquiiod loi an oxchango syston aio piosontod in sinpliliod loin in
Figuio 12.39. It is nocossaiy to havo an individual llango loi oach giippoi. Dotails nay
dilloi in piactical dosigns lut in gonoial tho oxchango systons aio conpact and thoii
voluno linitod.
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Pioposals also oxist loi tho nodulai dosign ol sopaiato coupling olononts which can lo
installod into tho coupling platos as dosiiod. Such a syston is schonatically shown in
Figuio 12.40. Howovoi, tho ioquiiononts loi high accuiacy aio olton lottoi satisliod using
conpact oxchango systons iathoi than thiough tho uso ol nodulai conpononts.
Sinplo nanual giippoi oxchango nakos sonso only whoio tho nunloi ol coupling con-
noctions tolo ioalizod withina givontino is linitod. Il pnounatic, oloctiical powoi andsig-
nal linos nust lo sinultanoously connoctod thon an autonatic oxchangoi is pioloiallo. It
has loon dononstiatod that it is possillo to autonatically connoct and disconnoct up to 28
linos, including powoi supply linos caiiyingupto 5 A. Rosistanco spot wolding ioquiios tho
tiansnission ol up to 1500 Aand, not suipiisingly, such oxchango systons can thonsolvos
havoanass ol sovoial kilogiansiosultinginalaigononont ol inoitia. Mochanical connoc-
tionaltoi lockingioquiios positional oiioisnot oxcooding0.02 nn. Giippoi oxchangotakos
typically lotwoon 2 and 7 s doponding on tho sizo and nass ol tho giippoi and tho syston.

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Tho lollowing oxanplos iolato to connoicially availallo systons. Figuio 12.41 shows a
conplotoly couplod syston consisting ol a iolot wiist, oxchango syston and giippoi. Tho
hand can lo iotatod and pivotod. Both notions aio inducod ly a lovol goai. Tho locking
takos placo nochanically and pnounatically using conpiossod aii lion tho iolot wiist.
Closuio ol tho giippoi is also ioalizod pnounatically and iooponod with tho holp ol spiing
Figuio 12.42 shows anothoi oxchango systonwhich is also lockod nochanically with tho
assistanco ol lalls. In tho couiso ol coupling tho piston is insoitod into tho nolilo caiiioi
(lowoi assonlly unit until it ioachos tho stop sciow. On tho application ol conpiossod aii
to tho piston, tho lall iing novos ovoi tho contially locatod nandiol taking tho nolilo cai-
iioi with it, thoioly locking it against tho lixod caiiioi. Tho piosonco ol tho lalls thon llocks
tho iotuin ol tho nolilo caiiioi. This stato is piosoivod ovon in casos ol pnounatic pios-
suio lailuio.

Foi tho oxchango syston piosontod in Figuio 12.43 tho ains with iadially oxtonding
locking iollois aio insoitod into tho giippoi sido ol tho llango duiing coupling. Tho con-
noction is achiovod thiough shapo nating as in tho lall locking oxanplo. Tho syston is
suitallo loi hoavy giippois and tools and also contains intogiatod coupling olononts loi
conpiossod aii, high voltago, oloctiical powoi and signals.
Figuio 12.44 illustiatos anothoi loin ol lall locking nochanisn. Thioo lalls placod in
iadially aiiangod conical iocossos aio piossod inwaids along a cuivod tiajoctoiy as a iosult
ol spiing clanping notion. Rotontion is achiovod thiough shapo nating lohind tho hoad
ol a clanp lolt and ioloaso is achiovod ly conpiossod aii. Tho stillnoss ol tho connoction is
sonowhat linitod lut adoquato loi nany applications such as hand guidod nanipulatois.




Anothoi vaiiation, piosontod in Figuio 12.45, opoiatos with a locking hook in a sinilai
nannoi to laigo, nulti-polo oloctiical plugs and sockots. Mating connoncos with pio-
contiing ol tho uppoi and lowoi paits at tho insoition lovols. A locating pin takos ovoi tho
oxact positioning loloio tho two paits aio socuiod.
A down stioko ol tho piston loads to pivoting ol tho locking hook lonoath tho cioss pin.
This pioducos a socuio connoction ol tho uppoi and lowoi paits in accoidanco with tho
(socuio against consoquontial danago. Tho catch and locking hooks
onsuio lull iolialility ovon in casos ol powoi supply lailuio.

Bocauso tho iosulting lloxilility doos not justily tho conploxity, tho autonatic oxchango ol
giippoi jaws oi lingois is iaioly usod in piactico. Howovoi, it can lo an oxpodiont altoina-
tivo in nany nanual oxchango casos. Consoquontly, giippoi jaw dosigns onploying
sovoial dilloiont piolilos aio not unconnon (Fig. 12.46. Thoy aio liought to tho ioquiiod
position sinply ly iotation and locking.

Tho conliguiation piosontod in Fig. 12.47 includos coupling olononts lotwoon tho giip-
poi lingois and tho lasic giippoi jawthus naking tho giippoi lingois togothoi with tho lin-
goi loaiing an oxchangoallo unit.
Finally, Figuio 12.48 shows a dosign utilising a nochanical intoilaco locatod lotwoon
tho giippoi lingoi and tho lingoi diivo. Tho lingoi is diivon ly novonont ol a cono. Tho
contial location ol tho lingoi assonlly and tho iolloi-cono contact points aio tho only io-
quiiononts loi all such giipping units. Thoso can lo pivot lingois oi paiallol diivon giip-
poi jaws il tho coiiosponding stiaight-lino guidos aio piovidod.
In tho low casos whoio tho autonatic oxchango ol giippoi lingois has loon inplo-
nontod, it piocoods oithoi in tho loinol a llying oxchango oi at a lixod oxchango station.
In nost casos tho ontiio jaw is ioplacod.

In iaio casos tho opoiation ol piohonsion is conlinod with a piocoss such as ciinping oi
wolding. Ono such oxanplo is shown in Figuio 12.49. Tho conponont paits aio giaspod
ono altoi tho othoi ly sopaiatoly contiollod giippois and sulsoquontly assonllod within
tho giippoi. Whoio joining loicos aio snall, piossing opoiations can lo caiiiod out within
tho giippoi.
Figuio 12.50 illustiatos tho assonlling ol a notoi connutatoi with a giippoi possoss-
ing intogiatod lunctions.





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Stallo inpactivo piohonsion ol tho shalt allows tho ond ol tho shalt to lo insoitod into
tho holo in tho shoot stool anglo plato. Tho assonlly opoiation is conplotod with
downwaid notion ol tho giippoi which loicos tho socuiing pin into tho snall holo in tho
ond ol tho shalt. Finally, tho conploto sul-assonlly is dopositod into a nagazino.

Tho nounting ol O-iings usod loi tho soaling ol nachino paits aio anothoi spocial caso
ol intogiatod piocossing. It is not tiivial to placo tho oasily doloinallo O-iing insido a holo
oi iocoss locauso its dianotoi is olviously slightly laigoi than tho dianotoi ol tho io-
cipiont. Lot us considoi loi this puiposo tho giippoi shown in Figuio 12.51 which sinul-
tanoously soivos as a joining tool j12-4|. Tho acquiiod O-iing is tonpoiaiily distoitod into
an L-shapo within tho giippoi. Tho giippoi is thon insoitod into tho woikpioco to a dopth .
Tho olasticity ol tho L-shapo loads to its iolaxation in tho slot.
Many othoi loins ol intogiatod piocossing ol lloxillo paits, too nunoious to lo do-
sciilod hoio, aio piacticod in industiy. Foi luithoi ioading Chaptoi 14 nay lo ol intoiost,
and paiticulaily Soction 14.7.2.
- -
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- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

Evon in an idoal woild whoio paits aio nachinod to a voiy closo toloianco and assonlly
systons opoiato with alsoluto accuiacy and iopoatalility, thoio will always lo sono dilli-
culty in tho nating ol paits duo to inhonogonoitios ol suilaco chaiactoiistics, ollocts ol
contaninants such as oil, noistuio iosulting lion hunidity otc. In tho ioal woild thoso
piollons aio luithoi oxacoilatod ly tho lack ol consistoncy lotwoon paits and nachino
chaiactoiistics. Whon paits aio assonllod nanually tho hunan opoiatoi conponsatos loi
snall dilloioncos in conponont dinonsions ly a conlination ol intolligonco, lasod
laigoly on past oxpoiionco, and tho physical doxtoiity olloiod ly tho lingois. This lattoi
ciitoiion is luithoi augnontod ly tho closod loop contiol piovidod ly tho link lotwoon tho
sonsos and tho liain. Fuithoinoio, though wo aio not always conscious ol tho lact, nost
nanual assonlly opoiations ioly on a high dogioo ol nochanical conplianco in tho lin-
gois. Foi oxanplo, whon ono sciows a nut onto a lolt it is not usual to align tho two pio-
cisoly ly sight loloio thioading is connoncod. Wo aio noio likoly to olloi tho nut to tho
lolt in ioughly tho coiioct position loloio oiiontating ly lool whilst allowing tho lingois to
conply with tho noio doninant oiiontation loicos which locono appaiont as tho thioads
nosh. Moanwhilo, tho dynanic docisionnaking capalility piovidod ly tho hunancontiol
stiuctuio allows piollons ol nislit oi cioss-thioading to lo avoidod oi iosolvod. This con-
copt ol conplianco is ol ovon gioatoi inpoitanco whoio autonatod systons, lacking tho
dogioo ol sonsoiy intolligont contiol takon loi giantod in tho hunan nodol, aio to lo usod
loi tho continuous handling ol paits ol uncoitainly dolinod dinonsion. A good oxanplo is
tho handling ol solt liuit in agiicultuial autonation. Tho conpiossilility ol aii can lo
holplul hoio in that tho pnounatic actuatois usod to diivo tho jaws ol an inpactivo dosign
can also piovido tho nocossaiy conplianco noodod to avoid danago. Pnounatic systons
can also lo nado to piovido a laigo dogioo ol nochanical vaiiation in oidoi to acconno-
dato a iango ol oljoct sizos j13-1|.
Accoiding to Mason, conplianco is tho tondoncy ol a lody to novo duo to tho intoinal ol-
locts ol tho loicos appliod to it, loi oxanplo londing and twisting, play in tho joints lo-
twoon soctions ol tho lody, oi lotwoon it and anothoi lody j13-2|. Fuithoinoio, conpli-
anco nay lo split into two lasic typos: -- and j10-2|. A good oxanplo ol passivo
conplianco is a sinplo notal spiing. Using this analogy, activo conplianco could lo
achiovod il tho spiing coolliciont woio contiollallo. Tho thooiios lohind conplianco havo
nuch in connon with thoso applicallo to notion danping. Consoquontly tho nothods
and tochnologios usod aio olton voiy sinilai.

Tho nating ol paits nust satisly spocilic opoiating conditions iosulting in tho lollowing
typos ol conplianco accoiding to thoii iospoctivo piinciplo ol opoiation:
Uncontiollod (passivo nating nochanisns: (RCC
Contiollod (activo nating nochanisns: -
(IRCC -.
Conlinod (activo and passivo nating nochanisns.
Fuithoinoio, toiquo iosistant nochanisns: (NCC aio ioquiiod
whon, o.g., it is nocossaiy to tuin a sciow.

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Tho piociso natingol tightly littingpaits oltonnocossitatos tho physical nodilicationol tho
conpononts in quostion. Rathoi than naking tho iolot noio accuiato, a ioduction in tho
ovoiall accuiacy ioquiionont olton piovidos a noio cost olloctivo solution. Countoisunk
holos and chanloiod shalt tips aio good oxanplos ol dosign loi autonation. Aluithoi io-
quiionont is that tho giippoi nust lo capallo ol acconnodating thoso doliloiatoly intio-
ducod toloiancos. Consoquontly, tho uso ol contiollod, oi at loast piodictallo, conplianco
can lo nost holplul. Ono dovico which ollois this possilility, doliloiatoly intioducod to
iolotics to avoid tho nood loi oxtonsivo sonsing and data piocossing, is tho passivo conpli-
ant nochanisnknownas tho Ronoto Contio Conplianco, oi RCCj11-7|. Novoitholoss, tho
addition ol instiunontation, such as loico sonsing, can also holp lacilitato oiioi iocovoiy
stiatogios holplul in dotocting nisnatch and piovonting janning.
Figuio 13.1 shows an oaily solution, dovolopod at tho Diapoi Laloiatoiios, loi an RCC
which oxhilits 6 dogioos ol lioodon. It is suitallo loi tho insoition ol shoit lolts (dianotoi
12 to 58 nn, longth 25 to 100 nn whoio nochanical play nay iango lion 12 to 24 kn. It
has loon dononstiatod that it is possillo to conponsato loi latoial oiiois as laigo as 2 nn
and anglo oiiois along tho axos ol insoition as laigo as 2.5 .
Tho RCCis constiuctod in such a way that thoio aio sopaiato stiuctuial olononts loi tho
position and anglo doviations. In tho caso ol anglo oiioi conponsation tho assonlly pait
novos alout a viitual contio ol iotation which is locatod in tho niddlo ol tho lowoi liont
suilaco ol tho woikpioco. Anglo oiioi conponsation and position oiioi conponsation aio
docouplod and tako placo indopondontly ol ono anothoi j13-4|.
Figuio 13.2 shows tho piinciplo and lunction ol oach conponont in a sinpliliod RCC.
Tho conplianco lunction is a typical nochanical socond oidoi nodol conpiising a nass
(giippoi and woikpioco, a spiing loico and a danpoi as illustiatod in Figuio 13.1. Tho

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spiings nay lo ol notal oi olastonoi constiuction j13-5|. Elastonoi links aio dosignod as
iulloi-notal conpositos with a dolinito axial haidnoss and shoai iosistanco. Many dosign
oxanplos loi RCC units havo loon pullishod in tho litoiatuio j13-6| and oxtonsivo inloi-
nation can lo lound olsowhoio j13-7|.
Tho oiiontation notions onloicod ly tho loico liold iosulting lion contact lotwoon tho
iolot and giippoi llangos aio diioctly iolatod to loicos oxoitod voitically.
Figuio 13.3 shows tho olloct ol placing a pog diioctly into a chanloiod holo. Tho pog ini-
tially nakos a singlo point contact and tho RCC takos up any hoiizontal novonont as tho
pog is pushod voitically downwaids into tho holo. Figuio 13.3l illustiatos tho olloct ol tilt-
ing tho woikpioco (oi tho giippoi to achiovo a two point contact lotwoon tho pog and tho
holo. Tho RCCin this caso nakos a slight angulai displaconont possillo. Foi an oxtionoly

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ioadallo analysis ol this, and iolatod situations, tho woik ly McKoiiow is stiongly iocon-
nondod j10-2|.
Conponsation notions piocood in two phasos:
Conponsation ol tho position doviation (- duiing tho sliding ol tho woikpioco along
tho chanloi ol tho woikpioco iocipiont (singlo point contact.
Conponsation ol tho position doviation duiing insoition ol tho woikpioco into tho
woikpioco iocipiont (two point contact thiough iotation alout tho idoal axis (8.
Mating nochanisns aio spociliod accoiding to tho lollowing inpoitant paianotois:
Ovoiall sizo and nass.
Maxinun position and anglo doviations lotwoon tho assonlly paits.
Maxinun applicallo nating loico.
Ovoiload piotoction.
Conploxity ol laliication and iospoctivo costs.
Tho ait ol dosigning RCC links consists in locating tho appaiont contio ol iotation at tho
ond ol tho woikpioco. This loads to an olloctivo pulling ol tho woikpioco into tho holo. In al-
toinativo dosigns, tho pnounatic danpoi nay also lo usod as an additional actuatoi as
shown schonatically in Figuio 13.4. Though in piactical applications notion is tho iolo ol
tho iolot, notion in tho Z-axis (diioction ol insoition nay lo augnontod ly a pnounatic
cylindoi j13-8|.

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It is ossontial loi tho RCC link to lo dosignod as llat as possillo in oidoi to savo spaco, as
shown in tho oxanplo in Figuio 13.5. Tho uso ol notal spiings allows tho tiansnission ol
laigoi loicos in tho Z-axis than is possillo with olastonoi spiings j13-5|.
Tho spocial dosign shown in Figuio 13.6 usos two conos, ono insido tho othoi. Initially,
tho woikpioco nakos contact with tho chanloi. Howovoi, sinco tho joining hoad continuos
its downwaid notion, tho innoi cono which is suljoctod to spiing iotaining loicos is al-
lowod to novo. This intioducos a snall dogioo ol nochanical play allowing tho innoi cono
to nako contact with ono ol tho innoi suilacos ol tho hollow outoi cono. This conponsatos
loi axial doviations naking nating ol woikpioco and iocipiont possillo.

Tho dosigns ol RCC hithoito considoiod aio sinplo, light and olloctivo as long as posi-
tional and angulai doviations aio not too gioat. Howovoi, unoxpoctod loicos such as jan-
ning duo to luiis in a holo aio olton loyond tho alilitios ol an RCC. An oxtonsion to this
sinplo passivo conplianco is tho Instiunontod RCC oi IRCC.

Unliko tho puioly passivo RCC systons, IRCC links activoly conponsato loi anglo and
latoial displacononts. Tho conponsationoiioi is noasuiod, loi oxanplo using a PSD, and
coiioctions aio poiloinod activoly. Figuio 13.7 shows ono solution whoio such a dovico is
insoitod lotwoon tho giippoi and iolot ain. Rough alignnont is ioalizod activoly whilo
lino positioning is onsuiod passivoly ly noans ol tho usual olastic olononts. Tho PSD
usod in Figuio 13.7 is a loui quadiant photodotoctoi. Giippoi dislocations load to displaco-

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nont ol tho LED and honco to dilloiontial photocuiionts lotwoon PSD sognonts. Thoso
dilloioncos aio noasuiod and tho iosults usod loi iolotic position coiioction.
Tho conponsation nochanisn schonatically shown in Figuio 13.8 contains loal
spiings as olastic olononts. Doloination ol thoso spiings can lo dotoctod using stiain
gaugos and tho inloination usod loi position coiioction ol tho giippoi.
Figuio 13.9 shows a hyliid nating nochanisnconsisting ol loth passivo and activo sys-
tons. Tho activoly contiollod pait opoiatos pnounatically in tho x and y diioctions. Two dy-
nanic piossuio nozzlos (sonsois aio usod to noasuio distancos lion tho laso llango. Tho
pnounatic contiol oquipnont, which is diioctly couplod with tho sonsois, consists ol aii
suspondod displacoallo platos. Tho displaconont continuos until all sonsoi oiilicos attain
tho sano position iolativo to tho laso holo sidos and tho noasuiod piossuio dilloioncos in
tho contiol chanlois vanish. This signals tho conclusion ol tho nating piocoss.
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Conponsation nochanisns aio also ioquiiod whon nounting thioadod conpononts and
tuining sciows. As a iulo tho RCC olononts cannot lo usod loi this puiposo locauso thoy
aio not toision piool and consoquontly tho tiansnittod toiquo is insulliciont. Howovoi,
this task can lo lullillod ly notal concoitina liko spiing lollows (Fig. 13.10 onployod loi
passivo nating.
Thoso aio ioloiiod to as NCC links (NCC= noai collot conplianco whoio typical con-
coitina shoots aio aiound 0.2 nn thick j13-9|. A notal concoitina nating nochanisn as
tho ono shown in Figuio 13.10 is chaiactoiizod ly zoio lacklash, sinplo constiuction and
snall nass.
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As a consoquonco ol its dosign tho NCC olonont locks into only ono ol six possillo
dogioos ol lioodon, nanoly iotation alout its longitudinal axis. Considoi tho piocoss ol at-
tonpting to accuiatoly nosh thioads whilo tuining a sciow. Duiing a possillo soaich
soquonco, thioo tianslations and iotations alout two axos togothoi with loicod iotation
alout tho thiid axis is nocossaiy. Fion this it cloaily lollows that, whon using a NCC olo-
nont, tho sciow can poiloin a livo-axis soaich notion. Typical iotation soaich tino loi lo-
cating and ongaging a sciow in a thioadod holo anounts to loss than a socond.
Sinilai to tho RCC links, tho olasticity ol tho notal concoitina allows conponsation ol
position doviations lotwoon tho two assonlly paits. Foi sciow nating a iotation ol hall a
noninal sciow dianotoi (hall tuin should lo adoquato loi thioad noshing.
An axial pio-tonsioning (piossing ol tho notal concoitina nakos it possillo to nodily
tho stillnoss in tho x- and y-diioctions. This noans that dilloiont nating tasks nay lo poi-

loinod using tho sano NCC nochanisn. NCC dovicos aio availallo in dilloiont dinon-
sions, nulti-layoiod and with dilloiont toision iosistancos.
Sono ol tho advantagos ol tho NCC olononts ovoi convontional RCC links can lo sun-
naiizod as lollows:
Mass is ioducod ly as nuch as a lactoi ol 50 in conpaiison with RCC links.
Intogiatod olasticity in tho diioction ol tho sciow lastoning, no sciow-nut spiinging
No uncontiollod changos in spatial position ol sciow and nut assonlly tools in
non-poipondiculai sciowing opoiations as a iosult ol own nass.
Toision anglo to tightoning anglo iatio duiing tightoning opoiations is lottoi than
1: 30.

Tho looding ol paits diioctly into iotaining dovicos (such as clanps as illustiatod in Figuio
13.11 can load to a loico conllict situation in casos whoio tho woikpioco is still hold ly tho
giippoi and sinultanoously clanpod in tho iotaining dovico. In such casos it is advan-
tagoous to havo a dogioo ol conplianco (such as an olastic intoilaco lotwoon tho iolot
wiist and giippoi.

Failuio to includo such conplianco can load to ovoiload ol tho iolot joints and tho giip-
poi lingoi guidoways. Figuio 13.12 shows a sinplo oxanplo ol dosign and usago ol such
sinplo spiing loadod RCCs.
In sono casos it is nocossaiy to pioss tho woikpioco hono (to tho ond stop in tho io-
tainoi. So nuch tho lottoi il this can lo dono without diiving tho iolot luithoi altoi oljoct
Onco tho giippoi jaw is oponod, a spiing loadod stai pushos tho woikpioco against tho
stop suilaco in tho iotainoi. Rotontion ol tho spiings (Fig. 13.13 is naintainod whilo tho
oljoct is giippod. Tho spiing ojoction loico conos in to play at tho point ol oljoct ioloaso.
Doponding on tho ovoiall sizo ol tho giippoi, tho ojoction loicos lio typically lotwoon 20
and 420 N with tiavol iangos lion 3 to 12 nn. Noodloss to say, tho ioactivo loicos occui-
iing at tho point ol ioloaso nust not oxcood tho capalilitios ol tho nanipulatoi.

Tho spocial ioquiionont ol pioviding two dilloiont holding loicos occasionally occuis in
assonlly opoiations such as tho pog in holo task. Initially, tho pait to lo nountod nust
lo soltly giaspod until succosslul insoition is achiovod. Thoioaltoi it nust lo giaspod
liinly as tho oljoct is pushod hono. Ono such giippoi, capallo ol poiloining thoso opoia-
tions in a puioly nochanical nannoi, is dopictod in Figuio 13.14. Sinco tho lingois aio
dosignod as llat spiings, two dilloiont giipping loicos occui as a iosult ol tho spiing con-

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Many possililitios loi tho dosign ol lloxillo giippoi jaws oxist. Thoso includo:
Elastic jaw coatings.
Pondulun jaws (with ono oi noio pondulun axos.
Shapo-adaptivo and shapo-piosoiving jaws.
Sono olton usod solutions aio dopictod in Figuio 13.15. Tho haidnoss ol tho olastonoiic
coating should lo soloctod accoiding to tho piohonsion task in quostion. Such coatings in-
cioaso tho coolliciont ol liiction and honco contiiluto to piohonsion iolialility.
Tho giippoi lingoi with oxtondod jaw shown in Figuio 13.16 is pioducod as a iulloi-
notal conposito. This conponsatos loi doviations liontho spociliod oljoct sizo. This is ol
spocial inpoitanco loi giippois with unconponsatod actuation, o.g. a can disk instoad ol
a pnounatic piston. Tho spiing haidnoss ol tho iulloi lody doponds on tho haidnoss ol


tho choson iulloi natoiial. Such giippois aio usod, o.g., in iotating lottlo cloaning na-
Tho jaw paii shown in Figuio 13.17 allows piohonsion ol cylindiical oljocts lying on a
planai suilaco. Contiing is achiovod in a sinilai nannoi to that ol piisnatic jaws.
- -


Industiial ioquiiononts loi incioasing lloxilility in nanulactuiing placo onoinous
donands on giippoi dosigns to lo conpatillo with dilloiont woikpioco shapos. A lot ol
tochnical pioposals oxist lut low ol thon aio loasillo loi ioal nanulactuiing applications.
Figuio 13.18 piosonts a classilication ol thoso possililitios.
Giippoi jaws with sovoial piohonsion points iolating to tho oljoct nako tho giippoi a
nulti-point giippoi. Such giippois with up to 9 piohonsionpoints, usod loi nounting ol
-- - -

goai assonllios, havo alioady loon dosciilod. Although such giippois aio lloxillo in tho
spocilic nounting cyclo, thoy aio sinply conpononts in a singlo puiposo autonation
piocoss. Tho piohonsion points on tho giipping suilacos aio usod with a dogioo ol
doliloiato iodundancy and oxchango ol tho giippoi is not noinally nocossaiy.
Sonotinos it is possillo to dosign tho giippoi jaws in such a way that thoy aio capallo ol
handling sovoial paits ol dilloiing shapo. Asinplo oxanplo is shown in Figuio 13.19. Tho
voitical piisn A allows tho piohonsion ol voitically oiiontatod cylindiical paits whilo tho
hoiizontal piolilo B is suitallo loi hoiizontally oiiontatod iods. Tho llat suilaco C is also
usolul and tho contoui D is adaptod loi intoinal piohonsion, o.g. loi tho handling ol
toioidal piolilos. This avoids tho nocossity ol giippoi oxchango within tho assonlly lacility.
Novoitholoss, thoso aio spocial puiposo jaws. Exanplos ol oxchangoallo lingois and giip-
poi jaws woio piosontod in Chaptoi 12.



- -
Tho noxt laigo gioup ol lloxilly adaptallo giippois onploy conloinallo suilacos. Thoso
nay lo lockod onco a givon piolilo has loon adoptod, as shown in Figuio 13.20 j13-10|.
This piocoduio has two stops:
Sanpling ol tho contoui.
Fixing ol tho contoui with loico closuio (locking.

Although tho lasic piinciplo ol shapo-adoption is sinplo, liko tho onnigiippoi pioviously
dosciilod, its nochanical ioalization ioquiiod a laigo nunloi ol noving paits. Con-
soquontly such giippois aio iaioly inplonontod in ioal industiial applications.
Tho giippoi jaws shown in Figuio 13.21 aio noio ioalistic in this sonso. Tho stool
lanollao aio displacod against oach othoi and thon socuiod. Tho soiiatod suilacos allow
slip-lioo nounting and oaso ol adjustnont.
Tho lollowing giippois aio piovidod with iovoisillo shapo conloination which takos
placo anow loi ovoiy giipping cyclo. Tho idoa illustiatod in Figuio 13.22 dononstiatos a
giippoi, tho lingois ol which aio luilt with plastic lanollao. Whon giipping, thoso lanollao
aio pullod towaids tho oljoct adopting its suilaco topology. Tho lunctional piinciplo ol this
laloiatoiy nodol is ioniniscont ol liinging togothoi tho palns ol tho hands. Its concopt is
intondod loi soivico iolots in tho acquisition ol a iango ol housohold tools.
Tho giippoi jaws appliod to an iiiogulai shapod woikpioco in Figuio 13.23 aio in piin-
ciplo olastic lut can still olloctivoly tiansnit loico locauso thoii intoiioi is stalilizod ly
stool tapo and tho notion iosonllos that ol a pnounatic piston. Each jawis a sopaiato hoi-
notically soalod llock. Tho covoi suilacos aio nado lion vulcanizod iulloi. Tho laigo ol-
joct contact aioa ioducos tho suilaco piossuio which is advantagoous whon handling sonsi-
tivo (o.g. woodon paits.
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- -

Thoio aio also a laigo iango ol noio oxotic idoas loi giippoi jaws, o.g. lags lillod with
powdoi. Tho jaw shapo can lo stalilizod and haidonod ly tho application ol vacuun in a
sinilaily nannoi to vacuun-packing.
Giippoi jaws which can adopt tho shapo only onco aio callod iiiovoisillo. Tho jaw shap-
ing olononts aio nado lionplastic natoiials liko (solt silicon iulloi nastic oi nodolling
clays. Tho shapo adoption is ioalizod nanually ly casting, dispoising oi loaning. Sono
natoiials haidon alono and othois ioquiio chonical oi thoinal post tioatnont. Figuio
13.24 shows an oxanplo. Laigoi jaws aio additionally stalilizod ly coio pins. This nothod
ol shapo adoption is olliciont and ospocially applicallo to tho piohonsion ol sphoiically
shapod oljocts.


Tho addition ol coatings to giipping suilacos in oidoi to incioaso liiction can also lo
usod to piovido a dogioo ol conplianco and ovonshapo adaptation. Thoio oxist olastonoiic
nats which nay lo socuiod, ly noans ol gluo oi plastic pogs into coiiosponding holo ai-
iays, onto tho giippoi suilaco. Ono such oxanplo is shown in Figuio 13.25.
Foi tho handling ol hot woikpiocos tho contact suilacos can lo additionally onhancod
with Duian glass (SiC-lilio ioinloicod Duian glass. Tho thooiotical naxinun woiking
tonpoiatuio is 1200 C, tho linit ol iosistanco in londing is 900 MPa and tho donsity is
2.5 g]cn

Haidonod ovoilay platos oi nachino stool sciows with knuilod, gioovod oi coiiugatod
suilacos aio also a solution (Fig. 13.26 loi loss dolicato tasks. This onsuios stallo holding
ol tho pait ovon in tho piosonco ol laigo tuining nononts, o.g., whon handling laigo stool
shoot paits ioquiiing loicos ol up to 30,000 N. Noodloss to say, localisod suilaco danago is
voiy likoly and consoquontly this nothod is not suitallo to all autonation tasks.
Spocial jaws nay also lo dosignod to poiloin a lunction in addition to sinplo piohon-
sion. Figuio 13.27 shows ono such oxanplo whoio tho insoition ol intogiatod ciicuit pins
into coiiosponding loio holos ioquiios that oach pin lo sinultanoously lont to tho coiioct
Tho piolilod jaws tond to lond tho conponont pins to tho coiioct anglo loi insoition, al-
toiwhich piociso positioning is ossontial. Novoitholoss, loi laigoi intogiatod ciicuits
having 24 pins and noio, a dogioo ol doxtious nanipulation is noodod to onsuio coiioct
insoition ol all pins. This piollon, noio than any othoi, is what loicod tho industiy to
chango to suilaco nount dovico (SMD tochnology. Consoquontly, this nothod is sono-
what olsoloto and will not lo discussod luithoi hoio.
- - -



Tho attachnonts to giippoi jaws can also oxhilit sono spocial loatuios. Figuio 13.28
shows how a giippoi jaw can lo adjustod to tho giippoi lingoi. As a iosult, tho piohonsion
loico ol tho togglo lovoi giippoi doponds laigoly on tho tiavol ol tho jaws. Which is why, as
can lo soon in Figuio 13.28, tho giippoi lingoi is iotainod against a haidonod pin. Adjust-
nont ol tho two lixing lolts nakos it possillo to novo tho point at which tho luild up ol
piohonsion loico connoncos.
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A laigo dogioo ol conplianco nay lo avaialllo in casos whoio piohonsion is achiovod
thiough tho oxpansion ol an olastic nonliano oi coll against tho suilacos ol an oljoct.
Olton tho pnounatic piossuio ioquiiod is only slightly alovo anliont aii piossuio. An-
liont aii piossuio is noninally 1 Bai and convoision to othoi systons can lo caiiiod out
with holp ol tho lollowing data.

Convoision ol piossuio units:

1 lai = 10
1 lai = 100 000 N]n
1 lai = 14.5 psi (= lll]in

1 lai = 750.062 Toii (nn Hg

1 lai = 1.0197 Atnosphoios

- -
Intoinal giippois hold tho woikpioco with tho holp ol olononts which aio oxpandod lollow-
ing insoition into tho holo oi cavity within tho oljoct to lo piohondod. Puioly nochanical
voisions ol this inpactivo intoinal piohonsion havo alioady loon discussod in soction
3.2.4 ol Chaptoi 3. Altoinativoly, thoso can consist ol piotiusions on a iulloi nonliano
which aio attachod to a notal caiiioi as shown in Figuio 13.29. Tho piohonsion iango is
snall locauso tho oxpansion iango ol tho knols is snall. Opoiation outsido ol a cavity
should lo avoidod locauso ovoioxpansion ol tho nonliano in tho alsonco ol a countoi-
loico nay causo danago.
Such giippois consists ol only a low conpononts and tho oxtonding piotiusions onsuio
laigo liictional coollicionts iosulting in sulstantial iotontion loicos. This giippoi is paitic-
ulaily suitallo loi insoition into snoothly linishod holos. Tho lollowing tallo piosonts a
soloction ol standaid installation sizos:




Tho spocilications loi tho holding loico aio givon loi a lull woiking piossuio ol 6 lai.
Tho iopioducilility anounts to 0.2 nn locauso tho outwaid notion ol tho piotiusions is
not synchionizod.
Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 13.30 consists ol a hoxagonal caiiioi with luilt-in piossuio
olononts. Whon conpiossod aii is suppliod this iosults in a nonliano stioko ol alout
3 nn and iotuin ol tho nonlianos is piovidod thiough tho olasticity ol tho nonliano
Conpiossod aii lags in tho loin ol stiips aio also usod loi intoinal piohonsion, o.g. loi
tho lilting ol tulos as can lo soon in Figuio 13.31. Tho lags aio attachod to an intoinal cai-
iioi and thoii inllationloads to contact and iotontion ol tho oljoct thiough liictional loicos.
Tho nost connonly usod natoiials loi such lags aio:
Polyanido tissuo
Nylon coid

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Thoso typos ol giippoi aio lound in industiial applications such as chain oi stool wiio
hoists and hand guidod nanipulatois.
Tho classical dosign ol an intoinal giippoi possossing an inllatallo lag is shown in
Figuio 13.32. Tho naxinun piossuio ol tho conpiossod aii supply should not oxcood
2 lai. Such giipping tochnology is usod o.g. loi tho handling ol hollowglass oi plastic con-
pononts. Tho usallo piohonsion dianotoi iango doponds on tho ovoiall sizo ol tho task lut
it is sonowhat laigoi than that illustiatod in Figuio 13.29. Typical tochnical dinonsions
aio givon in tho lollowing tallo:

Tho noxt oxanplo shows an intoinal giippoi consisting ol an oxtoinal collot chuck which
is diivon ly a lluid nusclo. Although tho sognonts ol tho collot chuck act as an intoino-
diato goai (natoiial joint stiuctuio, tho solution is iathoi sinplo and tho iosulting pio-
honsion loicos can lo onoinous (Fig. 13.33.
Tho woikpioco piohonsion loico
is pioducod ly a cono activatod ly tho lluid nusclo.
Tho cono slopo piovonts soll-llocking locauso tho olastic loico ol tho nultiplo slit collot
chuck is usod as a iostoiing loico. Tho stioko ol tho nusclo can lo quito snall (in nost
casos lotwoon 0.2 and 0.3 nn lut tho loicos dovolopod can lo iolativoly high.

- -
Extoinal piohonsion thiough nonliano oxpansion is woll suitod to woikpiocos having
iound and woll accossillo paits. Tho oxpansion ol tho nonliano adapts to tho piolilo ol
tho oljoct as is piosontod in tho oxanplos shown in Figuios 13.34 and 13.35.
Typical candidatos loi piohonsion with this typo ol giippoi aio cylindiical piolilos such
as lottlo nocks. Tho lottlo giippoi dopictod in Figuio 13.34 utilizos tho shapo natching ol
tho piossuiizod iulloi nonliano loi piohonsion. Tho shapod insot is oxtoinally sup-
poitod ly tho suiiounding notal sloovo.
Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 13.35 consists ol a liano with luilt-in piossuio olononts
diivon lion a conpiossod aii supply ol 6 lai. Whon piossuio is appliod thoso iulloi olo-
nonts pioduco a stioko ol alout 3 to 5 nn (doponding on tho installation sizo. A notal
plato can lo socuiod to tho iulloi uppoi suilaco in oidoi to ioduco tho woai ol tho iulloi
lag thiough aliasion (soo also Figuios 13.30 and 13.40.


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Tululai giippois nay lo usod loi cylindiical and slightly conical paits, loi oxanplo
Figuio 13.36.
Tho sano piinciplo applios to tho nothod dopictod in Figuio 13.37. Tho conpiossod aii
lags toloiato noithoi shaip odgos, doliis noi jaggod contact suilacos. Tho giippoi shown
in Figuio 13.37a contains a luilt-in lai codoioadoi naking contont spocilications and
othoi inloination loi oach packago availallo loi contiol puiposos.
Ono luithoi intoiosting solution loi a lottlo giippoi, though not iostiictod to this liold
alono, is dopictod in Figuio 13.38. Tho stiip shapod conpiossod aii lags soivo as inpactivo
piohonsion olononts. Tho unpiossuiizod lags aio lowoiod ly tho giippoi lotwoon tho
lottlo nocks ol nultiplo lottlo iows. Whon piossuio is appliod piohonsion is achiovod as
tho lags oxpand against tho lottlo nocks.
Two luithoi oxanplos aio shown in Figuio 13.39. In tho liist caso, tho conpliant piohon-
sion ol dolicato woikpiocos is ioalizod ly a iulloi lollows undoi piossuio. Howovoi, tho
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positioning accuiacy ol such giippois is not voiy high. This also holds tiuo loi tho giippoi
dopictod inFiguio 13.39l inwhich a pull iod causos lulging ol tho iulloi cylindoi loading
to piohonsion ol tho woikpioco.
Tho clanping nodulos dopictod in Figuio 13.40 (as alioady nontionod can also lo usod
as activo giippoi olononts. Thoy aio quito sinplo and tho pio-stiossod nonliano auto-
natically iosots itsoll. Tho oljoct contact aioa can lo onhancod ly using a notal plato to
piotoct tho dolicato iulloi lionwoai, although tho nonliano is noinally nado lionpol-
yuiothano which is piotty duiallo. Howovoi, sinco tho iosponso tino ol thoso olononts is
voiy shoit and thoio is no piotoctivo linit loi lull stioko, onpty giipping should lo
avoidod. Typical poiloinanco chaiactoiistics aio givon in tho lollowing tallo:


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- -
It is olton nocossaiy to includo a dogioo ol conplianco spocilically to allowloi doviations
in oljoct sizo iathoi than loi piotoction ol tho oljocts suilaco. Tho oxanplo shown in
Figuio 13.41 piovidos liin inpactivo piohonsion without giving any considoiation to sui-
laco danago whilst at tho sano tino tho closuio ol tho giippoi lingois is linitod thiough
conpliant olastonoiic nochanisns at tho lingoi joints. Such giippois aio idoally suitod to
tho handling ol oljocts with iolativoly laigo toloiancos such as wino lottlos.

- - --


Tho handling ol iiiogulai and]oi unpiodictally shapod oljocts placos donands ongiippoi
lloxilility which oxtond loyond that noinally solvod ly nultiplo giipping hoad oi ox-
chango systons. Giippois opoiating with pin aiiays oi pin packagos aio tochnically intoi-
osting lut iaioly usod in piactico. Many vaiiations and piototypos aio known lion tho
tochnical litoiatuio, ono oxanplo loing tho onnigiippoi j13-13|.

Tho onnigiippoi (Latin - noaning all is a conloinallo giippoi dovolopod in tho
UK, tho two jaws ol which consist ol donsoly packod, solid pins (Fig. 13.42 which aio al-
lowod to novo longitudinally and indopondontly. Whon tho jaws nako contact with an ol-
joct tho pins coiiosponding to tho shapo ol tho oljoct aio displacod loloio clanping takos
placo. With this nothod it is possillo to handlo paits having voiy dilloiont shapos (ovon
conical and sizos, ly loth intoinal and oxtoinal piohonsion. Moioovoi, tho displaconont
ol tho pins yiolds a thioo-dinonsional inago ol tho oljoct.
Figuio 13.43 shows a nodiliod voisionol tho onnigiippoi. Whon loinod aiound tho ol-
joct, tho two giippoi jaws closo concontiically. Only a iolativoly snall jaw tiavol ol aiound
10 nn is noodod. Tho iodundant pins doscond against a stop which, liko tho contial tiavol
iod, is not shown in Figuio 13.43.
Anothoi dosign loi such a giippoi can lo soon in Figuio 13.44. Tho giippoi appioachos
tho oljoct lion alovo. Tho pins within tho oljoct contoui aio pushod lack. Paitial with-
diawal ol tho contial iod aichos tho nonliano. This in tuin causos inclination ol tho iods
thus pioviding piohonsion loico against tho oljoct.


- - -


A luithoi pin giippoi dosign option is illustiatod in Figuio 13.45. Its uso lollows tho
sano sconaiio as dosciilod alovo. Howovoi, tho clanping olloct is achiovod ly contiacting
tho lingois within a spiial land. In this caso only tho pins just loyond tho oljoct contoui
aio involvod. Onco tho stioss is ioloasod and tho woikpioco ojoctod, tho pins again tako
thoii noutial position and aio ioady loi tho noxt giipping opoiation.

Tho handling ol dolicato natoiials such as agiicultuial pioduco, oinato glasswaio, unliiod
coianics otc., donands spocial attontion j13-14|. Sinplo inpactivo inplonontations will
alnost coitainly iosult indanago to tho piohondod oljoct and ovontho conplianco olloiod
ly pnounatically diivon olastonoi lingois as discussod in Chaptoi 8 aio in nost casos un-
likoly to sullico. Consoquontly, inpactivo tochniquos nust lo augnontod ly contiollallo
conplianco. Il tho dogioo ol conplianco can lo contiollod ly oxtoinal inlluoncos thon a
giippoi can lo dosignod which oxhilits quito dilloiont piohonsion and iotontion chaiac-
toiistics. Such giippois aio known as - .
Tho ovacuation ol aii lion a diy powdoi oi gianulo lillod lag constitutod ono ol tho liist
attonpts at shapo adaptation loi piohonsion puiposos. With this tochniquo tho dovico is

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nado to suiiound tho oljoct to lo liltod piioi to aii ovacuation. Onco vacuunis appliod tho
dovico contiacts aiound tho oljoct to lacilitato a tight giip j13-15|. Sinilai nochanisns
using iion powdoi and contiollod ly a nagnotic liolds havo also loon attonptod, lut lai
lottoi in this iospoct is tho uso ol snait lluids.
Eloctioihoological j13-16| and nagnotoihoological j13-17| snait lluids undoigo a
liquid to solid phaso chango on tho application ol an oloctiic oi nagnotic liold iospoctivoly.
Sinplo giippoi lingois j13-18| and conploto astiictivo giipping suilacos j5-24| onploying
oloctioihoological lluids havo loon dononstiatod, though tho high liold stiongths io-
quiiod (up to 3000 volts poi nn nako voiy doop conpliant suilacos dillicult to inplo-
nont in piactico. On tho othoi hand, nagnotoihoological lluids havo loon usod voiy olloc-
tivoly in conpliant suilacos usod loi tho polishing ol high piocision optical conpononts.
Tho uso ol polynoi tondons, whoio tho intioduction ol dilloiont lluids causos oxpansion
oi contiaction, can also yiold a considoiallo dynanic iango ol conplianco. Caldwoll ox-
poiinontod oxtonsivoly with voiy thin polyvinyl alcohol shoots which oxpoiionco swolling
whon innoisod in watoi. This also has tho olloct ol naking tho polynoi solt and conpli-
ant. Acotono is intioducod to oxpol tho watoi and causo contiactionol tho polynoi shoot io-
tuining it to a iigid stato j13-19|. Unloitunatoly, nost ol thoso tochniquos ionain tho
donain ol iosoaich activity with voiy littlo (as yot on tho connoicial naikot.
Liko nost notals, iullois and polynois such as chloiopiono, noopiono, solt PVC otc.,
oxhilit an invoiso iolationship lotwoon olastic nodulus and tonpoiatuio. Tho glass tians-
ition tonpoiatuio in linoai anoiphous polynois and co-polynois is dolinod as nicio-
Biownian chain-sognontod notion involving noloculai longths ol 20 to 50 atons.
tho tonpoiatuio at which tho noloculai chains havo sulliciont onoigy to ovoicono at-
tiactivo loicos and novonont can tako placo. Alovo tho glass tiansition tonpoiatuio
thoso natoiials aio solt and conpliant. Bolow
thoii haidnoss incioasos iapidly until
thoy locono iigid and ovontually liittlo. Analogous to shapo nonoiy alloys (though tho
sciontilic piinciplos aio quito dilloiont, polynois which oxpoiionco voiy laigo and aliupt
changos in nochanical nodulus lion ono sido ol
to tho othoi aio known appiopiiatoly
as shapo nonoiy polynois j13-20|.
Polynois nay lo oasily loinod into loans which havo tho advantago ol pioviding a
thioo dinonsional shapo nonoiy natoiial iathoi than tho singlo axis loin connonly
availallo with shapo nonoiy alloys. Shapo nonoiy loans aio availallo with dilloiont
conpiossion chaiactoiistics and glass tiansition tonpoiatuios covoiing dynanic iangos
ol olongation and conpiossion stiossos ol ovoi 300% j13-14|. In Figuio 13.46 tho glass


tiansition point can lo soon lotwoon tho two quito dilloiont iocovoiy chaiactoiistics ol a
typical polyuiothano shapo nonoiy polynoi loan.
In addition to tho olastic nodulus dilloiontial, shapo nonoiy loans also havo a tino io-
sponso which is tonpoiatuio dopondant. By noasuiing tho lioo iocovoiy tino altoi do-
piossion tho chaiactoiistic cuivo ol Figuio 13.46 is oltainod loi a sanplo ol shapo nonoiy
loan with a
ol 30 C. Fion Figuio 13.46, tho iosulting 63% iocovoiy tinos can lo soon
to lo govoinod ly two cuivos, tho asynptotos ol which convoigo at
. Tho slopos ol tho
two asynptotos givo tho oxpiossion in (13.1.
= ( (13.1
Matoiial dopondant constant
Typical iatios ol to vaiy lionono to two oidois ol nagnitudo doponding ontho polynoi
usod j13-21|. Foi any shapo nonoiy polynoi, tho olastic nodulus at a givontonpoiatuio
can lo calculatod lion (13.2, whoio
is tho nodulus at tho glass tiansition tonpoia-
tuio and is a natoiial constant j13-22|.

(( g] 1
Liko shapo nonoiy alloys, shapo nonoiy polynois ioquiio a linito tino loi hoating and
cooling. Fuithoinoio, loing polynois thoy havo nuch lowoi thoinal conductivitios than
notals. Moioovoi, in addition to tho advantagos ol loing allo to lo loinod into thioo di-
nonsional shapos, shapo nonoiy loans aio highly poinoallo to aii thus gioatly ioducing
tho tino nocossaiy loi hoating and cooling undoi loicod aii conditions j13-22|. This is pai-
ticulaily olloctivo whon shapo nonoiy loans aio to lo usod loi shapo adaptivo suilacos in
iolotic piohonsion as shown in Figuio 13.47.
Ol poihaps noio industiial iolovanco than tho handling ol such oljocts as tho solt liuit
dopictod in Figuio 13.47 is tho piohonsion ol unliiod coianics and dolicato glass con-

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Collisions occui piinaiily duiing piogian dovolopnont in tiial opoiations and tost iuns.
Piotoctivo lunctions soivo to piosoivo tho giippoi and oljoct lion danago in tho caso ol a
collision. Tochnical noans to avoid collisions includo: tho insoition ol piodotoininod
lioak points in a piogian, ioloaso nochanics loi ovoiload piotoction, collision sonsois,
shutdown piotoction and viliation alsoilois.

Saloty aspocts can lo dividod into two gioups ol intoiost: collision dotoction and lailuio
nitigation. Tho sinplost nothod dating lion tho oaily yoais ol iolotics, includos a dogioo
ol nochanical conplianco lotwoon giippoi and iolot llangos, as shown in Figuio
13.48. As soon as a piodolinod loico thioshold is oxcoodod, tho giippoi is displacod away
lion tho olstaclo. An intogiatod sonsoi can lo usod to inloin tho iolot contiolloi ol tho
unoxpoctod novonont. Suddon inpacts can also lo dotoctod ly sonsois nonitoiing tho
ain loicos (axial joint sonsois and tho iolot haltod. Unloitunatoly, tho ioaction tino ol
tho iolot contiolloi is iaioly shoit onough to totally piovont danago in casos ol high spood
opoiation (soo Chaptoi 11.
Tho socond aspoct iolatos to tho piosoivation ol piohonsion loico in casos ol powoi
lailuio. In tho lollowing soction, sono dosigns will lo shown which aio iolovant to loth
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A ciash situation with an industiial iolot can load to danago to tho ondolloctoi, tho iolot
and tho woikcoll in gonoial. A ciash can lo causod ly unoxpoctod changos in tho onviion-

nont, soltwaio oiiois oi tho nallunction ol sono conponont. Collision piotoction sys-
tons havo loon dovolopod to piovont, oi at loast ioduco, tho consoquoncos.
Figuio 13.49 shows ono haidwaio solution. In casos ol collision tho ondolloctoi is con-
pliant onough to givo a littlo whilst sinultanoously tho iolot ain nay lo haltod. Unloi-
tunatoly, stoppago cannot lo ioalizod instantly duo to nochanical inoitia ol tho noving
nass, ioaction tino ol tho iolot contiol soltwaio and tho oloctio-nochanics ol tho iolot it-
soll. Pnounatically diivon giippois havo tho advantago ol inhoiont conplianco duo to tho
conpiossod aii acting as a spiing. Tho stillnoss is dictatod ly tho pnounatic piossuio and
collision dotoction can lo usod to ioduco this piossuio autonatically.
Tho alility ol tho systonto iosot itsoll sulsoquont to collision without opoiatoi intoivon-
tion is tho donain ol oiioi iocovoiy. This aspoct ol iolotics is laigoly a iosoaich aioa and
will not lo luithoi discussod hoio.
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- -

In nany casos ol powoi lailuio it is pioloiallo that iotontion loico is piosoivod. Powoi
lailuio can tako tho loinol a cossion in oloctiical, pnounatic oi hydiaulic loico. In gonoial
thoio aio two possililitios:
- -
Upon oponing ol tho giippoi a iotuin spiing is liought into tonsion o.g. ly a doullo
acting cylindoi. Closuio is ioalizod using pnounatic and spiing loicos. In casos ol aii
piossuio lailuio tho spiing onsuios an onoigoncy iotontion loico. Noodloss to say, tho
iolot should lo haltod as soon as possillo until tho powoi is ioinstatod.

Ovoipiossuio in a pnounatic cylindoi which gonoiatos tho iotontion loico is nain-
tainod ly non-iotuin valvos.
In tho caso ol vacuun suction it is possillo to uso a dual ciicuit vacuun gonoiatoi. As can
lo soon lion Figuio 13.50 thoio aio two vacuun punps. Tho suction hoads aio cioss-con-
noctod in such a way that piossuio is naintainod il ono ol tho punps lails. Though sono-
what ioducod, tho iosidual piossuio allows tho iolot to piocood, alloit with ioducod voloc-
ity. Tho total vacuun suction aioa nust lo dinonsionod in such a way that sulliciont io-
tontion loico ionains altoi nallunction ol ono suction ciicuit.
Rotontion loico is olton socuiod using spiing packots. Tho sinplost solutions aio thoso
in which tho piinciplo giipping loico is gonoiatod ly spiings (Fig. 13.51l.
Giippoi kinonatics using a singlo can nochanisn constituto only ono possillo ox-
anplo. Tho giippoi can lo dosignod in such a way that it can acconnodato an additional
socuiing cylindoi. This saloty cylindoi intonsilios tho iotontion loico in tho connoction
schono shown in Figuio 13.51c. In casos ol powoi lailuio only tho spiing loico ionains
activo. Howovoi, tho naintainod iotontion loico is lowoi than that availallo duiing noinal
opoiation. Foi tho connoction schono shown in Figuio 13.51d tho saloty cylindoi ionains
inopoiallo as long as conpiossod aii is appliod. In casos ol powoi lailuio tho spiing loico
is activatod to naintain tho giippoi jaws in position, alloit with ioducod loico.


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Using loth path and loico contiol, lion tho chaiactoiistic dopondonco ol tho lingoi
tiavol on giipping loico , it is possillo to dotoinino whothoi piohonsion has loon coi-
ioctly poiloinod. Tho giaph in Figuio 13.52 oxplains luithoi analysis ol tho dilloiont giip-
ping phasos.
Tho nonitoiing ol loico and path paianotois allows iocognition ol tho lollowing situa-
Piosonco ol woikpioco.
Excooding tho allowod woikpioco doloination.
Acquisition ol wiong woikpioco oi loss ol woikpioco.
Collision ol tho giippoi lingoi with an olstaclo.
Il tho woikpioco is not piosont thon lull pnounatic piossuio will not lo ioachod duiing
closuio loloio tho ond ol tho lingoi stioko is ioachod. Tho woikpioco doloination in tho
piossuio luild-up phaso is nonitoiod and linitod to a piodotoininod valuo. Upon ioach-
ing tho givon piohonsion linit loico tho lingoi tiavol is conpaiod with that poitaining to
tho woikpioco dinonsions. Duiing iolot notion, unoxpoctod changos in lingoi stioko aio
indicativo ol loss ol tho woikpioco. Collision ol tho lingois with olstaclos nay also lo do-
toctod ly nonitoiing ol lingoi loicos. Howovoi, not all possillo collisions aio olsoivallo
with such a sinplo nodol.

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

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This linal chaptoi onconpassos nany aioas ol iolotic piohonsion with tho holp ol a nun-
loi ol intoiosting caso studios. Tho oxisting patont litoiatuio givos tho inpiossion that
thoio is always sonothing iolating to giippois to lo invontod. This is not oxactly so lut
novoitholoss a lot ol olloits aio dovotod to:
Rolinonont oi sinplilication ol known solutions.
Tailoiing ol suitallo giippois to novol applications.
Extonding tho liold ol lloxillo applications.
Utilization ol physical ollocts in a now, olton suipiising way.
Many giippois iopiosont spocial solutions which aio dosignod loi a spocilic piohonsion
task, olton linitod to ono typo ol oljoct. At tho sano tino sono ol thoii dotails aio quito
sophisticatod and can lo usolul loi tho dovolopnont ol othoi giippois.

Tolonanipulatois aio dovicos oi tools diivon ly onoigy not oiiginating lion hunan (oi
othoi living souicos. Thoy suppoit tho usoi in tho nanual handling ol oljocts. Hand
guidod tolonanipulatois oiiginato lionnucloai tochnology whoio iadioactivo natoiials in
hot sognonts nust lo ionotoly handlod. Tho liist unilatoial nanipulatoi with nochani-
cal loico tiansnission and an oloctiically diivon nanipulatoi ain was dovolopod in
1947 at tho Aigonno National Laloiatoiy (ANL in Idaho Falls (USA. It was tho piocuisoi
loi tho nochanical nastoi-slavo tolonanipulatois and tho sulsoquontly dovolopod loico
nanipulatois with nicioswitch contiol. A tolonanipulatoi is contiollod ly a unit con-
noctod to tho load caiiying oquipnont and]oi ly diioct and consocutivo load guidanco. Foi
piohonsion ol tho load, a load handling attachnont oi giippoi is noodod.
Manipulatois onployod in luinituio nanulactuiing, civil onginooiing, and stoiago soc-
tois aio piinaiily hand guidod. Thoy aio olton ioloiiod to also as lalancois oi conponsa-
tois. In tho sinplost caso tho giippois aio nanually contiollod. Balancois autonatically
adjust tho apponding load against giavity duiing piohonsion so that tho load is hold in a
stato ol lovitation.

Ono distinguishos lotwoon:

Balancois (nanually diivon nanipulatoi ain.
Mastoi-slavo nanipulatois (nanually guidod.
Foico nanipulatois (loico loodlack contiollod.
Thoy aio typically poitinont to tho lollowing applications:
Rolativoly slow (low thioughput nanipulation ol voiy hoavy loads (possilly nany
hundiods ol kilogians.
Spocial conditions: o.g. shoitago ol spaco in stoiago aioas, oxplosivo atnosphoio,
oljocts having lulky oi lizaiio shapo.
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Thoio aio also nany spocial giippois with oi without intogiatod and contiollallo hand
axos. Guidod laigoly ly hand and oyo, tho tasks which can lo poiloinod with tolonanipu-
latois lack tho dogioo ol accuiacy and iopoatalility noinally oxpoiioncod with iolots.
Giippois loi lalancois aio in gonoial oquippod with hand axos loi tuining, iotation and]oi
pivoting ol oljocts. Motions ol tho oljoct can lo dolinod as lollows:
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All nanipulatois ioquiio giippois oi sinilai olloctois (load handling attachnont in
oidoi to lo olloctivo. Figuio 14.1 shows sono dosign oxanplos.
Figuio 14.2 shows sono vacuunsuction giippois loi tho handling ol packagos, concioto
and woodon paits. Moio dotailod piosontation can lo lound in j5-18|. Many applications
aio lound in pioduction linos ol tho autonotivo industiy. Tho giippois usod aio usually
tailoiod to tho lit tho oljocts, o.g. cai whools, cockpits, oxhaust systons, cai soats, cylindoi
hoads and auto lody paits liko doois and hatchlacks.
Figuio 14.3 shows tho hall soction ol a lalancoi giippoi which is oquippod loi tho han-
dling ol cylindoi hoads. Tho giippoi nakos contact with tho cast oljoct with contiing sock-
ots whilst sinultanoously oponing tho claws. Whonlilting tho oljoct thoy hook it lonoath a
noso. Tho giippoi can also giasp tho oljoct lion lonoath j14-1|.

Figuio 14.4 shows a giippoi loi tho lilting ol casos ol culoid loin. Tho giippoi lingois
can lo lockod to avoid accidontal oponing. Moioovoi, ly noans ol a wiist axis, tho ontiio
giippoi can lo pivotod into tho hoiizontal position.

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Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 14.5, is intondod loi oljocts ol vaiying (and vaiiallo
shapo: iocyclod caidloaid, papoi, toxtilos otc.
Sholl shapod giippois aio usod loi tho piohonsion ol lulk natoiials, gailago, stonos,
oaith otc. Applications includo tho ollshoio and undoisoa soctois, constiuction, donoli-
tion and landlill.

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Tho autonatod handling ol shoot notal paits has always loon a potontial taigot loi auto-
nation. Shaip odgos and luiis can oasily load to hand injuiios, laigoi paits cannot lo
handlod ly a singlo woikoi and iationalization (whothoi nanual oi autonatod ioducos
ovoiall costs. Conpaiod with othoi handling tasks tho piohonsion ol shoot stool con-
pononts oxhilits tho lollowing spocilic loatuios:
Highly linishod shoot notal conpononts can olton lo inpactivoly piohondod only at
tho odgos.
Whon liltod lion a linitod nunloi ol local piohonsion points, laigo aioa notal
shoots nay distoit iosulting in positional oiiois.
Whon liltod astiictivoly, laigo aioa notal shoots nay lo displacod iosulting in
positional oiiois.
Stool shoots aio olton luliicatod with oil oi gioaso to piovont coiiosion duiing stoiago
and consoquontly oxhilit iathoi low liictional coollicionts.
Thin notal shoots tond to cling togothoi and additional sopaiation nay lo ioquiiod
whon lilting thon.
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Foi tho handling ol hoavioi shoot notal paits, giippois whoso piohonsion piinciplo io-
sonllos that ol a pipo wionch aio olton usod. Ono advantago is that it is possillo to achiovo
laigo jawoponings loi iolativoly snall diivo stiokos. Tho giippoi jaws can lo plastic-coatod
in oidoi to piotoct tho oljoct suilacos, oi knuilod in casos whoio suilaco danago is ol littlo
consoquonco. Figuio 14.6 shows two oxanplos ol such dosigns.
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Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 14.7 oxhilits a laigo apoituio anglo. In oidoi to piohond
oljocts at thoii odgos it is sulliciont to havo only ono novallo jaw. Closuio ol tho giippoi
lingois is achiovod ly convoiting tho linoai stioko ol a pnounatic cylindoi to iotation. Ro-
tontion loico is piovidod ly spiing tonsion, tho pnounatic cylindoi noioly noving tho
giippoi lingoi ovoi tho doad contio ol tho nochanisn. In tho oponod stato tho novallo
giippoi jaw is naintainod at tho ond position ly tho tonsion spiing.
Figuio 14.8 shows a voiy iolust clanping nodulo which can lo diivon pnounatically oi
hydiaulically. In tho alovo oxanplo all giippoi jaws novo sinultanoously towaids tho

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woikpioco. It is possillo to guido tho giippoi jaw in such a way that it can achiovo piohon-
sion at points which aio cuivod. Othoi lioo spaco conditions will ioquiio dilloiont dosigns
with thoii own paiticulai kinonatics. Such giippois aio nainly usod loi hoavy woikpiocos
whoio laigo nononts aio involvod.
Togglo lovoi clanps nako intoiosting giippoi diivos and aio connoicially availallo as is
shown in tho dosign ol Figuio 14.9. Tho dopth ol novonont is adjustallo and tho ain is
actuatod ovoi a hall togglo lovoi whilo tho iod hoad is suppoitod ly tho housing.
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Tho lollowing tallo contains sono data on connoicially availallo clanps, soo Figuio
14.9 (-. Tho givon spocilications assuno an opoiating pnounatic piossuio ol 6 lai.

In tho piocoss ol clanping, tho nochanics passos thiough tho doad contio in which tho
piohonsion loico ioachos its thooiotical naxinun. Tho piohonsion toiquo with which tho
woikpioco is naintainod adjusts itsoll in tho post doad contio position (at 4 ol tho con-
noction link. Honco this dosign ol giippoi is soll-locking as shown in Figuio 14.10.


Tho giippoi piosontod in Figuio 14.11 oxhilits sinilai chaiactoiistics. Tho lasic giippoi,
without jaws, is shown in Figuio 14.11a. This giippoi has incionontal apoituio anglos ol
0 , 22 , 45 and 75 loi oach ol tho two giipping lingois. Tho nodulai constiuction allows
loi a gioat vaiioty ol nodilications.
Tho vaiioty ol possillo jaw dosigns is innonso. A low oxanplos aio shown in Figuio
14.11l. Il nocossaiy it is possillo to socuio tho lowoi lingoi (0 anglo and pivot only tho
uppoi lingoi ly up to 75 .
Figuio 14.12 shows an inpactivo giippoi nodulo. Tho socuiallo univoisal lall joint
nounting allows adjustnont to any ailitiaiy anglo. This can lo indisponsallo loi shoot
notal paits with liooloin suilacos. Tho oxchangoallo clanping spikos and sciows aio
usually nado lion haidonod notal j14-2|.
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Giippois dosignod loi laigo notal shoot handling can thonsolvos tuin out to lo voiy laigo.
Typical oxanplos aio to lo soon in tho autonotivo industiy. Honco tho ains which aio
oquippod with two-dinonsionally distiilutod suction cups aio olton ioloiiod to as suc-
tion spidois. Ono liist such oxanplo is illustiatod in Figuio 14.13.
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Tho ainol tho giippoi can lo iotatod ly 180 to allowappiopiiato soloction ol tho inpac-
tivo oi astiictivo giipping hoads. Tho inpactivo jaws aio usod whon tho llank shoot is to lo
insoitod into a pioss. Tho linishod pait is sonowhat lightoi and all suilacos aio considoiod
to lo sonsitivo to potontial danago. Consoquontly, altoi loaving tho pioss only vacuunsuc-
tion hoads aio usod. All giippoi conpononts aio dosignod as nodulos so that it is possillo
to natch tho giippoi conliguiation to tho woikpioco shapo and sizo.
Tho vacuun suction nodulo dopictod in Figuio 14.14 is also chaiactoiizod ly its lloxi-
lility ol positional adjustnont. Suction caps iapidly woai out and nust lo oasily ioplaco-
allo. This is ioalizod ly tho uso ol a quick ioloaso lutton.
Figuio 14.15 onco again shows tho conliguiation ol a suction spidoi assonllod lion
nodulai paits. Tho cantilovoi ain is connoctod to tho iolot ain ovoi a hand opoiatod ox-
chango syston. Cantilovoiod giippois sulstantially onlaigo tho opoiating iango ol tho
iolot. Tho hollow aluniniun piolilos ol tho cantilovoi ain houso tho nocossaiy con-
piossod aii linos.
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Whon notal shoots aio to lo liltod lion a stack, duo to suilaco tonsion, contaninants
otc. it is possillo that additional shoots will adhoio to tho liist. This can piosont piollons
in an autonatod syston whoio nanual intoivontion is undosiiallo. Dotails ol sopaiation
tochniquos, nany ol which aio also applicallo to notal shoots, can lo soon in Chaptoi 10.
Thoio aio a nunloi ol stiatogios which nay lo inplonontod:
Aiching ol tho shoot duiing piohonsion to oxpol suiplus shoots (soo Fig. 10.3.
Mochanical oi optical thicknoss noasuionont to dotoct suiplus shoots.

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And loi loiious natoiials:

Inductivo sonsois nay lo usod to noasuio tho oloctionagnotic piopoitios to dotoct
suiplus shoots (soo Chaptoi 11.
Using nagnotic loico to sopaiato suiplus shoots altoi acquisition using vacuun
Ono solution is shown in Figuio 14.16. Tho thicknoss tonplato is adjustallo and is pivotod
away altoi tho chock in oidoi to avoid intoiloionco altoi acquisition.

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A pioioquisito ol using vacuun suction tochniquos is low poiosity ol tho woikpioco nato-
iial. A giippoi suitallo loi tho handling ol laigo notal oi glass platos and conposito oi
plastic loaids is piosontod in Figuio 14.17. Each ol tho 6 suction cups has its own ojoctoi
and tho conploto syston is capallo ol gonoiating piohonsion loicos as laigo as 1500 N.
Sopaiation ol liko paits lion ono anothoi was discussod in Chaptoi 10. In sono casos
luithoi opoiations, intogiatod with tho piohonsion piocoss, nay lo ioquiiod.
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-- - -
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- - -
Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 14.18 is intondod loi tho acquisition and sopaiation ol laigo
caiton llanks which aio piovidod lying llat in a stack.
Following succosslul piohonsion, tho oxtoinal suction caps aio pivotod inwaids so that
tho caiton sidos aio sot upiight. Foi this puiposo tho pivotod suction hoads aio aiiangod at
all loui sidos ol tho laso plato. Tho soquonco piocoods as lollows:
- -

Sopaiation ol ono caiton llank lion tho stack,

Sotting all loui sidos upiight at 90 and
Doposition ol tho loldod caiton into tho iotainoi ol tho packaging lino.
Finally, tho sano giippoi is usod to piohond tho pioducts and insoit thon into tho
caiton. In this caso tho pivotod suction hoads ionain in thoii upiight position.

- -
Packagos and caitons aio chaiactoiizod ly thoii piodoninantly culoid shapos. What
dillois is thoii sizo, nass and suilaco piopoitios (loil, wood, plastic, caidloaid. Whon
packing, stacking oi iolocating tho piocos it nust lo docidod which suilacos (sidos aio
nost suitallo loi piohonsion. Il astiictivo piohonsion can lo achiovod sololy lion alovo
thon tho task is iolativoly sinplo and all opoiations can lo poiloinod in an ailitiaiy
soquonco as shown in Figuio 14.19a.
Hoavy oljocts nay ioquiio astiictivo piohonsion on up to thioo suilacos. Howovoi, in-
pactivo giippois nay also lo a possillo altoinativo as long as accoss to tho suilacos is
possillo. Tho uso ol giippoi jaws nado lion thin and pioloially llat shoot (haid-
chioniunplatod stool aio holplul in such ciicunstancos. Foik and clanping giippois aio
not usually suitallo loi do-pallotizing locauso ol accoss piollons.
Containois, loxos and casos ol widoly vaiying sizos can lo a piollon whoio inpactivo
nothods alono aio to lo usod. Suitallo piohonsion loico is iaioly availallo in casos ol ox-
tionoly laigo giippoi stioko. Howovoi, inpactivo piohonsion can lo augnontod with
astiiction (usually vacuunsuction as illustiatod in Figuio 14.20. Each giipping piocoduio
logins with positioning ol tho jaws which is thon lollowod ly vacuun suction. Sinco tho
novonont ol tho giippoi lingois is nochanically couplod, tho nass contio ol giavity
always ionains in tho niddlo.



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- - -
- -
Sinilai to tho dosign in Figuio 14.20, tho giippoi shown in Figuio 14.21 is chaiactoiizod
ly a voiy laigo stioko linitod only ly tho stioko ol tho doullo acting pnounatic cylindoi.
This allows tho handling ol a laigo iango ol packago dinonsions with loth oxtoinal and in-
toinal giip. In addition, tho giippoi jaws can lo displacod along a holo giid (oi tooth
Giippois intondod loi tho handling ol laigo voluno oljocts nust not nocossaiily uso
long stioko actuatois. Ono altoinativo usos pnounatic nusclos. In tho oxanplo shown in
Figuio 14.22a tho nusclos aio doloinod ovoi tho pull iod with tho iulloi iolloi which pio-
ducos piohonsion.


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- -

- -
Tho giippoi dosign is sinplo, ol nodulai constiuction and is lightoi than sinilai do-
signs onploying pnounatic oi hydiaulic cylindois. Thoio is no diioct contact lotwoon
haid notal paits and tho oljocts suilacos. This has distinct advantagos in tho handling ol
oljocts with sonsitivo suilacos, o.g. coatod, polishod, piintod otc.
Foi tho giippoi shown in Figuio 14.22l, tho loico ol tho nusclo is tiansloinod into lin-
goi notion. Such pnounatic nusclos can withstand at loast 10 nillion load oxchango
- -- -

-- - - -
- -

cyclos. Fuithoi advantagos aio lowoi powoi consunption than loi conpaiallo cylindois
and, locauso thoy aio hoinotically soalod, insonsitivity to diit, watoi and dust ingioss.
Figuio 14.23 shows a now piinciplo loi tho piohonsion ol iogulai culoid shapod oljocts
sinilai to tho iolloi giippoi in Figuio 10.14. Tho giippoi consists ol two piohonsivo sui-
lacos conpiising high liictional coolliciont lolts. Whon tho giippoi is appliod to tho oi-
thogonal suilacos ol an oljoct, tho iovoiso sidos ol tho lolts pioduco a liictional loico
which pulls tho oljoct into tho ioctangulai coinoi. To sono oxtont tho tiaction loicos can
lo contiollod ly tho diivo notoi toiquos.

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- - -
- -
- -

Tho giippoi is suitallo loi tho giasping ol packagos which aio stackod oi aiiangod on a
pallot with littlo intoinodiato spaco. As pioviously shown, this piinciplo can also lo ap-
pliod to sacks, tulos and oljocts with sphoiical shapo up to 10 kg.
Figuio 14.24 illustiatos a caiton giippoi iosonlling a loik-lilt nochanisn. Tho llat loik
is insoitod undoi tho caiton. Tho pnounatic cylindoi diivos tho loik luithoi until tho ol-
joct is pushod against tho stop ol tho laso plato. In addition, tho anglo ol tho loik is ad-
justallo ovoi tho loui joint linkago. Tho acquiiod oljoct is thon socuiod ly downwaid
novonont ol tho piossuio pads connoctod to snall pnounatic cylindois. A doullo-chock
valvo, intogiatod into tho conpiossod aii ciicuit, onsuios iotontion in casos ol suddon
powoi lailuio.

- -
Many dilloiont giippois havo alioady loon dovolopod loi tho handling ol laiiols and gas
cylindois. Thoy can lo giaspod at tho sholl suilaco, tho covoi suilaco oi, il availallo, at ono
ol tho ioinloicing soans (soo Fig. 3.119.
Figuio 14.25 shows an inpactivo giippoi dosignod spocilically loi tho handling ol hoavy
cylindiical oljocts. Two jaws, dosignod with laigo aioa in oidoi to koop tho suilaco pios-
suio low, aio diivon lion a singlo pnounatic oi hydiaulic cylindoi.


In tho oxanplo givon in Figuio 14.25 tho giippoi nay lo attachod to a hand guidod
jointod-ain nanipulatoi. This is also tho caso loi tho giippoi piosontod in Figuio 14.26
which can only giasp tho laiiols lion a hoiizontal position. This is ioalizod ly tho claw
lingois with thioo point contact. Tho jaws aio oxchangoallo and tho llat cushionod jaws
shown in Figuio 14.26a aio intondod loi tho piohonsion ol culoid shapod oljocts.
Oljocts aio autonatically clanpod thiough tho iodiioction ol nass loicos duiing lilting.
Ahook is ongagod on doposit which naintains tho jaws in tho opon stato ioady loi tho noxt
acquisition and lilting opoiation.
- -

Ono oxanplo loi tho piohonsion ol laiiols with vacuun has alioady loon piosontod in
Figuio 5.29. Giippois, conpiising sovoial distiilutod singlo suction cups oi ono cuivod
suction plato, can also lo usod loi astiictivo piohonsion at tho sholl suilaco. Howovoi, tho
lattoi is applicallo only loi a dolinod laiiol iadius. Tho giippois dononstiatod in Figuio
14.27 aio also noinally attachod to hand guidod nanipulatois.
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- -


- -



- -

- -
Tho giippoi piosontod in Figuio 14.28 was dosignod loi tho soiial ionoval ol tulos lion a
convoyoi lino. Tho giipping hook lai is positionod ly giippoi closuio thiough a pnou-
natic cylindoi thus piohonding tho tulos intoinally. It is inpoitant that tho oljocts aio
piosontod ly tho convoyoi at intoivals coiiosponding to tho sopaiation ol tho giipping
- -

- -
Tho handling ol wiio coils piosonts a nunloi ol piollons laigoly dopondant on tho natuio
ol tho linishod pioduct and thoii iospoctivo custonois. Coils ol stool wiio intondod loi gai-
don loncos ioquiio loss attontion to danago avoidanco than thinly insulatod coppoi wiio
coils awaitod ly an oloctiic notoi nanulactuioi.
Givon tho loinoi sconaiio, as can lo soon lion tho giippois dopictod in Figuio 14.29
loth oxtoinal and intoinal piohonsion ol tho coils is oasily ioalisod. Both giippois havo a
stop loi actuation ol tho jaws on contact with tho coil and an aiiost hook in oidoi to nain-
tain tho giippoi jaws opon duiing doposit. Rotontion is achiovod thiough tho oljoct nass
loicos. Tho nochanics ol an inpactivo giippoi dosign intondod loi tho handling ol voiti-
cally oiiontatod coils can lo soon in Figuio 3.118 in Chaptoi 3.



- -

- -
Thin and naiiownotal lands with thicknossos as lowas 0.1 nnaio iollod onto loinois at
tho ond ol tho pioduction piocoss. Tho lilting with a loop and ciano can causo danago to
tho land as a iosult ol tho coil nass (up to 1000 kg. As a iulo tho coils aio suppliod in tho
hoiizontal position. It oidoi to lo loadod on sito thoy nust lo takon into a docoiloi, lut liist
iotatod ly 90 loloio loing dolivoiod onto tho docoiloi ains. This piocoduio should not
load to toloscoping (slipping ol sopaiato layois lion tho sloovo ol tho coil. Tho docoiloi
ain should lo lully insoitod into tho innoi dianotoi ol tho coil.
Vacuun suction hoads havo piovod to lo an alnost idoal piohonsion nothod loi this
puiposo sinco thoy giasp tho sloovo ly a plano syston ol suction platos. Ono oxanplo ol
such oquipnont is shown in Figuio 14.30. Tho pivoting ly 90 in this oxanplo is ioalizod
nanually though pnounatically diivon dovicos also oxist. Tho suction hoads can lo ad-
justod to tho coil dianotoi. Il tho sloovo is not wound with sulliciont donsity tho iosulting
loakago can load to sulstantial ioduction in iotontion loico.

- ---


- -

-- -


- -

Figuio 14.31 shows a pnounatically diivon giippoi loi which tho oljoct, in this caso an
iioncasting, is liist contiod and thonclanpod. Tho plato with tho contiing olononts can lo
dosignod as an oxchangoallo conponont in oidoi to havo gioatoi lloxilility in handling
- -



dilloiont shapod oljocts. Contiing within tho giippoi is nocossaiy whon a nounting pio-
coduio lollows oi whon doposition which ioquiios oxact positioning with iospoct to tho
(TCP is ioquiiod.
Voiy hoavy iion castings usually ioquiio giippoi actuation ly noans ol hydiaulic, iathoi
than pnounatic, cylindois.

-- -
Dashloaids aio iiiogulai, pio-shapod and lulky stiuctuios which olton nako dillicultios
loi handling and nanipulation oquipnont. Toloiancos can lo iathoi iough and nounting

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- -

ioquiios sovoial opoiatois who nust jugglo with a nass ol alout 40 kg in oidoi to install it
without danago. A handling dovico with a laigo dogioo ol position conponsation ollois
distinct advantagos. Tho giippoi capallo ol installing dashloaids within 2 ninutos, whilo
tho autonolilo lody is in notion j5-18|, is shown in Figuio 14.32.

- -
Tho giippoi dosignod loi watoi punps shown in Fig. 14.33 utilizos two giipping piin-
Shapo-natchod undoihooking with a nandiol.
Astiictivo piohonsion ol tho notoi lan housing thiough vacuun suction.
Tho giipping oigans aio aiiangod with a possilility loi adjustnont so that tho nass contio
ol giavity can lo alignod with iospoct to tho voitical axis ol tho handling dovico. It is also
possillo to giasp othoi watoi punps ol dilloiont sizos.
Tho switching ol vacuun is initiatod at tho soivico lovoi and tho load is guidod nanually
with tho soivico handlo. Tho soivico ol tho giippoi is socuiod in such a way that tho load is
ioloasod lion tho giippoi only il it has alioady loon dopositod on a stallo suppoit.

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- - -
Suction lollows aio chaiactoiizod ly laigo nolility and thoii capalility to adapt to paits
with unovon oi dilloiing suilaco piolilos. Thoii intiinsic susponsion onsuios hoight con-
ponsation. Tho allowod inclination anglo , loi tho caso piosontod in Figuio 14.34, can lo
lotwoon 5 and 40 .
- -

With tho holp ol stops it is possillo to oiiontato a woikpioco with an inclinod piohonsion
suilacos to a hoiizontal position, as illustiatod in Figuio 14.35. In a sinilai way it is
possillo to altoi tho alignnont ol a stiaight woikpioco to a givon anglo.

- --
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- -


In tho stono and coianics industiy it is olton nocossaiy to nanipulato singlo oi sovoial
gioupod oljocts. As a iulo liicks nust lo handlod in soiios, loi oxanplo, as thoy cono
lion tho pioduction lino in a closo soquonco on a plato convoyoi. Owing to tho low toloi-
anco ol tho liicks, tho handling ol sovoial piocos togothoi is possillo only il toloianco con-
ponsation is availallo oi il sovoial indopondont giippois aio aiiangod in a iow. This is
shown in a sinpliliod loin in Figuio 14.36.
Ono ol tho giippoi jaws is closod in such a way that tho liicks aio giaspod in a stiaight
lino. Now thoy can lo dopositod in soiios on a llat pallot loi shipping. This giippoi is usod
piinaiily in hand guidod nanipulatois (lalancois.


A high dogioo ol lloxilility is ioquiiod whon oljocts, which ioquiio oxact positioning, aio
dolivoiod ly a convoyoi without any spatial oidoi. Such is tho caso with wax candlos which
nust lo loadod into llistoi packagos. Piohonsion lion a iunning convoyoi ioquiios an
inago iocognition syston. Tho canoia is nountod alovo tho convoyoi and piovidos inloi-
nation on tho position and oiiontation ol tho oljocts. Tho giippoi shown in Figuio 14.37
picks up livo oljocts ono ly ono and iotatos thon thiough tho ioquiiod anglo loloio
dopositing all piocos sinultanoously in a iow into llistoi pack loins. Tho anglo ol iotation
nust lo adjustod loloio tho coiiosponding suction cup dosconds. Tho suction cups aio
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-- -
- -

attachod to standaid singlo-action cylindois with skow piovontion (koyod oi oval piston
iods and oach can lo diivon indopondontly ol tho othois.

Figuio 14.38 shows a pnounatic giippoi loi tho sinultanoous piohonsion ol two dinon-
sional aiiays ol lottlos. Tho lottlos aio hold in iows ly noans ol an inllatallo olastonoi
piossuio cushion, a conplianco piinciplo alioady piosontod in Figuio 13.38 in Chaptoi 13.
Duiing inllation, tho olastonoi piolilo conplios with tho oljoct loin thus dovoloping
tho ioquiiod piohonsion loico. Tho piinciplo is iolativoly olliciont lut positional accuiacy
is at lost nodoiato.

Figuio 14.39 shows a giippoi which is capallo ol conponsating loi paiticulaily laigo
dilloioncos in hoight. This allows tho soiial piohonsion ol iolativoly light paits (natuial
pioducts liko potatoos oi oggs whoso sizos and shapos dilloi considoially (within coitain
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- -

Thoio aio nany pioducts which aio packod and shippod in sacks. Thoso can includo plas-
tic pollots, giain, powdoiod chonical pioducts such as loitilizois and luilding natoiials
otc. Noinally piosontod in a hoiizontal position on pallots oi convoyois, thoy can lo
handlod using tho lollowing piohonsion tochniquos (Fig. 14.40:
Astiictivo piohonsion using vacuun suction. This inplios that tho suilaco is loak-piool
undoi vacuun. Tho suction hoads can lo dosignod with a voiy laigo aioas (low piossuio
suction hoads in oidoi to avoid soloctivo loading (saloty lactoi ol = 2.5 in tho
piohonsion loico calculations.
Inpactivo piohonsion using platos which giasp lion lolow. Tho lino-shapod contact
with tho platos onsuios stalility lut loi this tho sack and its contonts nust also oxhilit
sono intiinsic stalility.
Inpactivo piohonsion using lingois which giasp lion lolow. Tho lingois aio lont loi
giipping o.g. with a wiio coid. Howovoi, this nothod is not suitallo loi solt loil sacks.
Holding with loiks. This nothod is ospocially usolul loi acquisition lion noving
convoyoi lolts.
Figuio 14.41 shows tho handling ol loitilizoi sacks which aio takon lion a iolloi convoyoi
and sulsoquontly stackod on pallots. Tho nunloi ol loiks doponds on tho sopaiation ol
tho tianspoit iollois.
- - -
- - - -


- -

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Tho sack giippoi shown in Figuio 14.42 also opoiatos with loiks. Tho sack is hold ly ox-
tondallo suction caps duiing notion. Tho intogiatod ojoction plato can slido tho sack lion
tho loiks at tho intondod dostination. This is inpoitant whon tho sacks aio to lo stackod in
layois onto pallots.
Figuio 14.43 onco again shows tho piinciplo ol tho sack giippoi lion Figuio 14.40l
whoioas now tho suppoit platos (holding claws aio actuatod ly an oloctiic notoi at tho
point ol contact with tho oljoct. An oloctiic notoi with a iotaiy to linoai tianslation goai
soivos as a diivo. Tho loico is inplonontod ovoi tho togglo lovoi sopaiation and paitly
conponsatos loi giavitational loico
]2. Tho lollowing iolation is valid:


Tho oloctiic notois nood not pioduco any diiving loico onco tho position loi socuio oljoct
piohonsion is ioachod. Tho load will lo hold loi unlinitod tino without powoi consunp-
tion ly tho soll-locking ol tho sliding thioad spindlo.

- -

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- -
An oxanplo ol tho autonatod nounting ol O-iings was liiolly intioducod at tho ond ol
Chaptoi 12. O-iings aio usod piinaiily loi pnounatic oi hydiaulic soaling at an intoilaco
lotwoon two solid suilacos. Thoy can lo loadod with tho holp ol a viliatoiy lowl loodoi oi
sinply iandonly piosontod.
In oidoi to nount an O-iing into a channol, tho innoi dianotoi ol tho iing nust liist lo
oxpandod duiing nounting to tho oxtont that it is sonowhat laigoi than tho outoi dianotoi
ol tho spindlo on which tho O-iing is piosontod to tho channol. Possillo piocoduios to ioal-
izo this includo o.g. conical nounting sloovos oi giippois with nany lingois. Tho giasping
oigans oxpand tho iing in a polygonal nannoi as shown in Figuio 14.44.
Tho actual nounting phaso can login altoi tho oxpansion ol tho O-iing. It can piocood
in a succossivo nannoi, soction ly soction, oi sinultanoously with a singlo handling do-
vico, i.o. tho ontiio poiinotoi ol tho O-iing is sinultanoously liought into tho nounting
channol j14-3|.
Figuio 14.45 shows tho dosign ol a 6-point giippoi. Two pnounatic cylindois which aio
indopondontly contiollod tako ovoi tho two tasks, oxpansion and ionoval ol tho O-iing
lion tho giippoi, loaving it in tho spindlo channol. With appiopiiatoly dosignod giippoi
lingois it is also possillo to nount quad-iings, gioovo-iings, llat soaling iings oi iulloi
- -

- -

spouts autonatically. Tho adjustallo oxpansion stioko is typically lotwoon 3 and 6 nnpoi
lingoi with giipping loicos ioquiiod loi oponing as high as 300 N.
Laigo soaling iings with dianotois as laigo as 150 nn ioquiio tho uso ol a 10-point
giippoi which can dovolop oxpansion loicos as high as 2000 Nwith tako oll stiokos ol up to
15 nn.
Figuio 14.46a shows onco again tho polygonal oxpansion ol an O-iing ly noans ol
6 giippoi lingois. Ronoval lion tho lingois alovo tho channol lollows and tho O-iing can
lo iollod into tho giovo in a sinilai way to tho nounting ol a cai tiio (Fig. 14.46l.
- - - -
- - --
- -
- - -

- -

Figuio 14.46c shows tho nounting soquonco with an 8-lingoi giippoi. Tho lingois aio
pullod lack in two stops. Initially only 4 lingois aio diawn lack and tho O-iing sits at 4
points in tho channol. Thon tho ionaining 4 lingois aio pullod lack so that tho O-iing io-
nains conplotoly in tho woik suilaco channol.

Although aitilicial hands in tho loin ol piothosos havo loon aiound sinco voiy oaily tinos
(soo Soction 1.4, iolot giippois usod in nodicino and suigoiy loina snall nicho aioa that
has slowly dovolopod ovoi tho past twonty yoais. A nunloi ol tho snalloi dovicos havo al-
ioady loon nontionod in Chaptoi 7. This linal soction piovidos a liiol ovoiviow togothoi
with sono intoiosting iosoaich iosults.
Tho histoiy ol iolotics in suigoiy is punctuatod with spoctaculai succossos and, olton
noio pullicisod, lailuios. In alnost all casos tho lailuios havo loon laigoly tho iosult ol tho
wiong choico ol iolot. A possillo oxanplo is tho RoloDoc j14-4| piojoct in which a
SCARA(cylindiical woik onvolopo iolot was usod loi tasks which would havo loon lottoi
caiiiod out using a lully aiticulatod 6-axis (sphoiical woik onvolopo iolot. On tho othoi
hand this piollon was avoidod in tho REPOROBO piojoct lion tho outsot j14-5|. Olton
tho lack ol doxtoiity ol tho giippoi is llanod whon in ioality tho nanipulatoi is inadoquato
oi tho giippoi lingois lack tho nocossaiy piopoitional contiol j14-6|.
Tho vast najoiity ol iolot giippois usod in suigoiy aio inpactivo. In nany nicio-
suigoiy applications thoy cono into diioct contact with oigans, tissuo, aitoiios otc. On a
laigoi scalo, loi oxanplo in accidont suigoiy and lono iopositioning applications, it is tho
lixtuios which aio hold ly iolot iathoi than tho pationt diioctly.
Anoxcollont oxanplo is ina typical lonui oi hunoius liactuio whoio tho two onds ol tho
lioak nust lo piocisoly iopositionod and socuiod loi a poiiod ol tino. Convontionally, two
stainloss stool pins aio loiod thiough tho llosh and into tho lonos at loth sidos ol tho liac-
tuio. Thoso aio thon connoctod togothoi ly noans ol cailon lilio iods. Nowloth thoso lix-
tuios nust lo novod iolativo to ono anothoi in oidoi to piocisoly ioposition tho two lono
As can lo inaginod, woiking against tho olasticity ol tissuo and contiactod nusclo, this
ioquiios a dogioo ol physical stiongth lion tho nodical poisonnol involvod. Moasuio-
nonts on livo pationts havo iovoalod loicos ol up to a naxinun ol 300 Nowton nay lo io-
quiiod, which is also tho plastic doloination linit loi tho pins j14-7|. Unloitunatoly,
nanual iopositioning oiiois ol up to 20 havo loon iopoitod in tho litoiatuio
j14-8 to 14-10|. This lactoi alono piovidos a voiy good notivation loi tho potontial uso ol
Altoi iopositioning ol tho two lono sognonts loth lixtuios aio connoctod togothoi ly a
thiid iod as shown in Figuio 14.47. Altoi this, socuiing is conplotod ly tho insoition ol a
long stainloss stool splino thiough tho naiiow channol in tho lono.
In a iolotic syston, oithoi ono ol tho lixtuios nust lo innolilizod ly socuiing it to tho
opoiating tallo oi novonont sonsois nust piovido tho nocossaiy kinonatic data to onallo
tho iolot to lollow tho novononts ol tho pationt. Tho iolot nust thon nanipulato tho soc-
- -

ond lixtuio in oidoi to liing tho two onds ol tho liactuio piocisoly togothoi to within a liac-
tion ol a dogioo j14-11|.
Bocauso ol piollons associatod with potontial post-piohonsion slippago it is nocossaiy
to giip diioctly at tho intoisoction lotwoon tho cailon lilio iods and tho stainloss stool pins
in oidoi to guaiantoo stallo piohonsion.
As can lo soon lion Figuio 14.48, tho cailon lilio iod, stainloss stool pin and tho con-
nocting clanp all iun oithogonal to ono anothoi. This is usod to advantago ly nachining
tho giippoi lingois to onsuio a tight lit thus olininating any dangoi ol slippago. Tho piico
is a highoi donand on tho iolots alility to accuiatoly position tho ondolloctoi a lactoi
which lalls woll withintho capalilitios ol nost nodoinindustiial iolots. Tho lasic giippoi
nodulo usod in tho conliguiationol Figuio 14.48 is a pnounatically diivon KSP64,
with low play sinilai to that shown in Figuio 3.49, capallo ol a 2500 Nowton clanping
loico j14-12|.
- -
A loico-toiquo sonsoi ol tho typo discussod in Chaptoi 11 is situatod lotwoon tho iolot
giippoi and wiist. This givos waining ol laigo loicos and toiquos should thoy stait to ap-
pioach tho allowod linits. Should it not lo possillo (loi whatovoi ioason to innolilizo
ono ol tho lixtuios ly socuiing it to tho opoiating tallo thon any novononts ol tho anostho-
tisod pationt duiing tho opoiation nust lo conponsatod loi ly novonont ol tho iolot.
Consoquontly, tho iolot nust lo capallo ol lollowing such snall novononts in ioal-tino.
Foi this ioason sono loin ol navigation syston is noodod. Acoustic, inlia-iod and canoia
systons all havo a connon piollon in that thoii aioa ol noasuionont nay suddonly lo
olscuiod ly poisonoll oi oquipnont. Expoiinonts with tilt sonsois nountod diioctly to
ono sido ol tho liactuio havo shown lai noio pionising iosults in this iospoct j14-11|.
Though nany voiy intiusivo tools aio connonly usod in suigoiy, low tiuly ingiossivo
giippois aio iolovant. Excoptions includo noodlo lasod systons, ono oxanplo ol which has
loon pioposod loi uso in oyo suigoiy j14-13|. Howovoi, nuch iosoaich woik ionains to lo
dono in this diioction loloio any connoicially availallo dovicos aio likoly to ioach tho
opoiating thoatio.

- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

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- G. J. Monknan, S. Hosso, R. Stoinnann, H. Schunk

Copyiight 2007 WILEY-VCH Voilag GnlH & Co. KGaA, Woinhoin
ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7

aliasion 25
accoloiation 53
accoss natiix 29
accossilility 27ll
acotono 394
acoustic coupling 250
acoustic giippois 21
acoustic iosonatoi 250
acoustic sonsois 317
acoustic wavo 21
aciylonitiilo lutadiono 199
actuatoi 247
adaptallo giippois 379
adaptivo 259
adaptivo giippois 28, 197
adaptivo giipping 325
adhosivo olastonois 232
adhosivo iolloi 306
adhosivo tapo 227, 230
adhosivo tapo giippoi 230l
adhosivos 227
agiicultuial autonation 367, 393
aii lags 384
aii cushion 22
aii llow 21
aii llow giippois 295
aii jot giippois 202
aii loakago dotoctois 310
aii tuilulonco 21
aliphatic oil 228
aluniniun 240, 283, 297, 356
anliont light 315
AML 328
anpoulos 254
andioids 16
anglo lovoi 103, 106, 335
angulai accoloiation 53
angulai giippois 136
angulai inpactivo giippois 122
angulai volocity 53, 57
anthiopoid soivopnounatic hand 277
anthioponoiphic 263
anthioponoiphic hands 257
anti-slip 88
appioach sonsois 313
aiachnia 278
Aigonno National Laloiatoiy 279
aiiost hook 419
aitilicial hands 16
aitilicial intolligonco 313
aitilicial nouion notwoik 273
astiictivo 3, 19, 36, 48, 61, 216, 238, 248, 293,
astiictivo giippois 176, 409, 412
astiictivo niciogiippois 248
astiictivo piohonsion 169, 413, 422
atiaunatic giippois 241
autonatic oxchango 60, 348, 350, 353, 358
autonatic piohonsion 19
autonatic io-tooling 341
axial giipping 40

lacklash 117
lag and sack giippois 426
lalancois 402l, 423
lall loaiings 106
lall locking 361
lall spindlo goais 276
lall-and-sockot 12
land spiing 144
lai codo 388
laiiol odgo giippois 151
laiiols 417
laiiot hand 262
lasic jaw 3
layonot 357
Bolgiado hand 270

lollows 31, 173, 184, 422

linotal 145
linotallic stiip 240
linaiy sonsois 31, 327
lio-hands 15
lionochanics 278
listallo valvos 329
llock copolynoi 228
llow noulding 167
Bologna 268
looloan 327
lottlo giippoi 387
lottlo pallotization 425
lottlos 254, 425
lounco 52
- 267
Boylos law 198
liako 75
liass 297
liicks 423
liushos 162
lulk wasto 292
lutyl iulloi 228

cantilovoiod giippois 410

capacitanco 217, 223, 247
capacitivo pioxinity sonsois 314
capillaiy 248, 250
capillaiy piossuio 251
cailon 213
cailon dioxido 232
cailon lilio 62, 164, 189, 220, 313, 430
caidloaid 405
caipal 12
caiton giippoi 417
caitons 184
caso studios 401
caso-haidonod 26
catchos 355, 362
CCD canoia 249, 316l
contiilugal 47, 53
contiing olononts 48
contiing giippois 131, 242
coianic nagnots 205
coianics 423
can goai 76
chain 256, 259
chanloiod shalt 368
chaigo 221
chonical 62
chonical adhosion 4, 19, 227
chloiopiono 394
choko valvos 86
chioniun 213
chucks 19
clasping 253
cloanioon 22, 25, 66l, 244, 263
CluPickoi 162
colalt 212
coolliciont ol liiction 52, 149, 303, 377
cognitivo iolotics 326
cohosivo loicos 222, 250
collot 19, 118, 132
collot chuck 386
collision 396, 400
collision avoidanco 28
collision dotoction 320, 396l
collision piotoction 347, 396
collision spaco 340
conlinod giip 40
conplianco 36, 302, 367, 381
conpliant nochanisn 243, 257
conpliant piohonsion 388
conposito giippois 342
conposito natoiial 412
concoitina 374
concioto 403
conloinal 89
conloinal giippois 60
conical lovoi 93
conical suction cup 180
constiiction 253
contact points 21
contact piossuio 176
contactloss 22
containois 413
contigutivo 3, 5, 19, 37, 61, 227, 306, 344
contigutivo giippoi 231
contigutivo piohonsion 227
continuous sonsing 327
contoui natching 260, 263
contiollod (activo nating 368
contiollod ioloaso 250
coppoi 213
coppoi wiio 419
coiiolis 47, 52
coiiugatod jaw 241
Coulonl liiction 50
countoisunk holos 368
coupling olononts 350
ciank 117
ciinping 363
cioss-low 93
ciyogonic 37
ciystal stiuctuio 213, 220

can slido 103

Cuiio point 205
cuiiont donsity 221
cylindiical oljocts 417

5]2-diioctional valvos 329

Dainstadt hand 273
dashloaids 421
dataglovo 273
DC notois 79
doad zono 145
dolinitions 2
dogioo ol lioodon 96
dolicato natoiials 388, 393
do-pallotizing 413
doxtious hand 5, 17, 268, 312
dioloctiic 216, 221
dioloctiic iolaxation 221
dilloiontial goai 285, 288
diioctional valvos 329
discioto sonsing 310, 327
disk spiings 115
distanco noasuionont 318
DLR giippoi 273
DLR hand II 275
doullo cono RCC 372
doullo giippoi 333, 335, 347, 349
doullo-piisnatic 40
dovotail piolilo 356
diivos 75
dioplot 250
diy liiction 50
dual giippois 333
Duian glass 381
dwoll tino 229, 233
dynanic piossuio nozzlos 373

occontiic loads 282

ocho soundois 317
ollicioncy 192
oggs 425
ojoction tiajoctoiy 249
ojoctois 171, 174, 192
olastic lingois 144
olastic jaw coatings 377
olastic nonliano 383
olastic nodulus 394
olastic tonsion lands 254
olasticity 23, 26, 132, 176, 180, 228, 246
olastonoi 228, 254
olastonoi lingoi 266
olastonoi links 369
olastonoi spiings 371
olastonoiic suction cups 169
oloctoadhosion 36
oloctiot 216
oloctiic displaconont 217
oloctiic liold stiongth 217, 221
oloctiic notois 79
oloctiic polaiisation 217
oloctiic suscoptilility 217
oloctiical lioakdown 245
oloctiical dischaigo 223
oloctiical polaiisation 220
oloctiical iosistanco 210, 221l
oloctioadhosion 5, 62, 169, 216, 220, 225,
238, 249, 297
oloctioadhosivo loico 218
oloctioadhosivo niciogiippoi 249
oloctioconductivo iulloi 271
oloctiodynanic 245
oloctioinnolilisation 223
oloctionagnot 213, 246
oloctionagnotic giippois 207, 212
oloctionagnotic tiansducois 317
oloctionochanical diivos 79
oloctionyogians 269
oloctio-optical nicioconpononts 249
oloctioihoological lluids 394
oloctiostatic 241, 245
oloctiostatic attiaction 246
oloctiostatic chucks 216
oloctiostatic iolloi giippoi 305
oloctiostatic voltnotoi 246
oloctiostiiction 92
onliacing 253l
ond olloctoi 5
ondoscopo 241
onoigy donsity 245
Einst-ain 270
oiioi iocovoiy 397
othanol 250
Euloi 279
ovacuation tino 193
oxchangoallo lingois 379
oxtondod jaw 5
oxtoinal piohonsion 40l, 101, 342, 387

laliic 344
Fail-Salo-Piinciplo 362
lailuio nitigation 396
lailuio saloty 397
Faiaday oquation 221
lonui 430
loiionagnotic 31, 215, 298

loitilizois 426
lilious 161
lilious natoiials 249, 299
lingoi oxchango systons 362
lingoi position noasuionont 323
3-lingoi giippoi 153
4-lingoi giippoi 119, 157, 342
5-lingoi giippois 259
livo-lingoi hand 263, 277
lixod giipping point 27
lloxilility 59
lloxillo lands 256
lloxillo nanipulatois 245
lloxillo natoiial joints 264
lloxillo natoiials 161
lloxillo oljocts 426
llocculonco 162, 232, 306
llowgiaph 327
lluid nusclo 15, 86, 386
lluoiino iulloi 176
llux divoision 204
llywhool diodo 210
loan 161
lold-lack cuiiont liniting 80
loilidon zonos 28
loico loodlack 331
loico nanipulatois 402
loico natching 23, 69, 349
loico sonsois 276
loico-toiquo noasuionont 320, 347, 432
loiks 426
loinod jaws 39
liactuio 430
liaying 300
liiction coolliciont 54, 109, 178, 181
liictional chaiging 224
liictional loicos 23, 53
FZK hand 277

goai 75
Gilu 278
Gilu livo-lingoi hand 312
glass lilio 62, 161, 331
glass shoot 412
gluos 19
giain 426
gianulo lillod lag 393
giasping 3
giavitational loico 53
giids 120
giippoi axis 5
giippoi classilication 61
giippoi contiol 328
giippoi oxchango 338, 348
giippoi lingoi 6, 138
giippoi jaw 6
giippois 1l, 5
giipping aioa 6
giipping cyclo 52
giipping hooks 418
giipping stiatogy 27
giipping suilaco 6
guidanco goais 76
guidoway 109

hacklos 19, 36, 164, 302

haii lolliclo iocoptois 309
hall axis 339
hall 229
hall-sonsoi 324l
hand axos 279
hand guidod nanipulatois 22, 354, 357, 361,
386, 418, 423
handling ol castings 420
hand-opoiatod nanipulatois 151
haidwaio intoiiupts 328
hainonic diivo 273
Hoitzian piossuio 25
hoxapod 245, 248
high lovol piogianning languago 327
HI-T hand 271
Hitachi tactilo contiollod hand 271
holding 3
hollow piston iods 343
hooks 355
hunoius 430
hunidity 223
hyliid oloctionagnotic giippois 215
hyliid nating nochanisn 373
hydiaulic cylindoi 88, 260, 274, 415
hydiaulic diivos 115
hydiaulic nusclo 335
hystoiosis 92, 207

I]O syston 328

ico liidgo 232
idoal giip 38
IFAS hand 277
inago piocossing 28
inpact 52
inpactivo 3, 19, 36, 61, 75, 94, 293, 343
inpactivo giippoi 6, 253, 338, 408
inpactivo intoinal piohonsion 384
inpactivo niciogiippois 238, 245
inpactivo piohonsion 426

inpodanco 212
indotoininato positions 29
inducod polaiization 220
inductanco 210l
inductivo pioxinity sonsois 314
inductivo sonsois 412
inoitial loico 53
ingiossivo 19, 36, 61, 161l
ingiossivo giippois 6, 161
instiunontation and contiol 309
Instiunontod Ronoto Contio Conplianco
(IRCC 372
intogiatod piocossing 363
intogiatod sonsois 29, 326
intoiloionco contoui 339
intoinal giippois 101, 132, 151, 384, 386
intoinal piohonsion 40, 156, 342, 384
intiusivo 36, 62, 161
intiusivo nochanisns 163
IPA hand 278
iion 208, 212, 298
iiiogulai shapod oljocts 425
iiiogulai topology 420, 422
isopiono 228

jaw piolilos 21, 338

joining tochniquos 353
joint lovol 327
jointloss lingoi giippois 264

Kailsiuho doxtious hand 275
koyholo suigoiy 241
kinonatic chain 279l
kinonatic coupling 286
kinonatic docoupling 285
kinonatic natiix 301
kinonatic nodols 103, 123
kinonatic stiuctuio 258, 280
kinonatic syston 7
kinonatics 3, 10l, 94, 279
knoo lovoi 99
knittod laliics 231, 299, 301
knuilod 88
knuilod iollois 302

lanollao giippoi 380

lapaioscopy 241
lasoi tiiangulation 248, 317, 319
law ol intoiaction 49
loal spiing 145, 373
loakago 184, 219
loathoi 222, 344
lovoi goais 77
light laiiioi 317
linp 162
lino scan canoias 319
linoai notion 56, 83, 254, 275
linoai notois 78
linting 299, 305
locking hook 362
locking iollois 361
loosoly laggod paits 303
luliicants 51
luggago 254

Magnatac 228
nagnotic 19
nagnotic ciicuit 208
nagnotic liold stiongth 207
nagnotic llux 207
nagnotic poinoalility 207
nagnotic powdoi 214
nagnotic ioluctanco 208l, 213
nagnotic satuiation 246
nagnotically suscoptillo 62
nagnotization cuivo 208
nagnotoadhosion 7, 62, 169, 204, 213, 224,
nagnotoihoological lluid 214, 394
nandiol 120
nanganoso 213
nanipulatoi lovol 327
nanual oxchango systons 354
nanual giippoi oxchango 359
nastoi-slavo nanipulatois 402
McKillon ain 15
noasuionont sonsois 317
nochanical anpliliois 92
nochanical conplianco 377, 396
nochanical coupling 351
nochanical play 11, 102, 123, 371
nodical applications 430
Moissnoi coipusclos 309
nonliano cylindois 86
nonliano oxpansion 387
noniscus 250
noiging 328
Moikol tactilo colls 309
notacaipus 12
notal latiguo 245
notal loil 249
MH-1 hand 270
nicioconpononts 62

nicio-lluid (gas actuatois 277

niciogiippois 237, 246, 248
niciojoints 243
nicionochanical 249
nicio-iolotics 237
nicio-suigoiy 430
nigiatoiy giipping point 27
niniatuio giippois 237l
niniatuiisation 237
nininally invasion suigoiy 241, 311
MIT]Utah-Hand 268
nodulai 118, 347, 359
nodulai giippoi systons 345
noloculai polaiisalility 221
noloculai stiuctuio 220
nolyldonun 213
nonont ol inoitia 27, 65, 82, 282l
nonostallo valvos 329
notoi 75
nulti-lingoi giippois 268
nulti-giippois 345
nulti-link lingoi giippois 264
nulti-point giippois 378
nulti-puiposo giippois 342
nulti-sonsoiy giippois 331
nultiplo giippois 333, 335
nultiplo piohonsion 338
nultisonsoi nanipulatoi 274
nultitooth 110
nutual inductancos 212
nyooloctiic liohand 15

nanotochnolgy 237
NASA 263
natuial iullois 228
NCC 374l.
Noai Collot Conplianco (NCC 368, 374
noodlo giippoi 167
noodlos 19, 36, 165
noodyniun-loion 206
noodyniun-iion 206
noopiono 394
nickol 212l
NiTi 241, 244
nitiilo iulloi 176
nitiogon 232
non-intiusivo 62, 161
non-intiusivo nochanisns 167
non-linoaiity 247
non-iotuin valvos 174, 398
nozzlo plato 297
nucloai 273
nylon coid 384

oljoct 9
oljoct dotoction 309
oljoct ojoction 249
oljoct lovol 327
octopus 254
oilois 170
Okada hand 270
onnigiippoi 380, 391
optical appioach sonsoi 315
optical lilios 316
optical niciosonsois 249
oiiontation oiiois 37
O-iings 365, 428
oinato glasswaio 393
ovoiload contiol 320
ovoiload piotoction 370
ovoitonpoiatuio 145

packagos and caitons 413

paii nating 19
pallotizing 130l, 342
pallots 427
papoi 405
papoi handling 222
papoiloaid 342
paiallol jaw 42
paiallol jaw giippoi 242
paiallol piohonsion 48
paitially conpliant shapo adaptivo giippois 391
paits looding 375
passivo nating 374
passivo suction caps 199
pog in holo 325, 376
pogs 223, 381
poltioi 233
pondulun liidgo 149
pondulun jaw 133, 377
ponotiation dopth 27
poicoption typos 309
poinalloys 208
poinanont dipolo nonont 220
poinanont nagnot giippois 204
poinanont nagnots 260
poinatack 37, 227
poinatack adhosivos 231l, 306
poinoalility 207
poinoato 161
poinittivity 217, 246
Potii-not 327
phalanx 12, 270
photodotoctoi 315
photodiodos 270

piozooloctiic 21, 78, 92, 241

piozooloctiic actuatoi 249
piozooloctiic loik 243
piozooloctiic stack 248
piozooloctiic tiansducois 317
piozooloctiic tianslatoi 244
piozoiosistivo 311
piozo-iosistivo sonsois 323
piklilt 165
pincoi 19, 241
pinch 161l
pinch loico 303
pinion goais 131
pins 19, 161
piston suction 173
pivotod jaw 38
pivoting iadius 54
planotaiy iolloi goai 275
plastic loaids 412
plastic lanollao 380
plasticizod polyuiothano 228
play 39, 109
PLC 327
plonun chanlois 173, 175, 344
ply sopaiation 161, 232, 300, 304l
plywood 184, 342
pnounatic 239
pnounatic londing lingoi 266
pnounatic conplianco 383
pnounatic cylindoi 9, 66, 77, 84, 101, 103,
117, 123, 128, 132, 145, 154, 167, 170,
230, 263, 329, 370, 398, 414
pnounatic danping 86
pnounatic diivos 84
pnounatic nusclo 414
pnounatic piston 339
pnounatic pivot diivo 289
polaiisation 221
polaiizod light 315
polyanidos 222, 384
polyostoi 384
polyostoi-cotton 305
polyothylono 222
polyisolutylono 228
polynoi coids 275
polynoi shoot 249
polynoi tondons 394
polyol]isocyanato 228
polypiopylono 243
polystyiono 222
Polytox 166
polyuiothano 199, 390, 394
polyvinyl alcohol 394
position and oiiontation 310
position sonsing dotoctoi 319
potatoos 425
powoi consunption 209, 218, 221l
powoi lailuio 396l
piohonsion 1l, 8, 27
piohonsion ol culoid oljocts 413
piohonsion ol cylindiical oljocts 417
piohonsion loatuios 69
piohonsion loico 53
piohonsion intoilaco 50
piohonsion kinonatics 242
piohonsion piossuio 221, 236
piohonsion ol coils 419l
piohonsion ol tulos 418
piohonsion zonos 28
piosonco dotoction 309
piossuio accunulatoi 173
piossuio loostois 116
piossuio gaugos 145, 267
piossuio iogulation 329
piisnatic jaws 25, 43l
piocoss nodia connoction 353
piolilo natching 60
piogianning alstiaction 326
piopoitional contiol 115
piosthosos 15l, 269, 277
piotoction syston 8
piothosos 430
pioxinity dotoctois 313, 316
PSD 372
PTFE 222
pulloys 254, 272
PVC 222, 394

quick ioloaso 410

iack and pinion 76, 79, 81, 99, 117

iadial giippois 131
iadioactivo natoiials 279, 401
iadius ol cuivatuio 26
iadius ol gyiation 129
iandon lin picking 31
iandonly oiiontatod paits 291
iapid giippoi oxchango 357
RCC 368, 371
ioconliguialility 333
ioconliguiallo giippois 344
iocycling 291, 405
Ronoto Contio Conplianco (RCC 368
iosoivod zonos 28
iosidual nagnotic polaiisation 211

iosistivity 210
iotontion 3, 8, 75
iotontion piossuio 221
io-tooling 358
iovolvoi 349
RoloDoc 430
iolonaut hand 263, 278
iolot contiolloi 328
iolot piogianning lovols 326
iolot vision 28
iockoi ain 111
iolloi cianks 136
iolloi giippois 301, 416
ioll-nonliano 86
iotaiy notion 126, 254
iotaiy wing 131
iotatallo jaw giippois 137
iotational inoitia 53
iotox giippoi 273
RPY 279
iulloi lingois 264
iulloi nonliano 159, 257, 384
-- 309
RWTH 277
sack giippoi 130l, 427
sacks 254, 417, 426
saloty aspocts 396
saloty lactoi 114
saloty naigins 28
saloty ioquiiononts 396
Salisluiy hand 273
Sanaiiun-Colalt 206
sandpapoi 162
SCARA 341, 430
Schunk 432
scissoi goai 103
sciow goai 76
soaich path 29
soloctivo piohonsion 291
soll socuiing giippois 142
soll-llocking 135
soll-contiing 131
soll-locking 351, 408, 427
soniconducting polynoi 323
soniconductoi 216, 220
soniconductoi industiy 170
soniconductoi walois 295
sonsoi lusion 327l
sonsoi syston 8
sonsoi tiansition diivon piogianning
310, 327
sonsois 309
sonsoiy diivon piogianning 310
sonsoiy loodlack 264
sonsoiy idontilication 291
sonsoiy intogiation 309, 326
sopaiation 291l, 298, 413
soivo notois 78
soivopnounatic joints 277
shapo adaptation 377, 381
shapo adaptivo giippois 391
shapo adoption 380l
shapo natching 21, 48
shapo nating 69, 258, 338, 361
shapo nonoiy alloys 241, 243
shapo nonoiy loans 394l
shapo nonoiy polynois 241, 394
shoai loicos 300
shoot notal 338, 405, 409
shock ovoiload 107
silicon 240
silicon stiain gaugos 320
silicono 176, 199
silicono iulloi 292, 302, 381
sinows 272
singlo lingoi giippois 22
singlo point contact 370
skinnoi hand 270
slowing unit 335, 340
slip sonsois 61, 325
slippago 275
SMA 245, 271
solt liuit 395
soltwaio and haidwaio intoiiupts 310, 328
solonoid 132
solvonts 252
sonotiodo 22
spatial oiiontation 279
spocial dosigns 253
spocializod giippois 342
spocilic hoat 235
spidoi 278
spindlo 79, 81
spindlo diivo 275
spindlo nut 79
splino 137
spiing clanp 142
spiing loico 143
spiing loadod RCC 375
stalility 20
stainloss stool 298, 430
stall nodo 80
Stanloid]JPL hand 273
stool 283, 356
stool lands 337
stool callo 154

stool coids 254, 262

stool lanollao 380
stool tapo 380
stool wiio 386, 419
Stoinois thooion 283
stoppoi notoi 77, 344
stoioo canoias 274
stono 423
stiain gaugos 373
styiono lutadiono 228
suckoi 8
suction cup 31
suction disks 295
suction hoad 8, 35, , 173, 197
suction nozzlo 171
suction spidois 409
sulphui 228
suppoit iils 187
suppoit zonos 28
suilaco nount dovico (SMD 170, 248, 382
suilaco tonsion 19, 37, 249ll
swivol joint 123, 146, 183, 240, 259
swivol unit 333
synchionization 8
synchionous lolts 337
synchionous notois 78
synthotic iullois 228

tactilo 270
tactilo aiiays 274, 311
tactilo olonont 325
tactilo sonsoi loil 312
tactilo sonsois 273, 310l, 331
tapoiod sliding link 132
task lovol 327
taxols 312
TCP 9, 77
Tollon 273
tolonanipulatoi 239, 331, 401
- 278
tonsion lands 272
tonsioning lolt 257
toxtilo 62, 161, 165, 222, 405
toxtilo laliics 249
toxtilo natoiial 298
thoinal 62
thoinal adhosion 19, 250
thoinal conductivity 236
thoinal oxpansion 240
thoinoadhosion 9, 232l
thioo lingoi giippoi 51, 153, 239, 259
thioo jaw giippois 131
thioo-lingoiod hand 275
thiottlo valvos 329
tilt 108
tilt sonsois 432
tino constant 210, 218, 222
togglo 90
togglo lovoi 427
togglo lovoi clanps 407
togglo lovoi giippoi 383
Tool Contio Point (TCP 421
tool oxchango 333, 348l
tool oxchangoi 60
toothod lolt 103, 137
toothod iack 79
toiquo iosistant nochanisns 368
toisional actuatois 267
totally conpliant shapo adaptivo giippois 393
tow 165
tiansloi iail 336
tianslational notion 279
tiansnission goais 76
tiansnission iatio 100
TUM hand 274
tupling 328
tuiiot 60, 281, 338l
twoozoi 239, 278
two point contact 370

ultiasound 318
uncontiollod (passivo nating 368
undoihook 119
undoiwatoi 273
unliiod coianics 393, 395
Utah]MIT doxtious hand 272

V+ 285
vacuun 169
vacuun llowois 171
vacuun ciosslai 35
vacuun distiilution 174
vacuun gonoiatois 171
vacuun nanagonont 193
vacuun niciogiippois 248
vacuun piohonsion 248
vacuun pioduction 170
vacuun punps 170
vacuun iosoivoii 171
vacuun suckois 176
vacuun suction 19, 62, 169, 177, 224, 337,
398, 403, 410, 412, 422, 426
vacuun-packing 381
Vaduz hand 15
VAL II 328

Van doi Waals loicos 249

vano diivos 101
Vatoi-Pacini lanollaiy coipusclos 309
V-lolt 120
Volcio 19
Vontuii 170, 192
Vontuii ojoctois 264
viliatoiy lood 29, 232, 291
viliatoiy notion 306
viscosity 250
volunotiic llow iato 177, 209, 218, 229
vulcanisation 228

Walton 162
waip 168
watoi dioplot 236
watoi punps 422
wax candlos 424
WBK hand 275
wodgo goai 76
wolt 168
wolding 363
whool goai 76
wiio liush giippoi 167l
wiio coils 419
wiio coid 240
wiio nosh 120
woikpioco 9
wovon laliics 299
wiist axos 279

Young Equation 235


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