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Mathematics (T)

Worked Examples
Loo Soo Yong 1/27/2013

This document contains various questions with detailed workings and explanations from the new STPM syllabus. A PDF version of this document may be obtained from Dropbox.

Mathematics (T)

Binomial Expansions
1. Expand ( for ) up to and include the term . Hence, by subsisting , find an estimate , and give your answer to 6 decimal places.

Solution: ( ) ( )( )
( )( )

( )

)(

)(

( )

) ... ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Substituting

2.

( ) is given by the expression ( )

. / .

(a) Show that ( )can be written as ( ) (b) When is so small that (d) By substituting

and higher powers of x is ignored, show that

(c) Hence, state the range of values of x for which the expansion is valid. into the equation, find an estimate for , giving your answer in the form , where p and q are integers to be determined.

Solution: (a) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (b) ( ) ( ) . 6 0 ( 0 . . ) /1 / / (shown) . /


. /. /

. /

. /.

/.

. / 7

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Mathematics (T) ( )

(shown) i.e. .
( ) ( )

(c) The expansion is valid for | | (d)

) in ascending powers of x is given by 3. For , the expansion of ( where k and n are integers. Show that and

Solution: (a) ( )
( )( )

By comparing coefficient of

and

( )(

)(

. /
)

(shown) Subst ... (shown)

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Mathematics (T) ( ) ( ) can be

4. By taking the natural logarithm to both sides or otherwise, show that

) ( ) ( ) ( ) , where A, B, p, q, r and s are written in the form of ( constants to be determined. [No credit will be given if the derivative is obtained using product and chain rule]

Solution: Let ( ) ( ) ,( ( 0 ( )1 0 ) ( ) ( )1 ( ) )

Taking natural log to both sides, Using properties of logarithms, Differentiating y with x,

0 ( ( ) ( ) (

1 ) 0 ) ( 1 ) ( )

Therefore, A=8, B=6, p=3, q=6, r=4, s=5.

5. Express ( )

)(

)(

in partial fractions. If x is so small that

and higher powers of x are

ignored, show that ( ) the value of ( )

. Hence, use the quadratic approximation to estimate , giving your answer to 4 decimal places.

Solution:
( )( )( )

( Letting Letting Letting

)(

)(

)(

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Mathematics (T)

If x is so small that ( ( ) ) ( [ . )

and greater powers of x are ignored, ( / ] ) [ . / ]

0 , (

)( ) )

)(

( ) 1 1 .

[ 0 .

). / /1 /

)(

. / ]

, (

). /

)(

. / )]

( )

(shown)

0 0

( ) 1 1 ) )

1 0 ( 0 ) 1 ( ) 1 0 ( ) ( ) 1 Separate the constants first for easier integration.

0 ( )1

0 ( (

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Mathematics (T) 6. Show that ( (a) Expand


(

)
)

Hence by using the information given, in ascending powers of x, up to and including the term .

(b) State the set values of x for which the expansion is valid. (c) By taking Solution: ( ( ( ( (a) ) ) ) ) ( )( ) ( )( ) /4 )( . /( ) )
. /. /

, find an estimate for , giving your answer to 4 decimal places.

. ( . (

/ ). /
( )( )

)(

)(

/ (shown) )

( . (

) 5 You only need to expand until as the question specifies you to do so.

(b) The expansion is valid for | | | | |

From the graph below,

-2

2 +

Therefore the set values of x are * | | (c) Let


( . /)

, .
. /

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Mathematics (T)

7. Consider the curve (a) Find the equation of this tangent at the point where . (b) Find the coordinates of the point where this tangent meets the curve again.

Solution: (a) At point , ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) When ) Therefore the coordinates is ( ( ) ( )( The equation of the tangent,

(b) ( ) Subst. (2) to (1),

( )

) ( Factoring, ( (rejected) or ( When Therefore the point is (

) ) ). ) and a ( ) ( )

) leaves a remainder of 8. The polynomial ( ) ( when divided by ( remainder of when divided by ( ). Find the real numbers a and b.

Solution: ( ( ) )

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Mathematics (T) ( ) ( ) Subst ( ) into ( ),

Subst

into (1) .

9. Two complex numbers are defined as that .

and

. Find the real numbers a and b such

Solution:

If there is a complex number as the denominator, always multiply by its conjugate.

Given

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Mathematics (T)

Comparing real and imaginary parts, ( )

( ) Subst. (2) to (1),

Subst

into (2)

10. A curve is defined parametrically as (a) Find the gradient of the curve where (b) Hence, find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point where

Solution: (a)

. /. / (
( ( ) ) ( ( ) )

).

When

(b) When

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Mathematics (T) ( ) When ( )

The point is ( ) The equation of the tangent is

11. Find the set values of x for which

Solution:

If

then

( ) Let

)(

x is always positive, because of squaring a number always produces a positive number. The minimum value of is zero. Therefore, Since is undefined for

However, we need to enforce the condition that Therefore, the solution set is * + .

, hence this condition must be enforced.

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Mathematics (T)

12. Let f to be a cubic polynomial. Given that ( ) find the polynomial ( ). Solution: Let ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

, ( )

( ) and

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Subst. ( ) into (1),

( )

13. Show that is a root to the equation solutions in exact form.

. Hence find the other two

An arithmetic sequence has p as its common difference. A geometric sequence has p as its common ratio. Both sequences has 1 as the first term.

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Mathematics (T) (a) Write down the first four terms of each sequence. (b) If the sum of the third and fourth terms of the arithmetic sequence is equal to the sum of the third and fourth terms of the geometric sequence, find the possible values of p. (c) Hence, state the value of p for which the geometric sequence has a sum to infinity, and find the value, expressing your answer in the form of , where a, b are constants. (d) For the same value stated in (c), find the sum of the first 20 terms of the arithmetic sequence, giving your answer in the form Solution: is a root, therefore, ( ) ( ( ) is a factor. )( , . ( )( ) ) (shown) where p and q are constants.

Comparing

( )( )

(a) Arithmetic sequence, Geometric sequence, ) ( ) (b) ( ( )( )

(c) For the geometric sequence to have a sum to infinity, | |

. Therefore,

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Mathematics (T)

.
)

/ 0 ( ) ( )

(d) Sum of first 20 terms of the arithmetic sequence 0 0 ( 14. A curve, C is defined implicitly as (a) Show that the tangent at point ( (b) The line B. Find, in the form of . / . / ) has gradient . (

/1 )1

cuts the curve at point A(

) and at point B. Determine the coordinates of point

(i) The equation of the tangent at A. (ii) The equation of the normal at B. (c) Hence, find the acute angle between tangent at A and the normal at B. Solution: (a) Differentiating y with x, At . /, . / . / . / ( ) . /

(shown)

(b) (i) The equation of the tangent is (ii) Subst. into

4 5

This point is rejected due to ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). / ) . /( ) . / is point A.

At B, ( ) . /

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Mathematics (T)

Gradient of the normal Gradient of the normal at point B The equation of the normal at B . / . /
. /. ( ) /

(c) Acute angle between two lines

The acute angle between two lines is

15. By using de Moivres theorem, prove that (a) Show that one of the roots of the equation roots in trigonometric form. (b) Deduce that Solution: ( ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ) ( ( and find an exact expression for is

Hence, and express the other

) may be written as ) for simplicity.

Use the binomial theorem. Comparing real parts, ( ) ( ( ) )

(shown)

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Mathematics (T) (a) Let Solving and consider , Value of must be within

The solutions are (b) Let , . / . /


(

. / . /
) ( )( ) ( )

. /

. /

The positive root is rejected because of the requirement of the question.


. / is on the first quadrant, therefore . /


(

. / is

positive.

. /

(shown) ( )

Use the identity ( )

Use the identity Since . / . / . / . / . / . / . / . / . /


. /

. / . / . (

/ )

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Mathematics (T) 16. A curve is given as and Solution: . Find the gradient of tangent of the curve at the point where

When

The point is ( . / At (1,1),

. /

17. Let ( ) Solution: Let ( )

. Find the set values of x for which f is real and finite.

() is only defined for

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Mathematics (T)

54

The set values of x is *

18. Find, in the form of with x-coordinate . Solution:

the equation of the tangent to the curve

at the point

When

Use the product rule The coordinates is ( . / ( )( ) )


At the x-coordinate

Use the formula

Equation of tangent,

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Mathematics (T) 19. The equation of a curve is (a) Show that (b) Show also, if then .

(c) Hence, find the coordinates of the point on the curve where the tangent is parallel to the x-axis. Solution: (a) . / . / . /( ( ) . / ) (shown) (b) When Since ( Since (c) Subst. ( ) ) (shown) into ( )

( ) Using a combination of implicit differentiation and product rule

is undefined for is

therefore the solution rejected.

Subst.

into

, ) is .

The coordinates is (

) in ascending powers of x, as far as the term in 20. The expansion ( Given , find the value of p and the value of A. Solution: ( ( . ) . . / /
( )( )

Do not write it as . . /

/ ( )

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Mathematics (T) Comparing the coefficient of and ,

. /

21. Write down an identity for (a) It is given that and

and use this result to show that

. . are

. Without using a calculator, show that ( ) for

(b) Hence, show that the solutions to the equation

or

Solution: ( ) ( )

/(
(

)
)

(shown)

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Mathematics (T)

(a)

You may draw a triangle and use Pythagoras Theorem to find the value of

From
. / . / . /

(shown) (b) Let

Subst. ( )

into

It is given that

Let From part (b), it is known that

( ) is a factor of the cubic equation. ( )( ) Comparing , ( )(


( ) ( ) ( )( )

or

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Mathematics (T)

22. Expand .

/.

/ Hence or otherwise, expand .

/ . show that

/ . and find a

(a) By using de Moivres theorem, if similar expression for .

(b) Hence, express in the form of are constants to be determined. (c) By using the result in (b), find Solution: . . 0. /. / . /. / / . /1 . / . / / . /

, where

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Mathematics (T)

. . . . (a)

/ . /.

/ / / / Using de Moivres Theorem

( (1)+(2): (1)-(2): (b) ( ( ) ( )(

(1) ) (2) (shown) (shown)

( )

) ) 0. ,( (

. .

/ .

/ /

/ )

. (

/ )

. (

/ ) )

1 -

(c) ( )

( ) ( )

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Mathematics (T) 23. ( ) is defined as ( ) (a) Find ( ) (b) Hence, find the possible values of Solution: (a) (b) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) for which ( )

()

)( or

You do not need to solve for x as the question requires the values of only. and
( )

24. A curve is defined parametrically as (a) Find and in terms of t. Show that

, and hence deduce that the curve has no .

turning points. (b) Find, in exact form, the equation of the normal of the curve at the point where Solution: (a)

. / (
( )

).

(shown)

To find the turning point


( )

) or The curve has no turning points. ,


( )

(b) When

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Mathematics (T) Gradient of normal

When

Equation of the normal

25. A curve C is defined as (a) Find in terms of

(b) Hence, find the equation of the tangent to the curve C at the point where

Solution: (a) . / , , . / . / ( ( ) ))-

(b) When . / When . / ,(

. /

). /

. /

. /. /

Equation of tangent,

. /

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Mathematics (T)

Newton-Raphson method
The Newton-Raphson method is used when an equation ( ) cannot be solved using simple algebraic methods. The formula for Newton-Raphson method is given by ( ) ( ) Consider the graph of the function ( ) () a b () ( ) for the interval , -

From the graph, it is known that ( ) for and ( ) of ( ) for the equation. Hence, a root exists in the interval , question 26 for an example.

for . There is a change in sign - for the equation ( ) . Refer to

26. Show that the equation has a root between the interval , -. Hence, by using Newton-Raphson method with as the first approximation, find the root of the equation, giving your answer to 5 decimal places. Solution: Let ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Since there is a change in sign, therefore a root exists between 1 and 2. Formula for Newton-Raphson method: ( ) . /
( ( ) )

( )(

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Mathematics (T) ( ) The full working is not required when finding the root

Stop when the value starts to converge

Therefore, the root of the equation is

27. A function is defined parametrically as (a) Find in terms of . Show that

(b) It is given that

(c) Show that the equation has a root between 0 and 1. (d) Hence, by using Newton-Raphson method with as the first approximation, find the root of the equation , giving your answer correct to 5 decimal places. Solution: (a)

. /. / . ( ( (b) ) ). / /

(shown) (c) Let ( ) ( ) ( ) Since there is a change in sign, therefore there is a root between 0 and 1.

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Mathematics (T)
( ( ) )

(d) ( )

The root of the equation is 28. The parametric equations of curve C are (a) Show that the normal to C at the point with parameter p has equation . (b) The normal to C at the point P intersects the x-axis at A and the y-axis at B. Given that O is the origin and find the value of p. Solution: (a)

. / . / Gradient of the normal

At the point Equation of normal is ( )

(shown) (b) The x-intercept is given by point A. x-intercept, ( ) The y-intercept is given by point B. y-intercept,

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Mathematics (T)

( (

)) ,( , ) ,( ( )) , -

Distance of OA ( ) Distance of OB Since ,

Using a calculator, we know that ( )( ) Comparing ( )( )

is a root of the equation. Therefore

is a factor.

29. The function

defined on the domain .

/ is given by

( ) (a) Find ( ) in terms of x. The x-coordinate of the maximum point is denoted by . (b) Show that (c) Verify the root lies between 1.27 and 1.28. Solution: (a) ( ) , ( )( )

, ( ), ( )- 0 0

. /

( 1 1 ( )

( ) ( )

(b) To find the maximum point, When 0 (undefined) 1

when

(shown)

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Mathematics (T) (c) Let ( ) ( ) ( )

( (

) ( ) (

) )

( (

) )

must be in radians.

Since there is a change of sign of ( ) therefore a root exists between 1.27 and 1.28.

30. Show that Solution:


( ( ) )( (

simplifies to a constant, and find the constant.

) )

(shown)

( ) 31. Show that three values of x for which ( Solution: LHS: ,

( (

). Hence or otherwise, find, in terms of a and b, the ) ( )

( Given that

) ( (

) (shown) ) ) and q with ( ( )..., ) ) ( )( ( )( ( )( ) )( )( ( )( ) ) ) )

Replacing p with ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) )

( (

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Mathematics (T) Hence, ( ( )( )( )( )( ) ) ( ) ( )

32. Solve the following system of linear equations without using a calculator.

Solution: ( | ) ( | )

Express the system of linear equations in the form of an augmented matrix

Using elementary row operations ( | )

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Mathematics (T) 33. ( ) ( Solution: ( ) ( ) ( ( ( )) ) ( ) ( )) . Show that a real number, ( ) exists such that for all values of x,

( ( )

34. Solve the equation Solution:

for

, giving your answer in terms of .

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Mathematics (T) 35. In the binomial expansion of ( , and the coefficient of Solution: ( ) , ( )( )
( )( )

) | |

the coefficient of

is equal to the coefficient of

is positive. Find the value of p.

)(

)(

)(

Since the coefficient of


( )

is equal to the coefficient of


)( )

) ) ) ), )0 )0 )

)(

( )( )( ))1 1

) ) )

( ( ( ( ( (

( ( ( (

)( )( )(

(rejected)

)(

Since the coefficient of When Coefficient of is


. /.

is given by

)(

/.

(rejected)

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Mathematics (T)

When Coefficient of
. /. /. /

36. The curve C has parametric equations Find the values of t at the points where the normal at C at Solution: cuts C again.

. / . /

Normal

When Gradient of normal

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Mathematics (T) When ( ) ( )

( )

The point is (

). ( )

The equation of normal

Since the equation of the normal cuts the curve again, ( ) Substitute the parametric equations into

Since it is known that Factoring gives ( )(

lies on the curve, )( )

is a factor.

37. Find the coordinates of the turning points of the curve nature. Solution:

and determine their

Differentiating y with x, . / ( ). / . / ( )

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Mathematics (T)

To find the turning point,

When ( ) ( )

)(

When When

. /

. /

Differentiating y with x, . Since . . / / . . / / / . /. / . / . /( )

( ) ( )

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Mathematics (T) When


( )

(maximum) When
( )

(min) ( ) is a maximum point, . / is a minimum point.

38. Find Solution: Let

by using the substitution

| |

| |

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Mathematics (T)

Maclaurins Theorem
Certain functions, for example and

can be expressed in the form of a polynomial. The Maclaurins Theorem (or sometimes referred as Taylor series) is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

The approximation becomes more accurate when more terms are included in the expansion. The Maclaurins series is used for: Finding approximate values for an integral Evaluating limits Approximating the value of a function

Refer to question 39 and 40 for an example.

39. If

is so small that

and higher powers of

may be ignored, expand

as a polynomial in .

Solution: Using Maclaurins Theorem, ( ) Let ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )


( ) ( ) ( )

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Mathematics (T) 40. Given that ( ) ( ( ) show that ( ) ( )( ) ( ( ( )) Expand ) giving your

) up to and include the term

. Hence, find an approximation for

answer to 4 decimal places. Solution: Let ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Differentiating ( ) with respect to x, ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( ( )( ) ) ( ( ( )) ( )) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ( ) )

Using Maclaurins Theorem, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )


( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

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Mathematics (T) When . / , . / . /

41. Show that Solution: Let


( )

where

is an integer to be found.

) ( )( )

( Let

Compare

Compare , | |, . . , | , / |/

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Mathematics (T) 42. By using a suitable substitution or otherwise, find ( Solution: Let

( ( 0 1 )

43. Show that ( Hence, evaluate (

)(

)(

Solution: LHS, ( ,( ( ( (

) ) ) (

( (

)( )-,( ) ) (

) ) ( ))

) (RHS) (shown)

)(

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Mathematics (T)

0 0 0 . / . /1 1

1 0 0 1 1

44. By using the substitution

, for

, show that

where

are constants to be determined. Hence evaluate

Solution: When

When

( )(

)(

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Mathematics (T)

, 20 6

1 0 7 13

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Mathematics (T)

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