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Three Unpublished Late Period Statues*

Hassan Selim (PL 19-24)


Abstract Publication of three statues from the Late Period preserved in the Museum of Cairo (JE 38601; JE 37353; JE 97196). The statues and their inscriptions are discussed.

1 The standing statue Cairo Museum JE 38601, now in the Alexandria National Museum (pi. 19-20) The standing statue of Pl-di-'Imn-ipt, made of schist and measuring 85 cm in height, was found by Georges Legrain in the Karnak Cachette1. The figure has an oval face. The incised elongate eyes are with the upper eyelids and cosmetic lines in raised relief. The eyebrows, also in raised relief, curve arch over the brow and then straighten out to run parallel with the cosmetic lines across the temples. P3-di-'Imn-ipfs nose is straight with the nostrils indicates by slight depressions and there are curved incised lines around the wings. His mouth with its modeled lips is horizontal. He wears a wide wig, which lies straight across his brow and is pushed back behind his ears. A deep incised line across the forehead to the ears marks the edge of the wig. He has a powerful body with sloping shoulders. The pectoral muscles and median line are shown. The navel has been carved as a slight oval depression. Pl-di-'Imn-ipf s arms hang at his sides, but they are not cut away from the matrix where the body narrows to the waist. Both hands are clenched and hold a cylindrical object. The man stands with his left leg advanced. He wears a plain sndyt kilt with central tap. It has a broad waistband, which dips well the navel. In appearance this statue is typical of the 30th Dynasty and early Ptolemaic Period. 1.1 The texts 1.1.1 The base A hieroglyphic inscription in sunken relief and bordered by incised lines runs around the base. The texts start in the center front of the base with the /zip-sign and then extend both leftwards and rightwards to end at the center back of the base with the phrase mF-hrw. From right to left:

=^=1 A^/l^Q^s^/s^fl 0 ^^ssa^popj i ! f=r ~ ^ A ^ v ^ n f D^DT/A s~~~ i ^^ s^llo^_^7 i s^_SUjtJi JA^a aSrUo
htp di nswt n 'Imn-Rc nb nswt tfwy hnt'Ipt-sw. t di.fpr nb hr wdhw.fm hrt-hrw n k? it-ntr P3di-'Imn-'Ipt m3r-hrw

I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. M. Eldamaty, the Director of the Cairo Museum and to Mr. M. Aly curator of the Late Period Department, for permission to publish the statues herein. PM 11,161.

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,,An offering that the king gives to Amun-Re, lord of the thrones of the two lands, foremost of Karnak; may he give all which comes upon his offering table daily (a) to the Ka of God's father P3-di-'Imn-ipt, justified." From left to right:

htp di nswt n Mwt ir(f) Rr nb. tpt hnwt ntrw di.s ht nb(f) nfrt wcbt ndm bnr n k? it-ntr P3-di'Imn-ipt my-hrw ,,An offering that the king gives to Mut, the eye of Re, lady of the sky mistress of gods; may she give everything good, pure, beautiful and sweet to the Ka of god's father P3-di'Imn-ipt, justified." (a) The sign 5L=fl is a rebus composed of the arm underneath the sun sign, which can be read hrw ,,day" hence hrt (that which is under, holds) hrw ,,the day"2. 1.1.2 The back-pillar The back-pillar is incised with two vertical columns of hieroglyphs between vertical lines, which extended by three vertical columns on the left thickness of the back-pillar.

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(5)2 (1) 'Im3-ib tmfnd sdm n ii m w3h inb n btit h3 splt.fhwi hnmw niwt.fm spw.fmnhw (2) itntr hm-ntr n 'Imn m 'Ipt-swt hry-ssfi rbw-ntr hm hdt (hm) hr wr w3dty hnk(-nww) hm-ntr Mntw nb 'Iwnw smfw hry st wrt imy-s. t-c (3)pr Mwt wrt 'Isrw np3s? 4 ss hwt-ntr imy 3bd.f (m) pr 'Imn hr s3 3 P3-di-'Imn-'Ipt mF-hrw s? n it-ntr hm-ntr W3st- (4) Nht nb hps sd(-sw)Nfr-tm m?c-hrw ir nb(f) pr 'Ihy. t (n) 'Imn-Rc Nfrt-?st (5) mP-hrw nn ski dt dt
(1) ,,The one who is glad, the one who is not angry and (even) listens to the one who comes at the night (a), a copper wall around his nome (b), (the one who) protect the citizens of his town (c) with his excellent deeds" (2) God's father, priest of Amun in Karnak (d), master of secrets (e), purifier of the god (f), servant of the white <Nekhbet>, (the servant of)

P. Wilson, A Ptolemaic Lexikon: a lexicographical study of the texts in the temple of Edfii, OLA 78, 1997,775. Wb III, 391.13. For parallel sentences see K. Jansen-Winkeln, Biographische und religiose Inschriften der Spa'tzeit aus dem Agyptischen Museum Kairo, AAT 45,2002,135, n 18.

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Horus, great of the two diadems (g), the hnk-nww priest (h), the priest of Monthu, lord of southern 'Iwnw, upon the great throne, acolyte (i) of the (3) temple of the great goddess Mut, lady of 'Isrw of the four phyles, the scribe in the temple in his month in the temple of Amun from the third phyle, Pl-di-'Imn-'Ipt (k), justified, son of the priest of goddess W3st(4) nht, lady of strength (1) sd(-sw)-Nfr-tm(m), borne of the lady of the house, the sistrum player of Amun-Re Nfrt-3st (n), (5) justified, never ever dying (o), never ever dying." (a) The words fad, sdm, ii are written in alphabetic spellings. Gunn suggested that the use of alphabetic spelling in the Dynasty 30 Naukratis stela of Nekhtanebo II was attributable to the influence of the Greek language on the Egyptian3. However, alphabetic spellings are well attested in the Saite texts4 and this was the result of the archaizing tendency, rather than an attempt to ,,modernize" and follow the Greek alphabetic system5. The Word/nJ is here uniquely written with an aggressive bull determinative6 rather than the usually nose, eye and cheek determinative7. The determinative of the aggressive bull in the word fad emphasizes the angry meaning of the word. I don't known any other example of this usage. (b) A close parallel for the phrase inb n bBt h3 sp3t.fis found on various monuments from the Ptolemaic Period in which the Kings described themselves as a wall such as: = ss>c^j inb n bi?t phr 3ht - ,,The copper wall around the horizon (i.e., the temple)9." There are also analogous phrases from the New Kingdom such as: o j\,~~~~ JJ^ [' _J \ Jj ^j _^ ^=s tw-k n.s m sbty n bBt - ,,You are for her as a wall of bronze10." -= ^ sbty r? n Kmt - ,,The great wall of Egypt11."

B. Gunn, in: JEA 29,1943, 55-56. For examples see: P. Der Manuelian, Living in the Past Studies in Archaism of Egyptian Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, Studies in: Egyptology 6,1994, 81-82; K. Jansen-Winkeln, in: Or 67, 1998,169-172. Der Manuelian, op.cit, 389-390. Gardiner, EG, sign-list E2. Ibid., sign-list D19. Slab of basalt statue of King Philadelphos, see, W.M.F. Petrie, Koptos, 1896,19, pi. XX (3). Gate of Khonsu, Karnak temple, Urk. VIII, 86.8. E. Graefe, Untersuchungen zur Wortfamilie btt, 1971, 37-38 (Doc. 42). Speech of Thoth/Seshat to King Sethos I on the wall of the stairway corridor at the Abydos temple see, KRI 1,190(13,15). King Ramsses II describes himself as a great wall of Egypt in an inscription from the hypostyle at Karnak temple, see J.F. Champollion, Monuments de 1'Egypte et de laNubie: notices descriptives conformes aux manuscrits autographes rediges sur les lieux II, 1889, 82.

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1 jl ^ H Si ^ sbty mk Kmt - ,,The wall who protects Egypt12." .T (c) Another closely comparable sentence is found on the statue of Wsr-hnsw . ^ JL ^ jt4i_' ^ 22 hnm-ib n hnmw.fsl ntwt.f - ,,(The on who) makes the heart of his citizens happy and protects his town." ^ (d) The title it-ntr hm-ntr was found also in abbreviated writing i| 14 in the title it-ntr hm-ntr 'Imn m 'Ipt swt. For the title it-ntr see: L. Habachi, in: LA II, 825-826, s.v. Gottesvater; id., in: ASAE 55, 1958, 167-190; AEO I, 47*; H. Brunner, in: ZAS 86, 90100; H. Kees, in: ZAS 86, 1961, 115-125. (e) For this title, see the detailed writing in Wb IV, 299 and the additional variants gathered in E. Graefe, Untersuchungen zur Verwaltung und Geschichte der Institution der Gottesgemahlin des Amun, AA 37,1981,60-61; R. El Sayed, in: ASAE 75,2000,184 (a). (f) The title hry ssti rbw-nfr is also found on the stela British Museum EA 8462; see, P. Munro, Die spatagyptischen Totenstelen, AF 25, 1973, 235, pi. 17 (61). For the association of the cbw-ntr with the role of hry-sst?, see G. Vittman, in: LA VI, 65 (n. 7,11). (g) hdt is the name of the mistress of Nekheb, the vulture goddess Nekhbet. The connection between Nekhbet and the white crown of is well known. For example the king in the temple of Edfu bears the title: J</^3~"^oJSl^ hmhdtn Nhbt - ,,The servant of the white crown of Nekhbet15." W3dty are the two goddess of Upper and Lower Egypt as metonyms for the double crown. The ritual of presenting the two uraei symbolizes the offering of Upper and Lower Egypt, the two halves united, the two crowns, the two eyes and is a guarantee of rule over the two lands for the king. The ritual is performed also for Horus Behdety16. For bibliography of this widely attested title see: H. de Meulenaere, in: CdE 57,1982,229-230; H.J. Thissen, Die demotischen Graffiti von Medinet Habu, Demotische Studien 10,1989, 25-26 (d). C. Traunecker, Les graffiti des freres Horsaisis et Horemheb, in: W. Clarysse (ed.), Egyptian Religion II (Gs Jan Quaegebeur), OLA 85,1998,1215-1229; O. Perdu, in: BIFAO 88, 1988, 148-149. Examples for the title hm Hr wr-W3dty are given by Ramadan El-Sayed, Documents relatifs a Sais et ses divinites, BdE 69, 1975, 112 (g).

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

12

13

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15 16

Phrase from inscription for King Ramsses III from Medinet Habu temple see, K. Piehl, Inscriptions hieroglyphiques recueillies en Europe et en Egypte I, 1886, CLVII. For more parallel phrases see, H. Grapow, Die bildlichen Ausdrucke des Aegyptischen, 1924,163-164. Cairo Museum JE 37149; cf. Jansen-Winkeln, Biographische und Religiose Inschriften der Spatzeit, 340 (Nr. 38.a.4). For examples: Cairo Museum JE 37861; cf. Ibid., 95-96, n. 2; 372, No. 17.a.2. Metropolitan Museum MMA 08.202.1; cf. H. De Meulenaere, in: CdE 68, 1993,46, 48, 52. Edfu 11,75 (11). Wilson, Ptolemaic Lexikon, 208.

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26 27

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- -

(h) The transliteration of hnk(-nww) is uncertain, the title may also be either hnk(-nwri) or simply hnk17. The title hnk(-nww) was borne by the priests of Hermonthis, Buchis and Theban18. Fairman suggested that this title was proper to priests of Buchis, because a number of offering tables inscribed with it were found in Buchis19. Jansen-Winkeln proposed that the hnw(-nww) was a Theban title borne by the priests of the Helopolitan nome and the priests of Hermonthis20. The meaning of hnk(nww) is uncertain. Wb III, 118 translated it ,,der den Nun schenkt". Goyon21, Kaplony22 and R. El-Sayed23 think that the hnk(nww) was a priest responsible for libation in the sanctuary in the cult at Hermonthis24. (i) The imy-s.t-c is a priest in tribal service, which alternated on a monthly basis. In the Ptolemaic Period, the term was certainly fixed to fifteen days25. A similar writing of the title imy-s.t-r is found on the statue Cairo Museum JE 37S4326 which dates to the Dynasty 30 or the early Ptolemaic Period. (k)Ranke,PNI, 122(4). (1) Goddess W3st-nht represents as a lady with the spit sign and w3st scepter above her head while she holds in a bow and arrows in her right hand and in the left, the rnh sign and the hps scimitar. The goddess W>st-nht occurs eight times in relieves on columns of the hypostyle hall of the Karnak temple. There she bears several different epithets such as Wlst-nht nbt hps on columns Nr. 85, 93; W3st-nht nbt hps hnwt nbw ntrw on column Nr. 99; W3st-nht nbt hps hnwt tfw nbw on column Nr. 127; W^st-nht nbt hps hnwt tfw nbw in Rc hnwt ntrw on column Nr. 134; W3st-nht nbt hps hnwt t3wy on column Nr.66; W?st-nht hnwt spit on column Nr. 11427. The same goddess Wlst-nht is depicted with the epithet W3st-nht nbt hps hnwt n h3swt nb in the triumphal relief of Shoshenq I on the Bubastite Portal at Karnak28.

H.W. Fairman, The Bucheum II: the inscriptions, 1934,22. Examples for this title where full given by: Jansen-Winkeln, op.-cit., 31. H.W. Fairman, in: JEA 20, 1934, 3 (a). Jansen-Winklen, op.cit, 32. J.C. Goyon, in: BIFAO 65,1967,93-94. P. Kaplony, in: LA VI, 687, n. 19. R. El-Sayed, in: BIFAO 83,1983, 138-139 (I). For more reference for this title see also, G. Vittmann, Priester und Beamte im Theben der Spatzeit, Veroffentlichungen der Institute fur Afrikanistik und Agyptologie der Universitat Wien 3: Beitrage zur Agyptologie 1,1978,188; C. Traunecker, in: BIFAO 72,1972, 209 (2). J. Quaegebeur, in: JNES 38,1952,269. For the role of the acolyte in the Theban hierarchy, see H. Kees, Das Priestertum im Agyptischen Staat, 1953, 301. For further reference see also, P. Parker, A Sake Oracle Papyrus from Thebes, 1962, 30; H. Selim, in: MDAIK 56, 2000, 366 (b) Jansen-Winkeln, op.cit., 370, No. 17.a.2. L.A. Christophe, Temple d'Amon a Karnak: les divinites des colonnes de la grande salle hyposryle et leurs epithetes, BdE 21, 1955, 52. OIP 74, pi. 3. For more information about goddess Wlst-nht see, P. Vernus, in: LA V, 937-938, s.v. Siegreiches Theben.

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(m) Ranke, PN I, 331(7). (n) Ranke, PN I, 4 (7). The lotus flower sign reads nfrt. (o) The text ends nn ski dt one of the terminal phrase characteristic of the Late Period and the Ptolemaic Period29. 1.2 Comment The statue of P3-di-'Imn-ipt exemplifies the classical type of standing male figure with a powerful build and idealized proportions in the best Egyptian tradition. The canonical prototype for the body was provided by outstanding examples of royal sculpture of the Old Kingdom. The statue shows P3-di-1mn-ipt wearing a sndyt kilt30, in fact, some statues of private individuals, most of them from Abydos, are depicted wearing the sndyt kilt during the late Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period31. The appearance of Pi-di-'Imn-ipt statue is a typical for Dynasty 30 and early Ptolemaic standing male figures. Most of them were represented with a shaved head, sometimes with a bag-wig. The few examples that occur with a wide wig are invariably from Thebes32. The wide wig is represented in the sculpture of the early 26th Dynasty, and continued in use at Thebes up to the 30th Dynasty. Gradually the form of the wig developed showing the two sides almost parallel to each other. This modified wide wig is called a straight wig. Good examples are provided by the statue of P3-hr-Hnsw, Sj-Hr33, and our statue ofP3-di-'Imnipt.
***

2 The standing theophorous statue Cairo Museum JE 37353, now in the Alexandria National Museum (pi. 21-22) The standing theophorous statue of the god's father and the priest of god Amun in Karnak temple P3-h3r-Hnsw, made of black granite and measuring 72 cm in height, was found in

Wb IV, 312.15. For other examples see: B.V. Bothmer, ESLP., 1960. Boston Museum 07.494; No. 9 (pi. 9), Mr. Michel Abemayor, New York; No. 36 (pi. 33), MMA 08.202.1; No. 81 (pi. 77), Cleveland Museum 48.141; No. 97 (pi. 91), Oriental Museum, San Jose, Cal; No. 102 (pi. 95). J.A. Josephson/M.M. El Damaty, Statues of the XXVth and XXVIth Dynasties, 1999, CG 48608 (pi. 8), CG 48609 (pi. 9), CG 486010 (pi. 10). Jansen-Winkeln, op.cit., Cairo JE 37416 (CG 48608); No.2 (pi. 2-3), JE 38002; No. 3 (pi. 4-5), TN 8/12/24/5; No. 18 (pi. 38-39), JE 36693; No. 33 (pi. 71). R. El Sayed, in: ASAE 74, 1999. Cairo Museum JE 36991(CG 486010); Doc. 2 (pi. III-V). Fairman, in: JEA 20, 1934. Cairo Museum JE 37075, 1-4, pi. 1-2. For examples see: S.R. Snape, Statues and Soldiers at Abydos in the Second Intermediate Period, in: C. Eyre (ed.), The Unbroken Reed, OP 11,1994, 304-314. There are also two another examples from the early Eleventh Dynasty. For the first one, the statue of 'Intf Cairo Museum JE 89858+JE 91169 see. M. Saleh/H. Sourouzian, The Egyptian Museum Cairo: official catalogue, 1987, No. 70; for the second statue of Mry British Museum, EA 199A cf., J. Vandier, Manuel III, pi. LVII (4-5). Bothmer. op.cit., 130. Rosicrucian Egyptian, Oriental Museum; San Jose, Cal.; no. 1583, The Philip H. and A.S.W. Rosenbach Foundation Museum, Philadelphia, PA.; see: ibid., 130-131(no. 95), 151-153 (no. 117).

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the Karnak Cachette. P?-h?r-Hnsw stands with his left leg advanced, touching with both hands the statue of Amun-Re, standing before him directly on the base of the statue. P3-h?rHnsw's shaven head is egg-shaped and he has small ears without much detail. The eyes are elongated, the upper lids and cosmetic lines are in raised relief. The eyebrows, also in raised relief, arch over the brow and straighten out to run parallel with the cosmetic lines across the temples. His nose is damaged. He stands against a backpillar which follows the shape of his body reaches up to the middle of the back of his head. It has a trapezoidal termination, but the upper angle is ground off. The trapezoid top back-pillar was used to provide extra support for the neck. Pl-hlr-Hnsw wears a short, tightly-pleated kilt with a wide waist-band, the pleats being depicted with incised lines. He holds the statue of the god Amun-Re between the fingertips of his outstretched hands which touch the shoulders of the deity. Amun-Re is represented striding, left leg advanced, his arms with fisted hands hang at his sides. He wears a divine curved beard and a god's unpleated short kilt. On his head is the usual flat-topped crown with double plumes. 2.1 The texts 2.1.1 The base One horizontal line of inscription bordered by incised lines runs around the base. The texts start in the center front of the base with the nswt-sign and then extend both leftwards and rightwards to the end at the center back of the base with the phrase mF-hrw. There are also two vertical columns of inscription in front of the left and right feet. 2. 1. 1. 1 The left side of the base

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a
/zzjp Jz n^wtf 'Imn-Rr nb nswt fiwy (hri-ib) 3h mnw b? spsi wbn m hrt di.fhnd hr h3wt.fd3t nt mw hr wdhw.fn k? n hm-ntr'Imn-Rr nb nswt t?wy (hri-ib) 3h mnw Pi-hlr-Hnsw ntf-hrw s3 minn W3h-ib-Rr mF-hrw ,,An offering which the king gives (to) Amun-Re, the lord of the thrones of the two lands, (who dwells in) the Ih-mnw (a), the noble Ba, who shines in the sky (b), may he give the thigh of a calf (c) from his altar and a handful water from his offering-table (d) to the Ka of the priest of Amun-Re, the lord of the thrones of the two lands, (who dwells in) the 3hmnw, Pl-hlr-Hnsw justified, son of the like-titled W3h-ib-Rr (e), justified." (a) The 3h-mnw lies to the east of the Middle Kingdom court at Karnak temple and is known as Tuthmosis Ill's Festival hall34. There is no text indicating whether the Ih-mnw
34

For the Ih-mnw-ball, cf. P. Barguet, Le temple d'Amon-Re a Karnak, 1962, 157-209. J. Lauffray, in: Kemi 19'1969,179-218.

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was used in the sed-festival or as a funerary temple and so the building may represent the place in which the power of darkness fought against the god of Illumination who was victorious and settled in the temple35. (b) The epithet of Amun b3 spsi wbn m hrt occurs in the invocation offering formula htp di nswt during Dynasty 30 and early Ptolemaic Period36. (c) hnd refers to the thigh of a calf. In origin the term is possibly a cut of meat hnd, cf. Wilson, Ptolemaic Lexikon, 743; Wb III, 313 (22-23); Jansen-Winkeln, op.cit, 93 (9). (d) The vessel ^ is read wdhw, cf. F. Daumas, Valeurs phonetiqes des signes hieroglyphiques d'epoque Greco-Romaine, 1990, 791. The same writing for the vessel *5 read also wdhw can be see on the statue of Dd-Hnsw-iw.f-cnh which date to the 3 0th Dynasty or early Ptolemaic Period. A Pi i^3!^^! i di.snprnbhrwdhw.sn - JVIay they give all that comes forth over their offering-table37." There is a closely parallel for the sentence hnd hr hlwt.fdtt nt mw hr wdhw.ffound on the statue of Wsir-wr. ss(rt) n gs-p3wt.f dlt nt mw hr wdhw.f - ,,May he gives the thigh of a calf from his offering, and ss(rt)-bread from his cake offering and a handful water from his offering table38." (e) Ranke, PN I, 72(21). 2.1.1.2 The right side of the base

Utk

Tr

htp di nswt'Imn-Rrp3wty t?wyshm spsi di.ftiw (n) tp-r3 hr rpy.fn k3 (n) It-ntr hm-ntrMntw nb Wist P3-h3r-Hnsw mF-hrw ir n nb(t) pr ihit n 'Imn-Rr 3st-3hbjt mlr(t)-hrw ,,An offering which the king gives (to) Amun-Re, the primeval one of the two lands (a), the powerful noble, may he give the breath of the mouth (b) from his wing to the Ka of the god's father, priest of Monthu, lord ofThebes Pl-h3r-Hnsw justified, born of the lady of the house, the sistrum player of Amun-Re yst(-m)-jhbyt (c) justified."
39 40 41

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35 36

37 38

For more information, cf. F. Daumas, Cahiers de Karnak VI, 1980,261-284. Examples: Statue ofDd-Hr, Cairo JE 37861, Dynasty 30 (Nekhtnebef I), cf. K. Jansen-Winkeln, Biographische und Religiose Inschriften der Spatzit, AAT 45,2001, Nr. 17,b, 1. Statue ofP3-di-'Imn-nb-nsttlwy, Cairo JE 37167, Dynasty 30 or early Ptolemaic Period, cf. ibid, Nr. 36,a,l. And the two statues of pd-Hnsw-iw.f-rnh, Dynasty 30 or early Ptolemaic Period, Cairo JE 37104, cf. ibid, Nr. 34,c. Turin 3070, cf. A.M. Donadoni-Roveri, in: OrAnt 6,1967,117. Cairo JE 37104, cf. Jansen-Winkeln, op.cit., Nr. 34, a, 1. Cairo JE 37848, cf. ibid, Nr. 16, b, 1-2.

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(a) The scarab sign A is to be read t?. The earliest example occurs in an inscription of Pinodjem I at Medinet Habu39. Wilson suggested to read the scarab as fi because the scarab perhaps has close affinities with the earth, for it lives in burrows, so that could it have been thought of as a symbol of the earth. The generative powers of the scarab may have symbolized the fertility of the earth40. (b) Reading 0w (ri) tp-rl, cf. Wb V, 351 (13). (c) Ranke, PN I, 4 (3). 2.1.2 Two vertical columns of inscription in front of the right foot read from the right to the left ir s3.fr srnh rn.f It-ntr hm-ntr (n) Wsirp? sr nfr m W3st Psmtk snb s? 'It-ntr Mntw nb Wist Pl-h3r-Hnsw mP-hrw ,,Made by his son to revive his name, the god's father, the priest of Osiris, the beautiful prince in Thebes (a), Psmtk, he being still alive (b) son of the God's father of Monthu lord of Thebes, P3-h3r-Hnsw."

(a) Note the different orientation of the signs m W>st. I do not know another example of the title It-ntr hm-ntr (n) Wsirpl sr nfr m W3st. A close parallel is the title hm-ntr n Wsirp3 sr wr n Wist ,,The priest of Osiris the great prince of Thebes". This title is documented on two statue of Hr, which date to the reign of the king Petubastis I (23rd Dynasty)41 and on the statue of his son Nb-NtrwA2. (b) The sign is read snb; it is not part of the name of Psmtk, but means that his son is still alive43. 2.1.3 Two vertical columns of inscription in front of the left foot The inscription is organized in horizontal groups read boustrophedon. it-ntr'Imn nb nswt t?wy (hr-lb) ?h-mnw P?-h?r-Hnsw - ,,The god's father of Amun, the lord of the thrones of the two lands (who dwells in) 3h-mnw P3-hlr-Hnsw justified."

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LD III, Text, 164. Wilson, Ptolemaic Lexikon, 1118. Cairo CG 42226, cf. K. Jansen-Winkeln, Agyptische Biographien der 22. und 23. Dynastie, AAT 8/2, 1982,139,144 (n. 21), 509. Cairo JE 29248, cf., ibid., 168, 527. The epithet of Osiris sr wr is perhaps mainly identifying the capacity of the god Osiris as judge and punisher of the dead cf. Wilkson, op.cit, 883. For more information about the title Wsir sr wr cf. E. Chassinat, Le mystere d'Osiris au mois de Khoiak 1,1966,81-84. For examples cf. G. Vittmann, in: GM 141, 1994, 98; L.M. Leahy, in: GM 65, 1983, 52, 55, n. 12; H. De Meulenaere, in: CdE 64,1989, 72, n. 1.

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2.1.4 Two vertical columns of inscription on the negative space under the right and the left arm (A) (B) (A) Under the right arm ^ (A) C3wy(.i) rwd hr hpt nfrw.k nb(.i) mi wnn(.i) hr-tp fi 1 ^ []^ snhn.k hrw.i m wbn.k m rr-nb I ^ ^=^ (My) arms are strong while embracing your beauty, o (my) (I) ^t lord, as long as (I) exist on the earth, you make young my l^1 QVi body with your shining every day." (B) Under the left arm (B) sdd.khnty hr hw ssm.k rn(.i) nfr m-hnwpr.k n sk dt ,,You established the statue protecting your image, my beautiful name being inside your house without perishing forever."

on

mi

2.7.5 The backpillar The arrangement of the inscription on the backpillar is unusual. Normally such texts are arranged in two vertical columns, but here the inscription is organized in horizontal groups read boustrophedon, the text having alternate lines written from right to left and from left to right44.

45

'It-ntr hm-ntr 'Imn m 'Ipt-swt hm hdt (hm) Hr s3h wdlt hry-ssfi m 'Iwnw-smfw rbw-ntr n pr 'Imn-Rr //// rdwy-ntr n 'Imn hm-ntr 'Imn-Rr nb nswt fiwy (hry-ib) 3h-mnw hm-ntr Mwt nbt W3st Pj-h3r-Hnsw m3r-hrw dd.fi rkw nw ntr C3 mi kd.sn dw3 n. i ntr r-gs nb.tn htp kj.fhr rn hm.fhr-ntt ink twr twr ntr.ftm 3b m smsw k?.frr-nb

46 47 48

44

Similar examples cf. B.V. Bothmer, Egyptian sculpture of the late period, 1960. pi. 43 (fig. 105), 44 (fig. 107).

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,,The god's father, priest of Amun in Karnak (a), servant of the white one {Nekhbet}, (the servant of) Horus (b), s3h Wdlt (c), master of secrets in Upper Egyptian Heliopolis (d), purifier of the god in the temple of Amun-Re (e) /// the rdwy-ntr of Amun (f), priest of Amun-Re, lord of the thrones of the two lands (who dwells in) 3h-mnw, priest of Mut, lady of Thebes, Pl-hlr-Hnsw, He says: O all (g) visitors of the great god, praise god for me beside, your lord, so that his Ka is pleased with the name of his servent, because (h) I am a clean one, who cleanse his god without stopping (i) as follower of his ka every day." (a) For this title cf. statue Alexandria National Museum JE 38601, text of back-pillar (note d, above p. 366 ). (b) For this title cf. statue Alexandria National Museum JE 38601, text of back-pillar (note g, above p. 366). (c) The slh Wd3t was a priestly title borne by a priest who performed the ceremonial rituals to make bright the eye of the god. (d) The close parallel title is documented on the statue of ,,Iryiry" hry ssfi hwt-r3t m 'Iwnw-smrw ,,master of secrets of the palace of Upper Heliopolis"45. For title hry-ssfi, cf. the statue Alexandria National Museum JE 38601, texts of the back-pillar (note e, above p. 366). (e) For this title cf. the statue Alexandria National Museum JE 3 8061, texts of the backpillar (note f, above). (f) The title rdwi-ntr n 'Imn indicates that the owner of the statue was a priest who held the front of the boat of Amun or the statue of god Amun during festival processions. (g) Read ml kd.sn ,,entire" cf. Gardiner, EG 100 (2). (h) Read hr-ntt ,,because" cf. Gardiner, EG 223; Wb II, 355 (2). (i) Read tm 3bw ,,without stop", cf. Wb I, 6 (17). 2.2 Commentary The statue of P3-h3r-Hnsw, can be attributed to the 30th Dynasty or Pre-Ptolemaic Period on the basis of the form of the offering formula46 and the iconography of the texts47. Theophorous statues are known from the New Kingdom48; they became more frequent in the Late Period, especially during Dynasties 25 to 2649 and there are a few examples found
45

46 47 48

Cairo JE 3 8604, cf. K Jansen-Winkeln, Biographische und religiose Inschriften der Spatzeit, AAT 45/2, 2001, Nr. 24,a,l. See the text of the left side of the base (note b). See the text of the left base (note d). Examples cf. Vandier, Manuel III, pi. CVII (4), CXIX (2), CXXX (3), CXXXI (6), CL (5), CLIII (1), CLV (1,3-4), CLVI (1, 3, 5-6), CLVII (1, 3), CLXVII (3), CLXIX (1, 6, 8), CLXX (2), CLXXIV (23,5). For examples, cf., L. Borchardt, Statuen und Statuetten von Konigen und Privatleuten im Museum von KairoIII, CG1-1294,1930, pi. 134; .G. Legrain, Statues et statuettes de rois et de particuliers III, 1914, pis. II, XVII, XLVII; J.J.A. Josephson/M.M. Eldamaty, Statues of the XXVth and XXVIth dynasties, 1999, pis. 4 (a-d), 21 (a-d), 33 (a-d), 36 (a-d), 47 (a-d), 49 (a-d); G. Steindorff, Egyptian Sculpture in

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in the 30th Dynasty and Ptolemaic Period50. The owner of the statue has an egg-shaped shaven head, which had already evolved before the beginning of the 27th Dynasty, and it follows the ,,round" heads of the 25th and early 26th Dynasties. The type of the backpillar with a trapezoidal top is known since the early 27th Dynasty51.
***

3 The naophorous statue Cairo Museum (JE 97196) (pi. 23-24) The next piece, the torso of a statue made of black granite, measures 26.3 cm height, discovered at Mendes by the Institute of Fine Art New York, 1977. The head and the upper part of the chest are completely destroyed as well as the lower part. The figure wears a long garment, which covers the area of his chest and would probably have reached down to the ankles. It has two folds at the top. The first, conical in form, is represented on the left side of the chest; the second, rectangular in form, covers the right side with its ends reaching to the top of the naos, which is now destroyed. This form of folding is known from the second half of the 26th Dynasty into the Persian Period and down to the Ptolemaic Period52. The arms are bent at the elbows. From the position of the arms it is evident that this statue belonged to a standing naophorous statue whose naos is probably supported by a standard resembling the /zrp/s/z/w-hieroglyph53. 3.1 The texts 3.1.1 The back-pillar Two vertical columns of inscription have been incised between two vertical lines. The top and the bottom of the texts are destroyed.

(1) ////// [li hd(i) hnt(t) r m33] b?-wr m nw (nb) wp-ntrwy it-ntr'Iwn it-ntr'Inb(-hd) hrp kwt hm hr wr wdtyty///////

the Walters Art Gallery, 1946, pi. XXXI (173,174,175); Jansen-Winkeln,op.cit.,pls.21-24;Bothmer, Egyptian sculpture of the late period, pis. 3 (fig. 6-7), 25 (fig. 57), 35 (fig. 83), 36 (fig. 84-85), 41 (fig. 98-99), 44 (fig. 106-108). Bothmer, op.cit, 3, claimed that this type of the theophorous statues went out of fashion after the 26th Dynasty and there is only one example (Berlin 18562) dating from the Ptolemaic Period. However, there are examples of theophorous statues dating to the 30th Dynasty cf. Borchardt, Statuetten III, pi. 126-129; IV, pi. 162. Two examples of female theophorous statues date to the Ptolemaic Period, cf. S. Albersmeier, Untersuchungen zu den Frauenstatuen des ptolemaischen Agypten, Aegyptiaca Treverensia 10, 2002, pis. 17 (d), 69 (c-d). Bothmer, op.cit., 86-87. H. Selim, in: JEA 76,1990, 202. The complete examples of such sculptures of this type of naophorous statues are cited at Selim, in: JEA 76, 1990,201, n. 5.

58

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(2) //////// hm-ntr Wl-ib-Rc-m-lht s3 imy-r klwt mhy smcw rnh-psmtk

(1} IIIIII [,,O who travel northwards and who travel southwards to see (a)] the great-ram (b) in (every) time (c), wp-ntry priest (d) god's father of Heliopolis, god's father of Memphis (e) administrator of the palace,(f) servant of Horus great of the two diadems (g) //////// (2) Illl/lllIII I priest of/////// Wh-ib-Rr-m-lht (h) son of the overseer of the works of the North and the South (i) cnh-psmtk (j)" ///////// (a) [ii hd(i) hnt(i) r mil] is to be restored before bi-wr this restoration is supported by parallel phrase on the base of the statue of Ns-wsrt54: ~j^ ^ ^ ^^ j |g j | (b) bj is specifically the sacred ram of Mendes, and the word is based on the root b? meaning ,,to pour out" (semen), as the main characteristic of the ram was its sexual potency. In the Mendesian nome the chief god is bl-nb-dd with the epithets bi sty ,,ejaculating ram", bl cnh ,,living ram" and K dmd ,,united ram"55. (c)WbII,219(10). (d) wp-ntrwy as a title appears among the Mendesian titles from the Third Intermediate Period56, meaning the priest who separates the two gods. In this context it refers to Horus and Seth, the two disputants for the throne and the kingdom of Osiris. There is a close parallel title wp-rhwy which appears from the New Kingdom, meaning the priest who separates combatants. The combatants refer also to Horus and Seth. Wp-ntrwy is also a familiar epithet for the god Thoth who was supposed to have judged between Horus and Seth57. The Mendesian inscription from 26th Dynasty mentions numerous priests with the titles wp-ntrwy, imy hnt wp-ntrwy which refers to a cleric of both Mendes and Hermopolis Parva58 such as: Stockholm, Medelhavsmuseet NME 7459, 7760; Cairo Museum CG 73061, JE 231662, JE 56803, 56817, 56819, 56810, 5682063; New Haven, Conn., W.K. Simpson Collection64; Durham Museum 50965.

64

Stockholm, Medelhavsmuseet NME 77; see M. Burchardt, in: ZAS 47,1910,112 (B). For the phrase hd(i) hnt(i), see AEO 1,160M62*. Wilson, Ptolemaic Lexikon, 300. For more information see, W.A. Ward, The four Egyptian homographic roots B-3, Studia Pohl: Series maior 6, 1978,112-120. Stone vase, Cairo Museum CG 18497,see F.W. von Bissing, Steingefasse, Catalogue general des antiquites egyptiennes du Musee du Caire, Nos 18065-18793,1904,100. P. Boylan, Thoth, the Hermes of Egypt, 1922, 44-45. H. De Meulenaere/P. Mackay, Mendes II, 1976, 180. K. Piehl, in: RT 3,1883, 29; De Meulenaere/Mackay, op.cit., 198 (57). On the two statues appears the title im hnty wp-ntrwy, M. Burchardt, in: ZAS 25, 1887,111-115; De Meulenaer/Mackay, op.cit., 198 (58). Borchardt, Statuen und Statuetten III, 64; De Meulenaere/Mackay, op.cit., 197 (47). K. Piehl, in: ZAS 25,1887,122 (XLVH). De Meulenaere/Mackay, op.cit., 203-204 (101,103-104). Ibid., 197 (46). Ibid., 197 (48). For more information on the title wp-ntrwy, s. H. Wild, in: BIFAO 60,1960,50-52 (f).

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(e) The sign c| it-ntr is written between the signs 'Iwn and 'Inb (-hd) but it is to be read twice. The title J Q| fj it-ntr 'Iwn it-ntr inb (-hd) is documented also on the sarcophagus of'Fh-ms/Ni-sw-kdw, which dates to the 26th Dynasty and was found in Heliopolis66. Gauthier suggested67 that this title is an abbreviation of the titles ^j ^^ J^. ^^ ^ , zf-|r n tm nb 'Iwn ,,god's father of Atum lord of Heliopolis, which is documented on the canopic jar ofSbk-nht which was discovered at Ezbet el-Zeitun (Matariya, Heliopolis)68. Cf. the title "j^- "^l^DtS lt'n^" n Pth nb 'Inb~h4 od's father of Ptah lord of Memphis". (f)The title hrp hwt Administrator of the palaces" has been mostly extensively studied and collected by R. El-Sayed, Documents relatifs a Sais et ses divinites, BdE 69,1975,111(g) For this title cf. the statue in the Alexandria National Museum JE 38601 (Text of the back-pillar (note g, above). (h) Ranke, PN I, 73 (3). (i) For this title, see N. Strudwick, The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, 1985, 217-250; Pressl, op.cit., 49-50. G) Ranke, PN I, 63 (24). 3.1.2 The right side of the back-pillar There are two vertical columns of hieroglyphs on the right side of the back-pillar; its top and bottom are destroyed.
<% /////,

^^LUjLuuy^ii i^~- i ^jff^r^iJ^iJr^^Jllti


(7) //////////// ir smnh mnw.fwp-ntrwy it-ntr 'Iwn it-ntr 'Inb(-hd) shm hwt hm-hr wr wd3yty [Wh-ib-Rr-m-3ht] /////////// (2) //////////// [ir n si.fr sfnh rn.fhrp] hwt-ntrw hm-ntr'Itm 'Inb(-hd) [rnh.j]-n-Shmt ir n nbt pr tl-hlbs (1) ///////////// ,,as to make excellent his statue the wp-ntry priest god's father of Heliopolis god's father of Memphis administrator of palace(s) servant of Horus great of the two diadems (a) [Wh-ib-Rr-m-3ht] (b) //// (2) ///// [made by his son to cause his name to live administrator (c)] of the temples priest of Atum of Heliopolis and Memphis [rnh.f\-n-shmt (d) born of the lady of the house T3-h?bs (e) justified."

69

Cairo Museum JE 57478; H. Gauthier, in: ASAE 33,1933,42; S. Bickel/P. Tallet, in: BIFAO 97,1997, 82, fig. 9; D. Raue, Heliopolis und das Haus des Re, ADAIK 16,1999,473,489. Gauthier, op.cit., 46. PMIV, 62; A. Kamel, in: ASAE 4,1933, 95.

70 71 72 73

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(a) All these titles are inscribed also on the back-pillar, but with one difference: that the t-sign. is not inscribed in the title it-ntr. (b) A likely restoration is W3h-ib-Rr-m-lht, the name of the owner of the statue after the titles. (c) I suggest [ir n s^.fr srnh rn.fhrp] as the most likely restoration; in this case rnh.f-nShmt" would be the son of W3h-ib-Rr-m-3ht. (d) A few traces remain of the signs rnh and/ (e)Ranke,PNI,366(14). 3.1.3 The left side of the back-pillar There is one vertical column of hieroglyphic inscription on the left side of the back-pillar. Its top and bottom are destroyed. ////// [to wld M] dsr b? Sw bl Hpri 4 hr hr nhbt wft shm n Rcpri ////// [b3 wld (= to of Osiris) bl] dsr (= b? of Geb) bl Sw (= b3 of Shu) b? Hpri (= bi of Re) four heads on a single neck (a) the picture of Re (b) who goes forth //////" (a) I suggest the restoration [to w3d bl] before the word dsr, this is supported by a parallel text found on the statue ofB3s3 from Mendes dating to the reign of Psametik I (26th Dynasty)69. A close parallel can be seen in the following examples: 1) Medinet Habu Temple, Re chapel, Room 18, East wall, Ramsses III70: //////Bl Sw to Hpri 4 hr hr nhbt wct - Jill I b? of Shu, to of Khepri four heads on a single neck" 2) Statue ofNs-wsrt, Stockholm, Medelhavsmuseet MNE 77, 26th Dynasty71: ntr b? r? b? Sw bl Hpri 4 hr hr nhbt wrt - ,,bl of the god, bl of the great one, b? of Shu, to of Khepri four heads on single neck." 3) Hibis Temple, west wall, southern doorway to the Hypostyle B, Darius72:
1
, ^1 i i i I I I I I I I H^> JU ^ Ci

m 3 hr hr nhbt wft - ,,b3 of st3-sfy(7~) with three heads on one single neck." 4) Papyrus Louvre 3129, British Museum 10252, Late Period73: bi sfty-h3twy m4hrhr nhbt wrt - ,,b3 ofsfty-hltwy with four heads on one single neck."
' Palermo Museum 145 + Cairo Museum CG 1233; see H. Wild, in: BIFAO 60,1960, 53-54. PMII, 507 (143); Medinet Habu VI, pi. 420; Wild, op.cit., 57. 71 Burchardt, in: ZAS 47,1910,111. 72 N.G. Davies, The temple of Hibis in El Khargeh Oasis III, 1953, pi. 32. J.C. Goyon, in: BIFAO 75,1975, 345.
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BJ dmd ,,the united soul" is one of the epithets of Mendesian god Banebdjed. According to the Mendesian theology god Banebdjed became the incarnation of ,,the soul of Re". The four souls of Re (b? of Osiris, b3 of Geb, b3 of Shu and bl of Re) are incarnated in Banebdjed, taking the form of four heads of rams united in one on a single neck74. This aspect of the identification of Re with the Ram of Mendes soon became a predominant element of the Mendesian theology75, (b) Wb III, 244 (22). 3.2 Comment The statue of WSh-tb-W-m-iht can be dated to the second half of the 26* Dynasty, probably to the time of Amasis. That dating might be supported by Berlin Museum stela 14998, where the names of his father fnh-psmtk and his mother Nfr-itbw are mentioned but the titles of Wlh-ib-R^-m-Jht are not mentioned. This stela is dated to the first year of the reign of Amasis I (26th Dynasty)76. The name of W3h-ib-Rr-m-3ht and his titles wp-ntrwy, hm-ntr 'Itm-Rc are inscribed on the base of the statue of his daughter Sms.t and the name of her mother is Wd3-sw77. There are two alternative explanations for these differing details. Either, that W>h-ib-Rc-m-3ht had a second wife (named Wd?-sw) who was the mother of Sms.t, or another individual exists with the name W3h-ib-Rr-m-3ht who is not the owner of our statue because of the different of the name of his wife, whose name T3-h3bs is mentioned on our statue.

Iconography examples: Scene of god Banebdjed in squatting position with four rams heads on the naos of Saft el Henne, Cairo Museum CG 70021, G. Roeder, Naos: catalogue general des antiquites e"gyptiennes du Musee du Caire Nr. 70001-70050, 1914, pi. 18. E. Naville, The Shrine of Saft El Henneh and the Land of Goshen, 1888, pi. 2. Small statue of lapis lazuli representing god Banebdjed as a four-headed ram discovered at Kom el Ahmer, Mazourah, G.A. Wainwright, in: ASAE 25,1925, 145-147, pi. 25. See also A. Gutbub, Die vier Winde im Tempel von Kom Ombo, in: A. Gutbub/ O. Keel (Hgg.), Jahwe Visionen und Siegelkunst, Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 84/85,1977, 328-353, De Meulenaere/ MacKay, op.cit, 179. For further information and parallel texts see: Wild, op.cit, 5767. G. Maspero, in: RT 15,1893,86. D. Meeks, Les donations aux temples dans 1'Egypte du ler millenaire avant J.-C., in: State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East II, 1979,679; D. A. Pressl, Beamte und Soldaten, Die Verwaltung in der 26. Dynastic in Agypten, 1998,255 (F 8.1). Stockholm, MedelhavsmuseetNMW 74; K. Piehl, in: RT 3,1883,29; De Meulenaere/MacKay, op.cit., 198 (no. 57).

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