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WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY DHC 203

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

Learning Objectives
At the end of the class the students are able to:-

1.
2. 3.

Define hormone
Explain briefly the role of the hypothalamus in controlling the endocrine system List the hormones produced by the endocrine glands and discuss their functions

4.

Describe the roles of insulin and glucagon in maintaining normal blood glucose levels

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

Introduction
Endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones to maintain the bodys internal environment within normal range

Consists of ductless glands


The hormones are released into the bloodstream and may affect one or several organs throughout the body.

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

HORMONES
Hormones are chemical messanger produced by the endocrine glands and secreted directly into the bloodstream Hormones only influence a cell with the correct receptor site By binding to receptors, hormones trigger various responses in the tissues containing the receptors.

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

Hypothalamus
located in the lower central part of the brain hypothalamus is responsible for regulating the release of hormones from the pituitary gland It also synthesizes hormones which will be stored in the posterior pituitary gland (ADH & Oxytocin).

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

LOCATION OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

Pituitary Gland
located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus also called as "master gland" because it secrete hormones that control several other endocrine glands - Divided into 2 lobes: - Anterior pituitary lobe

- Posterior pituitary lobe

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

Pituitary Gland

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

WINDFIELD INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF NURSING AND ALLIED SCIENCES

Anterior Pituitary Gland


Hormones released: 1. Growth hormone (GH) 2. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 3. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) 4. Prolactin 5. Follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) 6. Luteinizing hormone (LH)

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Anterior Pituitary Gland


Hormone

GH ACTH TSH FSH

Function - Regulates metabolism, promotes tissue growth of bones & muscles - Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol - Stimulates thyroid gland to produce its hormone

- Stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles and sperm cell production LH - Stimulates ovulation and progesterone production - Helps maintain pregnancy Prolactin - Stimulates milk production in mammary glands

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Posterior Pituitary Gland


- Does not synthesizes hormones. - Posterior pituitary stores and releases: - oxytocin - causes contraction of the

smooth muscle of the uterus


- antidiuretic hormone (ADH)- promotes water retention. Thus, less urine excreted

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Hormones of the Pituitary Gland

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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Pineal Gland
attached to the upper part of the thalamus Secretes 2 hormones Melatonin inhibit the growth of sex orgns before puberty Serotonin - acts as neurotransmitter and vasoconstrictor

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Tyroid Gland
lies in the anterior neck just below the larynyx.

Two lobes, located on either side of the trachea, connected isthmus.


Produce 3 hormones

Triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroxine (T4) Calcitonin- lowers the amount of calcium in the blood. T3 & T4 regulates metabolism (carbohydrates, fats proteins), increases the basal metabolic rate and heat production
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Tyroid Gland

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Paratyroid Gland
pea-shaped glands that located in the neck near the thyroid 4 small parathyroid glands It produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Increase the level of


calcium in blood

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Tymus Gland
lies behind the sternum
Secretes the hormone THYMOSIN Required for the development of immune system

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Adrenal Glands
2 small glands that on top of both kidneys Made up of the adrenal medulla (inner part) and the adrenal cortex (outer part)

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Adrenal Glands (contd)


Adrenal medulla secretes two hormones : Adrenaline Noradrenaline Both involved in immediate response to stress (fight or flight response) by: increasing heart rate & blood pressure

diverting blood to essential organs


Increases metabolic rate
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Adrenal Glands (contd)


- Adrenal cortex produces 3 types of hormones: 1. Glucocorticoids

2. Mineralocorticoids
3. Androgens (male sex hormones

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Pancreas
Has both endocrine and exocrine functions Pancreatic hormones are secreted by cells known as the islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets) - 3 main types of cells in the islets of Langerhans:

- (Alpha) cells: glucagon


- (Beta) cells: insulin - (Delta) cells: somatostatin
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Pancreas

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Pancreas
Hormone Function

Insulin Glucagon

Lowers blood glucose levels Elevate blood glucose levels

Somatostatin

Inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon


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DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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The Reproductive Glands


Comprise of the testes in males and ovaries in females OVARY TESTIS

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Hormone Testosterone

Function Development of male reproductive structures and secondary male sexual characteristics

Estrogen Progesterone

Development of female reproductive structures and secondary female sexual characteristic

DHC 203 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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