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VIMUTTIMAGGA

AND

VISUDDHIMAGGA

A

COMPARATIVE

STUDY

P.

BY

V. BAPAT, M.A., Ph.D.

Prcf~ssorof P"Ii, Frrcnsson ColI~g(,Poona

£ailor, SHI'lfnipat<l (Droaniig4ri dllion)

POO NA

19) 7

P,inled by

J. C.

S

lr.hd. al.he

C.]~utla O rlcnl.] Pt_

Lid .

9. Panchn. n Chooc Lan".

Calcutt

DEDICATED

To

THE MEMORY OF

My Friend and Colleague

A Great Lover of Oriental Learning

The Late JAMES

H OUGHTON

WOODS

Professor of Philosophy . Em eritus

H arvard University

r"

. i "., ~'"\i}

.

,

'I;I

h~'

tr·fH.,'·

PROF. JAt. IES HOUGHTON WOODS

1864-1935

ri':'i"r:f~'l~~-"\.

!\<J~.~ J.o/.•?

~'.5yt'<. ~K ' ,s"/!:

"'\t~~ liA'e.E'';'''

~ ., n~(~~;;

I am submitti ng in the 0 Thwing pages the results of my Comparative Study of Upatissa's Vimuttimaggn in the ChiuC6C 'l'rauslal.ion with llmldhaghoaa's VisUthlhinmh'll"n. 'l'l!ey re- present ill the main my Dissertation submitted in 1932 to Ule Harvard University, Call1britlge, MaS!!. U.S.A., in lJatiia.1 {ulfil- JIlent of the rcquirclIleni.s for the Docturate of Philosophy, T he five years tllat have elapsed since 1932 have heen utilised ill M('uring new ma ter ial on the subject nnd considerable addition~ have been made in the light of this lIew material.

Just about ten days ago when I visited Siirauiillla, Bounre",

I met Bhikkhu Ananda Ka.zuJalyayann in the Mlilagalldho.-

ku~ivihiira. He spoke to me about a translation in to English

of the VilUuCtimagga and immediately handel! over to me the

four fo.scicule of a 'draf t-.translation ' b.V R. Yozai Ehara, Vict-or Pulle and G. S. Prelis (this JIIst nallie is not (Juile legiule). This is a cyclo-styled copy of a manuscript wriUen ill a beautiful hand. It contains a draft of the t ranslation of the ViJU\ltti-

magga

passages which are not clcar to UUl T ranslators.

As the printing of my bwk had sufficiently advanced, r

could not make full use oi the tran~lntion hut I lUust su.y that

in the portion thai stm remained to be printed, at three or four

places, it ena61ed me to revise my interpretation . On PI). 311-314

of this translation, the translators have given the naJUes of

worms in a human body, in their I ndian gll r b, bnt as long as

these names cannot he identified with names actually fouml

ill I ndian worl(~. the restoratio n is only problomatic.

In the main part of this book, I have attempted to give n very detailed synopsis of the Vimuttimagga and have compared it thrO\lghout with tue corresJlonding passages from the Visuddhi- lllagga. To facilitate this cOlLparioon, I have tried, wherever possible, to const rue the Chinese text in Pali. 'Vhere the Chin ese pasSliges were not clear to me, I have either sliid so or indirll.ted by a questinn-mark that the Pali or the English ren- dering given by me is merely II sugg£sted rather than a certain interpretation. I have occasionnlly used C~inese characters

several

from

Chapters

III-X II

wi th

the

omi86ion

of

,

wa~ un certain or ",here I thou ght the.v

for the better understanding of the Chinese

the

problem suggested by the comparntive study of Ihe two texts. have s ummari sed the available rnattria l on th e same and have .I rawn my conclu sions.

fn the printed pages of this book, 6cv ~ral luislakes have un- fortunately crept in. The difficuliy of securing in lndia the right Chinese typu and t he 'still greater difficulty or lIoouring compositors properl y qualified to handle them, hall bee n r C!pon-

sible for the wrong use of some Chinese chara cters. 'fhe neceS3ary corrections have , as fur as possible, been indicllte(l at

the end

This book is not intended to 5lltidy the need of those aeholanl

who wouhllike

to have the Vimu ttimagga in i13 entirely, but

the author will cons ider himself to he amply rewarded if it SCl"ves the purpose of giving an incen tiv e to some young echolars

for presenting to t he "World the complete work, in the near

where

my

rendering

would be help!ul

Text.

In my Introduction

to

thie

book, I

have

stated

in 'Co rrec ti ous and Additions'.

I

have

to

thank

Prof.

Vidhushekhar Bhatta charya, I)ror.

Beni

Madhab Barua snd

Dr.

Bimala Churn Law for baving

gOlle

througb

the

Introdu ction

of

this

book

and for making

several suggestiona. I have also to thank Mr. J . C. Sa rkh el, Manager, Calcutta Oriental Pres!, lor having taken great pains

in the printing of thia book.

the

University of Bombay for the substl!.ntial fina ncial help !t ha ll

granted towards th e cost of the publication of this book.

And lastly, I

have to ackuo,dedge m y indcbtedne&l

to

November, 1937 .

r. v.

BAI'AT

P ag ea FRO!'1TtSI'IErf; Facing i i i DEDtCATIO!'1 iii PREFACE v CO;o.-TENTS vii

P ag ea

FRO!'1TtSI'IErf;

Facing

iii

DEDtCATIO!'1

iii

PREFACE

v

CO;o.-TENTS

vii

ADDREVIATlOXS

ix

SUlDoIAR1"

OF

I"'TRODDCT ION

:.::iii

I NTRODUCTIO!'1

xv-lix

1-1 28

CIJapter

I / Nidaual1y

 

1

Chapter

II

sIla-paricch

edo/

4

Chapter

III I)hutani/

16

Clmpter

IV

Sllllliidhi-paricc heu"i

2G

Chapter V ; li:alyiil).a-miUa-pnriyesanj

32

Chapter VI

Cal'iyii-paricchello

34

Chapter VII ~KalUmat(.hiina-1Jariccliedo

38

Chapter YIn

nnmUlIl.d

iira(?).

43

Pari

One

Two

'l'hree

Four

"

5l

'"

G'

 

Five

78

Chapter

/ I X

Paiica Abhii'l.fiii

 

86

Chapter

x

Paniiii-paricehedo r

92

ChllPter

XI

l>anca

Upiiy ii/

95

 

Part One

95

P

art Two

l OB

CIJapter "XII Sacca"paricche~

 

U3

Part CIne

U 3

P

art Two

US

APJ'}:SDlX

A

(

"iii)

1. Developmeut of 9. child ill

to week.

the womb

from

week

2. List of the nnmes (in Chineae transliteration) of worms ill a human body.

3. Porollel

passages

ill

the

Vimuttimagga

aad

Petakop8des8

AI'''E~D1X D

129

130

133

13G

A comparative table showing the pages of the P.T.S. tldilioll of the Visllddhimagga with the COrres- ponding chaplers and paragraphs of the same book in the H .O. Serin.

h"DEX OF

OE

l-:RAL

I)AU

'V OROS

I NDEX 1:"1 E~GI,ISn

COIIREct'IO:"1S

AND

ADDITIO!i"S

141

Hla

167

INo~_neferenCCII are to the pag~ of t he volumes extept in the easea mentioned specifically

INo~_neferenCCII are to the pag~ of t he volumes extept in the easea mentioned specifically otherwise.]

A. Anguttaranikiiya, P.T.S.

edition.

Abhk.

Abhidharmakoga, transhi.ted iuto F r ench by

Louis de la

Valee P oussin . [Reference is to

Abhm.

the chapter and page of the vol. in which the chapter is included] . Abhidhamm:lvatlira in Buddhadatta's Manuals

(P.T.S.).

AbhmV.

Abhidhammattha-Vibh1i.vini,

ed. b.V

R ev.

Su-

Abha.

mangaia, Colombo (1898). Abhidhammatthasangaha, P.T .S. ed ition.

Buddhaghosa.

A.M.B.

Aspects of Mahayana Buddhism and its rela_

B.

lion to Hinayima by N . Dutt (1930).

Dagchi

I.e Canon Bouddhique en Chine.

B.D.

The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit

Chin. Dha.

Literature by Har Dayal. Der Chinesiche Dharmasangraha von W cller

em.

(1923).

C'ommentary i added after the abbreviation of a work means comme nta r y on that work.

Cp o

CRriyapitaka, "P .T.S

. ed i tion.

Corr.

Corresponds to

D.

DighRnikaya, P.T.S . edition.

Dh. or Dhp. DhsA.

Dhammapada [ref. to the verse]. Dhammnsl!.ngal;li-AHhakat.hil. i.e. AHhssalinI.

DhsCm.

 

Dhammasangal,li-Commentary i.e. Atthasa.lini.

diff.

Dillerent, differs.

Dipa.

Dipavarp.sa, edited by Oldenberg.

E.

R.

E.

Encyclopaedia of Rel igion a nd Ethica.

upl.

Explanation.

g.n.

Generally agrees.

id.

Identical.

Kimura

B

The Original and Devek'ped Doctrines of 1udiun

Buddhism

(in charts).

M.

Madily.

Majjhimo.nikiiya, P .T.S. edition. Maddhy:unaka-kiirika with Vrt,1.i (Bib. Bud. dhiea voL IV). Malalasekara , T he Pii. li Literature of Cey lon. Mahiiv ll lllsa, Gei ger 's edition.

MalJa.vyutIJatti , Jap an ese edition in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chiuese by Sakal'i.

:\dded after a figllre means llotes Oil that page . Kothing corresponding. Partly agrees.

P hotogra phic copy of the Mass. of P etakopadesR

Mal.

M,.

Mvy .

"

N.C.

p.lI.

or

n. c,

Puylu ski

by Hardy, preserved in the State Library ill Berlin. Burmese edition printed in llLc Zabu Meit Swe Press, Raugoon (1917). La lege nd de l 'empereur A~oka.

P•.

Patisambhidii., P.T.S. edition .

Ptk.

Specimen de9 P e!akopndesa von Rudolph Fuchs,

Ptn.

Berliu, 1908. Petthiina, P.T.S. edition.

q.d.

quite different.

r.a.

roughly agrees.

r.c.

roughly corresponds.

S.

S.A. S.D. or s.d.

o r

8 .

Sik.

S.N., SN, or

SaJTlyuttaniktiya. substantially agrees. slightly differe nt. Sik~asnmuccaya (Bib. Buddhicp,).

Su.

Sph.

Suttanipiita , re fer ence to the number of stanzas . Sphutiirtb:i.bhidharmakotavyli-khya. [Bib. Bud-

dhicfl, vol.

XXI.}.

S,.

Silsanavaqlsa (F .T.S. ed. ).

Tak.

Taisho edihon of the Vimuttimagga in the

Upa.

Chinese Tripitaka (voL 32. pp . 399-4Gl ) edited by Takakusu and Watanabe. Upatissa.

Vhb.

Vibhanga, P .T.S. edition.

Vim.

Vimutt.imagga, popular Chinese edition printed at Bi-ling in the province. of Kiang-Su (1918). The references are to the number of the book, polge (t!le reverse side of tee page being indi- cated by the addi tion of the letter ' a' to the number) and column.

Yill.

Visuddhimagga,ediled by Henry Clar k Warreu

refere nces being and pa ragraphs.

the Harvard Orienta l

Series]. Geschichte der Il1die chen L iller atu~ ·, Z weit er

Band. Note :-The references to the Commentary of the Visuddhi .

magga are to the edition of the 8ll:me published in P. O. lIu~~yne Pitaka. Prees, 1909, un l esi otherwise mention ed. The rderellces to the 8ynopsis of the VimuUiraagga. are indicated merely by the number of pages without putting any word before ' p.' That is to say references like ' po 6, p. 27,' indicate that the refereuce is to the synopsie of the Vimuttimagga. which forms the maiD part of thie dissertation. Any remarks or com· menu by the writer are put in square bracketa. The Roman figures in the marginal notes of the synopsis refer to the chapters of the Visuddhiwagga and the following Arabic figures show tbe number of the paragraph. I have not adopted any Euro· peau or American traneliteration'sY8tem of the Chinese sounds, but I have generally followed Nanjio iu indicatiug the Chineso sound by its closest equivalent in the Iu dillll sound·system, escept in the case of 80 me names which are more easil y recog·

nised in their translite ra tions us ed by previons writers.

this more cOllveuient, especially when the Chinese sonnd reo pre seuLs an originally Indian sound. The letters a, b, c u8ed

afte~ the uumber or pages of the Taisho edition by Takaku8u

and Watanabe iudicate respectively the upper miudle and lOwer

and Prof. D. :!rosambi,

the

to th e number of chapters

[To

be

published

in

Wintcl"uitz

I find

sect ions of the page .

number of column s beg iuning from the right.

The figures alter these letters indicate the

SUMMARY OF

THE INTRODUCTIO N

L

Villluttimngga in il8

Chinese Ira ullinlion Cie-t.'o-tilO- luu.

2.

'l'ranslated

into Chinese by Sell g-chie·po- lo .

3.

Similarity

between the Vimullimngga and the '!is uddhi-

ma gga and [O UI' possible theorie s t o explain tbe simi la rity.

4. Prof. Nagai ' s "jew.

S. Dr. Yalala sekar's comme nt au the above Dud Ilia sugges-

tion about the aolu tion or the problem. This question can be decided only on the merita of tho

6,

evidence, internal /Iud external.

7. Gen eral acco unt of the Vimuttimagga.

8. Correspond ences between the ch apters of

the

magga. Rod the Vi suddh ima gga.

Vi multi ·

9. Similarity between the two books due to th e comlDo n

SOurCCIi or com mon material upon which both the authors

draw, such as

(i)

Pa li Tutll,

W) PoriiQ.o a ,

(iii) Pubbii. cariyas,

( i v)

AHhakathiis,

(v) Petaka , (vi) A verse ascribed to

Sariputtn by both the a uthors, and (v ii) Some u n- identified wurces.

10. Similes , metaphor~ and

ilIu strnti ons.

(i) Common to both the Textll.

(ii)

Pl!cul iar to Upatissa .

10. Dis-similerity between the two texts.

(A)

Di s-siruila ri ty il'

doctrina l points .

( i )

Exten-

sion of the Bruhmavihiiro-nilllilta, (iv) Cariyii8, (v) R upia, (v i) Jhinanga8, (vii ) Indriya8 , (viii ) Anulo-

K amDlat ~h iina8, ( i i )

K8I; iJ.lQ- ma J.lQala,

(iii)

maD.B.J:l8,

(il:)

Nevo Ml'lilA-ni'lsai'inayalan a-samildhi ,

(x) AsoiiiiI-8amiWhi.

(E) Di"·similarity in treatment.

(i) Interpretation of wor d8 and expre6Sion8.

(ii) Different treatment in

more

(iii) One

goes

into

does not go.

whol e sect ione.

detaile

where

the

ot.her

(h,) Upatissa introduce8 altogether

i8 not found in Buddhnghoea.

new matter, which

xir

\'I)IUTIIMAGGA.

12. Re!tlrence to other view8 on doctrinal lXIinta:

13.

(A) Those that have been mentioned by both the authors.

(D) 'I'hose that ha\·e been rer

to by one autllor and

found to be exactly tallyin~ with the view8 of tho other. Light tbrown on snch pasaages by Dhamma- pala's comment.

rred

References to

proper nam ee. (i) Texis, (ii) Places, (iii) Pe no nages.

14.

Trauliterations of Indian words.

15.

Rtlferences to a Cal.lqii.la.

16.

Style of th e Viwutlimagga as we na,e it in its Chine&e

""fenio n and

the method of the tra nslation.

17. Review of all the internal evidence and the uternal e,id-

ence of Dhammapila.

18.

Dhalnmapii.la. The author of Paramattha-maiijus1i., the Comme ntary on the Visuddhimagga, and the auth or of Hie Commentaries

on the Thera-Theri-Oii.thii, PetO-vatth'l, Vimii.navatthu,

Netti-pakara;ta, etc.

is th e same.

Belonged

10 the same

tradition and school as th at or Buddhaghosa and did not

live long after hiw-perhaplI within two centurie&-and therefore there is no reason to doubt bis testimony.

19.

Abhayag iri School-Jta

history.

 

Indian monks went to Abhayagirivihiira.

 

20.

"Who was Upati~a? Where and when did he compoae the book? In what language did he write his booH What do we know about him from the Vimuttimagg9-? Di sco very 01 a Tibetan version of 9- chapter of tbe Viwuttimagga. Indian origin 01 the Vimuttimagga.

21.

First or the four theories can be accepted.

 

22.

Knlyii':la-mittas.

It is nellrly eighteen years aince Pro£. M. Nagai of the Impe- rial Universi ty,

It is nellrly eighteen years aince Pro£. M. Nagai of the Impe- rial Universi ty, Tokyo, Japan. pointedly brought to the notice 01 Buddlliat scholars the existence, 'in l.he Chinese Buddhist hte- rature, of a book called Cic-t'o-tiio·tun, M!N; m•. or Vimutli- magga as he rendered it in Pali. L Thi s hook is the same as is numbered 1293 in Bunyh\ Nanjio's catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka,' although Nanjio gives

'Vimoksha nliirg a-sast ra' as the Sanskrit readering of the Chinese

title. Nanjio further tells us that this book WI\8 composed by the Arhat Upatishy a or Siiriputra' und was translated into Chinese by Seng-chie-po-Io .fft f/Jn i!lf a in 505 A.D.~ in the Liiin

dynasty (A.D. 502-551). This book is divided into twelve chapters in twelve fasciculi or Chinese books.

Nanjio gives us no information about Upati~ya, or Upatissa 1\8 we may say in Piili j bu t he gives us some information about Seng-cllie-po-lo." The nanle Seng-chie-po-lo, or, San-chie-pho.lo us Naujio transliterates it, is explained in the Biograph y of the

1. J.P.T .s. 1917.19, pp. 69-80. Notice of the .:Ime hlLll heen taken

hy subsequent writera. 8M Prefa~'6 (p. vi) t'l the trlLnslation of the

(192'2); B. C. Law. The I ,ife and W"rk

of Buddhllghosa (1923) , pp. 7(}on, foot-note.; also Foreword to th" sam e

Ceylo n

(19'28}; Vasudoo V. Gokbale, Prs titya' la mutpida-iistrl' des UllalLgha,

(Bonn, 1930), p. 10, foot-note 2; A. P. B uddbadatla, Introcluetion to tho

Introcuetion to

of the Visuddbima gg a (1931); Mrs. O. F.

Rhys Davida, A Manual of Jluddlliam for Advanced Studenta (1932), p. 31.

Alfroc Forke,

book by Mrs. C. F. Rbys Darid3; MalallL&t.kara, P,<Ii Li te r

ViauddhilOagga by Pa Maung Tir

ture

Saddhammapajjotiki (l9:1O-31), pp.

hi , German 'franilation

(p.

6)

2. Also ill KatSL!og des P eking

r

,·ii.viii; Nyuatiloka,

Tripit.ah. 'fCn Prof.

Berlin, 1916, p. H,

No. 63;

Bobogirin, F~ icule annexe,

No . 1648.

3.

Nanjio

perhaps SO conjectures

the nalOe 'Upati,ya'

used in connection 'With Si r iputra.

See M.

i.

150 .

wa l

a lS<.

Vimutti·

magga

and

i.

Chiuese

transla·

tion.

4.

Bagehi (P. 418) gives 519 A.D.

6.

Thi, information i. given in the Continued Biography of Wor thy

Mon ks fif tIi {@ 18. ; abo compare Bagchi, pp. 415-418. Przyiu sk i, gives in hi. introd uction pp. xi·"ii to 'La Mgend de I'empereur AtIoka' >lOme informa tion about biro.

::': " 1

\l ~!uTTn (i\.GQA

commu nity-nouruh-

ment (Sangha-bhara) or Seng-khai (it m (Sangha·varmall) community-annonr. These translatinns help us to restore the name Seng--chie-po-lo to Sangha-bhara or Sanghn-varman, hut the Chinese po-Io may IIIl10 be ren dered as pala and lIO it i.e not unlikely that the name was Sangha-paJa as Prof. Nagai restores it.' Sangha-p:ila was a 8ama!).a froID Fu-nanor Bu-nan (!lI: m) Siam or Cambodia. He went to China aud there translated some ten or eleven works. While hewas in Chinn, he becaule the dis- ciple' of an Indian monk named Ou!).abhadra (Kin-n3-phu~ tho)/ who himself came to China in 435 A.D. and was work- ing on t ranslations till 443 A.D. ""e further learn from Dunyiu Nanjio's catalogue that this Ou!).ahhadra WIU! n noted scholar of the Mahayiina school. We are also told there (pp. 410-416) that "he was a jramana of Central India, a Brahman by cute and ni cknllmed the Mahayana on account 01 being well acquaint- ed with the doctrine of Mahayana." On his way to China Gu!).abhadra visited Sihala-dipa (Ceylon).' If we look at the list of books translated by him, we find along with. several Mahi-y3na works, two books of the Hinayina 8chool, Sarpyuktii- gama Sutra and AbhidharmaprakaraJ.lapiida. This shows that

Gur;tabhadra was aleo interested in Hinayina. He worked on translation& till 443 A.D. and died in 4GS A.D. in his seventy-fifth.

year. 'Ye learn from Kanjio thal Sau-chie-p ho-lo or Sangha-pala

worked Oll his translations from 605-520 A.D. and died in the year 620 while he was in his sixly-fifth year.' Tlle Biography of the

Buddhist Worthy Monks referred to above tells us tha.t Sa.ngha- pila Wal a very hrilliant and i1ighly precocious boy. A. soon as he came of age t o begin his study, he left the world ly life an d s pecialil!:ed him self in the study 01 th e Abhidhamnta. Having heard the name of the country of China as famous for the study of the Dhamma, he took a boat and went to that

Buddhist worthy monks as Chun-yin *-

1.

S. Uvi

(J .A I. 191ti,

p.

26) doel not tbink t!lis to be correct.

2. D&gcbi, PnylllU i, following P . Pelliot, conaider this

impo.aible;

.lso _

B.E.F.E.O., ill. p. 285.

I~ is InU8l1.6d tbat probably tbere is

• oonluaion witb .nother !I&me GUl;I&vrddbi.

3. ~

JJ!I ¥& ~.; N&ujill (pp. 416-16) &dda one more ebar.cter 10"

4. T&ilbo, 00. 344&. 18.

5.

M. Pelliot {B . E.F.E.O., rn, p. 2S.5)

,

He gi".

Pelliot.

S'l. A.D.

B&gcbi

ip. 4111], PrzylUlki

'Gat une iu.d

llrt&nce'.

[lntrod.

p. XU) follow

lliTROI>UCT ION

·:ni;

country. We have here no information u to who brought Upatie.sa's Vimuttimasga to Chi na . nut judgi ng from the fa ct that Sanghapala was quite you ng when he came to China and from the fa ct that Gu~abhadrD, on his way to China, visited ;eyloD, it seems not unlikely t hat the ""ork was brought to China Iy Gugabhadra wIlen he ""ut to that country in 435 A.D.

This book Viluuttim3gga of Upati8sa !rears such a close simi- larity, a8 will be aeen from the synopsis of the book, with

118

Buddhaghou's Visuddhimagga that we can n ot explain it

Now, Buddhaghoaa, wbo came to

Ceylon 8nd composed the Yisuddhimagga and lit lellst the Com-

merely a matter of accident.

mentaries Oil the l~our Nika.Y38,. WIIS a contemporary of King Mabiinlimn who Willi crowned in Ceylon in or about 413 A~D.·

geylonese tradition euign. the arrival of .Buddhaghosa in Ceylon to the -ye ar 965' after the death of the Buddha. -Ac- cording to the Ctylonese tradition' the Buddha died in 543 B.C. That gives us 422 A.D. a! the date of Buddhaghosa'8 arrival in Cel'l on. Vf8~ddbimagga was the fi r st work o [ Bud dbag b OlJ D.

after bit arrival in Ceylon. I t was this book thlt proved

ability to unde r take the Inrger work of ro-tnlllslating t.he Sioha-

Milgad hl language. So it seems very

lese A~thakatbaa iuto the

probable thal by the time Gu~abhadra callle to Ceylon, Buddha- ghoss's Vinddbimaggn was abo wel\·koown.

hi.

Now lIere

ia

a

problem.

Up a ti lllla'. Vimu ttima gga,

as

w e

Vimutti-

m

• iUli[ar

Vi!uddbi-

maua.

to

tranalation, bean a very close re-

:em blance to Buddhllghosa's Viauddhimaggs. It cannol be (I matter of mere coincidence. It will have to be accounted for in one or' tbe oth er of the following ways:_

have it now in its Chine"

(1)

That Buddbghosa h!:~ U~~:iua" Vimutti~~~. b e rOr)

Four

him,

that he

took the framewOrK of """Ujii~II11uttimagg

pouible

and amplified it with his sholaatic erudition .

'

~«Jr;

1.

Mal.

pp.

76,

81, !le;

Mu:

M lille~, S.B.E.,

Vol.

X ,

p.

15

gi

41().43~ A.D.

all

the

period

of

MaUnlma'.

reign;

Rhy.

David.

gi.81

413 A.D., Vol. n, p. 886 o! E.R.E.; Winl-eroitr. (G_h iebt.e def Jndi8Cben

I.itteratur, Vol. II, p. 162) gi~eI 413 A.D .; Geiler ai~

tho date of tba roign of King Mahi.n',.,a, p. J:uiJ:, -Intr. to MBhhIlIJl

Tramlation.

~

A.D

16.

8l.

r'

2.

Mal.

P.

3.

Mal.

p.

VIMUTTIMAGGA

(2) That Upatis~::. had Buddhaghosa's book ~efore him and that he abridge<! it by cuttiug down se'Veral ch~pt;r8';;;d at the same time introduced se'Veral modifications in consi8tencl with the doctrines and 'Views of the 5chool to which he belonge .

That !>ath theee books go to 80me old common 8OU.!C(

like the AHhakatbas upon which both of them draw, each treat- iug and interpreting the same old material in consistency with the doctrines and views of the school of each.

(3)

Still another possibility is suggested.

'fhat the main part of Upatissn's VimuUimagga might

have been composed before Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga, and

(4)

that

some

portions might

haye heen

added

to this

book by

SangJiap5.1a

who translated

the

book

illto Chillese

under

the

ProI.

Nagai"

Till"'••

in:8uence of the Mnhayiina schooL'

Let U8 see if we can find any justification for any of these theories or whether we can arri,e at any decisive conclusion at all.

Prof. M. Nagai seems to hold the 'View given as 4 above! He identifies Upatil!!:i, the author of the Vimuttimagga, with one Upatissa who is mcnt:ioned in the list of the great Therae who handed down the Vinayapi~ka from the time when Mahinda came to Ceylon! He points out that Fali Samanta- pasa.dikii., as well as its Chinese translation by Sanghabhadra in 488 A.D., gives an anecdote of .Upatissa and his two dia_ ciples, Mahasumma and Mahiipaduma, aho';"ing that Upatissa all a teacher of the Vinaya was held in high esteem. He gives another anecdote which tells us how Mahii.paduma cured th~ queen, wife of King Va.sabha. of an illness. This King Vasabha was crowned, according to 'Vijesinha, in 66 A.D.' So, Prot Nagai concludes that this Upati!sa, ,who is mentioned in the list of the Theras that handed down the Vinnya, who was held in great re spect by the Sangha and who was a contemporary of King Vasabha [who was crowned in 66 A.D.!, is the author ot the Vimuttimagga, and that Buddhnghosa had probably this book belore him when he wrote the Visuddhimagga .

-

1.

J.P.T. S.1911-19, p. 79 .

-2.

J.P.T.S. 1911-19, pp. 71, 78, 79.

V as ab ha'i reign a. 65-109 A.D. approximately.

4.

J.P.T.S.

1917-19,

pp.

73,

74;

lIIal.

(p.

49)

3.

gi

""

See Yin .

T.

tho

potiod

3.

of

l!'TRODUCTION

.I:il:

Rer e, how,,"er, we do not find any otbe r proof addu ced by Prof. Nagai to identify him with the author of tbe Vimuui- magga. His main relinnce is on the fact thnt tbere bappens 'to be one Upatiua mentioned in the list of the Therns who bo.nded down the Vinaya and about whom tbe Snmant&piis5.dikii.

in ita Pali ne well as Chinese

Dr. Malalasekara, having considered tbis opinion of Prof. Nogai, suggests' that there is no reason to conclude that tbe Viauddhimagga is a revised version of the VimuUimsgga, as Prof. Nagai tuggesta. "If we suppose," MY' he, "t bat tbe Vimnttimagga was t,ha resun of books brougbt by OUl)ahhadra

in Ceyion Rnd olher Htnayiina problem seeme clear. Both

authors drew their inspiration from the nrne souTce." He suggests that although Buddhaghosa came to Ceylon to study

t18 Sinhalese A~thakathiis which were genuine, there might still

I ndia, which were studied in

ve rsion gives 80me anecdotes.

of Mid-India, from his tra

els

countries, the sol ution of the

ha

e

been ,,,me Commentaries in

Dr. ~hlal

that country with traditional interpretation handed down through centuries. "If then it is auumed," concludes Dr. Malalaaekara, "that the Vimuttimagga found ita way into China'

by way of so me of the echooh whicll aouri~hed in India at that time, and which studied the Canon in the more or leu trad i- tional method, it would not be difficult to conclude that the Villuddhimagga and the Vimuttimagga aTe more or leas inde- pendent works written by men belQnging to much the same

school of

thought-tbe Theraviiqa. " This view coincide5 with

the third of the probahle theoriu that we suggested above. These co nflicting views- on the 5ubject of the inter-relation between Upatissa's Vimuttimagga and Buddhllghosa's Viauddhi- magga prompted me to make a comparative study of both theae

• texts and I intend in the following pages to submit the results of my study on thi8 subject. We shall have to decide this queation of the inter-relation be- tween these two texb after thoroughly investigating the evid-

ence, internal and uternal,

we can get from the

comparative study of botb these books which form the main part of this diuertation. We shall, of coune, go into more details of the Vimuttimngga than those of the Viluddhimagga, as the fOrlller is much leu known thnn the laVer.

that

is

a

ailll.hle

idence

to us.

Let us /irst s~e what internal e

<:

nlln l

a«<IlIDt

thll Vim.

of

VUlUTTUIAGGA

The VimuHimagga is divided into twelve chl>Jlteu j·n twelve

of the bOOlta eeemlll to

"be based on no other principle bllt the con.enience of the si~ of each book , while the division of the chspters is wor" ayBte-

matic, being based on the prope r divhion of the subject matter .

Upatiua,

{Meiculi or Chinese books.

The di

i~ion

The fint chapter is merely introductory in which

the nuthor of the Vimuttimagga, takes np the following danu,

SUa,.'" 'amiidhi pmi,id ea vimutti ell anu.ttord ant/b,.Mlld t11le dharnmd Gotomena. YlUauind.' [A. ii. 2; D. ii.

123].

as the hasis for his whole work. In the int roductory chapter, he

he must show the Way

to Deli\·erance (vimutti). In the secntid chapter, Upati86a gives the clauification of SlID, conduct. In the third chapter, he

discusses the various kind, of practic~5 ot purification (dhutu).

concentration

(,anuidh,). In the fifth chapter called 'Seareh for the Beat

Friend' (Ka.lyo:i~.miieta-pariyelO!i.tl), Upatissa discu&ee' the qua-

ays find ou(, Buch a friend. The sixth chapter is devoted to the discussion of the different types of character or disposition (ca~iyci). The seveuth chapter enume~ates the various devices or helpful means (kam7llot!1!cil1dn,) to attain the concentration and further shOWI how they can be thoroughly understood. The eigMh chapter is the longest chapter and is divided into five parts. This whole cbapter showl in a detailed manner how all those

and meane to

li ties of the bea! friend and tells us the

In the fonrth, he gives the cllll

commenht on this stantll nnd aays

hy

•ification

of

devices (or ka1'1"'KI~Pld1ld"I1~) could be used to induce concentra.-

en whict.

one attains as a consequence of mastery o.er the various pract.icell of concentration. The tenth chapter gives tbe clusifieation ot

o parte,

insight (pannoi). The ele\·entb chapter, divided into t

tion. The ninth chapter treaa of the five miraculous po

. gives a detailed treatment of the five means (u.pdyd), insight into which helps one to be free from darkness of ignorance and helpa on8 to cut off craving and to attain noble wiadom (anyd panndo).

chapter, also divided into two parte, treate of pene-

tration into the Truth. by means of Purities (vuu.ddhiyo) · and Insigh1e (iid(UJ), by accomplishing which one reaches the Fruit

The t

eHth

of holy lile culminating in Arhatship.

1. P. 1; Conduct, Qon<":<l!ntrat.ion, InsiSht .nd ttnlll rpaHoble Deli"IIT-

IIlce--tbe.!e dblmm

the mllitrion, Gotama underdood in luoceuion.

INTRODUGrlON

Thus it will be seen that all theae chapters contain" sa - ex- position of the topics mentioned in the introductory slsDla, namely, conduct (Sila), cOacentr~tion (,amddh,), insigh t (paiifia) und deliverance (1I;11IIItt,). The following tsb le .ho

ith

e

the correspondeuce of the chapten of the Vimutti.magga those of th!l Viauddhi-Ul8gga;-

 

Vimuttiluagga

Visuddhimagga

Introductory

Nothiug Corresponding

Co,np.dllOlI

II

Sda'f1(Iriccheda

 

1 Si-lanid&ell)

of the

 

ebpte

of

III

Dhutdni

I

I

Dhv.tanga.nid.uWl

Vim

.

.!; Vi• .

IV

V

VI

Samddhi.pariocheda

KalYiifJ4 111iet

a.-pariY6sa.nd r

1

Carilld.paricch~da

VII KammaHhdfl(l.pariccheda

111 Ka'lVf11aHhana-gaha'Ja-

nid.dua

VIII

Kamma-dvdra [or kamma-muklla (?)J

Part One

Part two

Par t ~hree

Pa:t four

Part five

IX

Pailca IlbhiJliid

IV Pa ~haVf-.k(J.lir;t<l-n iddela,

paragraphs 21-138.

IV Pa~havi.kmi1,lO-niddela,

I V. 139-to the eud

of

~he chapter.

J V Se,u.-kasif)aniJde'(J,

l

paragraph. 1-23.

X II T"1Ippanid4e1(l.

VII I AnuHati~kammaHht!no·

{

{

nidde,a

IX

Brahmav iMra.-niddelo

XI

XII Jddhi-,;iJ,ka-niddua

XIII Abhififid·nwdle,a

,;

uii

VDfU1TIMAGGA

X

XI

XII

Vimuttilllagg.a

l>u7iiid-poriocheda {

 

l'aiicaupayu

[

Part OU!

1

f

Part two

 

l

Socca-pariccheda

 

[

j

Part one

1

I

l

r

Part two

j

l

Vi!uddhimngga

XIV Khandh&-nidxilJta

paragrapbs 1-27.

XIV l~h.and.lia.nid-d.6'O,

paragrapbs 27.th(l eud .

X V Ayaul-1la-nidtksa

X VII PaticcolClmuppdda_"iddeJa

XVI hldriY~locc&-nidd-(lJO,

paragraph 13-to the end

(the pan on $acca ollly). XVIII DiHhivinccld.hi-nidd·no

XIX !<-onkTI41Itta,o~a.-vtltuid.n.i_

nidde,o

XX MaggdmaggaiW1)a.danana.-

Viluddhinidckla (in part). XXI Patipadd-71d!,od~luana.-vilUd·

d],i-niddeIC', paragrapbs

1·28.

XXI Patipadd_f1d~adlU$o.l«H'~'lld_

dhi-,~iddcJa, paragraph

29-10 the elld.

""".

XXII

!'Vii>l.waml1lo-vinuldhi-nid-

XXIII Panfi4bh.:i'fond,~i,a,!uo-nid-

J,eto.

different

cbaptere of the t\ll'O booka, some chaptere, especially the Inst th r ee or four, of the Vi,uddhimagga being inexlricably mi::&:ed up in the two paTl6 of the twelfth cbapter of the Vimutti- magga. Thia brief ruume of the contents of tbe two books at OnC( reveal. tbe fact that there is more than superficial agreement

Tbi s i3 only II: rougb correspondence betw~n tbe

between these t

o

books.

Let us go into more details.

It is a well-known fact that in the Vi5uddhimagga, Bu~dha­

Common

"''''feel.

ghosa very often re[en to, or quotes from, 'older authorities which he specilically names, euch as tbe Vibhanga, the Patisambhidii., tbe Niddesa, the ~e~ka, the A~\hakathia on the Nikii.yu, or alludes to by lOme general name like Pili, Pori!:las, Pubbii-

aay' , 'So it has

~n &aid (VlltWl1l- h.'t;WI1I-)', without giving IIny indication u to

~ariyas, or Atthaka.thas. Sometimee, he merely

INTRODUCTION

u

iii

what source he refers to. Now it is remarkable to note thjlt there are .maoy correspondences between the several passages in the two

books that are due to these common sources of the ·t~xt8 ~~~Pii.li. . lr from the Poral.las, Pubbiicariyna or from the AHhakathii,s. I\Ve 'lId several passnges which are found in both lhe' lests in

is drawn to

hese, from time to time, in the main part of this dissertat ion. Ve shall indicate here only a few (Jub t andillg cases.

den tical, or almo~t idtlntical words aud attention

(i) Passages from theJ>ii.li Texb.

Among the Pall texts, the first fonr Nil.:ii.yas, the Vibhanga alld

the ' texts on which both Upatissa aud

'atisambhid5magga are

Juddhaghosa mostly draw . The 1lassages, for inBtance, taken as exts by Upatissa for the exposition of ·the trances or anussati! except that or Upa~(];md), or iddhis, or n;rodha-J/l.17l.:ipatt!,i are

.he same as tl108e given by Buddhaghosa; for they all avowedly

;0 to one and the same common source . T he explanation of

second chapter of the Vimuttimagga (p . 11 )

is the same as that in Buddhaghosa; fo r, both of them draw upon

the Vibhanga . The explanation of iddhis (P. 86) goes back to the common 80urce of the Pa~i!;3mbhidii The explanation of some of the que91ions regarding Nirodlu;.-samiioJ]aUi (p. 128) i8 base d on the Cu!avedalla·sutta (no'. 44 of the Jfaiihiman ikayaj. Th e passage taken for the exposition of dnapartasGti and its advan- tages (p. 69) are taken by both the author& from S.v. 322, and

icara-gOCGra. in the

M. iii. 82 respectively.

Tn addition to these, there are scores of passages, too numerous to be mentioned here, taken from the Pilli texts quoted by both

he authors, as authorities or illus trations of a point under dis_

ussion. In some cases Buddhaghosa merely allude! to a passage

y givi~g the introductory warda or by giving the nama a! a ~uUa, while Upatissa gives the same passage in full. For ins- tnnce, while explaining the disadva.Dtages or dangers of .'!'Vorldly

pleasures (kamen

adi.,alla) Buddha-ghosa merely refers to the

passage in the Majjhiman:ikii.y;\, sutta 22, beginning with appa.wida kama, wlille Upati/I.JD :;ives, in fuJi, the passage (p, 44)

incl uding t he similes of a skeleton of bonet!, a piece of flesh, a torch of grass or reed, a dream, a fruit, or a thing hegged and

-- -

PlL'SBgea

from th

Pili .

80

on. In another place, B uddhaghosa mer.ely refers , for

the

explanation of lIijja

and OOTa1;l(l., to th6 !m?~tl~lI!:~ a"d

th&

1.

D.

i,

5Utt:>. no.

3.

u:i~

VIMUTTIMAGGA

llbayabherava' auttu, "'hile Upatiua givel the full e~pl'Ull.tion :11 given ill these ButtaS.'

.r"ri1)u.

)

(ii) ~~ _~!.

There are several pauagea quoted by Buddhaghoaa froD" Por3~a~ nnd lOme of theae passages are found ill Upatiua". Vimuttimngga in aimost similar words. For iMtance, anum, ber of the venea at the eod of chapter XVIII of the Viauddhi magga, about the in\.er-depeodcoce of 'oame' and "torln ' -ar found io the Vimuttimnggll' in nlmost simihr words, tho variations being noted in the detailed synopiia of the Vimutti· magga. Li kewise, the lIimiles of Il. lamp (podipo), the IIU] (,,,riyo) and a boat (fldud) giveo in the Yisuddhimagga XX II 92, 95, 96 Ilre found io the Vimuttimaggn io ideo tical worda, '

.Pubbi.

e "'"

(ii.i) Puhbicariyas.

The paUllge explaining the ariaing of the different eonsciollJo nelses of t11e eye, enr, nose, etc. ascribed by Buddbagbosa In XV. 39 to Pubbicariyas (Former 'l'~acherl ), is found io thf Vimuttimagga' in a slightly varied but fuller form. Upatiua refers several ptl5!lages to former teacheIll and some of these are found with alight variation in Buddhaghosa'a Viauddhimagga although Buddhagh05:1. does not make mention of any fonner teachen in that connection. POt instance. Upatiasa

u.yl· (7.31 that former teachen have mentioned four waya

of cultivating un6p6na.sati, which he give! as gal,Wnd, an"bon -

d/uJn4, thapand, and .allakkhOTJij,

189, gives these four waya, and in addition four more without saying anything about former teachers. While treating of the Cot"dhat"uouatthcino, U patissa says (8.15.1) thnt former t eacher ' have given ten' ways in which this tlovotthana can be done w;herea.s Buddhaghosa apeaks in XI. 86 of thirteen ",ay. withou speaking of any former teachen. In hia treatment of divine ea~ (dibbo10ta), U1?ati11o apeaks of the way, Ilccordi.ng to soma teachers, of developing the power of divine hea r ing and lIay. that the yog4vot:a#"o beginll first with giving hia attention. to the soundll of worms residing within hia body.' Buddhaghoaa speake in X III. 3, without any mention of former teachers, of the sound, of the3e WOrms residing within one', body.

3)

while BuddhaghOla in VI II.

1.

M.

i.

IUU

no.

9:.

p.

63.

8.

pp. 113, 116.

 

p. 119.

6.

p.

101 .

e.

p.

70.

7 . p.~.

!!.

p.

88.

(iv) AUhakathas.

i:'l'l'lWl>UC'l'ION

There are !lOme passages quoted from the AHhakathaa by Du ddhaghosa. For instance, in t h e cllapter on the AUlbhani-

71~:'a, he quotes a very long passage (VI. 19·22), I!.howing in a

delailed manner

he can find the alubhanimitta. This whole passage is found in the Vimuttimag;ra' (6.38.2·6.5a.3) with a slight variation consisting of the omission of the repeated pllrll ses . Similarly, while speaking of the first four kasU;lllft, the kasiuas of the Earth , 'Vater, Fire and Wind, both the authors seem to be referring to the same AtthakathWi; Cor we find correspondence in their treat ment even to the details. In the quotation given by Buddhaghosll IV. 22, we have a reference to the size of the uiw itta, luppamat- ta11l -va lardvamatta~ -vii, a8 big as 'a winnowing. basket or a waler·

how the yogii~aca ra shou ld go 10 a place where

bowL' Exactly the same idea, expressed in identical words. ie found in the Viwuttimagga.' Similarly, in the trentment of tbe kali~a of W ind, Buddhaghosa gives a quotation from the AHha· kathii.s, where we find a mention of the top of a lugar-eane, or of a bamboo (V.9). We find the same mention in the Vimuttimagga.* The remarks by both the aUlhors about the natural and artilicial kali~a in. the case of the first four ka8iJ!.!ls agree and we ma~'

uplain thie

as due to the same common source 01 th e

AUhakatbas. (v) In the Visuddhimagga IV.56, Bnddhaghosa gives a passage from the Petaka showing how the 6-'"e fn.ctoJ1l of a trance are the opposites of the Ii,e hindrances (nflltlraJ;lcint). In the Vimuttimagga (4.17.1), we find e:xactly the same quotation

a scribed by Upatiss8 to a book call~ Sin Tsin g ' =: •.

(vi) In tbe Visuddhilnagga XIV ,48, Duddhaghos8 gives the

following verse ascribea to Siiriputta, where we life told of t he size of the letw'ti1)e psrt (patiida) of the eye:

Yana cakkhappa

paritta"'Tl- mkhum(l"m *1fIo 1lkdlirlJJam:upallUI"I!1.

sddet!a

rupdni manupcllati

ABb".

kalhiit.

A quota. tion fr om

tbe 1>8\411"

A

CODlWOU

"erie

Now in the Vimuttimagga" (10.2.1), we have the same verse in almost identical words. Instead of ukd.lira, Upat.issa, as f'l.f as can be aeen from thia Chinese t1"8nalltion, uses the word 11M only.

1.

p.60.

2.

p.«

4. p. <&9: tbe ttl-Ine puuie i , quoted in Db~.

s.

p.68.

p. 165 and Dbamma:

plla in bil commentar:o" on the Viouddhimagga ulen to Pej.aka at I Nn

tbree tim

(pp.

ISS. 194. 514) almost in

a limUar conte:rt.

"'m.

unidwti-

fled

fOUI'OI.

uyi

VlI\lUT1'BIAGOA

(vii) Over and above tbeae cases, where the common source of the parallel passages can he definitely ascertained, there are others where the similarity is di$tinctly seen, although the common source may not be known.' For instance, in the chapter on the 'Search for the Beat Friend' (KalYiiJ!a-mitlA-pariyuan4),

Upatisall mentions' the seven qualities of the best friend \'\'bich

are identical with those given by Buddhaghosa in the verse III.61. Likewise, the comment aD the \\<1)rd sikkhati , as given by Upatissll,' is ~'ord tor word the same 08 is found in the Visuddhimaggn VJIr.113. So also, the comment on the word anubandlwnli in the Viauddbimagga VIII,196 is the same lIS Upatissa.'a comment on the same word.' Upatissa also give! a pauage5 which correspond! to Duddhaghosa'. four naya&,

ekaUanaya,

ndtUlUatUll/CI,

abydpdranaya,

eva"l)"ldhammaliinClya

given by Duddhaghosa in XVII.309-3I3 and XX.I02.

Similee,

met ophon,

ilIultra-

tion•.

'Ve alw find everal similes and metaphors "

hieh

are com·

mon to both of our tuta, either because they are taken from a common 8Qurce or became one has borrowed from the other. The parable of a mountain-cow (gavi pabba.teyyd) in the Visuddhimagga IV.130, taken from an older souree (A.iv.4I8-I9), is given by Upatissa. 5 The simile of a young calf (dhewupaka vaccha) given by Buddhaghosa in IV. 174 is also given by Upatissa.' The simi le of a. saw' (~l.:aca.) ueed for cutting wood, given by Buddhaghosa in VIII.201·203 to illus- trate how attention i8 to be directed to the wind of breath aa it comes in and gots out, is found in the Vimuttimagga.· The !imile of the same IS given in the Jiakacupama &uita (No. 21 of Ma.jjhimanilr:iiya) is given by Upat.issa in another place- to illustrate how one should see the d,iaadvantagee in ~ll.will. This corresponds to Buddhaghos a's mention of the same in I X. I &. The similes of a drum and 8Ound 1o (B.XVIII.(i.), a lame lUl\U nnd a blind man" (B.XVIII.35.), 89.8h 01 lightning and a city of Gandhervas u (B.XX.104.) are found in the Vimulti· magga. '1'he Mah:i.bbfltas arc compared by Ups.tiasa to three sticka reclining upon one another.'~ This eorresponda to Buddhaghoaa'a

simile in another conte:s:t where he shows the inter.dependence of

1.

2.

6.

1.

8.

11.

Probably it may be lOme oicariJlllmota.

p. 32.

p. US.

p. 62; 'iii<) ef. PeL Bur. ed. p. lSI: I>ocelio khlro.poko 1>0 maloro'!'.

p.

3.

70.

<t.

6.

p.

p.

70.

6t.

p.10.

p.

Ill!.

9.

12.

p.

p.

78.

116.

10.

13.

p.

113.

p. 9(1.

INTRODU CTiON

nama and rupa thus;

niwi.ya tlUJ,piw.~u in XVII I. 32. Upalissa ill 11.14.10 gives a eimile 'like a man who lakes water from some ODe place ill the oceao, tastes it with his tongue and koov'\ all the \Yater ill, the ocean

10 be salty'.' This co rr espond s to Butldhaghosa's cka,-iala-

yaOul h i cL1I i.m na[.«kalapisu aliITa:mni:na~

bindumhi $akala-$amlldda.-iah1.r(JJ(Jlf\ 1Iiya,

'as the taste of all

water in the ocean is in one drop of water from it' (XVI. 60) , used in a different context. Even the illustration of deval'l(1)\ de1ldyata1U1m iva, given by Buddhagh05a ill X .24.31 while ex- plaining t he meaning of the word ayatana, is found ill the Vimuttimagga. ' T he similes of the continuous Harne' of a

lamp, n moth· Ialliug into a lamp, or the flame 01 a lam p' in a . quiet place,' which are very common iii Buddhist literature,

Upatissa. So also

Upatissa, like Buddhaghosa, gives the similes of the strik-

ing of a bell and the fluttering of wiugs by a bird to illustrate vitokko., and the similes of the merging sound and the wheeling round of a bird to illustrate 1!icara . '

other similes whi ch are peculiar to

Upatissa. He has given some protracted similes. For instance, there is a beautiful long-protracted simile of a king who is asleep,' who hears the sound of a knock on the door, wa.k es up, iDl:ltructs a servant to have the door opened, sees his gardener coming with a mango-fruit, eats tbe mango-fruit which th~ queen cuts and give.~ to him, gil"es hi s judgment about the h'.lit and goes back to sleep ag ain. This simile is given to illustrate the ,vhol e proceSli of thought when an object is seen through the sense-aperture of the ey e. " Another protracted simile gi.ven by Upatissa to illustrate the inter-relation of the di£filtent factors of Dependent Origination (vo-ticca-lamuppada), and to show that the round of birth .and death, is without 0. beginning and without an end, is that of a seed and the rice-pIanL' Upatissa illustrates the distinction between 1tpaciira and appal/a. by some beautiful similes . UpacfJ.T(J is like a boat on wat er full of waves; appana like n. boat on water where the re is no wind. UpacaTQ is like a you ng boy, appand like a strong

are given by both Buddhaghosa and

There

are

se

eral

1.

p. not qlloted.

2.

p.

55.

3.

P. 114.

4.

p .

115.

5.

Vi!.

XIV.

139,

'nitl4h

dlpaedna>."

Ihiti

viya cdiuD

fhiti';

cf.

A~~hasilini, p . 119.

6. p.

46.

1.

§ 573.

8.

pp. 101

p.

102.

0l~;

for a closely aHied simile, 6ee AHbasil ini pp. 279-80,

9.

p .

104

VB 1V TTUlA GG A

man. Upacara is like a blind man, appalla like one who is not blind. Upactira is like a man who recites suttns only after a long time nnd so forgets; appana is like one who recites suttas

constantly nnd so does not forget (4.1.8.-4.7110. 4). This simile of the recitation of the suttas seems to be a favonrite one with

Upatia.sa.

his mind. while vicara is compared to one who meditates over

the m(:IIning of a &utta' (4.12110.10-4.13.1).

The distinctioll between got-rabhU-M1J.4 and 1TU1!Jga1id~ is

illustrated in this way. The iormer is like a man who has only one foot outgide the threshold of a burning city, while the latter

is like one who has put both his ieet outside the city .' There

is a most apt simile given by Upatissa to illustrate the

cultivation of equanimity (upekkhrl) after the cultivation of friendliness (11l.(:tta), compassion (karulJ-d) and rejoicing or delight (mudita). Just as a man when he sees his relative coming back. after a long absence in a tar-<:>if country, pays attention to him for 60me time, but, later on , as time passes by, he becomes in-

to him'.' There is another very appr.opriai& sim il e to

different

illustrate the behaviour of a yogavacQ#'(l with his master. 'Like

a newly married bride going to wait upon her fat h er-in-l aw an d

mother-in-law, the yoga'VQ(;ara should have a sense of conscie n_ tiousness (hiM) and fesr (ottappa,), and should receive instruc~ tions irom his master." Upatissa shows the appropriateness of the order of the Four Noble Truths by illustrating them with the simile of :;. physician who first sees the symptoms of 3. disease, hears the cause of it and then seeing the possibility of

a cure, prescribes a suitable medicine f01" the cure of the diseaso.' The impurities of the body oozing out through ita nine openings are compared to wine placed in a le aking pot" (8.22110.1).

The simile oi an iron ba.ll red-hot with fire, that could be IIioulded into whatever thing one likes, is given by Upa- tis61l. (9.Ga.5). With this may be contraated the similes of

whatel'er

a goldsmith and or a potter preparing, respectively,

ornaments and pots they like from the red-hot gold and we11- kneaded earth (B.XII.2). To illustrate the unknown destiny oi

an Arhat, Upatissa gives the simile of red-hot iron beaten and giving out sparks. When it is dipped into water we do not

anything

know where the spa rk s disappear;' SO we do not know

He compares vitakka to a nlan who recites suttas in

1.

l' 47.

2.

p.119.

3.

p.81.

4.

p. 33.

5.

p. 110.

6.

p.

8.5; d.

p.

75.

7.

p.

120; a.lso of.

Sn. 1074, 1076.

L\ lit VVUlJl1W',

about the destiny of au Arhat.' The simile of one who is afraid. of a poisonous- serpent is given by Upali ssa in 5.11.7-8. GUG who wauts to be free from upii.dii.nakkhandhas is compared to a man who wants to get rid of a poisonous serpcnt wh om he has grasped unawares.' The sim ile of an elephant and a goad is often gi,'en by Upatissa. For instance, he says, one must apply oneself to a 6(lmddhi-1!i1nitta for cont,rolling oneself, just U8 a goad is applied to an elephant for controlling him.' To express harmfulness of a thing, Upat issa gives the similes of riding an elephant without n goad,' or 01 a man who, having a natural excess of the hU1UOr of phlegm, eats latty things' or one who, having a natural excess or bile in his humors, takes hot drinks.' Upatissa gives another very beautiful and most appropriate simile. The four Oreat Element/! (malWblnlMni) are compared to three sticks reclining upon on6 another and the Derived Ele · ments' (upada ,.upiini) are compared to the shadows of the three sticks. Like the three sticks, the Great Elements, depend upon one another, but the Deri"ed Elements, although they ,ate deri,'eel from the Great Elements, do not depend upon one another, like the shadows of the sticks.' There are also some similes which Upatissa. gives from some

older sources. For instance, to illustrate the fi r st four trnnces' of the ~alm of fo rm, Upatissa gives t.he similes from M.i.276, 277-78. Buddhaghosa does not give these similes. Similarly the

similes of a cart and an army (P

Duddhist liternture.· Upatissa uses both

48) are quite usual eimiles in

of them in 4.16.8-10 .

"Just as, because of the different parts 01 the cart'" we can nse the word cart, or because of the division vf the arillyll we can sa.v an army, so this trance (jhdna) is so called because of the diffel'ent factors" (angd!U). " Upatiesa also gives very appropriate similes to. illustrate the meaning of the clifferent sankha.ras. TOllch (phassa) is like the light of the Bun that 5t-rikes the wall, eq'lI111i - wity (upekkltli.) like a man holding a scale of balance, lalse "View (diHh£) like !l. blind mlln touching and fecling an elephant, shamelessness like a ca1}{fhla. u At another place, 'not to delight

L

S.

5.

7.

,.

p.

p.

p.

p.

Miln.

120

115; a1$O d.

2.

•.

6.

6.

p.

p.

p.

pp.

118; 11.1$0 $00 P. 115.

ct .

41-

p.

82,

4.1 .

n.

".

47, 79, 52-53.

po. 26-28 ; AbhidhaTll!ako~a VIII. pp. 7-8.

"'.

10.

Cf. B. XVIII.

12.

p.4.8.

11.

Cf.

B.

IV. p.

197.

13.

P.

99.

Point. of

u;~"";mi­

rarity.

in good thing'" ca res not for

Ha.ving noticed the poin ts of aimilarity between our two texts, let us now proceed to eumiM the points of di a-similarity. The differences bet"-een the two tuts are of two kinds: (A) in the dodrinal points and (B) in the method of treatment.

(A) At the outset it may be borne in mind that Upatiua

dota not at all differ from Buddhaghosa on any junJamenwl

doctrines

accept the same Tberaviida tradition. It is only on comparn- tively minor pointa that they differ.

(i) For instance. Upatiss8 gives thirty-eight kamma~thina.s a, the principal oneil and he mentions two others a.s only 8eCOnda ry.' His whole treatment of the kammaHhinaa is based on the acceptance of thirty- eight kammatlhiinaa, mentioning

occasionally the other two. In the detailed treatment of these kammatj.bii.nas, however, be he.! included these two 11.180. This subject is discussed in a note in the main body of this disserta- tion' and it will be seen from it that this classification of Upatisea is based upon an older classification as seen in M.ii. 14-15. and

of Vaaubandhu (VII I. 30a)

al80 give tbe same kaaiJ,l.as as are given here. (ii) Upati 56a spe aks of the k~Jlir;t!I-mIl~la as a circular, triangular or quadrilateral/ although he adds at the same time that former teacheu com:idered II- circular =-,4al(J, aa the beat. Buddbaghoa!l. does not make any mention o( the triangular or quadrilateral kmitItJ

Pa. i. G. Netti and Abhidharmak04a

is illustrated by the simile of a oo.ry/.dla princely throne. I

who

of Buddhi sm. 'l'hi~ clearly shows tbat both of tbem

(iii) In connection with the n.imitttJ. of the Drahmavihitu, Upatissa. speaks of the e3:tenMon of the nimitw of the Brahma

vihirl18 as well 118 of the ten kuiJ;HU." Buddhaghosa is definitely

opposed to this view.

quito obvious that he has in mind some definite theoris~ who held tbis view. Ca.n it not be that Buddh.agbosa has this plUlllage 01 Upatissa or this view of the !!Chaol of Upatissa in mindP

He speaks against this view and it ia

(il') Upatissa speaka of and accepts fourteen canyb,· or typea of disposition, while Buddbaghosa, although he is aware

1.

p.

15;

.lso d.

Sik. lW-30, 160.

2.

p.

38.

3.

pp. 3S-39 note.

4.

pp. 43-44.

 

5.

p .

39.

6.

p.

34.

IKTRODUCTION

:lui

of this fou rteen-fol d classification, nccepts only sis: cariylis. He definitely rejects tite fourteen-told cl"-SllificatiOIl (B. III. 14). He de" otea a lot of space to the discUABion of these carisus aud we shall have an occasion to reter to thelll again.' (v) Upatissa gives thirty kinds of riipas," four beiug the mahiibhutii5, the great elementa, and twenty-ail: up5.diirupiis, derived-matter. Duddhaghosa, gives only twenty-eight (XIV.3G). He is aware of some other kinds of rupas, which are added by BOllle to his list. He discusses those rupas and rejccts all of them. In thia co n nection, among other rupas, he mention iaJ.irvpa and adds: 'according to SOllle (ek(lcculU.t1p- ,natena, XIV.71), midd lwrupa' _ Upatis81l 6oem8 to acce pt these two rupas. He has a very oonaistent view about this mid~ha-rt!po, the material form or quality of sloth. He refen to TlI.iddlta- rl1pa on three other occasions. In 4.15.4-4. 15a.l and in 1O.3a.2-3, Upatissa says that midJlw-T"dpa is 01 three kinds-that which is produced by weather (tttuia), produced from mind (cittaja), and produced from food (ilhriroja). Upatissa sal'~ tIUlt it is the cittJlja-middha that is a hindrance (lIlt1ar~a) aud 1I0t the other two; for, they can be even in an Arhat. He gi"l'es a quotation' from Anuruddha to uplain that cittaia middha is to be ginn up at the time of Arhatship, while the other two cnn be given up later. In 12,13.10, Upatiss!l. mentions only tAi/1(] (mental languor) and uddhacca (re~t1essneu) III things that are given up at the time of entrance into the Path 01 Arhai&hip,' while Buddhaghosa mentions tHn~middha' and ttdhacca in the lI8Jlle connection (XXII.71) . This "iew of Upati ull. is supported by the author of tile llilinda-paiiha. In this book, we fi nd the mention" of ten ki ude of physical states (kGY&lttgat4 dhammd) over which an Arhat haa no control. Among these ten, we find middJla. (vi) Buddhagbosa speaks of the five ango.& or facton of t.he fil1t trance, three of the leoond, ond two each of tbe third a.ud

The f actors of eoch trance are 08

fourth (IV.I06,139, 153,183).

followlt:-

1st trance, 5 angas: vitakka, vicara, piti. Ittlcha and ekaggatd.

pIti, ,ukha and ekaggatA.

2nd txance, 3 angas:

3rd t-rance,

2

Qngna :

Ittkha and ekagg(ltil.

4th trance,

.2 angas:

upekkhil

and ekaggatil.

1.

pp. :lZ:lvii, :lxxiI-"i.

2.

p.

95.

8.

p.

48.

4.

P.

123.

Upatissa,

in

VIMUTTIMAGGA

addition

to

thia

kind

of

classification,

giTu

another classification' as followa:-

lst trance, 5 angas:

vitakko, viciita, pHi, ,ukha ilnd 8I.:6ggaUi

2nd trance, 4 angas: 8ampaJcida, pHi, ,ukha. and ekaggo.ta 3rd trance, [) angaa: upekkhil. lati, Jampajaihla, Jukha and ekaggaJ,d.

4th trance, 3 angaa: vpekkhii, lati and ekaggatd.

Thia kind 01 classification is abo found in Vibhanga 257·61. Vasubandbu's Abhidharmako'a also (VIIL7·8) gives thia classi· fication with a alight variation in the aogas of the b.st· trance, where it give!! four instead of three.

(vii) Upatissa mentiona ooly three indriyu,' whicb correa·

pond to the lokuttara.indriyas, the last three or the twenty·two

enumerated

any aec tion on I ndriyoa as Buddllaghosa gives io XVLl·12.

(viii) Wbile explaining allu/o71lQ.-1iatla, Upatissa explains

it as equivalent to thirty.seven dhammas' which are the same as the thirty·seven factors of enlightenment (bodhi-pakkhiya. dhammd). Buddhaghosa, however, considers these factora or enlightenment as something higher than anulo11w·IUil.l-fJ., ,vhich he puta between the eight vjpaS8anii.i:1fll~as and theae thirty.seven Cactora or enlightenment.'

by Buddhaghosa in XVI.1. H e dOe! not even give

.

(ix) According to Upatiua, 1Ie~·Q.I'aihl6-fl6IaliiiaYllullta does

not become" a paccllya of vipallaOO (3.7a .1O·3.8.1), while aCCl.lrd· iog 10 Buddhaghosa, all kam11laHhdna.s do become (IILI20) .'

(x) Upatissa mentions (UQJhHla7OOdhi' as ooe oot attained

I'itber by aivaku or by the Duddha. BuddhaghoS!l dOH not make any such mention.

(B) Let U8 now proceed to the other kind of difference, the

(~jffereoce, in treatment or in tlle method of handling a parti.

cular point. There nre many such cases where t.hese differencee occur and thcy have beeo pointed out in various pIac$! in the main body ot this diasertation. Here we shall mention only a fe'" cases of oulAltanding importance.

(i) It has been observed that Upatissa givea an interpretation

of some terms or e::s:pressioo&, different from tha.t given by

1

p.

151-53.

2.

p.

122.

3.

p. 119.

.f

XXI

130.

15.

p • .f.O.

6.

Abo. t:f.

B.

xvn. 15; Abbm.

p.

91. 1'erse SM.

Buddha ghosa, alt ho ugh both of them use oue an d thc same tel'w or expression. For iustance, if we compare Upatisaa's interpretation of Jhuta and Jhutal'ciJ{I' with tha t gi \'en by lluddhaghosa in II. Sl-82, we find Upatissn's interpretation ill quite different. It is simpler aud more natura l t han that af lluddhaghosa. Similarly, tnke the lour kinds or paribhogns.' Upatissa's interpretation differs from that of Buddhaghosa in 1.125·27. Iu the saUle tI'ay , take the tI'ol'd PiitilllokkllU.· U (1I1. lissa's intel'pretation is ahllost identical with the interpretfltioll of the same word in V·bhflngn. 246, nn(l is q"ite different. froUl the adificial interpretation of Duddhaghosa in 1.43. The salUo is the case with Upatissa's comment all vimocayaJ! 1 pit/a.III.' Upatissa's COlliment is quite different and more natural thau that of Budilhaghosa (V III.2J3) which is " ery artincial aud ,highly scholastic. {ipatissa's comment ou the words Blla!Iatii, bhi1.:k1IU, up~kkha, Jacciilli/ on Ihe passage taken for the el:- position or ,ilcinllllalj," anti on the words such as Tit.pa, jivluJ,

artificialitJ

While h'eating of upalamanu.uati,' Upatissa

does not take even the main tutual passage taken by Buddha·

gh08a for his eXllositioD . (ii) Upatissa.'s treatment of Ule sootions' on vedaJ!(i, l alhid, lank-hiJra and vil11MI.!a is different fr om tha t· of Buddhagllosa . His exposit ion of the artificiel Uloka-koJitta\ ' is different from that of Buddhaghosa in Y.21. While explaining the word loka-t;itAit., Upatissa refers to only two lokas, latla -loka aud

o,'er ,,:hicb

Duildhaghos.1 spe nds some liliragraphs. The whole sections on kayagaUi-6ati aud tjpo,amdl~ullaliu ore treated by D\\dd.ha- ghosa in a manner quite (lift'erent from that of Ullatissa . The latter docs not go iu to t he detailed explanatio n of t he th irty -t wo pal:ts of th e hody as tIle fo rm er does. But, ou the other ha nd, Upatissa gives a loug li st of the n3mes at wcrms thnt reside in a buman body. l 'he D:lIlles used seem to be aU tl'llllslilerntiOD8 of In diau names, ODe of which may be restored as 'nUl,ldlan~uklUl (SaD. "tf1wla. muklla).11 Upatiesa also goes into the details of the develop.

kiJya, ayalalla' is entirely devoid or Buddhagho

aud scholasticism.

a's

sallkllara-lo/ta. 1I

He does uot

speak or

oktila-loka

l.

•.

,.

Pl'. 2t.2S.

pp.

p. 71.

G3,

11 ,

(;2,

,.

1 00.

9 .

p.

pp.

IS.

07-100.

•. p.

S.

p.

II .

67.

7 .

10.

II.

p.

63.

12.

pp.

75 fr.,

7,

I S.

Seo p. 76 Ilnu Appendi" A 2.

 

E

p.

iI.

pp. 99,

p.

OS.

fl.

1 00.

went of the foetus week hI week. A comparison with Athana_

veda as well

as

with some of the

old

Indian

medical

work s

like

Vagbhat's

A, tlinga-hrdaya, '

aud

CRraka 2

and

shows that the unrues of the worms given by Upat.i5lla are

different froln those mentioned in these works. Su!ruta speaks of the development of foehls month by month and not week by

Upatissa's e:.o:position of the Law of Dependent Origina-

week."

tion is quile simple and is illustrated by the simile of the rice-seed and rice-plaut.'

(iii) We find from the comparisou of these two texts tbat where UpaHuR is brief, Buddhaghosa is prolix and where U)Jatissa goes into details Buddhagllos&. does not. For instance, while clI:plainwg the word aHhU,ta, Upatissa mentions' only six aHhao38 which corr espond to Buddhaghosa's pa!ibodhas that are given by him as ten (II I.log ). We have already men- tioned above' another esse where Buddhagh03u gives eight ways ot culti-vating mindfulness of breath (VIII.1S9) while Upati5S8 gives only four.' Upatis58 mentions only tour advantages of cultivating lamadhi.' while Buddhaghosa. mentions five (XI.120-24). 'Ye have also referred to (p. L-o:iv) another case where Upntissa mentions only ten ways, given by former teachers, of catudlu:Uu1ral'atthdtlo," while BuddhagholD gives thirteen. Upatissa gives only three divis.iona ot lila: duvidha. t;'1)id/w, . catubbidha (pp. 1-14). He does not speak of the pa:lcavidllo class which Buddhnghosa gives. Upntissa does- not 8}leak of the five kinds mastery ("l;o.siyo, p. 51) that Buddhaghosll. gives

in TV.lo!.

On the other hand Upatissa gives n detailed explanation of Tariou8 kinds of -vlt'eka ll and the fivOj kinds of l'imuta ,U while DuddhagLosa does not. U patissa gives six kin ds of ptti, n while Buddhaghoaa gives onl,. five (IV.94.1OO). Upatiua gives five kinds or lukha," whereas Duddhaghosa does not speak or any-

1.

2.

3.

4.

Nidllluthina, U. 42 0/3. Villlllluthin., 7. 9-13. 54tb adhyiy.: Ell&:. Tralll!. by K. L. Bhi.bagratlla, III. pp . 338-11. Thi rd .dbyly ; Ellg. Trllnll. by Bbilbagrlltn., ii, p. HI1 If.

L~_

7.

p.

ni

~~a

8.

p.

70.

11.

13.

a~n

p.

pp.

<1.6.

.4.7.

12.

l.f

.~.

p.

p.

1 .

47.

INTRODUCTION

thing of the kind. In the clauification of dla, lamiidlli and 7)aill1d, Upatissl!. gives several divisions which are not given by lluddhaghosa and many of them are baaed upon &orne older te:z;t like Vibhanga. Upatissa. gives n det-ailed list of the special distinctions' of the Buddha while B uddhaghosa merely refers to thenl (IX.l24). Upatissa gives a detailed statement of the disadvantages of ill-will,' while Bu(ldhaghosa only alludes to some suttas (IX.2).

(iv) Upatiua sometimes introduces new matter which we do not find in the corresponding portiolJ of Buddhagbosa . For instance, Upo.tisso. mentions severo.l gU!las' of each trance, twent:r-fi16 of the Erat, twenty-three of Ihe second, twenty-two of the third and fourth trances and of tJle four fonu lesa (arupuva - cara) samMhis. Buddhaghosa does not so.y anything of the kiml. Similarly, as a reward for each of these trances an(1 e3.miLdhis, Upatissa names the planes of the different kinds of gods (together with their life · periods)· where the yogih'acara i.• born. It is i n teresting to note that the life-perioda a88igned to these different gods by UpatiSlla do "ot agree in all case8 with those given in Vibhangn (424-20), or Abhidhammatthll- sangaha (chap. V. para. 6).' The following comparative list will be interesting: -

Accor d in g to Upati&aa

According to Abba. & Vbh.

Realm of the first trance llrahma-piirilftjja

!

kappa

!

knpplL

!

t

Mahii-bruhmd

"

Realm of the second trance

Paritwbh4

2 kappas

2 kappns

4

Abha.ssard

8

8

Renlm or the third trance ParitUi-lubM appamd!lQ.mbhd

Subhaki1)M

J. pp . d.5-6d.

,.

16

32 32

G4

G4

2.

p.

78.

3.

pp. 47-M.

4.

pp. 60-66.

6.

Nor do thl1,. agree with tbt lile-p01riodi gil'"en by Vuubandhu In

hiS AbbidharlllBkw.

n:l1'i

VDfUTTIMAGGA

According to

Upatissa

Realm of the fourth trance

According to Abhs. &. Vbh.

V tJhapplw.'W

}

50

kappas

600

kl\ppas

A"anruuatIU

Suddhdvosa

Atiha

10,000 kapP£ls

1,000 kappas

Atappa

20,000

2,000

SUM!!a

4U,000

4,000

Sudani

80,000

8,600

ftkaniHM

lGO,OOO

10,000

Realnl of the formless trllnces

 

Akdl(ilU'-nc6yata1lti"pogll

2,000

20,000

Vilbia,:,anc6yatantipagu

4,000

40,000

Akiflco.iUl6yato.ni1pago.

6,000

00,000

NtJ'Vas01illun(:l"1I1flyo.tantipaga

 
 

84,000

84,000

While explaining the annssatis, Upatissa uplains or

defin es the subject of eroch of the anussntis. I n his ex pl anaHon of the word Dho.mlflQ in Dllamm6nuuati, Upatina givea a ,·ery interesting comment.' He explains the word Dllamma. as Nibbl:lna and the Way to Nibbona. His u:planation of Nibbiina is the cessation of all activities (,ankhdrd), abandoment of all ddilementa, cessation of craving, dispassionateness and calmness. The way to Nibbdna, he explains. in terms of tholle dhamwas which are known as the Thirty-seven Factors of Enlightenment (bodhipakkhiya-dhaml1W)." Compare with this Buddhaghosa ' it

idea of Nibb.ina in XVI.64-74

the pointa of similarity and dissimi larity.

or veiled reference

i n o DO book to the tIther, or whether there is ony ot h er e v idence to make one be-li6"e in tho probability of the author of one book

having kno"l'l"n the other.

It has heen noted that Buddhaghosa, in his Viauddhimagga, often refers to the "iews of other philosophical systems or schools or t raditions-to the :views of the Sankhya' and Vaijqika'

l et UB further see whether there i8 ony di rect

H aving noticed

1.

p. 66.

2.

p.

66.

S.

XV I.

85, 9l.

 

4.

XVI.

91,

XVU.

117.

 

INTRODUCTION

Bystems, of those wholD he calle Believers in Ood or (Supreme) Controller,' of the Jainas," as well as to the views or other schools or traditions (ill Buddhism)." He does not mentiou them by their specific uame but uses some woni that is peculiiarly characteristic of each of ihem or simply uses words like 'eke, ekacce, keei , aiine, alnlre, or yo palla 'radeyya , etc.' l eav ing it to tIle reader to imagine whom Ule cap fib. For our purpose, we are to co nfine ourseh'es to Bmldhnghosa' s refercllces to olher schools within the pale of Buddhism. Upatisaa also often gives the "jews of other schools,' introducing them simply l\'ith a re- mark such a~ 'and it is sai(\', 'further it is said. ' Such rererellces to the views cf other schools made by Buddhaghosn and Upntissa in their books, we shall classify in the following way:

Those views that hne been referred to »y BuddhagJlOsa as well as by Upatissa. Those vi ews that bave ooen ascribed to 'som e' b.v oue author and foulld to be exactly tallying with the view~ held by the other.

It is well·known that Buddhaghosa belonged to the school cf the Theraviidins Qu(1 acc('pted tile tradition of the Mahii.vihiira schoo l in Ceylon. In. his prefatory remarks to the Visuddhi- magga, Buddhaghosa definitely says that he would giye the ex· position of the Path of Purity, according to the traditioual interpretation of those. who belong to the Mnhayihara (104).

(A)