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Phys.

131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone

Phys. 131 - 11/26/2012


Derek Stampone
Binghamton University

Outline
Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Review Pascals and Archimedes Principle Fluids - Cont. Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation Test 3 - Review Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 15

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Pascals and Archimedes Principle


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Denition (Pascals Principle) A change in the pressure applied to an enclosed incompressible uid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the uid and the walls of its container.

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Pascals and Archimedes Principle


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Denition (Pascals Principle) A change in the pressure applied to an enclosed incompressible uid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the uid and the walls of its container. Denition (Archimedes Principle) When a body is fully or partially submerged in a uid, a buoyant force Fb from the surrounding uid acts on the body. The force is directed upward and has a magnitude equal to the weight mf g of the uid that has been displaced by the body.

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

ny element of the fluid would take as the fluid flows. at the velocity of a particle is always tangent to the Ideal Fluids in Motion Here the particle is the fluid element, and its velocity reamline (Fig. 14-14). For this reason, two streamlines y did, 131 - an element arriving at their intersection then Phys. elocities simultaneously an impossibility. 11/26/2012
Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Four Assumptions of Ideal Fluid

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Streamline

Fluid element Fig. 14-14

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

A uid element trac out a streamline as it moves. The v locity vector of the element is tangent to the streamline at every poi

ny element of the fluid would take as the fluid flows. at the velocity of a particle is always tangent to the Ideal Fluids in Motion Here the particle is the fluid element, and its velocity reamline (Fig. 14-14). For this reason, two streamlines y did, 131 - an element arriving at their intersection then Phys. elocities simultaneously an impossibility. 11/26/2012
Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Four Assumptions of Ideal Fluid


Steady
v

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Streamline

Fluid element Fig. 14-14

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

A uid element trac out a streamline as it moves. The v locity vector of the element is tangent to the streamline at every poi

ny element of the fluid would take as the fluid flows. at the velocity of a particle is always tangent to the Ideal Fluids in Motion Here the particle is the fluid element, and its velocity reamline (Fig. 14-14). For this reason, two streamlines y did, 131 - an element arriving at their intersection then Phys. elocities simultaneously an impossibility. 11/26/2012
Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Four Assumptions of Ideal Fluid


Steady Incompressible - Constant v

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Density
Fluid element Fig. 14-14

Streamline

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

A uid element trac out a streamline as it moves. The v locity vector of the element is tangent to the streamline at every poi

ny element of the fluid would take as the fluid flows. at the velocity of a particle is always tangent to the Ideal Fluids in Motion Here the particle is the fluid element, and its velocity reamline (Fig. 14-14). For this reason, two streamlines y did, 131 - an element arriving at their intersection then Phys. elocities simultaneously an impossibility. 11/26/2012
Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Four Assumptions of Ideal Fluid


Steady Incompressible - Constant v

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Density Negligible
Fig. 14-14 element

Streamline

Nonviscous - Frictional Losses Fluid

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

A uid element trac out a streamline as it moves. The v locity vector of the element is tangent to the streamline at every poi

ny element of the fluid would take as the fluid flows. at the velocity of a particle is always tangent to the Ideal Fluids in Motion Here the particle is the fluid element, and its velocity reamline (Fig. 14-14). For this reason, two streamlines y did, 131 - an element arriving at their intersection then Phys. elocities simultaneously an impossibility. 11/26/2012
Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Four Assumptions of Ideal Fluid


Steady Incompressible - Constant v

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Density Negligible
element

Streamline

Nonviscous - Frictional Losses Fluid

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Fig. Irrotational 14-14 A uid element trac

out a streamline as it moves. The v locity vector of the element is tangent to the streamline at every poi

The Equation of Continuity


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline The volume flow per second here must Review match ...
Pascals and Archimedes Principle
v1 A1

72

Comes from Conservation of


A2 v2

Mass

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

(a) Time t L

Test 3 Review
Chapter 10

(b) Time t + t

... the volume flow per second here.

u may have noticed that you can increase the speed of the water emerging Chapter 13 m Chapter 15 hose by partially closing the hose opening with your thumb. a garden parently the speed v of the water depends on the cross-sectional area A ough which the water ows. Here we wish to derive an expression that relates v and A for the steady ow an ideal uid through a tube with varying cross section, like that in Fig. 14-15. e ow there is toward the right, and the tube segment shown (part of a longer

-9Chapter Equation of Continuity The 11 Chapter 12

The Equation of Continuity


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline The volume flow per second here must Review match ...
Pascals and Archimedes Principle
v1 A1

72

Comes from Conservation of


A2 v2

Mass A1 v 1 = A2 v 2

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

(a) Time t L

Test 3 Review
Chapter 10

(b) Time t + t

... the volume flow per second here.

u may have noticed that you can increase the speed of the water emerging Chapter 13 m Chapter 15 hose by partially closing the hose opening with your thumb. a garden parently the speed v of the water depends on the cross-sectional area A ough which the water ows. Here we wish to derive an expression that relates v and A for the steady ow an ideal uid through a tube with varying cross section, like that in Fig. 14-15. e ow there is toward the right, and the tube segment shown (part of a longer

-9Chapter Equation of Continuity The 11 Chapter 12

The Equation of Continuity


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline The volume flow per second here must Review match ...
Pascals and Archimedes Principle
v1 A1

72

Comes from Conservation of


A2 v2

Mass A1 v 1 = A2 v 2
Mass Flow Rate:

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

(a) Time t L

Test 3 Review
Chapter 10

(b) Time t + t

... the volume flow per second here.

Rm = Av = constant

u may have noticed that you can increase the speed of the water emerging Chapter 13 m Chapter 15 hose by partially closing the hose opening with your thumb. a garden parently the speed v of the water depends on the cross-sectional area A ough which the water ows. Here we wish to derive an expression that relates v and A for the steady ow an ideal uid through a tube with varying cross section, like that in Fig. 14-15. e ow there is toward the right, and the tube segment shown (part of a longer

-9Chapter Equation of Continuity The 11 Chapter 12

A water stream narrows as it falls

Figure 14-18 shows how the stream of water emerging from KEY IDE a faucet necks down as it falls. This change in the horizontal The volume ow rate through the cross-sectional area is characteristic of any laminar (nonbe the same as that through the low turbulant) falling stream because the gravitational force Phys. 131 increases the speed of the stream. Here the indicated Calculations: From Eq. 14-24, we 11/26/2012 cross-sectional areas are A0 1.2 cm2 and A 0.35 cm2. What 45 mm. The two levels are separated by a vertical distance his the volume ow rate if A0v0 Av, Derek What is the volume ow rate from the tap?A0 = 1.2 cm2 , A = 0.35 cm2 and where v0 and v are the water speed Stampone ing to A0 and A. From Eq. 2-16 we h = 45 cm water is falling freely with accelerat Outline

Continuity Equation: Example Problem

Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

The volume flow per second here must match ...


A0 h A

Eliminating v between Eqs. 14-26 v0, we obtain v0

2ghA2 A A2 A2 0

v2

v2 0

2gh

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

... the volume flow per second here.

0.286 m/s

(2)(9.8 m/s2)(0.045 A (1.2 cm2)2

28.6 cm/

Fig. 14-18

As water falls from a tap, its speed increases. Because the volume ow rate must be the same at all horizontal cross sections of the stream, the stream must neck down (narrow).

From Eq. 14-24, the volume ow ra RV

A0v0 (1.2 cm2 34 cm3/s.

Additional examples, video, and practice available at WileyP

A water stream narrows as it falls

Figure 14-18 shows how the stream of water emerging from KEY IDE a faucet necks down as it falls. This change in the horizontal The volume ow rate through the cross-sectional area is characteristic of any laminar (nonbe the same as that through the low turbulant) falling stream because the gravitational force Phys. 131 increases the speed of the stream. Here the indicated Calculations: From Eq. 14-24, we 11/26/2012 cross-sectional areas are A0 1.2 cm2 and A 0.35 cm2. What 45 mm. The two levels are separated by a vertical distance his the volume ow rate if A0v0 Av, Derek What is the volume ow rate from the tap?A0 = 1.2 cm2 , A = 0.35 cm2 and where v0 and v are the water speed Stampone ing to A0 and A. From Eq. 2-16 we h = 45 cm water is falling freely with accelerat Outline

Continuity Equation: Example Problem

Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

2 Continuity equation tells us A0 vv2 =vAv 2gh 0 0

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

The volume flow per second here must match ...


A0 h A

Eliminating v between Eqs. 14-26 v0, we obtain v0

2ghA2 A A2 A2 0

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

... the volume flow per second here.

0.286 m/s

(2)(9.8 m/s2)(0.045 A (1.2 cm2)2

28.6 cm/

Fig. 14-18

As water falls from a tap, its speed increases. Because the volume ow rate must be the same at all horizontal cross sections of the stream, the stream must neck down (narrow).

From Eq. 14-24, the volume ow ra RV

A0v0 (1.2 cm2 34 cm3/s.

Additional examples, video, and practice available at WileyP

A water stream narrows as it falls

Figure 14-18 shows how the stream of water emerging from KEY IDE a faucet necks down as it falls. This change in the horizontal The volume ow rate through the cross-sectional area is characteristic of any laminar (nonbe the same as that through the low turbulant) falling stream because the gravitational force Phys. 131 increases the speed of the stream. Here the indicated Calculations: From Eq. 14-24, we 11/26/2012 cross-sectional areas are A0 1.2 cm2 and A 0.35 cm2. What 45 mm. The two levels are separated by a vertical distance his the volume ow rate if A0v0 Av, Derek What is the volume ow rate from the tap?A0 = 1.2 cm2 , A = 0.35 cm2 and where v0 and v are the water speed Stampone ing to A0 and A. From Eq. 2-16 we h = 45 cm water is falling freely with accelerat Outline

Continuity Equation: Example Problem

Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

2 Continuity equation tells us A0 vv2 =vAv 2gh 0 0

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Eliminating v between Eqs. The volume flow per relate velocity between two 14-26 We can v0, we obtain second here must 2 parts of stream: v 2 = v0 + 2gh 2 match ... 2ghA
A0 h A

v0

A A2 0

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

... the volume flow per second here.

0.286 m/s

(2)(9.8 m/s2)(0.045 A (1.2 cm2)2 A2

28.6 cm/

Fig. 14-18

As water falls from a tap, its speed increases. Because the volume ow rate must be the same at all horizontal cross sections of the stream, the stream must neck down (narrow).

From Eq. 14-24, the volume ow ra RV

A0v0 (1.2 cm2 34 cm3/s.

Additional examples, video, and practice available at WileyP

A water stream narrows as it falls

Figure 14-18 shows how the stream of water emerging from KEY IDE a faucet necks down as it falls. This change in the horizontal The volume ow rate through the cross-sectional area is characteristic of any laminar (nonbe the same as that through the low turbulant) falling stream because the gravitational force Phys. 131 increases the speed of the stream. Here the indicated Calculations: From Eq. 14-24, we 11/26/2012 cross-sectional areas are A0 1.2 cm2 and A 0.35 cm2. What 45 mm. The two levels are separated by a vertical distance his the volume ow rate if A0v0 Av, Derek What is the volume ow rate from the tap?A0 = 1.2 cm2 , A = 0.35 cm2 and where v0 and v are the water speed Stampone ing to A0 and A. From Eq. 2-16 we h = 45 cm water is falling freely with accelerat Outline

Continuity Equation: Example Problem

Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Eliminating v between Eqs. The volume flow per relate velocity between two 14-26 We can v0, we obtain second here must 2 parts of stream: v 2 = v0 + 2gh 2 match ... 2ghA
A0 h A

v0 2 Combining the two equations,2 weAget A A0

2 Continuity equation tells us A0 vv2 =vAv 2gh 0 0

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

... the volume flow v0 per second here.

2ghA2 A2 A2 0

= 28.6 cm/s
0.286 m/s

(2)(9.8 m/s2)(0.045 A (1.2 cm2)2

28.6 cm/

Fig. 14-18

As water falls from a tap, its speed increases. Because the volume ow rate must be the same at all horizontal cross sections of the stream, the stream must neck down (narrow).

From Eq. 14-24, the volume ow ra RV

A0v0 (1.2 cm2 34 cm3/s.

Additional examples, video, and practice available at WileyP

A water stream narrows as it falls

Figure 14-18 shows how the stream of water emerging from KEY IDE a faucet necks down as it falls. This change in the horizontal The volume ow rate through the cross-sectional area is characteristic of any laminar (nonbe the same as that through the low turbulant) falling stream because the gravitational force Phys. 131 increases the speed of the stream. Here the indicated Calculations: From Eq. 14-24, we 11/26/2012 cross-sectional areas are A0 1.2 cm2 and A 0.35 cm2. What 45 mm. The two levels are separated by a vertical distance his the volume ow rate if A0v0 Av, Derek What is the volume ow rate from the tap?A0 = 1.2 cm2 , A = 0.35 cm2 and where v0 and v are the water speed Stampone ing to A0 and A. From Eq. 2-16 we h = 45 cm water is falling freely with accelerat Outline

Continuity Equation: Example Problem

Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Eliminating v between Eqs. The volume flow per relate velocity between two 14-26 We can v0, we obtain second here must 2 parts of stream: v 2 = v0 + 2gh 2 match ... 2ghA
A0 h A

v0 2 Combining the two equations,2 weAget A A0

2 Continuity equation tells us A0 vv2 =vAv 2gh 0 0

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

... the volume flow v0 per second here.

2ghA2 A2 A2 0

= 28.6 cm/s
0.286 m/s

(2)(9.8 m/s2)(0.045 A (1.2 cm2)2

28.6 cm/

Fig. 14-18

As water falls from a tap, its speed increases. Because the volume ow rate must be the same at all horizontal cross sections of the We get stream, the stream must neck down (narrow).

From Eq. 14-24, the volume ow ra

RV A0v that the volume ow rate0 is (1.2 cm 34 cm3/s. RV = A0 v0 = 34 cm3 /s

Additional examples, video, and practice available at WileyP

Bernoullis Equation
374

CHAPTER 14 FLUIDS

Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review


Pascals and Archimedes Principle

y L

14-10 Bernoullis Equation


Bernoullis Equation tells us how to look at Conservation of Energy for an ideal uid.

v1 p1 y1 Input t x (a) y v2 p2 Output


10 11 12 13 15

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Figure 14-19 represents a tube through which an ideal uid is owing rate. In a time interval t, suppose that a volume of uid V, colore Fig. 14-19, enters the tube at the left (or input) end and an identi colored green in Fig. 14-19, emerges at the right (or output) end. Th volume must be the same as the entering volume because the uid is i ible, with an assumed constant density r. Let y1, v1, and p1 be the elevation, speed, and pressure of the uid the left, and y2, v2, and p2 be the corresponding quantities for the ui at the right. By applying the principle of conservation of energy to t shall show that these quantities are related by p1
1 2 2 1 2

v2 1

gy1

p2

1 2

v2 2

gy2.

In general, the term v is called the uids kinetic energy density (kin per unit volume). We can also write Eq. 14-28 as p
y2
1 2

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

v2

gy

a constant

(Bernoullis equation).

t + t x (b) Fig. 14-19

Fluid ows at a steady rate through a length L of a tube, from the input end at the left to the output end at the right.

Equations 14-28 and 14-29 are equivalent forms of Bernoulli after Daniel Bernoulli, who studied uid ow in the 1700s.* Like the continuity (Eq. 14-24), Bernoullis equation is not a new principle the reformulation of a familiar principle in a form more suitab mechanics. As a check, let us apply Bernoullis equation to uids putting v1 v2 0 in Eq. 14-28. The result is p2 p1 rg(y1 y2),

Bernoullis Equation
374

CHAPTER 14 FLUIDS

Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review


Pascals and Archimedes Principle

y L

14-10 Bernoullis Equation


Bernoullis Equation tells us how to look at Conservation of Energy for an ideal uid.

v1 p1 y1 Input t x (a) y v2 p2 Output


10 11 12 13 15

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Figure 14-19 represents a tube through which an ideal uid is owing rate. In a time interval t, suppose that a volume of uid V, colore Fig. 14-19, enters the tube at the left (or input) end and an identi colored green in Fig. 14-19, emerges at the right (or output) end. Th volume must be the same as the entering volume because the uid is i ible, with an assumed constant density r. Let y1, v1, and p1 be the elevation, speed, and pressure of the uid the left, and y2, v2, and p2 be the corresponding quantities for the ui the right. By applying the principle of conservation of energy to t 1 1 1 at shall show that these quantities are related by
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

y2 t + t x (b) Fig. 14-19

Let y , v and p be the elevation, speed, and pressure of the uid at gy p v gy . one point pand vlet y2 , v2 and p2 be In general, the term v is called the uids kinetic energy density (kin the elevation, speed, and per unit volume). We can also write Eq. 14-28 as pressure of the uid at another point (Bernoullis equation). along a p v gy a constant stream line. Equations 14-28 and 14-29 are equivalent forms of Bernoulli
1 2 2 1 2 2

Fluid ows at a steady rate through a length L of a tube, from the input end at the left to the output end at the right.

after Daniel Bernoulli, who studied uid ow in the 1700s.* Like the continuity (Eq. 14-24), Bernoullis equation is not a new principle the reformulation of a familiar principle in a form more suitab mechanics. As a check, let us apply Bernoullis equation to uids putting v1 v2 0 in Eq. 14-28. The result is p2 p1 rg(y1 y2),

Bernoullis Equation
374

CHAPTER 14 FLUIDS

Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review


Pascals and Archimedes Principle

y L

14-10 Bernoullis Equation


Bernoullis Equation tells us how to look at Conservation of Energy for an ideal uid.

v1 p1 y1 Input t x (a) y v2 p2 Output


10 11 12 13 15

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Figure 14-19 represents a tube through which an ideal uid is owing rate. In a time interval t, suppose that a volume of uid V, colore Fig. 14-19, enters the tube at the left (or input) end and an identi colored green in Fig. 14-19, emerges at the right (or output) end. Th volume must be the same as the entering volume because the uid is i ible, with an assumed constant density r. Let y1, v1, and p1 be the elevation, speed, and pressure of the uid the left, and y2, v2, and p2 be the corresponding quantities for the ui the right. By applying the principle of conservation of energy to t 1 1 1 at shall show that these quantities are related by
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

y2 t + t x (b) Fig. 14-19

Fluid ows at a steady rate through a length L of a tube, from the input end at the left to the output end at the right.

1 2 after Daniel Bernoulli, who studied uid ow 1 the 2 in 1700s.* Like the 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 continuity (Eq. 14-24), Bernoullis equation is not 2 new principle a the reformulation of a familiar principle in a form more suitab mechanics. As a check, let us apply Bernoullis equation to uids putting v1 v2 0 in Eq. 14-28. The result is

Let y , v and p be the elevation, speed, and pressure of the uid at gy p v gy . one point pand vlet y2 , v2 and p2 be In general, the term v is called the uids kinetic energy density (kin the elevation, speed, and per unit volume). We can also write Eq. 14-28 as pressure of the uid at another point (Bernoullis equation). along a p v gy a constant stream line. Equations 14-28 and 14-29 are equivalent forms of Bernoulli
1 2 2 1 2 2

p + v + gy = p + v + gy

p2

p1

rg(y1

y2),

Special Cases of Bernoullis Equation


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Lets look at when v1 = v2 = 0. Bernoullis Equation becomes, p2 = p1 + g(y1 y2 )

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Special Cases of Bernoullis Equation


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Lets look at when v1 = v2 = 0. Bernoullis Equation becomes, p2 = p1 + g(y1 y2 ) Lets also look at when y1 = y2 Bernoullis Equation becomes
2 2 1 p1 + 2 v1 = p2 + 1 v2 2

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Proof of Bernoullis Equation


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

First, we apply Energy Conservation: W = K


1 2 2 2 2 K = 1 mv2 2 mv1 = 1 V (v2 v1 ) 2 2

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Proof of Bernoullis Equation


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

First, we apply Energy Conservation: W = K


1 2 2 2 2 K = 1 mv2 2 mv1 = 1 V (v2 v1 ) 2 2 Next, we look at the work done by gravity

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Wg = mg(y2 y1 ) = gV (y2 y1 )

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Proof of Bernoullis Equation


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

First, we apply Energy Conservation: W = K


1 2 2 2 2 K = 1 mv2 2 mv1 = 1 V (v2 v1 ) 2 2 Next, we look at the work done by gravity

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Wg = mg(y2 y1 ) = gV (y2 y1 ) And the work done on and by the uid. F x = (pA)(x) = p(Ax) = pV

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Proof of Bernoullis Equation


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

First, we apply Energy Conservation: W = K


1 2 2 2 2 K = 1 mv2 2 mv1 = 1 V (v2 v1 ) 2 2 Next, we look at the work done by gravity

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Wg = mg(y2 y1 ) = gV (y2 y1 ) And the work done on and by the uid. F x = (pA)(x) = p(Ax) = pV So work done on system is p1 V and work done by the

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

system is p2 V . Adding them together,


Wp = (p2 p1 )V

Proof of Bernoullis Equation (cont.)


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Combining these two work contributions and our change in

kinetic energy,
1 2 2 gV (y2 y1 ) V (p2 p1 ) = 2 V (v2 v1 )

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Proof of Bernoullis Equation (cont.)


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Combining these two work contributions and our change in

kinetic energy,
1 2 2 gV (y2 y1 ) V (p2 p1 ) = 2 V (v2 v1 ) We can cancel the V and separate the terms according

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

to subscript to get
1 2 2 p1 + 2 v1 + gy1 = p2 + 1 v2 + gy2 2

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

e ow rates from the two tanks? (c) At one innk 1 is 12.0 cm above the hole. If the tanks are e ow rates, what height above the hole must e just then?

Bernoullis Equation: Example Problem


air

B B

Air

rical tank with a large diameter is lled Phys. 131 h D 0.30- m. A hole of cross-sectional area 11/26/2012 ottom of the tank allows water to drain out. at which water flows out, in cubic meters per Derek Stampone distance below the bottom of the tank is the of the stream equal to one-half the area of
Outline Review

Hole A

Liquid

Fig. 14-47 has Pascals and ofArchimedes2 and 0.74 m Principle s. At the outlet, Fluids - Cont. below the inIdeal Fluids in Motion ional area is The Equation of intake and the Continuity Bernoullis 9.5 m/s into Equation he pressure difTest 3 t and outlet? Review
Chapter 10

Reservoir Generator building

Intake

Outlet Fig. 14-47

Problem 58.

moving 11 Chapter with a speed of 5.0 m/s through a pipe Chapter 12 l area of 4.0 cm2. The water graduall descends Chapter 13 s-sectional area increases to 8.0 cm2. (a) What Chapter 15 ower level? (b) If the pressure at the upper what is the pressure at the lower level?

The intake has cross-sectional area of 0.74 m2 and Fig. 14-48 Problems 62 and 63. At water ows at 0.40 m/s. the outlet, distance D = 180 m below 63 A pitot tube (see Problem the intake,differential pressure of62) on a What is the the cross-sectional area high-altitud is measures a 180 Pa. 3 smaller if the density of the air is 0.031 kg/m ? airspeed than at the intake and water ows outIn Fig. 14-49, water ows generator. at 9.5 m/s into the 64 v2 through horizontal pipe dierence between What isa the pressure and then d2 out into the atmosphere at a speed inlet 15 m/s.outlet? and The diameters of the v1

left and right sections of the pipe are Fig. 14-49 Pro 5.0 cm and 3.0 cm. (a) What volume of water ows into the atmosphere during a 10 min period? In the left section of the pipe, wh the speed v2 and (c) the gauge pressure?
SSM WWW

pedoes are sometimes tested in a horizontal

65

A venturi meter is used to measure

half the cross-sectional area of the hole in tank 2. io r1/r2 of the densities of the liquids if the mass ame for the two holes? (b) What is the ratio ume ow rates from the two tanks? (c) At one intank 1 is 12.0 cm above the hole. If the tanks are me ow rates, what height above the hole must bePhys.then? just 131 -

planes speed relative to the air? The density of the air is 1.03 kg/m3 and that of alcohol is 810 kg/m3.

Bernoullis Equation: Example Problem (cont)


v

air
Hole A

B B

Air

11/26/2012 ndrical tank with a large diameter is lled pth D 0.30 m. A hole of cross-sectional area Derek bottom of the tank allows water to drain out. Stampone te at which water flows out, in cubic meters per hat distance below the bottom of the tank is the Outline ea of the stream equal to one-half the area of Review
Pascals and

We use Bernoullis Equation with point


Liquid 1 at the inlet and point 2 at the outlet. h

in Archimedes has Fig. 14-47 Principle ea of 0.74 m2 and Fluids - Cont. m/s. At the outlet, mIdeal Fluidsthe inbelow in Motion ectional area is The Equation of e Continuityand the intake Bernoullis at 9.5 m/s into Equation s the pressure difTest 3 nlet and outlet?
Review

Reservoir Generator building

2 2 1 1 p1 + Fig. 14-48gy1 = 622and 63. v2 + gy2 2 v1 + Problems p + 2


63 A pitot tube (see Problem 62) on a high-altitude aircraft measures a differential pressure of 180 Pa. What is the aircrafts airspeed if the density of the air is 0.031 kg/m3? 64 In Fig. 14-49, water ows v1 v2 through a horizontal pipe and then d2 d1 out into the atmosphere at a speed v1 15 m/s. The diameters of the left and right sections of the pipe are Fig. 14-49 Problem 64. 5.0 cm and 3.0 cm. (a) What volume of water ows into the atmosphere during a 10 min period? In the left section of the pipe, what are (b) the speed v2 and (c) the gauge pressure? 65 SSM WWW A venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed of a fluid in a pipe. The meter is connected between two sections of the pipe (Fig. 14-50); the cross-sectional area A of the

Intake

Outlet Fig. 14-47

Problem 58.

is Chapter 10with a speed of 5.0 m/s through a pipe moving Chapter 11 nal area of 4.0 cm2. The water graduall descends Chapter 12 oss-sectional area increases to 8.0 cm2. (a) What Chapter 13 e lower level? (b) If the pressure at the upper Chapter 15 a, what is the pressure at the lower level?

orpedoes are sometimes tested in a horizontal ter, much as a wind tunnel is used to test model r a circular pipe of internal diameter 25.0 cm and

half the cross-sectional area of the hole in tank 2. io r1/r2 of the densities of the liquids if the mass ame for the two holes? (b) What is the ratio ume ow rates from the two tanks? (c) At one intank 1 is 12.0 cm above the hole. If the tanks are me ow rates, what height above the hole must bePhys.then? just 131 -

planes speed relative to the air? The density of the air is 1.03 kg/m3 and that of alcohol is 810 kg/m3.

Bernoullis Equation: Example Problem (cont)


v

air
Hole A

B B

Air

11/26/2012 ndrical tank with a large diameter is lled pth D 0.30 m. A hole of cross-sectional area Derek bottom of the tank allows water to drain out. Stampone te at which water flows out, in cubic meters per hat distance below the bottom of the tank is the Outline ea of the stream equal to one-half the area of Review
Pascals and

We use Bernoullis Equation with point


Liquid 1 at the inlet and point 2 at the outlet. h

in Archimedes has Fig. 14-47 Principle ea of 0.74 m2 and Fluids - Cont. m/s. At the outlet, mIdeal Fluidsthe inbelow in Motion ectional area is The Equation of e Continuityand the intake Bernoullis at 9.5 m/s into Equation s the pressure difTest 3 nlet and outlet?
Review

Reservoir Generator building

2 2 1 1 p1 + Fig. 14-48gy1 = 622and 63. v2 + gy2 2 v1 + Problems p + 2


63 A pitot tube (see Problem 62) on a high-altitude aircraft measures a differential pressure of 180 Pa. What is the aircrafts airspeed if the density of the air is 0.031 kg/m3? 64 In Fig. 14-49, water ows v1 v2 through a horizontal pipe and then d2 d1 out into the atmosphere at a speed v1 15 m/s. The diameters of the left and right sections of the pipe are Fig. 14-49 Problem 64. 5.0 cm and 3.0 cm. (a) What volume of water ows into the atmosphere during a 10 min period? In the left section of the pipe, what are (b) the speed v2 and (c) the gauge pressure?

Intake

Well solve it for the pressure dierence

Outlet Fig. 14-47

Problem 58.

is Chapter 10with a speed of 5.0 m/s through a pipe moving Chapter 11 nal area of 4.0 cm2. The water graduall descends Chapter 12 oss-sectional area increases to 8.0 cm2. (a) What Chapter 13 e lower level? (b) If the pressure at the upper Chapter 15 a, what is the pressure at the lower level?

orpedoes are sometimes tested in a horizontal ter, much as a wind tunnel is used to test model r a circular pipe of internal diameter 25.0 cm and

65 SSM WWW A venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed of a fluid in a pipe. The meter is connected between two sections of the pipe (Fig. 14-50); the cross-sectional area A of the

half the cross-sectional area of the hole in tank 2. io r1/r2 of the densities of the liquids if the mass ame for the two holes? (b) What is the ratio ume ow rates from the two tanks? (c) At one intank 1 is 12.0 cm above the hole. If the tanks are me ow rates, what height above the hole must bePhys.then? just 131 -

planes speed relative to the air? The density of the air is 1.03 kg/m3 and that of alcohol is 810 kg/m3.

Bernoullis Equation: Example Problem (cont)


v

air
Hole A

B B

Air

11/26/2012 ndrical tank with a large diameter is lled pth D 0.30 m. A hole of cross-sectional area Derek bottom of the tank allows water to drain out. Stampone te at which water flows out, in cubic meters per hat distance below the bottom of the tank is the Outline ea of the stream equal to one-half the area of Review
Pascals and

We use Bernoullis Equation with point


Liquid 1 at the inlet and point 2 at the outlet. h

in Archimedes has Fig. 14-47 Principle ea of 0.74 m2 and Fluids - Cont. m/s. At the outlet, mIdeal Fluidsthe inbelow in Motion ectional area is The Equation of e Continuityand the intake Bernoullis at 9.5 m/s into Equation s the pressure difTest 3 nlet and outlet?
Review

Reservoir Generator building

2 2 1 1 p1 + Fig. 14-48gy1 = 622and 63. v2 + gy2 2 v1 + Problems p + 2


63 A pitot tube (see Problem 62) on a high-altitude aircraft measures a differential pressure of 180 Pa. What is the aircrafts airspeed if the density of the air is 0.031 kg/m3? 64 In Fig. 14-49, water ows v1 through a horizontal pipe and then 2 1 v2 d2 d1 2 out into the atmosphere at a speed 2 1 1 2 2 v1 15 m/s. The diameters of the left and right sections of the pipe are Fig. 14-49 Problem 64. 5.0 cm and 3.0 cm. (a) What volume of water ows into the atmosphere during a 10 min period? In the left section of the pipe, what are (b) the speed v2 and (c) the gauge pressure?

Intake

Well solve it for the pressure dierence p p = gD + (v v )

Outlet Fig. 14-47

Problem 58.

is Chapter 10with a speed of 5.0 m/s through a pipe moving Chapter 11 nal area of 4.0 cm2. The water graduall descends Chapter 12 oss-sectional area increases to 8.0 cm2. (a) What Chapter 13 e lower level? (b) If the pressure at the upper Chapter 15 a, what is the pressure at the lower level?

orpedoes are sometimes tested in a horizontal ter, much as a wind tunnel is used to test model r a circular pipe of internal diameter 25.0 cm and

65 SSM WWW A venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed of a fluid in a pipe. The meter is connected between two sections of the pipe (Fig. 14-50); the cross-sectional area A of the

half the cross-sectional area of the hole in tank 2. io r1/r2 of the densities of the liquids if the mass ame for the two holes? (b) What is the ratio ume ow rates from the two tanks? (c) At one intank 1 is 12.0 cm above the hole. If the tanks are me ow rates, what height above the hole must bePhys.then? just 131 -

planes speed relative to the air? The density of the air is 1.03 kg/m3 and that of alcohol is 810 kg/m3.

Bernoullis Equation: Example Problem (cont)


v

air
Hole A

B B

Air

11/26/2012 ndrical tank with a large diameter is lled pth D 0.30 m. A hole of cross-sectional area Derek bottom of the tank allows water to drain out. Stampone te at which water flows out, in cubic meters per hat distance below the bottom of the tank is the Outline ea of the stream equal to one-half the area of Review
Pascals and

We use Bernoullis Equation with point


Liquid 1 at the inlet and point 2 at the outlet. h

in Archimedes has Fig. 14-47 Principle ea of 0.74 m2 and Fluids - Cont. m/s. At the outlet, mIdeal Fluidsthe inbelow in Motion ectional area is The Equation of e Continuityand the intake Bernoullis at 9.5 m/s into Equation s the pressure difTest 3 nlet and outlet?
Review

Reservoir Generator building

2 2 1 1 p1 + Fig. 14-48gy1 = 622and 63. v2 + gy2 2 v1 + Problems p + 2


63 A pitot tube (see Problem 62) on a high-altitude aircraft measures a differential pressure of 180 Pa. What is the aircrafts airspeed if the density of the air is 0.031 kg/m3? 64 In Fig. 14-49, water ows v1 through a horizontal pipe and then 2 1 v2 d2 d1 2 out into the atmosphere at a speed 2 1 1 2 2 v1 15 m/s. The diameters of the left and right sections of the pipe are Fig. 14-49 Problem 64. 5.0 cm and 3.0 cm. (a) What volume 6 of water ows into the atmosphere 2 1 during a 10 min period? In the left section of the pipe, what are (b) the speed v2 and (c) the gauge pressure?

Intake

Well solve it for the pressure dierence p p = gD + (v v )

Outlet Fig. 14-47

Problem 58.

is Chapter 10with a speed of 5.0 m/s through a pipe moving Chapter 11 nal area of 4.0 cm2. The water graduall descends Chapter 12 oss-sectional area increases to 8.0 cm2. (a) What Chapter 13 e lower level? (b) If the pressure at the upper Chapter 15 a, what is the pressure at the lower level?

p p = 1.7 10 Pa

orpedoes are sometimes tested in a horizontal ter, much as a wind tunnel is used to test model r a circular pipe of internal diameter 25.0 cm and

65 SSM WWW A venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed of a fluid in a pipe. The meter is connected between two sections of the pipe (Fig. 14-50); the cross-sectional area A of the

Test 3 - Review
Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Test 3 - Information
Test is Wednesday from 3:30 pm to 4:30 pm in LH-014 Remember a calculator and formula sheet. Test covers Chapters 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 (Homeworks 8 to

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

11)
Three questions of multiple parts (Similar style and

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

diculty as previous tests)

Chapter 10 - Rotation
Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Kinematics of Angular Variables - Replace linear variable

with corresponding angular variable. x , v , and a


Rotational Kinetic Energy K = 1 I 2 2 Parallel Axis Theorem I = Icm + M R2 Newtons 2nd Law net = I Work-Kinetic Energy Thm. W = and K = W

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Moments of Inertia
10-7 CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA
Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle
I = MR2 Axis Solid cylinder (or disk) about central diameter L R
1 I = __M R 2 + 4 1 __ 12

25

Table 10-2 Some Rotational Inertias


Axis R Hoop about central axis R1 R2 R (a )
1 2 2 I = __M ( R 1 + R 2 ) 2

Some Common Moments of Inertia


Axis Annular cylinder (or ring) about central axis L Axis Solid cylinder (or disk) about central axis

(b )

1 I = __M R 2 2

(c )

Axis Thin rod about axis through center perpendicular to length L

Axis Solid sphere about any diameter 2R

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

ML2

(d)

I=

1 __ 2 12M L

(e )

2 I = __M R 2 5

(f ) Axis

Axis Thin spherical shell about any diameter

Axis R Hoop about any diameter

2R

Slab about perpendicular axis through center b a

2 I = __M R 2 3

(g )

1 I = __M R 2 2

(h )

1 __ I = 12M ( a 2 + b 2 )

(i )

perpendicular to the plane of the gure, and another axis through point P parallel

We need to relate the

Chapter 11 - Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Rolling Condition: vcm = R Torque: | | = r F Direction from right hand rule Angular momentum: Newtons 2nd law:

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

= r p = m(r v) net =

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

d dt Angular momentum of Rigid Body: L = I


Conservation of Angular Momentum: Li = Lf

Chapter 12 - Equilibrium and Elasticity


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Static Equilibrium occurs when

F =0

and

=0

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

When we look at forces in x and y direction, we get three

independent equations from these two statements, sum of the forces in the x and y direction and sum of the z torques.
The key to solving equilibrium problems is a drawing very

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

clear free body diagrams. Dont forget Newtons Third Law when drawing forces on free body diagrams.

Chapter 13 - Gravitation
Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

Newtons Law of Gravitation

F =G

m1 m2 r2

where G = 6.67 1011 N m2 /kg2 . Gravity is always an attractive force.


Gravitational Potential Energy

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

U = G

Mm r

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Escape speed: Speed at which an object will escape the

gravitational pull of an astronomical body of mass M and radius R 2GM vescape = R

Chapter 13 - Keplers Laws


Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

The law of orbits All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus. The law of areas A line joining any planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. (This statement is equivalent to Conservation of Angular Momentum) The law of periods T2 = 4 2 GM r3

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

Chapter 15 - Oscillations
Phys. 131 11/26/2012 Derek Stampone Outline Review
Pascals and Archimedes Principle

The period is the time required for one complete oscillation

or cycle. It is related to the frequency by T = 1/f


Simple harmonic motion: When restoring force is

proportional to the displacement.


The Linear oscillator: Restoring force from Hookes Law

Fluids - Cont.
Ideal Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity Bernoullis Equation

F = kx =
Pendulums

k m

T = 2

m k

Test 3 Review
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 10 11 12 13 15

T = 2 T = 2 T = 2

I/ L/g I/mgh

torsion pendulum simple pendulum physical pendulum