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# 7. Op. Amp. Instrumentation circuits (15.4 - 15.

6)

## o Instrumentation Circuits o Active Filters

EE2603-07

Instrumentation Circuits
DC Millivoltmeter
V1(DC) 100kW

R1 Rf
100kW R S

Vo
M 0 - 1mA meter

Io

10W

Neglecting meter int ernal resis tan ce, Neglecting IRf << IRS Io = IRS =

R Vo (DC) = f V1 (DC) R1

1 Vo (DC) R f = R V1 (DC) R RS S 1

## R Io 1 100k 1 1mA = f = = V1 (DC) R1 RS 100k 10 10mV(DC)

If Rf = 100k is changed to 200k meter will have : R Io 1 200k 1 1mA = f = = V1 (DC) R1 RS 100k 10 5mV(DC)

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AC Millivoltmeter

V1(AC)

100kW

R1 D1
0 - 1mA meter

## Filter Vo Capacitor 500m F

D2

M
Coupling Capacitor 1m F

Rf
100kW

RS

Io

10W

Vo
D1 D2 conduct through meter and RS in full wave DC Neglecting meter int ernal resis tan ce, Neglecting IRf << IRS Io = IRS = R Vo (AC ) = f V1 (AC ) R1 Vi is AC then Vo is AC

1 Vo (AC ) R f = R V1 (AC ) R RS S 1

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600mA

## Lamp display driver

30mA V1(input)

lamp b>20

Io

100kW

5V

LED driver

V1(input)

20mA

Io
(5V-2V)/20mA=150W

LED

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Instrumentation Amplifier
V2 R RP V1 R V1 VY VX R V2 R Vo R R

## If VX and VY are input to final differential amp. R R2 R R R R Vo = VY 1 + f R + R VX R = VY 1 + R R + R VX R = VY VX R1 2 3

(v+ = v ) two voltages V2 and V1 are at the junction of R and RP respectively IR = IRP = Vo

RP RP

## Increase of differential gain will make CMRR larger as CMRR = Ad / Ac

EE2603-07

Example: Find Vo in terms of V1 and V2 and find the differential gain Ad = (Vo/(V1-V2)). This make how many times CMRR larger compared to the use of only final differential amplifier?
V2 5kW 0.5kW V1 5kW V1 VY VX 5kW Vo 5kW 5kW

V2

5kW

## (2 5k + 0.5k ) (10.5k ) 0.5k (V V2 ) Vo = VY VX = 1 (10.5k ) = 21 (V1 V2 ) 0.5k Vo Ad = = 21 (V1 V2 )

IR = IRP =

(V1 V2 )

(VY VX )

(VY VX )

Increase of differential gain is 21 , this make CMRR larger 21 times as CMRR = Ad / Ac EE2603-07 6

Active Filters
Input of the filter is all frequencies but the output of the filter is a certain band of frequencies and no output at any other frequencies depending upon the type of the filter such as Low-pass filter, High-pass filter , Band-pass filter, and Bandreject filter. Active filters use active components such as BJT, FET, IC etc.
Vin
1V
0

Vin
a

Low-pass filter

Vo Vo
1V

f
Vin Vo Vo
1V

fH

Vin
1V
0

High-pass filter

fL

Vin
1V
0

Vin
a

Band-pass filter

Vo Vo
1V

fL

fH

Vin
1V
0

Vin
a

Band-reject filter

Vo Vo
1V

fH

fL

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## First order Low-pass Filter

RG
At low frequencies C1 opens and thus V+ = V1 passing the low frequencies
V1(input)

Rf

v+ R1 C1 R=a

vo

o

RG

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fH

1 f = H 2R1C1

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Rf RG
V1(input)

## When R1C1 = R2C2= RC

V+ falls 40dB/decade (= 12dB/octave) due to both R1C1 = R2C2= RC

v+ C1 R2 C2 R=a

vo
R Vo = 1 + f RG V+

R1

Vi = V+
f fH
Higher cut-off frequency

o

1 f = H 2RC

RG

## When R1C1 and R2C2 are different

V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) due to R1C1 after fH1

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
1 = 2R1 C1

f1 H

fH1

fH2

f
f2 = H

1 2R2C2

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## First order High-pass Filter

RG
At high frequencies C1 short and thus V+ = V1 passing the high frequencies
V1(input)

Rf

v+ C1 R1 R=a

vo

## Op. Amp. then amplifies V R + to V = 1 + f V

o

RG

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fL
Lower cut-off frequency

1 fL = 2R1 C1

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Rf RG
V1(input)

## When R1C1 = R2C2= RC

V
V+ falls 40dB/decade (= 12dB/octave) due to both R1C1 = R2C2= RC

v+ R1 C2 R2 R=a

vo
R Vo = 1 + f RG V+

C1

Vi = V+
f
1 2RC

o

fL =

fL

RG

## When R1C1 and R2C2 are different

V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) due to R1C1 after fL1

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fL2 fL1 f
fL1 = 1 2R1 C1

fL2 =

1 2R2C2

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Band-pass Filter
When fH > fL
RG
V1(input)

## When R1C1 = R2C2= RC Rf

Rf RG v+ v2 R 2 C2 R=a vo

v+ C1 R1 R=a

At high frequencies C1 short and thus V+ = V1 passing the high frequencies (High-pass) above fL
V
V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) below fL (High-pass) due to R1C1

At low frequencies C2 opens and thus V+ = V2 passing the low frequencies (Low-pass) below fH

## Op. Amp. then amplifies V R + to V = 1 + f V

o

RG

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fL fH
1 2R2 C2

1 fL = 2R1 C1

f = H

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Band-reject Filter
When fL > fH
RG
V1(input)

Rf

Rf RG v+ v2 R 2 C2 R=a vo

v+ C1 R1 R=a

At high frequencies C1 short and thus V+ = V1 passing the high frequencies (High-pass) above fL
V
V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) above fH (low-pass) due to R2C2

At low frequencies C2 opens and thus V+ = V2 passing the low frequencies (Low-pass) below fH

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fH fL

Vi = V+

## V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) below fL (High-pass) due to R1C1

RG

1 f = H 2R2 C2

1 fL = 2R1 C1

f 13

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Example: Find cutoff frequencies fL and fH if R1 = R1=10k , C1=0.1F and , C2=0.002F. Is it a Band-pass filter or a Band-reject filter? Find the pass-band gain if RG=10k and Rf=100k

Rf RG
V1(input)

Rf

RG vo v+ C2 R=a vo

v+ C1 R1 R=a

R2

)(

)(

## When fH > fL it is a Band pass filter

At pass band, V+ = Vi R V 100k Vo = 1 + f V+ o = 1 + = 11 RG Vi 10k

fL=159Hz

fH=7.96kHz

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Example: Find cutoff frequencies fL and fH if R1 = R1=10k , C2=0.1F and , C1=0.002F. Is it a Band-pass filter or a Band-reject filter? Find the pass-band gain if RG=10k and Rf=100k

Rf RG
V1(input)

Rf

RG vo v+ C2 R=a vo

v+ C1 R1 R=a
V

R2

)(

)(

## When fH < fL it is a Band reject filter

At pass band, V+ = Vi R V 100k Vo = 1 + f V+ o = 1 + = 11 RG Vi 10k

fH=159Hz

fL=7.96kHz

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