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SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF THEORY AND PROBLEMS OF PHYSICS for Engineering and Science MICHAEL E. BROWNE, Ph. D. Professor of Physics University of Idaho SCHAUM'S OUTLINE SERIES McGRAW-HILL New York San Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogoté Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi SanJuan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto This book is dedicated to Marguerite, whose love, encouragement and help made so many things possible. MICHAEL E. BROWNE is a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley, where he received B.S. (engineering) and Ph. D. ( physics) degrees. He was a research scientist and manager at the Lockheed Research Laboratories, subsequently serving as professor of physics and chairman of the physics department at the University of Idaho. He has conducted research in solid-state physics and in science education, his most recent activity. His teaching experience ranges from introductory physics to graduate classes. He has published numerous research articles and co-authored two textbooks. Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States ‘of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any forms or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 23456789 1011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 PRS PRS902109 ISBN 0-07-008498-X Sponsoring Editor: Barbara Gilson Production Supervisor: Tina Cameron Editing Supervisor: Maureen B. Walker Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Browne, Michael E. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science / Michael E. Browne. p. cm. (Schaum's outline series) Includes index. ISBN 0-07-008498-X 1. Physics. 2. Physics~Problems, exercises, etc. I. Title. QC21.2.B77 1998 $30—-de21 98-35391 cIP McGraw-Hill ‘A Division of The McGraw Hill Companies Preface This book is intended for students who are taking, or who have already taken, calculus and who may be taking a formal physics class for the first time. A background in high school-level algebra, geometry, and trigonometry is assumed. The book will be a valuable supplemental text for students presently enrolled in a calculus-based physics course for engineering and science students. It is much more compact than traditional textbooks, and it stresses problem solving and provides many worked examples. Secondly, the book will be useful as a text for a person reviewing or strengthening his or her knowledge of physics, perhaps in preparation for a professional examination. The treatment is suitable for a person wishing to study physics on his or her own without enrolling in a formal course. The narrative discussion and explanations are sufficiently clear and complete so that the book may be used either as a text, or as a supplement to a longer text. Life science students will find the approach here valuable, since the treatment is more rigorous than that in many liberal arts textbooks. Many examples relevant to medicine are presented. Although calculus is used, it is reviewed and explained when first encountered. The crux of learning physics is to actually work through problems. In using this book, you should be an active learner. Try to work each of the sample problems and examples as you go along. Refer to the solutions only if you get stuck. As they say in training to run a marathon, “no pain, no gain." Only in the dictionary does success come before work. Learning about physics is a fascinating endeavor, and I hope you find it as much fun as I have. Iam deeply indebted to Luanne Semler for the outstanding work she did in typing the manuscript. Judy Breedlove made valuable contributions to the graphics work, and her efforts are much appreciated. My editors at McGraw-Hill were most helpful. Arthur Biderman helped launch the project, and Mary Loebig Giles guided it through to successful completion. MICHAEL E. BROWNE