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7. Op. Amp. Instrumentation circuits (15.4 - 15.

6)

o Instrumentation Circuits o Active Filters

EE2603-07

Instrumentation Circuits
DC Millivoltmeter
V1(DC) 100kW

R1 Rf
100kW R S

Vo
M 0 - 1mA meter

Io

10W

Neglecting meter int ernal resis tan ce, Neglecting IRf << IRS Io = IRS =

R Vo (DC) = f V1 (DC) R1

1 Vo (DC) R f = R V1 (DC) R RS S 1

R Io 1 100k 1 1mA = f = = V1 (DC) R1 RS 100k 10 10mV(DC)

If Rf = 100k is changed to 200k meter will have : R Io 1 200k 1 1mA = f = = V1 (DC) R1 RS 100k 10 5mV(DC)

EE2603-07

AC Millivoltmeter

V1(AC)

100kW

R1 D1
0 - 1mA meter

Filter Vo Capacitor 500m F

D2

M
Coupling Capacitor 1m F

Rf
100kW

RS

Io

10W

Vo
D1 D2 conduct through meter and RS in full wave DC Neglecting meter int ernal resis tan ce, Neglecting IRf << IRS Io = IRS = R Vo (AC ) = f V1 (AC ) R1 Vi is AC then Vo is AC

1 Vo (AC ) R f = R V1 (AC ) R RS S 1

R Io 1 100k 1 1mA = f = = V1 (AC ) R1 RS 100k 10 10mV(AC )

EE2603-07

600mA

Lamp display driver

30mA V1(input)

lamp b>20

Io

100kW

5V

LED driver

V1(input)

20mA

Io
(5V-2V)/20mA=150W

LED

EE2603-07

Instrumentation Amplifier
V2 R RP V1 R V1 VY VX R V2 R Vo R R

If VX and VY are input to final differential amp. R R2 R R R R Vo = VY 1 + f R + R VX R = VY 1 + R R + R VX R = VY VX R1 2 3


(v+ = v ) two voltages V2 and V1 are at the junction of R and RP respectively IR = IRP = Vo

(V1 V2 ) (VY VX ) = (2R + RP ) RP (V V2 ) 2R (V1 V2 ) = VY VX = 1 (2R + RP ) = 1 +


RP RP

Increase of differential gain will make CMRR larger as CMRR = Ad / Ac

EE2603-07

Example: Find Vo in terms of V1 and V2 and find the differential gain Ad = (Vo/(V1-V2)). This make how many times CMRR larger compared to the use of only final differential amplifier?
V2 5kW 0.5kW V1 5kW V1 VY VX 5kW Vo 5kW 5kW

V2

5kW

(v + = v ) two voltages V2 and V1 are at the junction of R and RP respectively

(2 5k + 0.5k ) (10.5k ) 0.5k (V V2 ) Vo = VY VX = 1 (10.5k ) = 21 (V1 V2 ) 0.5k Vo Ad = = 21 (V1 V2 )

IR = IRP =

(V1 V2 )

(VY VX )

(VY VX )

Increase of differential gain is 21 , this make CMRR larger 21 times as CMRR = Ad / Ac EE2603-07 6

Active Filters
Input of the filter is all frequencies but the output of the filter is a certain band of frequencies and no output at any other frequencies depending upon the type of the filter such as Low-pass filter, High-pass filter , Band-pass filter, and Bandreject filter. Active filters use active components such as BJT, FET, IC etc.
Vin
1V
0

Vin
a

Low-pass filter

Vo Vo
1V

f
Vin Vo Vo
1V

fH

Vin
1V
0

High-pass filter

fL

Vin
1V
0

Vin
a

Band-pass filter

Vo Vo
1V

fL

fH

Vin
1V
0

Vin
a

Band-reject filter

Vo Vo
1V

fH

fL

EE2603-07

First order Low-pass Filter


RG
At low frequencies C1 opens and thus V+ = V1 passing the low frequencies
V1(input)

Rf

v+ R1 C1 R=a

vo

Op. Amp. then amplifies V R + to V = 1 + f V


o

RG

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fH

V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) due to R1C1

1 f = H 2R1C1

Higher cut-off frequency

EE2603-07

Second order Low-pass Filter


Rf RG
V1(input)

When R1C1 = R2C2= RC


V+ falls 40dB/decade (= 12dB/octave) due to both R1C1 = R2C2= RC

v+ C1 R2 C2 R=a

vo
R Vo = 1 + f RG V+

R1

Vi = V+
f fH
Higher cut-off frequency

Op. Amp. then amplifies V R + to V = 1 + f V


o

1 f = H 2RC

RG

When R1C1 and R2C2 are different


V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) due to R1C1 after fH1

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
1 = 2R1 C1

V+ falls 40dB/decade (= 12dB/octave) due to both R1C1 = R2C2 after fH2

f1 H

fH1

fH2

f
f2 = H

1 2R2C2

EE2603-07

First order High-pass Filter


RG
At high frequencies C1 short and thus V+ = V1 passing the high frequencies
V1(input)

Rf

v+ C1 R1 R=a

vo

V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) due to R1C1

Op. Amp. then amplifies V R + to V = 1 + f V


o

RG

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fL
Lower cut-off frequency

1 fL = 2R1 C1

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Second order High-pass Filter


Rf RG
V1(input)

When R1C1 = R2C2= RC


V
V+ falls 40dB/decade (= 12dB/octave) due to both R1C1 = R2C2= RC

v+ R1 C2 R2 R=a

vo
R Vo = 1 + f RG V+

C1

Vi = V+
f
1 2RC

Op. Amp. then amplifies V R + to V = 1 + f V


o

fL =

fL

Lower cut-off frequency

RG

When R1C1 and R2C2 are different


V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) due to R1C1 after fL1

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fL2 fL1 f
fL1 = 1 2R1 C1

V+ falls 40dB/decade (= 12dB/octave) due to both R1C1 = R2C2 after fL2

fL2 =

1 2R2C2

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Band-pass Filter
When fH > fL
RG
V1(input)

When R1C1 = R2C2= RC Rf


Rf RG v+ v2 R 2 C2 R=a vo

v+ C1 R1 R=a

At high frequencies C1 short and thus V+ = V1 passing the high frequencies (High-pass) above fL
V
V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) below fL (High-pass) due to R1C1

At low frequencies C2 opens and thus V+ = V2 passing the low frequencies (Low-pass) below fH

V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) above fH (Low-pass) due to R2C2

Op. Amp. then amplifies V R + to V = 1 + f V


o

RG

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fL fH
1 2R2 C2

1 fL = 2R1 C1

f = H

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Band-reject Filter
When fL > fH
RG
V1(input)

Rf

Rf RG v+ v2 R 2 C2 R=a vo

v+ C1 R1 R=a

At high frequencies C1 short and thus V+ = V1 passing the high frequencies (High-pass) above fL
V
V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) above fH (low-pass) due to R2C2

At low frequencies C2 opens and thus V+ = V2 passing the low frequencies (Low-pass) below fH

Op. Amp. then amplifies V R + to V = 1 + f V

R Vo = 1 + f RG

V+

Vi = V+
fH fL

Vi = V+

V+ falls 20dB/decade (= 6dB/octave) below fL (High-pass) due to R1C1

RG

1 f = H 2R2 C2

1 fL = 2R1 C1

f 13

EE2603-07

Example: Find cutoff frequencies fL and fH if R1 = R1=10k , C1=0.1F and , C2=0.002F. Is it a Band-pass filter or a Band-reject filter? Find the pass-band gain if RG=10k and Rf=100k

Rf RG
V1(input)

Rf

RG vo v+ C2 R=a vo

v+ C1 R1 R=a

R2

1 1 = = 159.15Hz 6 2C1R1 2 0.1 10 10 103 1 1 f = = = 7.96kHz H 2C2R2 2 0.002 10 6 10 103 fL =

)(

)(

When fH > fL it is a Band pass filter


At pass band, V+ = Vi R V 100k Vo = 1 + f V+ o = 1 + = 11 RG Vi 10k

fL=159Hz

fH=7.96kHz

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Example: Find cutoff frequencies fL and fH if R1 = R1=10k , C2=0.1F and , C1=0.002F. Is it a Band-pass filter or a Band-reject filter? Find the pass-band gain if RG=10k and Rf=100k

Rf RG
V1(input)

Rf

RG vo v+ C2 R=a vo

v+ C1 R1 R=a
V

R2

1 1 = = 7.96kHz 2C1R1 2 0.002 10 6 10 103 1 1 f = = = 159.15Hz H 6 2C2R2 2 0.1 10 10 103 fL =

)(

)(

When fH < fL it is a Band reject filter


At pass band, V+ = Vi R V 100k Vo = 1 + f V+ o = 1 + = 11 RG Vi 10k

fH=159Hz

fL=7.96kHz

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