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7.

Measurement
Track and Field
n 1905, encouraged by President Theodore Roosevelt, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was founded in New York City. Their original purpose was to reform college football. In 1910, they changed their name to the National College Athletic Association, and in 1921 the first National Collegiate Track and Field Championships were held. The NCAA Track and Field Rule Book defines the rules, events, equipment, personnel and even the construction of the track facilities. It states that there must be a visible starting line, which should measure 2 inches (5.08 cm) wide. For races not run in lanes, the starting line should be curved. This means that if there are more runners than there are lanes, the start line must be curved. The start is then called a waterfall start, and the curved start line is the involute of a circle.

Measuring Gear Teeth


Gear teeth can be measured using special tooth calipers, or by meshing with special precision master gears, or with profile testers. There are two ways of measuring gear tooth thickness, however, that require no special equipment. You can hold round pins or balls in the space between gear teeth, and measure over the pins to determine tooth thickness.

Measure over pins

Involute curve

You can measure across two or more teeth, from the involute curve of one tooth, to the involute curve of another.

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Measuring Thickness of Rack Teeth


Imagine a rack mounted on a base plate. It is important that the distance from the pitch line to the back of the rack is correct. It is important that the teeth are the correct thickness. If too thick, the pinion will mesh too tightly, or be too tight to mesh at all. If too loose, there will be too much backlash between rack and pinion.

Rack teeth too thick

To measure the thickness of rack teeth, we can put a round pin or ball in the tooth space, and measure from the top of the pin to the back of the rack.

Measure pitch line to back

Measure over pin

Rack teeth too thin.

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7. Measurement Measure over pin = PinRad (1 + 1 ) sin PA CircP TThkPL + BkgPL 2(tan PA)

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Measurement over a pin works out like this.

Pin radius, PinRad

Pitch line

Approximate estimate for pin diameter is: Maximum pin dia. ~ + 4(tan PA) 2DP (cos PA)

Pressure angle, PA

Ideal pin diameter is about ~ CircP TThkPL (cos PA)

For 14 involute teeth, equations work out like this: Ideal pin diameter = CircP TThkPL .968148

Backing to pitch line, BkgPL Space thickness on pitch line


Space thickness on pitch line = Circular pitch Tooth thickness on pitch line [abbreviated CircP TThkPL]

Measure over pin = 2.4970 ( Pin dia.) 1.9334 ( CircP TThkPL) + BackingPL

For 20 involute teeth, equations work out like this: Ideal pin diameter = CircP TThkPL .939693 Measure over pin = 1.9619 ( Pin dia.) 1.3737 ( CircP TThkPL) + BackingPL

Measure over pin = PinRad (1 + sin PA + cos PA ) tan PA

CircP TThkPL + BkgPL 2(tan PA) From trigonometry we know that: 2 2 (sin PA) + (cos PA) = 1 sin PA tan PA = cos PA

For example, picture 10 DP, 20 PA rack cut with no backlash allowance. Dimension from pitch line of rack to the back of the rack is .500". An ideal measuring pin diameter would be about .167" diameter.

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Page 98 Assuming we have on hand a .1700" diameter pin, here are equations for pin measurement. Ideal pin diameter is about ~ CircP TThkPL (.939693) CircP = = .3142 10 TThkPL = .1571 Ideal pin diameter = .1571 = .1672 .939693

7. Measurement

Using general equations: Pin radius = .0850" Tooth thickness on pitch line = sin 20 = .342020 cos 20 = .939693 tan 20 = .363970 Backing to pitch line of rack = .5000" Measure over pin = 1 Pin Rad (1 + ) sin PA CircP TThkPL + BkgPL 2(tan PA) Measure over pin = 1 .0850 (1 + .342020 ) .3142 .1571 + .5000" 2(.363970) = .6177" measure over pin to back of rack

= .1571" 2 x 10

Measure over pin = 1.9619 (.1700 ) 1.3737 ( .1571) + .5000 = .6177" measure over pin to back of rack.

Study Questions A.
1. Imagine a rack, 6 DP, 14 pressure angle, cut into a 1.000" square steel bar with no backlash. What would a measurement over a .2800" diameter pin be?

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2.

a. Imagine a rack, 6 DP, 14 pressure angle, cut into a 1.000" square steel bar with no backlash. What would a measurement over a .2500" diameter pin be?

b. How far above the top of the rack tooth does the pin project?

Measuring Gear Teeth Over Pins


Gear tooth thickness can be measured with pins or balls placed in tooth spaces. The derivations and calculations below are included as examples, to show the properties of involute gear teeth, and how involute equations can be manipulated. Picture a round pin or steel ball resting in a space between two teeth.

Measure over pins

Reference pitch circle

A computer program, Involute Calculations, for calculating measurement over pins or balls for spur gears and helical gears is given on www.salemcompany.com, and is on a CD available from Salem Co. The program allows you to calculate the pin measurement for any inch size or metric size gear and any pin diameter. Use it. It will save much tedious hand calculator work.

inv e
c

a b d e

Base circle

Base circle radius

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7. Measurement

We can also see that: angle b = involute ( PA at reference pitch radius, in radians a inv e c d b a+b+c e And also: angle d = half of ref circular pitch ref pitch radius And: angle c = ball radius in radians base radius = ball diameter (ref PD) (cos ref PA) )

= (number of teeth in gear)


We can see that angle a + angle b + angle c angle d = inv e. Knowing inv e, we can calculate angle e, using iteration. We can calculate angles a, b, c, and d. Add angles a plus b plus c, and subtract angle d. The result is the involute of angle e. a + b + c d = inv e

Then we can calculate involute e: inv e = angle a + angle b + angle c angle d Use iteration to calculate angle e from inv e. Then calculate radius to ball center: base radius radius to ball center = cos e If there are an even number of teeth in the gear, Measurement over pins = (radius to pin center) ( 2 ) + pin diameter = ( base radius ) ( 2 ) + pin diameter cos e

Knowing inv e, we can calculate angle e. Knowing angle e and the base circle radius, we can calculate the length from the center of the gear to the center of the ball. From the diagram we can see that Angle a = half the tooth thickness on reference pitch circle ref pitch radius = ref tooth thickness ref PD (measured in radians)

Remember - when measuring angles in radians, the size of the angle, in radians, equals this length divided by this length. angle

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7. Measurement 20 20 = 360 x 2 = .349066 radians inv(20) = tan 20 20, in radians angle b = inv(20) = .014904 pin diameter angle c = PD (cos PA) cos 20 = .939693

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We can write the above equations above like this: tooth thickness + inv PA + pin dia inv e = base dia T PD Pitch diameter (PD) is the reference pitch diameter. Tooth thickness, circular pitch, and pressure angle are measured at the reference pitch diameter (PD). T is the number of teeth in the gear. T DP

.2800 pin diameter angle c = PD (cos PA) = 5.0000 (.939693) = .059594

PD =

Base dia = PD x cos PA Use iteration to calculate angle e from Inv e. Radius to center of pin = base radius cos e

Angle d =

= .104720 T

Then: Inv e = a + b + c d

If the gear has an even number of teeth, Measurement over pins = base diameter ( ) + pin diameter cos e For example, imagine measuring a spur gear with 30 teeth, 6 DP, 20 pressure angle, no backlash allowance, using pins or balls with a diameter of .280". Angle a = Tooth thickness Pitch diameter Tooth thickness = x 1 = = .2618" 6x2 DP 2 PD = 30 = 5.000" 6 Angle a = .2618 = .052360 5.000 Angle b = inv(pressure angle) = inv(20)

= .052360 + .014904 + .059594 .104720 Inv e = .022138

Calculate angle e from the value of inv e: e(est) = (2.8 inv e) .33 e(est) = (2.8 .022138) .33 e(est) = .399446 radians inv e(est) = .022694 new e(est) = .396190 inv new e(est) = .022119 new e(est) = .396300 inv new e(est) = .022138 Therefore e = .396300 radians cos e = .922496 101

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7. Measurement

inv e = a + b + c d For an even number of teeth, measurement over pins = base diameter ( ) + ball diameter cos e = 5.0000 x .939693 + .2800 = 5.3732 .922496 = .064117 + .014904 + .074492 .130900 inv e = .022613 e(est) = (2.8 inv e) .33 e(est) = .402254 inv e(est) = .023199 e(est) = .398872 Example: Picture a spur gear with 24 teeth, 4 DP, 20 PA, cut with a backlash allowance of .008". Using a pin diameter of .420", what will measurement over pins be? 20 = .349066 radians cos 20 = .939693 inv 20 = .014904 Tooth thickness = .008" = .384699 8 PD = 24 = 6.000" 4 Base diameter = 6.0000 x cos 20 = 5.63816 Angle a = tooth thickness = PD = .384699 = .064117 6 angle b = inv PA = inv 20 = .014904 pin dia .420 angle c = base dia = = .074492 5.63816 angle d = inv e(est) = .022592 e(est) = .398994 inv e(est) = .022613 e = .398994 radians cos e = .921452

Measurement over .2800" pins = 5.3732"

For an even number of teeth, measurement over pins = base diameter ( ) + ball diameter = cos e 5.63816 + .4200 = 6.5388 .921452 Measure over .4200" dia. pins = 6.5388" You can use the work sheets attached for these calculations. A sheet with the above calculations is included. Base circle

= = .130900 T 24

Angle b = Involute(Angle a) Angle a

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7. Measurement If we use a pin or ball that's too small, it will fall into the tooth space and rest on the root diameter of the teeth, or it will not project above the gear outside diameter, and we won't be able to fit a micrometer or caliper tip between the teeth to get a measurement. If it's too big, it will rest on the tips of the teeth, not on the involute flanks.

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There are two standards for pins to use for any size spur or helical tooth. 1.680 Pin diameter = DP 1.728 DP

Pin diameter =

If you use these pin or ball sizes, you can find tables that will give exact measurements for spur gears of any number of teeth, for 20 or 14 teeth.

Ball or pin is too big.

If you don't have a pin or ball of this exact size, you can use something close, and calculate the measurement from the formulas in this book, or use the computer program, Involute Calculations, on our web site, www.salemcompany.com, or available on CD from Salem Company.

Ball or pin is too small.

Ball or pin is okay.

Study Questions B.
1. What should measurement over pins be for a 56 tooth spur gear, 10 DP, 20 pressure angle, zero backlash allowance, .1728" pin diameter. Use tables or Involute Calculations computer program.

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Page 104 2. What should measurement over pins be for this gear: 60 teeth, 6 DP, 20 pressure angle spur gear pin diameter = .2800" Zero backlash allowance.

7. Measurement

When measuring over pins or balls, there is a difference between a gear with an even number of teeth (evenly divisible by 2), and one with an odd number of teeth. We have learned how to calculate a measurement from the center of a gear to the outside diameter of a pin or ball. With an even number of teeth, measurement over pins equals twice the dimension from center of gear to OD of pin. Even number of teeth Center to OD of pin

With odd numbers of teeth, we have to correct for the fact that the pins are not exactly opposite each other.

360 4 (No. of Teeth)

For odd numbers of teeth: Measure over pins = (Measure to pin center )(cos (

Measure over pins

Center to OD of pin For example:

90 ))(2) No. teeth + Pin diameter

35 teeth, 8 DP, 14 PA, no backlash .2160" pin diameter. For even numbers of teeth: Use tables or SalemCompany website. Measure over pins = (Measure to center of pin x 2) + Pin diameter See worksheet. Measurement over pins is 4.6773"

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Study Questions C.
1. What should measurement over pins be for this spur gear? 75 Teeth, 10 DP, 20 PA, .004" backlash allowance, pin diameter .1680"

2.

What is measurement over pins for a spur gear with 21 teeth, 4 DP, 20 pressure angle, .4380" diameter pins. Allowance for backlash is .008".

3.

Imagine a spur gear, 40 teeth, 5 DP, 14 PA. Using .3400" diameter pins, you measure 8.429" over the pins. About how much backlash allowance is cut into the gear teeth?

4.

A spur gear has 24 teeth, 8 DP, 20 PA. What should it measure over .2160" diameter pins, with no backlash allowance?

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If we know the pin measurement of a gear, here's how to calculate tooth thickness. Rearrange tooth thickness equation like this: Step 1: For even number of teeth,

For example, consider this spur gear, 30 teeth, 6 DP, 20 PA. Measure over .2800" diameter pins is 5.3732".

What is tooth thickness?

Step 1: cos e = (Number of teeth)(cos PA) DP (Measure over pin pin dia.) (Number of teeth)(cos PA) cos e = DP (Measure over pin pin dia.) (30) (.939693) cos e = 6(5.3732 .2800) = .922498 ( cos 90) T

For an odd number of teeth, cos e = (Number of teeth)(cos PA) DP (Measure over pin pin dia.)

Step 2: e = .396294 radians

Step 2: angle e = arccos (cos e)

Step 3: Step 3: inv e = tan e e Step 4: Step 4: tooth thickness at ref PD = PD ( inv e inv PA ball dia. + PD (cos PA) T ) tooth thickness on ref pitch circle = 5.0000 (.022138 .014904 .059594 +.104720) = .2618" tooth thickness ball dia = .059594 PD (cos PA) inv e = .022138 inv 20 = .014904

= .104720 30

ball dia.(DP) = T ( inv e inv PA + ) T (cos PA) T DP

PD is reference pitch diameter PA is reference pressure angle T is number of teeth in the gear DP is reference diametral pitch

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Consider this spur gear, 24 teeth, 4 DP, 20 PA. Measure over .4200" diameter pins is 6.5388". What is tooth thickness? Step 1: cos e = (Number of teeth)(cos PA) DP (Measure over pin pin dia.)

Step 4: tooth thickness at ref PD = PD ( inv e inv PA

ball dia. + ) T PD (cos PA) = .130900 T

ball dia.(DP) T (cos PA) = .074492

(24) (.939693) cos e = 4(6.5388 .4200) = .921448 tooth thickness on ref pitch circle = Step 2: e = .399005 radians 6.0000 (.022616 .014904 .074492 +.130900) = .3847" tooth thickness

Step 3: inv e = .022616 inv 20 = .014904

Tooth thickness with no backlash allowance = .3927". Allowance for backlash = .3927 .3847 = .0080"

Study Questions D.
1. Consider a spur gear with 46 teeth, 10 DP, 14 PA. Measure over .1728" diameter pins is 4.8344". What is tooth thickness?

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2.

Consider this spur gear, 45 teeth, 10 DP, 14 PA. Measure over .1728" diameter pins is 4.8043". What is tooth thickness?

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Summary
n this section we learned two methods to measure the thickness of gear teeth. One is by measuring over pins or balls placed in the tooth spaces. The other is by measuring from tooth flank to tooth flank across two or more teeth. Rack tooth thickness is determined by measuring over pins or balls. The exact calculation is straightforward for both 20 and 14 teeth. Be careful that the micrometer spindle used to measure over the pins does not touch the rack itself, only the pin. Pin measurements for spur gears have been printed in tables for standard pin sizes. A computer program, Involute Calculations, for both spur and helical gears for any pin size can be run from Salem Company's web site, www.salemcompany.com, or run from a CD disk available from Salem Company. Use rack tooth approximations to estimate tooth thickness change for a given change in pin measurement. For 14 teeth: Tooth thickness change ~ () (Change in measure from pin to gear center) For 20 teeth: Tooth thickness change ~ () (Change in measure from pin to gear center) Be sure the pin touches the involute flanks of the gear teeth, not the bottom or tip of the tooth. Measurements over pins for spur and helical gears can be calculated using involute functions. Following the derivations will help us understand the properties of involute curves on gear teeth. Work sheets are furnished to allow calculations using a scientific type calculator, or calculations can be made on the computer program, Involute Calculations. Span measure calculations can be made using involute functions, and are fairly simple if you use a scientific type calculator. Work sheets for calculating span measurements for both spur and helical gears are included. Derivation of the equations for span measurements for spur and helical gears is shown and will be helpful in learning more about involute curves in gear teeth.

n the next section we will learn how to use span measurements to find tooth thickness. A span measurement is a measure over two or more teeth, from the involute curved flank of one tooth to the involute curved flank of another. Span measurements can be made with micrometers or vernier calipers. A span measurement is actually a measurement along a line tangent to the base circle. It is sometimes called a base tangent measurement. Tables of span measurements for spur gears are available, for 14 and 20 teeth. A computer program for span measurements of both spur and helical gear teeth can be run from Salem Company's web site, salemcompany.com. A change in span measurement of .0010" equals a change in backlash allowance of .0010", where the backlash is measured at the base circle diameter. Circular pitch, diametral pitch and pressure angle of helical gears can be measured in two directions: 1. Normal (at right angles) to the tooth 2. Circumferential (around the circumference of the gear). Sometimes called transverse.

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