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TENSES

SIMPRE PRESENT

NOTIONS:
Present time
a- GENERIC USE:

1- Eternal Truths:
* Mathematical
* Geographical
* Scientific

2- Habits:

3- Continuous States

4- Professions, jobs:

5- Abilities:

6- Proverbs:

7- Quotations:

b- SPECIFIC USE: Real present

1- A single event with little or no duration that occurs at the time of speaking or
writing. Commentaries

2- Demonstrations: How to do things

3- Performative Verbs

4- Stage directions

Past time
1- Historic present

2- Oral narrative

3- Newspaper headlines

Future time
1- Timetables (sth unalterable)

2- Time clauses
PRESENT CONTINUOUS

A-GENERIC USE:
1- Habit in the present (always) ANNOYANCE

2- For a limited period of time

B-SPECIFIC USE:
1- Real present (now)

2- Future time

SIMPLE PAST

A- DYNAMIC VERBS

1- EVENT IN THE PAST (point in time)

2- HABITUAL PAST

3- FOR FUTURE REFERENCE

B- STATIVE VERBS

1- STATE PAST

PAST CONTINUOUS

A- ACTIVITY IN PROGRESS AT A CERTAIN TIME IN THE PAST


(incompleteness)

B- Habit in the past (always) ANNOYANCE

C- TENTATIVE USE
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

A- FINISHED USE
1- Resultative Past

2- Indefinite Past (at least once up to now)

B- UNFINISHED USE (with adverbs of duration)


• For dynamic verbs we use present perfect continuous

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


A- FINISHED USE
Emphasizes continuity and uninterruption of the action and the effect it has

Giving excuses

B- UNFINISHED USE
(with future idea)

CONTRAST
1-
*She has been an invalid all her life
* She was an invalid all her life

2-
* I´ve read that book (resultative past)
* I´ve read that book (indefinite past)
* I´ve been reading that book

3- Complete with the right tense


* He (play) football every Saturday since he was 10 years old
* He (play) football all morning