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Myanmar Army

Myanmar Army
Myanmar Army ()

Myanmar Army Flag Active Country Branch Size Partof Nickname Motto Anniversaries Myanmar Army 500,000 Myanmar Armed Forces Tatmadaw Ye Thaw Ma Thay, Thay Thaw Nga Ye Ma Lar 27 March 1945

Commanders
Minister of Defence
[1]

Lt. General Wai Lwin General Soe Win

[2]

Commander-in-Chief Notable commanders

Major General Aung San General Ne Win

The Myanmar Army (Burmese: ()), pronounced:[tamd t]) is the land component of the Military of Myanmar, Myanmar Armed Forces. The Myanmar Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of Myanmar and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. The Myanmar Army maintains the second largest active force in Southeast Asia after Vietnam's Vietnam People's Army. The Myanmar Army had a troop strength of around 350,000 As of 2006.[3] Myanmar Army had around 500,000 soldiers in 2012. The army has extensive combat experience in fighting insurgents in rough terrains, considering it has been conducting non-stop counter-insurgency operations against ethnic and political insurgents since its inception in 1948. The force is headed by the Commander in Chief (Army) (()), currently General Soe Win with Vice-Senior General Min Aung Hlaing as the Commander in Chief (). The highest rank in the Myanmar Army was Senior General, equivalent to Field Marshal position in Western Armies and was held by Senior General Than Shwe who retired his role since the establishment of the constitution of Republic of Union of Myanmar 2010. In 2011, following transition from military junta government to civilian parliamentary government, the Myanmar Army enacted a military draft for all citizens, all males from the age 18 to 35 and all females age between 18 and 27 years of age can be drafted into military service for two years as enlisted personal in time of national emergency. The ages for professionals are up to 45 for men and 35 for women for three years service as commissioned and non commissioned officers.

Myanmar Army An official publication has revealed that almost one-quarter of Myanmar's new national budget will be allocated to defense. The Government Gazette reports that 1.8 trillion kyat (about $2 billion at free market rates of exchange), or 23.6 percent of the 2011 budget will go to defense.[4]

Brief history
Post Independence era
At the time of Myanmar's independence in 1948, the Tatmadaw was weak, small and disunited. Cracks appeared along the lines of ethnic background, political affiliation, organizational origin and different services. Its unity and operational efficiency was further weakened by the interference of civilians and politicians in military affairs, and the perception gap between the staff officers and field commanders. The most serious problem was the tension between ethnic Karen Officers, coming from the British Burma Army and Burman (Bamar) officers, coming from the Patriotic Burmese Force (PBF).[5] In accordance with agreement reached at Kandy Conference in September 1945, the Tatmadaw was reorganised by incorporating the British Burma Army and the Patriotic Burmese Force. The officer corps shared by ex-PBF officers and officers from British Burma Army and Army of Burma Reserve Organization (ARBO). The British also decided to form what were known as "Class Battalions" based on ethnicity. There were a total of 15 rifle battalions at the time of independence and four of them were made up of former members of Myanmar Army Honour Guards saluting the PBF. All influential positions within the War Office and commands arrival of Thai delegation in October 2010. were manned with non-former PBF Officers. All services including military engineers, supply and transport, ordnance and medical services, Navy and Air Force were all commanded by former Officers from ABRO and British Burma Army.[5]
Battalion No. 1 Burma Rifles No. 2 Burma Rifles Bamar (Burma Military Police) Karen majority + Other Non-Bamar Nationalities (commanded by then Lieutenant Colonel Saw Chit Khin (karen officer from British Burma Army) Bamar / Former members of Patriotic Burmese Force Bamar / Former members of Patriotic Burmese Force - Commanded by the then Lieutenant Colonel Ne Win Bamar / Former members of Patriotic Burmese Force Bamar / Former members of Patriotic Burmese Force Karen / Former members of British Burma Army and ABRO Karen / Former members of British Burma Army and ABRO Karen / Former members of British Burma Army and ABRO Ethnic/Army Composition

No. 3 Burma Rifles No. 4 Burma Rifles No. 5 Burma Rifles No. 6 Burma Rifles No. 1 Karen Rifles No. 2 Karen Rifles No. 3 Karen Rifles

No. 1 Kachin Rifles Kachin / Former members of British Burma Army and ABRO No. 2 Kachin Rifles Kachin / Former members of British Burma Army and ABRO No. 1 Chin Rifles No. 2 Chin Rifles Chin / Former members of British Burma Army and ABRO Chin / Former members of British Burma Army and ABRO

Myanmar Army

3
Gorkha

No. 4 Burma Regiment Chin Hill Battalion

Chin

|+ Ethnic and Army Composition of Tatmadaw in 1948

Formation and structure


The Army has always been by far the largest service in Myanmar and has always received the lion's share of the defence budget.[6][7] It has played the most prominent part in Myanmar's struggle against the 40 or more insurgent groups since 1948 and acquired a reputation as a tough and resourceful military force. In 1981, it was described as 'probably the best army in Southeast Asia, apart from Vietnam's'.[8] The judgement was echoed in 1983, when another observer noted that "Myanmar's infantry is generally rated as one of the toughest, most combat seasoned in Southeast Asia".[9] In 1985, a foreign journalist with the rare experience of seeing Burmese soldiers in action against ethnic insurgents and narco-armies was 'thoroughly impressed by their fighting skills, endurance and discipline'.[10] Other commentators throughout that time characterised the Myanmar Army as 'the toughest, most effective light infantry jungle force now operating in Southeast Asia'.[11] Even the Thais, not known to praise the Burmese lightly, have described the Myanmar Army as 'skilled in the art of jungle warfare'.[12]

Organization
Myanmar Army had reached some 370,000 active troops in all ranks in the year 2000 and there are more than 500,000 troops in the year 2012. There were 337 infantry battalions, including 266 light infantry battalions. Although the Myanmar Army's organisational structure was based upon the regimental system, the basic manoeuvre and fighting unit is the battalion, known as Tat Yinn () in Burmese, which comprised a headquarters unit; four rifle companies Tat Khwe () with three rifle platoons Tat Su () each; an administration company with medical, transport, logistics and signals units; a heavy weapons company including mortar, machine gun and recoilless gun platoons. Each battalion is commanded a Lieutenant Colonel Du Ta Ya Bo Hmu Gyi or Du Bo Hmu Gyi with a Major (bo hmu) as 2IC (Second in Command), with a total establishment strength of 27 officers and 723 other ranks. Light infantry battalions in Myanmar Army have much lower establishment strength of around 500; this often leads to these units being mistakenly identified by the observers and reporters as under strength infantry battalions. With its significantly increased personnel numbers, weaponry and mobility, today's Tatmadaw Kyee () is a formidable conventional defence force for the Union of Myanmar. Troops ready for combat duty have at least doubled since 1988. Logistics infrastructure and Artillery Fire Support has been greatly increased. Its newly acquired military might was apparent in the Tatmadaw's dry season operations against Karen National Union (KNU) strongholds in Manerplaw and Kawmura. Most of the casualties at these battles were the result of intense and heavy bombardment by the Tatmadaw Kyee. Not only that Tatmadaw Kyee is now much larger than it was in pre-1988, it is more mobile and has greatly improved armour, artillery and air defence inventories. Its C3I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence) systems have been expanded and refined. It is developing larger and more integrated, self-sustained formations which should lend themselves to better coordinated action by different combat arms. The army may still have relatively modest weaponry compared to its larger neighbours, but it is now in a much better position to deter external aggression and respond to such a threat should it ever arise except child soldiers may not perform very well in combating with enemies.[13]

Myanmar Army

Expansion
The first army division to be formed after the 1988 military coup was the 11th Light Infantry Division (LID) in December 1988 with Col. Win Myint as commander of the division. In March 1990, a new regional military command was opened in Monywa with Brigadier Kyaw Min as commander and named North-Western Regional Military Command. A year later 101st LID was formed in Pakokku with Col. Saw Tun as commander. Two Regional Operations Commands (ROC) were formed in Myeik and Loikaw to facilitate command and control. They were commanded respectively by Brigadier Soe 101st Light Infantry Division Tint and Brigadier Maung Kyi. March 1995 saw a dramatic expansion of the Tatmadaw as it established 11 Military Operations Commands (MOC)s in that month. MOC are similar to Mechanized Infantry Divisions in western armies, each with 10 regular infantry battalions (Chay Hlyin Tatyin), a headquarters, and organic support units including field artillery batteries. Then in 1996, two new RMC were opened, Coastal Region RMC was opened in Myeik with Brigadier Sit Maung as commander and Triangle Region RMC in Kengtung with Brigadier Thein Sein as commander. Their new ROCs were opened in Kalay, Bhamo and Mongsat. In late 1998, two new MOCs were opened in Bokepyin and Mongsat.[14] The most significant expansion after the infantry in the army was in armour and artillery. Beginning in 1990, the Tatmadaw procured 18 T-69II Main Battle tanks and 48 T-63 amphibious light tanks from China. Further procurements were made, including several hundred Type 85 and Type 92 Armoured Personnel Carriers (APC). By the beginning of 1998, Tatmadaw had about 100+ T-69II Main battle tanks, a similar number of T-63 amphibious light tanks and several T-59D tanks. These tanks and armoured personnel carriers were distributed into five armoured infantry battalions and five tank battalions and formed the first Armoured Division of the Tatmadaw under the name of 71st Armoured Operations Command with its headquarters in Pyawbwe.

Chiefs of Staff and Commanders in Chief


Up until 1990, Myanmar Armed Forces has Chief of Staff system and Myanmar Army was led by Vice Chief of Staff (Army). A new system was introduced in 1990 during Armed Forces reorganisation and all three branches of Armed Forces are now led by Commander-in-Chief.[7]
Serial BC5107 Name & Rank Brigadier General Saw Kyar Doe Brigadier General Ne Win 1948 Date Notes Karen Officer, Forced to retire due to civil war with Karen

BC3502

19481949

Member of Thirty Comrades, Later became President and Chairman of Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP)

BC5458

Brigadier General Aung Gyi Brigadier General San Yu Brigadier General Thura Tin Oo Brigadier General Thura Kyaw Htin

19561963

BC3569 BC3651

19631972 19721974

Later became President Dismissed and imprisoned for involvement in coup attempt, later became Vice-Chairman of National League for Democracy Later became Prime Minister

BC5332

19741976

BC6133 BC5896 BC6187

Lieutenant General Aye Ko 19761981 Lieutenant General Tun Ye Lieutenant General Saw Maung 19811983 19831985

Later became Vice President

later promoted to Senior General, coup in 1988 and formed State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)

Myanmar Army

5
19851992 later promoted to Senior General and Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) later promoted to Vice Senior General and Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) later promoted to General

BC6710

Lieutenant General Than Shwe Lieutenant General Maung Aye

BC7875

1993 31/3/2011 1/4/2011-

BC16489 Lieutenant General Soe Win

Bureau of Special Operations (BSO)


Bureau of Special Operations ( ) in Myanmar Army are high-level field units equivalent to Field Army Group in Western terms and consist of 2 or more Regional Military Commands (RMC) and commanded by a Lieutenant-General and 6 staff officers. The units were introduced under the General Staff Office on 28 April 1978 and 1 June 1979. In early 1978, the then Chairman of BSPP General Ne Win visited the North Eastern Command Headquarters in Lashio to receive a Bureau of Special Operations briefing about Burmese Communist Party (BCP) insurgents and their military operations. He was accompanied by Brigadier General Tun Ye from Ministry of Defence. Brigadier General Tun Ye was the regional commander of Eastern Command for three years and before that he served in North Eastern Command areas as commander of Strategic Operation Command (SOC) and commander for Light Infantry Division for four years. As BCP military operations were spread across three Regional Military Command (RMC) areas (Northern, Eastern and North Eastern), Brigadier General Tun Ye was the most informed commander about the BCP in Myanmar Army at the time. At the briefing, General Ne Win was impressed by Brigadier General Tun Ye and realized that coordination among various Regional Military Commands (RMC) was necessary; thus, decided to form a bureau at the Ministry of Defence. Originally, the bureau was for "special operations", wherever they were, that needed coordination among various Regional Military Commands (RMC). Later, with introduction of another bureau, there was a division of command areas. The BSO-1 was to oversee the operations under the Northern Command, North Eastern Command, the Eastern Command, and the North Western Command. BSO-2 was to oversee operations under the South Eastern Command, South Western Command, Western Command and Central Command. Initially, the chief of the BSO had the rank of Brigadier General. The rank was upgraded to Major General on 23 April 1979. in Regional Military Commands (RMC) 1990, it was further upgraded to Lieutenant General. Between 1995 and 2002, Chief of Staff (Army) jointly held the position of Chief of BSO. However, in early 2002, two more BSO were added to the General Staff Office; therefore there were altogether four BSOs. The fifth BSO was established in 2005 and the sixth in 2007.

Myanmar Army Currently there are Six Bureaus of Special Operations in Myanmar order of Battle.[15]
Bureau of Special Operations Regional Military Commands (RMC) Bureau of Special Operations 1 Central Command North Western Command Northern Command Bureau of Special Operations 2 North Eastern Command Eastern Command Triangle Region Command Bureau of Special Operations 3 South Western Command Southern Command Western Command Bureau of Special Operations 4 Coastal Command South Eastern Command Bureau of Special Operations 5 Yangon Command Bureau of Special Operations 6 Naypyidaw Command

Regional Military Commands (RMC)


For better command and communication, the Tatmadaw formed Regional Military Commands ( ) structure in 1958. Until 1961, there were only two regional commands, they were supported by 13 Infantry brigades and an infantry division. In October 1961, new regional military commands were opened and leaving only two independent infantry brigades. In June 1963, the Naypyidaw Command was temporarily formed in Yangon with the deputy commander and some staff officers drawn from Central Command. It was reorganised and renamed as Yangon Command on 1 June 1965.[15] A total of 337 infantry and light infantry battalions organised in Tactical Operations Commands, 37 independent field artillery regiments supported by affiliated support units including armoured reconnaissance and tank battalions. RMCs are similar to corps formations in Western armies. The RMCs, commanded by Major General rank officer, are managed through a framework of Bureau of Special Operations (BSOs), which are equivalent to Field Army Group in Western terms.[15]
Regional Military Command (RMC) Northern Command () Badge States & Divisions Kachin State Headquarters Myitkyina Strength 33 Infantry Battalions

North Eastern Command ()

Northern Shan State

Lashio

30 Infantry Battalions

Eastern Command ()

Southern Shan State

Taunggyi

42 Infantry Battalions including 16 Light Infantry Battalions under Regional Operation Command (ROC) Headquarters at Loikaw 36 Infantry Battalions

South Eastern Command ()

Mon and Kayin (Karen) States

Mawlamyaing (Moulmein)

Southern Command ()

Bago and Magwe Divisions

Toungoo

27 Infantry Battalions

Myanmar Army

7
Ayeyarwady Division (Irrawaddy Division) Rakhine (Arakan) and Chin States Pathein (Bassein) 11 Infantry Battalions

South Western Command ()

Western Command ()

Ann

33 Infantry Battalions

North Western Command ()

Sagaing Division

Monywa

25 Infantry Battalions

Yangon Command ()

Yangon Division

Mayangone Township-Kone-Myint-Thar

11 Infantry Battalions

Coastal Region Command ()

Tanintharyi Division (Tenassarim Division) Eastern Shan State

Myeik (Mergui)

43 Infantry Battalions including battalions under 2 MOC based at Tavoy 23 Infantry Battalions

Triangle Region Command ()

Kyaingtong (Kengtung)

Central Command ()

Mandalay Division

Mandalay

17 Infantry Battalions

Naypyidaw Command ()

Naypyidaw

Pyinmana

Formed in 2006 - ? Infantry Battalions

Commanders of Regional Military Commands


[15] Regional Military Established Command (RMC) Eastern Command 1961 First Commander Current Commander Major General Soe Htut Major General Tin Maung Win Major General Nyo Saw Brigadier General Kyaw Min Major General Soe Lwin Major General Soe Thein Major General San Oo Formed as Naypyidaw Command in 1963 with deputy commander and some staff officers from Central Command. Renamed Yangon Command on 1 June 1965. Original Southern Command in Taungoo was renamed Central Command in March 1990 Original North western Command in Mandalay was renamed Central Command in March 1990 Notes

South Eastern Command Central Command

1961

1961

North Western Command South Western Command Yangon Command

1961

1961

1965

Western Command

1972

Major General Ko Ko Naing Brigadier General Aung Soe Brigadier General Tun Tun Naung

North Eastern Command Northern Command

1972

1972

Myanmar Army

8
1972 Brigadier General Aung Kyaw Zaw Brigadier General Thein Sein Brigadier General Thiha Thura Thura Sit Maung Major General Than Thein Sein later became Prime Minister and elected as Tun Oo President in 2011 Major General Khin Maung Htay Sit Maung was killed in Helicopter crash along with the then Chief of Staff (Army) Lt. General Tin Oo in 19 February [16] 2001.

Southern Command

Traingle Region Command Coastal Region Command

1996

1996

Naypyidaw Command Eastern Central Command

2005

Major General Maung Maung Aye Brigadier General Myint Naung Original Southern Command in Taungoo was renamed Central Command in March 1990

2011

Regional Operations Commands (ROC)


Regional Operations Commands (ROC)( ) are commanded by a Brigadier General, are similar to infantry brigades in Western Armies. Each consists of 4 Infantry battalions (Chay Hlyin Tatyin), HQ and organic support units. Commander of ROC is a position between LID/MOC commander and tactical Operation Command (TOC) commander, who commands only three infantry battalions. However, ROC commander enjoys financial, administrative and judicial authority while the MOC and LID commander does not have judicial authority.[7][17]
Regional Operation Command (ROC) Loikaw Regional Operations Command Laukai Regional Operations Command Kalay Regional Operations Command Sittwe Regional Operations Command Pyay Regional Operations Command Tanaing Regional Operations Command Headquarters Loikaw Laukai Kalay Sittwe Pyay Tanaing Formerly ROC Bahmaw Formed in 2011 [18] Notes

Wanhseng Regional Operations Command Wanhseng

Military Operations Commands (MOC)


Military Operations Commands (MOC) ( () ), commanded by a Brigadier-General, are similar to Infantry divisions in Western Armies. Each consists of 10 Mechanized Infantry battalions equipped with BTR-3 Armored Personnel Carriers, Headquarters and support units including field artillery batteries. These ten battalions are organized into three Tactical Operations Commands : one Mechanized Tactical Operations Command (with BTR-3 armored personal carriers) and two Motorized Tactical Operations Command (with EQ-2102 6x6 trucks). MOC are equivalent to Light Infantry Division (LID) in Myanmar Army order of battle as both command 10 infantry battalions through three TOC (Tactical Operations Command).[17]

Myanmar Army

Military Operation Command (MOC) 1st Military Operations Command (MOC-1) 2nd Military Operations Command (MOC-2) 3rd Military Operations Command (MOC-3) 4th Military Operations Command (MOC-4) 5th Military Operations Command (MOC-5) 6th Military Operations Command (MOC-6) 7th Military Operations Command (MOC-7) 8th Military Operations Command (MOC-8) 9th Military Operations Command (MOC-9)

Headquarters Kyaukme (), Shan State Mong Nawng (), Shan State Mogaung (), Kachin State Hpugyi (), Yangon Region Taungup (), Rakhine State Pyinmana (), Mandalay Region Hpegon (), Shan State Dawei (), Tanintharyi Region Kyauktaw (), Rakhine State

Notes

Designated Airborne Division

10th Military Operations Command (MOC-10) Kyigon ( ()), Sagaing Region 11th Military Operations Command (MOC-11) Loilem (), Shan State 12th Military Operations Command (MOC-12) Kawkareik (), Kayin State 13th Military Operations Command (MOC-13) Bokpyin (), Tanintharyi Region 14th Military Operations Command (MOC-14) Mong Hsat (), Shan State 15th Military Operations Command (MOC-15) Buthidaung (), Rakhine State 16th Military Operations Command (MOC-16) Theinni (), Shan State 17th Military Operations Command (MOC-17) Mong Pan (), Shan State 18th Military Operations Command (MOC-18) Mong Hpayak (), Shan State 19th Military Operations Command (MOC-19) Ye (), Mon State 20th Military Operations Command (MOC-20) Kawthaung (), Tanintharyi Region 21st Military Operations Command (MOC-21) Bhamo (), Kachin State

Light Infantry Divisions (LID)


Light Infantry Division (Chay Myan Tat Ma or Ta Ma Kha), commanded by a Brigadier-General, each with 10 Light Infantry Battalions organised under 3 Tactical Operations Commands, commanded by a Colonel, (3 battalions each and 1 reserve), 1 Field Artillery Battalion, 1 Armour Squadron and other support units.[7][17] These divisions were first introduced to the Myanmar Army in 1966 as rapid reaction mobile forces for strike operations. 77th Light Infantry Division was formed on 6 June 1966, followed by 88th Light Infantry Division and 99th Light Infantry Division in the two following years. 77th LID was largely responsible for the defeat of the Communist forces of the CPB (Communist Party of Burma) based in the forested hills of the central Bago Yoma in the mid 1970s. Three more LIDs were raised in the latter half of 1970s (the 66th, 55th and 44th) with their headquarters at Pyay, Aungban and Thaton. They were followed by another two LIDs in the period prior to the 1988 military coup (the 33rd LID with headquarters at Sagaing and the 22nd LID with headquarters at Hpa-An). 11th LID was formed in December 1988 with headquarters at Inndine, Bago Division and 101st LID was formed in 1991 with its headquarters at Pakokku.[7][17] Each LID, commanded by Brigadier General (Bo hmu gyoke) level officers, consists of 10 light infantry battalions specially trained in counter-insurgency, jungle warfare, "search and destroy" operations against ethnic insurgents and narcotics-based armies. These Battalions are organised under three Tactical Operations Commands (TOC; Nee byu har). Each TOC, commanded by a Colonel (Bo hmu gyi), is made up of three or more combat Battalions, with command and support elements similar to that of brigades in Western armies. One infantry battalion was held in

Myanmar Army reserve. As of 2000, all LID have their own organic Field Artillery units. For example, 314th Field Artillery Battery is now attached to 44th LID. Some of the LID battalions have been given Parachute and Air Borne Operations training and two of the LIDs have been converted to mechanised infantry formation with divisional artillery, armoured reconnaissance and tank battalions[7] LIDs are considered to be a strategic asset of the Myanmar Army, and after the 1990 reorganisation and restructuring of the Tatmadaw command structure, they are now directly answerable to Chief of Staff (Army).[7][17]
Light Infantry Division (LID) Year formed 1988 Headquarters First Commander Col. Win Myint Current Commander Notes

10

Inndine

Formed after 1988 military coup.

11th Light Infantry Division 1987 Hpa-An Col. Tin Hla Involved in crackdown of unarmed protestors during 8.8.88 democracy uprising

22nd Light Infantry Division 1984 Sagaing Col. Kyaw Ba

33rd Light Infantry Division 1979 Thaton Col. Myat Thin

44th Light Infantry Division 1980 Sagaing/Kalaw Col. Phone Myint

55th Light Infantry Division

Myanmar Army

11
1976 Pyay Col. Taung Zar Khaing

66th Light Infantry Division 1966 Hmawbi Col. Tint Swe

77th Light Infantry Division 1967 Magway Col. Than Tin

88th Light Infantry Division 1968 Meiktila Col. Kyaw Htin

99th Light Infantry Division 1991 Pakokku Col. Saw Tun Units of 101st LID were deployed during the purge of Military Intelligence faction in 2004.

Myanmar Army

12

Artillery and armoured units


Artillery and armoured units were not used in an independent role, but were deployed in support of the infantry by the Ministry of Defence as required. The Directorate of Artillery and Armour Corps was also divided into separate corps in 2001. A dramatic expansion of forces under these directorates followed with the equipment procured from China, Russia, Ukraine and India.[7] [17]

Directorate of Artillery
No. 1 Artillery Battalion was formed in 1952 with three artillery batteries under the Directorate of Artillery Corps. A further three artillery battalions were formed in the late 1952. This formation remained unchanged until 1988. Since 2000, the Directorate of Artillery Corps has overseen the expansion of Artillery Operations Commands(AOC) from two to 10. Tatmadaw's stated intention is to establish an organic Artillery Operations Command in each of the 12 Regional Military Command Headquarters. Each Artillery Operation Command is composed of the following:[15]

707th Artillery Operation Command

As of 2000, the Artillery wing of the Tatmadaw has about 60 Battalions and 37 independent Artillery companies/batteries attached to various Regional Military Commands (RMC), Light Infantry Divisions (LID), Military Operation Command (MOC) and Regional Operation Command (ROC)s. For example, 314th Field Artillery Battery is under 44th LID, 326 Field Artillery Battery is attached to 5th MOC, 074 Field Artillery Battery is under the command of ROC (Bhamo) and 076 Field Artillery Battery is under North-Eastern RMC. Twenty of these Artillery battalions are grouped under 707th Artillery Operation Command (AOC) headquarters in Kyaukpadaung and 808th Artillery Operation Command (AOC) headquarters in Oaktwin, near Taungoo. The remaining 30 battalions, including 7 Anti-Aircraft artillery battalions are under the Directorate of Artillery Corps.[7] [17] Artillery Operations Command (AOC) ( ) HQ battalion 12 Artillery Battalions: 6 Light Field artillery battalion equipped with 105 mm, 76 mm, 75 mm howitzers, field guns and mountain guns, 3 Medium Field Artillery battalion equipped with 155 mm, 130 mm, 122 mm howitzers and field guns, 1 Multiple Rocket Launcher battalion equipped with 122mm self-propelled and towed launchers, 1 Air Defence Artillery battalion with 37 mm, 57 mm Anti-Aircraft guns or SA 18 IGLAs) man portable surface-to-air missiles and 1 target acquisition battalion. support units Light field artillery battalions consists of 3 field artillery batteries with 36 field guns or howitzers (12 guns per battery). Medium artillery battalions consists of 3 medium artillery batteries of 18 field guns or howitzers (6 guns per one battery).[15] As of 2011, all field guns of Myanmar Artillery Corps are undergoing upgrade programs including GPS Fire Control Systems.
Armoured Operation Command

Armoured Operation Command

Myanmar Army

13

Artillery Operations Command (AOC) 505th Artillery Operations Command 606th Artillery Operations Command 707th Artillery Operations Command 808th Artillery Operations Command 909th Artillery Operations Command 901st Artillery Operations Command 902nd Artillery Operations Command 903rd Artillery Operations Command 904th Artillery Operations Command 905th Artillery Operations Command

Headquarters Myeik() () () () Mong Khon--Kengtung (--)

Notes

() () Padein--Ngape

Directorate of Armour
No.1 Armour Company and No.2 Armour Company was formed in July 1950 under the Directorate of Armour and Artillery Corps with Sherman tanks, Stuart Light Tanks, Humber Amour Scout Cars, Ferret Armoured Cars and Univerl Bren Carriers. These two companies were merged on 1 November 1950 to become No. 1 Armour Battalion with Headquarter in Mingalardon. On 15 May 1952 No. Tank Battalion was formed with 25 Comet Tanks acquired from United Kingdom. The Armour Corps within Myanmar Army was the most neglected one for nearly thirty years since the Tatmadaw did not procure any new tanks or armour carriers since 1961.[19] Armoured divisions, known as Armoured Operations Command (AROC), under the command of Directorate of Armour Corps, were also expanded in number from one to two, each with four Armoured Combat battalions equipped with Infantry fighting vehicles and Armored personnel carriers, three Tank battalions equipped with Main battle Tanks and three Tank battalions equipped with Light Tank. [17] In mid-2003, Tamadaw acquired 139+ T-72 Main battle Tanks from Ukraine and signed a contract to build and equip a factory in Myanmar to produce and assemble 1,000 BTR Armored personnel carriers in 2004.[20] In 2006, the Government of India transferred an unspecified number of T-55 Main battle Tanks that were being phased out from active service to Tatmadaw along with 105mm Light Field Guns, armoured personnel carriers and indigenous HAL Light Attack Helicopters in return for Tatmadaws support and cooperation in flushing out Indian insurgent groups operating from its soil.[21] Armoured Operations Command (AROC) Armoured Operations Commands (AROC) are equivalent to Independent Armoured Divisions in western term. Currently there are 5 Armoured Operations Commands under Directorate of Armoured Corps in Tatmadaw order of battle. Tatmadaw planned to establish an AROC each in 7 Regional Military Commands.[15] Typical Armoured Division in Myanmar Army composed of Headquarter, Three Armored Tactical Operations Command - each with one Mechanized battalion equipped with 44 BMP-1 or MAV-1 Infantry Fighting Vehicles, Two Tanks Battalions equipped with 44 Main Battle Tanks each, one Armored Reconnaissance battalion equipped with 32 Type-63A Amphibious Light Tanks, one Field Artillery battalion and a Support battalion. Support battalion composed of an engineer squadron, two logistic squadrons and a signal company.[15] Myanmar Army has taken delivery of 150 EE-9 Cascavels from Israeli army(?) surplus in 2005. Although EE 9 are armoured reconnaissance vehicle, Myanmar Army categorized them as light tank and deploys them in eastern Shan State and triangle regions near Thai-Myanmar border.

Myanmar Army

14

Armoured Operations Command (ArOC) 71st Armoured Operations Command 72nd Armoured Operations Command 73rd Armoured Operations Command 74th Armoured Operations Command 75th Armoured Operations Command

Headquarters Pyawbwe() () () () ()

Notes

Bureau of Air Defense


The Air Defence Command was formed during the late 1990s but was not fully operational until late 1999. It was renamed Bureau of Air Defense in the early 2000s (decade). In early 2000, Tatmadaw established Myanmar Integrated Air Defence System (MIADS) with help from Russia, Ukraine and China. It is a tri-service bureau with units from all three branches of Myanmar Armed Forces. All Air Defence assets except Anti-Aircraft Artillery within Tatmadaw arsenal are integrated into MIADS. AAA guns are mostly unguided and deploy to use in barrage-style firing against attacking aircraft. MIADS is directly answerable to Bureau of Air Defence under Ministry of Defence.[15] In 2010, Myanmar Air Defense Command has completed installation of optical fiber communication network throughout the country. Those network are to be used for Air defense operations between Central Command HQ from capital & several air bases, early warning radar stations & mobile anti air craft missile & artillery units. After completion of fiber optic project & radar stations, MIADS (Myanmar Integrated Air Defense System) becomes the most advance AD system in the region.
Chief of Staff of Air Defence Lt. General Soe Win Lt. General Myint Hlaing Lt. General Sein Win Years 19972004 20042010 2010 - current Notes Later became Prime Minister

Sector Operations Commands Under MIADS, the country was divided into six Air Defense Sectors, each controlled by a Sector Operations Center (SOC) and reporting directly to the National Air Defense Operations Center (ADOC) in Yangon. Each SOC transmitted data back to Intercept Operations Centers (IOC), which in turn controlled SAM batteries and fighter/interceptor squadrons at various Air Bases. Each IOC was optimized to direct either SAMs or fighter/interceptor aircraft against incoming enemy aircraft or missile. Each IOC was connected to observer and early warning area reporting posts (RP) via military owned underground fibre optic cable network. There were about 100 radar stations located at approximately 40 sites throughout the country. New Air Defence radars such as 1L117 radars, Galaxy Early Warning Radar and P series radars are installed in all radar stations.[15] Each Sector Operation Center (SOC) is commanded by a Major General and it consists of one air defense division from Myanmar Army and one fighter-interceptor wing from Myanmar Air Force. Sometimes Air Defense Frigates from Myanmar Navy also operates under the direct command of respective SOC. Each Air Defense division is commanded by a Brigadier General and consists of three Air Defense Tactical Operations Command (TOC) and support units. One Medium Range Surface to Air Missile Tactical Operations Command (MRSAM-TOC), with three battalions equipped with Buk M-1 or Kub missile system is deployed in an Area Defense Belt role. One Short Range Air Defense Tactical Operations Command (SHORAD-TOC), with three battalions equipped with Tor M-1 missile system is deployed in a Point Defense role for critical areas such as radar stations, fighter bases and SOC headquarters. One Electronic Reconnaissance Tactical Operations Command

Myanmar Army (EIR-TOC) with 6 to 8 radar and communication companies for early warnings and interdiction detection. Each fighter-interceptor wing commanded by a Brigadier General and is composed of three Fighter squadrons of either MiG-29 and F-7M Airguard Interceptors (ten aircraft per squadron) and their ground base support units.[15]
Sector Operation Centers Headquarters Notes Northern SOC Southern SOC Western SOC Eastern SOC South Eastern SOC Central SOC Myitkyina Myeik Sittwe Tachilek Yay Meiktila

15

Directorate of Signal
Soon after the independence in 1948, Myanmar Signal Corps was formed with units from Burma Signals, also known as "X" Branch. It consisted HQ Burma Signals, Burma Signal Training Squadron (BSTS) and Burma Signals Squadron. HQ Burma Signals was located within War Office. BSTS based in Pyain Oo Lwin was formed with Operating Cipher Training Troop, Dispacth Rider Training Troop, Lineman Training Troop, Radio Mechanic Training Troop and Regimental Signals Training Troop. BSS, based in Mingalardon, had nince sections: Administration Troop, Maintenance Troop, Operating Directorate of Signal Troop, Cipher Troop, Lineman and Dispatch Rider Troop, NBSD Singals Troop, SBSD Signals Troop, Mobile Brigade Singals Toop and Arakan Singals Toop. The then Chief of Signal Staff Officer (CSO) was Lieutenant Colonel Saw Aung Din. BSTS and BSS were later renamed No. 1 Signal Battalion and No.1 Signal Training Battalion. In 1952, the Infantry Divisional Signals Regiment was formed and later renamed to No. 2 Signal Battalion. HQ Burma Signals was reorganised and became Directorate Signal and the director was elevated to the rank of Colonel. In 1956, No. 1 Signal Security Battalion was formed, followed by No. 3 Signal Battalion in November 1958 and No.4 Signal Battalion in October 1959. In 1961, signal battalions were reorganised as No. 11 Signal Battalion under North Eastern Regional Military Command, No. 121 Signal Battalion under Eastern Command, No. 313 Signal Battalion under Central Command, No.414 Signal Battalion under South Western Command, and No. 515 Signal Battalion under South Eastern Command. No.1 Signal Training Battalion was renamed Burma Signal Training Depot (Baho-Setthweye-Tat). By 1988, Directorate of Signals command one training depot, eight signal battalions, one signal security battalion, one signal store depot and two signal workshops. Siganl Corps under Directorate of Signal further expanded during 1990 expansion and reorganisation of Myanmar Armed Forces. By 2000, a signal battalion is attached to each Regional Military Command and signal companies are now attached to Light Infantry Divisions and Military Operations Commands. In 2000, Command, Control and Communication system of Myanmar Army has been substantially upgraded by setting up the military fibre optic communication network managed by Directorate of Signal throughout the country. Since 2002 all Myanmar Army Regional Military Command HQs used its own telecommunication system. Satellite communication links are also provided to forward-deployed infantry battalions. However, battle field communication systems are still poor. Infantry units are still using TRA 906 and PRM 4051 which were acquired from UK in 1980s. Myanmar Army also uses Thura (locally built TRA 906) and XD-D6M (Chinese) radio sets. Frequency hopping handsets are fitted to all front line units.[22]

Myanmar Army Between 2000 to 2005, Myanmar army bought 50 units of Brett 2050 Advanced Tech radio set from Aussie through third party from Singapore. Those units are distributed to ROCs in central & upper regions to use in counterinsurgency operations. [15][17]

16

Directorate of Medical Services


At the time of independence in 1948, the medical corps has two Base Military Hospitals, each with 300 beds, in Mingalardon and Pyin Oo Lwin, a Medical Store Depot in Yangon, a Dental Unit and six Camp Reception Stations located in Myitkyina, Sittwe, Taungoo, Pyinmana, Bago and Meikhtila. Between 1958 and 1962, the medical corps was restructred and all Camp Reception Stations were reorganised into Medical Battalions. In 19889, Directorate of Medical Services has significantly expanded along with the infantry. In 2007, there are two 1,000-bed Defence Services General Directorate of Army Medical Services Hospitals (Mingalardon and Naypyitaw), two 700-bed hospitals in Pyin Oo Lwin and Aung Ban, two 500-bed military hospitals in Meikhtila and Yangon, one 500-bed Defence Services Orthopedic Hospital in Mingalardon, two 300-bed Defence Services Obstetric, Gynecological and Children hospitals (Mingalardon and Naypyitaw), three 300-bed Military Hospitals (Myitkyina, Ann and Kengtung), eighteen 100-bed Military Hospitals (Mongphyet, Baan, Indaing, Bahtoo, Myeik, Pyay, Loikaw, Namsam, Lashio, Kalay, Mongsat, Dawai, Kawthaung, Laukai, Thandaung, Magway, Sittwe, and Hommalin), fourteen field medical battalions, which are attached to various Regional Military Commands throughout the country. Each Field Medical Battalion consist of 3 Field Medical Companies with 3 Field Hospital Units and a specialist team each. Health & Disease Control Unit (HDCU) is responsible for prevention, control & eradication of diseases.
Units Medical Corps Centre No.(1) Field Medical Battalion No.(2) Field Medical Battalion No.(3) Field Medical Battalion No.(4) Field Medical Battalion No.(5) Field Medical Battalion No.(6) Field Medical Battalion No.(7) Field Medical Battalion No.(8) Field Medical Battalion No.(9) Field Medical Battalion Headquarter Hmawbi Mandalay Taunggyi Taungoo Pathein RMC Yangon Command Central Command Eastern Command Southern Command South Western Command

Mawlamyaing South Eastern Command Hmawbi Monywa Sittwe Mohnyin Yangon Command North Western Command Western Command Northern Command North Eastern Command Northern Command Triangle Region Command Costal Region Command Yangon Command Yangon Command

No.(10) Field Medical Battalion Lashio No.(11) Field Medical Battalion Bhamo No.(12) Field Medical Battalion Kengtung No.(13) Field Medical Battalion Myeik No.(14) Field Medical Battalion Taikkyi Health and Disease Control Unit Mingaladon

Myanmar Army

17

Training
See: Military Training in Myanmar
[7][15][17]

Defence academies and colleges


Flags Academies National Defence College - NDC Locations Naypyidaw()

Defence Services Command and General Staff College - DSCGSC

Kalaw()

Defence Services Academy() - DSA

Pyin U Lwin()

Defence Services Technological Academy - DSTA

Pyin U Lwin ()

Defence Services Medical Academy - DSMA

Yangon()

Defence Services Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Science - DSINP Yangon ()

Defence Services Technological College - DSTC

Hopong()

Training schools
Training Schools Officer Training School - OTS Locations Fort Ba Htoo Badge

Basic Army Combat Training School

Fort Ba Htoo

1st Army Combat Forces School

Fort Ba Htoo

2nd Army Combat Forces School

Fort Bayinnaung

Artillery Training School

Mone Tai

Myanmar Army

18
Armour Training School Electronic Warfare School Engineer School Information Warfare School Maing Maw Pyin U Lwin Pyin U Lwin Yangon

Air, Land and Paratroops Training School Hmawbi

Special Forces School

Fort Ye Mon

Ranks and insignia


See: Army ranks and insignia of Myanmar The various rank of the Myanmar Army are listed below in descending order:[15]

Commissioned officers
Note: Senior General (OF-10) and Vice Senior General rank are currently inactive . General is now the highest rank in Myanmar Armed Forces and Lieutenant General in Army, Navy, Air Force, Bureau of Air Defense, Chief of Staff, Adjutant General, Quartermaster General and Bureau of Special Operations.

Myanmar Armed Forces Myanmar title MLC TS Bo Gyoke Hmu Gyi Senior General Du Bo Gyoke Hmu Gyi Vice Senior General Bo Gyoke Kyee General Du Bo Gyoke Kyee Lieutenant General Lieutenant General OF-8 Bo Gyoke Bo Hmu Gyoke

Abbreviation Western Version

Major General Major General OF-7

Brigadier General Brigadier

UK equivalent

Field Marshal

nil

General

NATO Code

OF-10

OF-9

OF-6

Myanmar Army

19

Myanmar Armed Forces Myanmar title MLC TS Abbreviation Western Version UK equivalent NATO Code Bo Hmu Gyi Colonel Colonel OF-5 Du Bo Hmu Gyi Lieutenant Colonel Lieutenant Colonel OF-4 Bo Hmu Bo Gyi Major Major OF-3 Bo Du Bo

Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant OF-2 OF-1

Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs)


Non-Commissioned Officers are referred to as Saya, meaning Teacher, by both enlisted men and officers. For example, Warrant Officers, Regimental Sergeant Majors and Master Sergeant are referred to as Sayagyi, literally meaning "Old Teacher", Sergeant are referred to as Saya and Corporal/Lance Corporal as Sayalay. These unofficial ranks are used throughout the daily life of all branches. Non-Commissioned Officers (NCO) within the Myanmar Armed Forces are usually seasoned veteran soldiers. Thus both Officers and enlisted men refer to them as "teacher" out of respect.

Myanmar Armed Forces Myanmar title MLC TS Western Version UK equivalent Ayagan Bo Warrant Officer Du-Ayagan Bo Regimental Sergeant Major Tatkyat Du-Tatkyat

Tatkhw Tatkyatkyi Tatkyatkyi Master Sergeant Staff Sergeant Sergeant Sergeant

Corporal Lance Corporal Corporal Lance Corporal

Warrant Officer Class One Warrant Officer Class Two

Order of battle
[15][17]

13 x Regional Military Commands (RMC) organised in 6 Bureau of Special Operations (BSO) 6 x Regional Operations Commands (ROC) 20 Military Operations Commands (MOC) including 1 x Airborne Infantry Division 10 x Light Infantry Divisions (LID) 10 x Armoured Operation Commands (AOC) (Each with 6 Tank Battalions and 4 Armoured Infantry Battalions (IFVs/APCs).)

10 x Artillery Operation Commands (AOC) (with of 113 Field Artillery Battalions) 6 x Anti-Aircraft Artillery/Air Defence Division (Each with 3 Medium Range SAM Battalions, 3 Short Range SAM Battalions, 3 AAA/AD Battalion)

Myanmar Army 40+ Military Affair Security Companies (MAS Units replaces former Military Intelligence Units after the disbandment of the Directorate of Defense Service Intelligence (DDSI)) 45 Advanced Signal Battalions 54 Field Engineer Battalions 4 Armoured Engineer Battalions 14 Medical Battalions

20

Equipment
Combat vehicles
Photo T-55 T-72 Model Type Main battle tank Main battle tank 10 Quantity [23] Origin USSR USSR Acquired from India. [26][27] Notes

139 [24][23][25] [29] [30]

Purchased from Ukraine.

Type 69-II Type 59D

[28]

Main battle tank Main Battle Tank

80

China China

160

MBT-2000[31] VT-1A

Main Battle Tank

Unknown [33] 200 105 [34] [36]

[32]

China

Type 80 [35]

Main Battle Tank Light tank

China China

Type 62

Type 63

[37]

Light tank

50

[38]

China

Comet tank

Light tank

26

[23]

UK

WWII Vintage

Type 90 AFV

Armoured fighting vehicle Armoured fighting vehicle

55

[20]

China

Type 85

250

[39]

China

Type 85 AFV#Operators

BTR-3U

[40][41]

Armoured personnel carrier Armoured personnel carrier Armoured personnel carrier armoured reconnaissance vehicle

210 ordered (1,000) [42]

Ukraine

Purchased as kits to be assembled locally until 2013 to circumvent embargo. delivered in 2007

MT-LB

26

Ukraine

MPV[43]

MPV

10

[23]

India

Mine protected armoured personnel carrier.

EE-9 Cascavel

150

[44][45]

Brazil

Sold By Israel, based in eastern Shan State and [46] triangle regions near Thai-Myanmar border.

Myanmar Army
[47]

21
Ferret armoured car Armoured personnel carrier UK WWII vintage

45

Humber Pig

Armoured personnel carrier Armoured personnel carrier

40

[23]

UK

image[48]

BAAC or [49] MAV-1 PTL02 Type 84 [53]

44

[50]

Myanmar 1983-1991 locally made 12.7mm machine gun

Image [51]

Wheeled Tank Destroyer unknown [52] Armoured vehicle-launched bridge unknown

China China Seen on Local MRTV

Artillery
Photo Type Origin Quantity Notes

Self-propelled artillery SH1 Image [54] SH 1 [55] [56] China Serbia 150 30 155mm self-propelled howitzer 155mm self-propelled howitzer

Nora B-52

BM-21/BA-84/Type-90

USSR, China

320

[57]

Used during Battle of Border Post 9631with Thais, Seen on Local TV

Towed artillery D-30M USSR 100 [58] 122mm howitzer

Type 59-1

China

16

[59]

130mm field gun

Various 105mm guns

Yugoslavia &Various

100+

[60]

Types: M56 and others.

Type 63

China

30

[61]

107mm multiple rocket launcher (towed)

M48

Yugoslavia

100

[62][63] 76 mm mountain gun

M101 howitzer

United States

172

[64]

105 mm M2A1

Jury Axle

UK

50

[65]

114.3 mm Field gun/Howitzer

KH-179

[66]

South Korea

100+

155mm Howitzer

Myanmar Army
[67]

22
Soltam M-68 Israel 155 mm 33 calibre towed gun howitzer

16

BL 5.5 inch Medium Gun

UK

230?

[68]

140 mm Towed

Air Defence
Photo Type Origin Quantity Notes

Missile systems BAe Dynamics Bloodhound [7][69][70] Mk.II SA-2 UK 60 Supplied by Singapore

USSR

48

[71]

surface-to-air missile

SA-6

USSR

24

[72]

medium-range surface-to-air missile system

Hwasong-6

DPRK

11

[73]

700 km

9K38 Igla (SA-18 Grouse)&(SA-16)

USSR

100 x SA16 [74] 400 x [75] SA18

Very short-range portable surface-to-air missile system (MANPADS)

SA-19

USSR

24

[76]

Tracked SAM system

Pechora-2M

RUSSIA 24 [77][78]

surface-to-air missile system

HN-5

China

200

[79]

Very short-range portable surface-to-air missile system (MANPADS)

Gun systems Type-74 USSR 24 [80] 37mm

Anti-Aircraft Guns Various model

Various

200

[81]

37mm/40mm/57mm Anti-Aircraft Guns

KPV heavy machine gun

USSR

200

[82][83]

heavy machine guns in quadruple AAA mounts

Myanmar Army

23

Anti Tank
Photo Type Origin systems M40 recoilless rifle USA 200 [84][85] Anti Tank Weapon Quantity Notes

Carl Gustav recoilless rifle Sweden 1000[86]

Anti Tank

Small Arms
Browning Hi-Power[87] EMERK FN FAL[87] Heckler & Koch G3[87] M2 Browning[87]

Rheinmetall MG3[87] Sterling submachine gun[87]

References
[1] http:/ / www. mizzima. com/ news/ breaking-and-news-brief/ 5087-burmese-governments-new-list-of-ministers. html [2] http:/ / www. president-office. gov. mm/ en/ briefing-room/ orders/ 2012/ 09/ 07/ id-637 [3] The Asian Conventional Military Balance 2006 (http:/ / csis. org/ files/ media/ csis/ pubs/ 060626_asia_balance_south. pdf), Center for Strategic and International Studies, 26 June 2006, p.4, [4] "Myanmar allocates 1/4 of new budget to military" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ ap/ financialnews/ D9LMDOSO1. htm). Associated Press. 1 March 2011. . [5] Defence Services Historical Museum and Research Institute (DSHMRI) Archives [6] Working Papers - Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University [7] Selth, Andrew (2002): Burma's Armed Forces: Power Without Glory, Eastbridge. ISBN 1-891936-13-1 [8] Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 May 1981 [9] FEER, 7 July 1983 [10] Bertil Lintner, Land of Jade [11] Asiaweek 21 February 1992 [12] The Defence of Thailand (Thai Government issue), p.15, April 1995 [13] October 7, 2006 (2006-10-07). "Myanmar's losing military strategy" (http:/ / www. atimes. com/ atimes/ Southeast_Asia/ HJ07Ae01. html). Asia Times Online. . Retrieved 2010-07-28. [14] WP 342. Australian National University [15] Defence Services Historical Museum and Research Institute [16] http:/ / www. asiantribune. com/ news/ 2004/ 07/ 04/ who-killed-s-2-tin-oo [17] Myoe, Maung Aung: Building the tatmadaw - Myanmar Armed Forces Since 1948, Institute of SouthEast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-848-1 [18] http:/ / www. irrawaddy. org/ article. php?art_id=20435 [19] www.facebook.com/htnaw84/info [20] http:/ / www. irrawaddy. org/ article. php?art_id=954 [21] http:/ / www. india-defence. com/ reports-2576 [22] http:/ / www. burmanet. org/ news/ 2010/ 08/ 13/ jane%E2%80%99s-intelligence-review-radio-active-%E2%80%93-desmond-ball-and-samuel-blythe/ [23] "SIPRI Trade Register" (http:/ / armstrade. sipri. org/ armstrade/ page/ trade_register. php). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. . [24] http:/ / www. asiapacificdefencereporter. com/ order-of-battle/ myanmar [25] David Fullbrook (18 December 2006). "Burma's Generals on a Buying Spree" (http:/ / www. asiasentinel. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=309& Itemid=31). Asia Sentinel. . Retrieved 20 March 2011.

Myanmar Army
[26] http:/ / www. altsean. org/ Research/ SPDC%20Whos%20Who/ Armssuppliers. htm#Russia [27] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ htnaw84/ info [28] Selth, Andrew: "The Burmese Army" (http:/ / www. burmafund. org/ Pathfinders/ Research_Library/ Military/ Burma's army. htm). In: Jane's Intelligence Review, November 1, 1995. Retrieved 30 January 2009. [29] http:/ / www. rand. org/ content/ dam/ rand/ pubs/ monograph_reports/ MR1119/ MR1119. appa. pdf [30] http:/ / www. mmmilitary. blogspot. com/ [31] http:/ / www. sinodefence. com/ army/ tank/ type90. asp [32] http:/ / www. defence. pk/ forums/ chinese-defence/ 175800-russian-media-said-chinese-mbt-2000-tanks-exported-myanmar-bangl. html [33] http:/ / www. strategypage. com/ dls/ articles/ Chinese-Tanks-For-Everyone-5-6-2012. asp [34] www.army-guide.com/eng/countrys.php?countryID=58 [35] http:/ / www. rand. org/ content/ dam/ rand/ pubs/ monograph_reports/ MR1119/ MR1119. appa. pdf [36] http:/ / www. rand. org/ content/ dam/ rand/ pubs/ monograph_reports/ MR1119/ MR1119. appa. pdf [37] http:/ / www. rand. org/ content/ dam/ rand/ pubs/ monograph_reports/ MR1119/ MR1119. appa. pdf [38] http:/ / www. rand. org/ content/ dam/ rand/ pubs/ monograph_reports/ MR1119/ MR1119. appa. pdf [39] http:/ / armstrade. sipri. org/ armstrade/ page/ trade_register. php [40] Amnesty International, EU Office. EU arms embargoes fail to prevent German engines being incorporated into military vehicles available in Burma/Myanmar, China and Croatia (http:/ / www. amnesty-eu. org/ static/ documents/ Final_Germany_Burma_China. rtf). Seen January 4, 2009. [41] Ashton, William: The Kiev Connection (http:/ / www. irrawaddy. org/ article. php?art_id=954). In: The Irrawaddy, 12, 4 (2004). Seen January 4, 2009. [42] http:/ / www. sipri. org/ contents/ armstrad/ at_data. html [43] http:/ / defense-update. com/ features/ 2010/ february/ mpv_india_defexpo2010_170210. html [44] http:/ / www. badasf. org/ 2007/ WhyRussia. htm [45] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ htnaw84/ info [46] http:/ / mmmilitary. blogspot. com/ [47] http:/ / www. scribd. com/ doc/ 31514995/ Asean-Defence-Yearbook-2009 [48] http:/ / mmmilitary. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 11/ mav. html [49] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ htnaw84/ info [50] Building the Tatmadaw: Myanmar Armed Forces Since 1948 By Maung Aung Myoe, p107-108 [51] http:/ / mmmilitary. blogspot. com/ 2012/ 06/ blog-post_29. html [52] www.mmmilitary.blogspot.com/2012/06/blog-post_29.html [53] www.mmmilitary.blogspot.com/2011/11/bridge-laying-tank.html [54] http:/ / www. military-today. com/ artillery/ sh1. htm [55] BIRN (2010) [56] BIRN (2007): Serbia's Arms Exports to Myanmar (Burma) "Legal" (http:/ / www. ocnus. net/ artman2/ publish/ Defence_Arms_13/ Serbia_s_Arms_Exports_to_Myanmar_Burma_Legal. shtml), Ocnus.net. Seen January 4, 2009. [57] www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar [58] http:/ / armstrade. sipri. org/ armstrade/ page/ trade_register. php [59] http:/ / armstrade. sipri. org/ armstrade/ page/ trade_register. php [60] http:/ / armstrade. sipri. org/ armstrade/ page/ trade_register. php [61] http:/ / armstrade. sipri. org/ armstrade/ page/ trade_register. php [62] www.army-guide.com/eng/product4647.html [63] mmmilitary.blogspot.com/2011/12/m-48-76mm-mountain-gun.html [64] www.army-guide.com/eng/product1193.html [65] www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar [66] www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar [67] www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar [68] www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar [69] Selth, Andrew (2000): Burma's Order of Battle: An Interim Assessment. ISBN 0-7315-2778-X (http:/ / rspas. anu. edu. au/ sdsc/ working_papers. php#WP351) [70] IISS The Military Balance 2007 [71] http:/ / www. asiapacificdefencereporter. com/ order-of-battle/ myanmar [72] http:/ / www. asiapacificdefencereporter. com/ order-of-battle/ myanmar [73] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Hwasong-6#Operators [74] armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php [75] www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar [76] www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar [77] www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar [78] www.en.ria.ru/analysis/20061018/54917248.html

24

Myanmar Army
[79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] http:/ / armstrade. sipri. org/ armstrade/ page/ trade_register. php http:/ / armstrade. sipri. org/ armstrade/ page/ trade_register. php www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar mmmilitary.blogspot.com www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar mmmilitary.blogspot.com www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/order-of-battle/myanmar Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35th edition (27 January 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.

25

http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htada/articles/20081229.aspx?comments=Y http://www.enotes.com/topic/Myanmar_Armed_Forces

External links
Role of officers in Burmese Army (Part 1) (http://www.mizzima.com/edop/commentary/ 3424-role-of-officers-in-burmese-army-part-1.html) Bo Htet Min, Mizzima, 23 January 2010

Article Sources and Contributors

26

Article Sources and Contributors


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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:MMarmyflag.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MMarmyflag.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Thesimsmania File:Myanmar Army personnel at Naypyidaw reception.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Myanmar_Army_personnel_at_Naypyidaw_reception.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: FlickreviewR, Hintha Image:Mm-lid-101.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-101.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Thaurisil Image:MM MOD New.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MM_MOD_New.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: XLerate Image:mm-rmc-map.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-rmc-map.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar File:Myanmar Northern Command emblem.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Myanmar_Northern_Command_emblem.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Myanmar_Northern_Command_emblem.jpg: Okkar at en.wikipedia derivative work: Mifter at en.wikipedia Image:mm-northeastern-rmc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-northeastern-rmc.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Hintha, Koavf, Okkar Image:mm-eastern-rmc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-eastern-rmc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Hintha, MithrandirMage, Okkar Image:mm-rmc-3.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-rmc-3.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:mm-southern-rmc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-southern-rmc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-swrmc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-swrmc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:mm-western-rmc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-western-rmc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:mm-sagaing-rmc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-sagaing-rmc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Hintha, MithrandirMage, Okkar Image:Mm-yangon-rmc.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-yangon-rmc.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: It Is Me Here Image:mm-coastal-rmc.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-coastal-rmc.svg License: unknown Contributors: Zedlander Image:mm-triangle-rmc.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-triangle-rmc.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: It Is Me Here Image:mm-central-rmc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-central-rmc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:mm-army-4.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-army-4.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Michael Mulqueen Image:mm-lid-11.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-11.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Hintha, MithrandirMage, Okkar Image:mm-lid-22.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-22.svg License: unknown Contributors: Thaurisil Image:mm-lid-33.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-33.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:mm-lid-44.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-44.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Hintha, MithrandirMage, Okkar Image:mm-lid-55.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-55.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Hintha, MithrandirMage, Okkar Image:mm-lid-66.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-66.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:mm-lid-77.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-77.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:mm-lid-88.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-88.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:mm-lid-99.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-lid-99.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Fry1989, Hintha, Koavf, MithrandirMage, Okkar Image:mm-artillery-flag.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-artillery-flag.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Hintha, Koavf, Okkar, 1 anonymous edits Image:mm-armour2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-armour2.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Koavf, Okkar Image:Mm-armour-flag.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-armour-flag.svg License: unknown Contributors: Thaurisil Image:Mm-signal.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-signal.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-armymedical.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-armymedical.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-ndc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-ndc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-dscgsc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-dscgsc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-dsa.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-dsa.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-dsta.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-dsta.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-dsma2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-dsma2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: User:Okkar Image:Mm-dsma.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-dsma.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-dstc.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-dstc.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-ots.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-ots.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-armycombattraining.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-armycombattraining.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-combatschool.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-combatschool.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar Image:Mm-artillery3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-artillery3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Hintha, MithrandirMage, Okkar Image:mm-airborne.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mm-airborne.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Hintha, Okkar File:Tatmadaw-emblem.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tatmadaw-emblem.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Okkar File:T-54-.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:T-54-.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was at he.wikipedia File:T72 cfb borden 1.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:T72_cfb_borden_1.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Balcer, Marcelloo, PMG File:ChineseType79Tank.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ChineseType79Tank.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Evers, SuperTank17, 1 anonymous edits File:Type 59 tank - front right.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Type_59_tank_-_front_right.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Max Smith

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:ChineseType80Tank1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ChineseType80Tank1.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: National War College File:Type 62 tank - front.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Type_62_tank_-_front.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Max Smith File:Type 63 tank - above.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Type_63_tank_-_above.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Max Smith, release all rights but a photo credit would be nice File:Comet tank 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Comet_tank_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Aka, Darkone, Hohum, Marcelloo, PMG, Thib Phil File:ChineseType85C2Veh.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ChineseType85C2Veh.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: High Contrast, KTo288, Nemo5576, SuperTank17 File:ChineseType63APC.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ChineseType63APC.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: KTo288, Nemo5576, SuperTank17 File:BTR3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BTR3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Pibwl File:Soviet MT-LB.JPEG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Soviet_MT-LB.JPEG License: Public Domain Contributors: DON S. Montgomery, U.S. Navy (Ret.) File:Cascavel1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cascavel1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Edurcastro28 at en.wikipedia File:Armored-car-batey-haosef-7-1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Armored-car-batey-haosef-7-1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:Bukvoed File:Humber pigMK1!2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Humber_pigMK1!2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: user:geni File:Bundeswehrmuseum Dresden 68.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundeswehrmuseum_Dresden_68.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Bukvoed, Denniss, Harald Hansen, High Contrast, JanRehschuh, Marcelloo, Ronaldino, SuperTank17, 2 anonymous edits File:Nora B52 .jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nora_B52_.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Kos93 File:1372 bm 21 grad.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1372_bm_21_grad.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: jeka3000 File:122- -30 (1).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:122-___-30_(1).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Generic Contributors: Ain92, Bukvoed, George Shuklin, High Contrast, 1 anonymous edits File:130- -46 1953 (1).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:130-__-46__1953__(1).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Generic Contributors: Ain92, Bukvoed, George Shuklin File:M2A2 Terra Star 105mm Auxiliary Propelled Howitzer front quarter.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:M2A2_Terra_Star_105mm_Auxiliary_Propelled_Howitzer_front_quarter.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Jon.jeckell File:H12 Type 63 multiple rocket launcher.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:H12_Type_63_multiple_rocket_launcher.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Bnh Giang File:Obuzierul de Munte M1982 76mm.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Obuzierul_de_Munte_M1982_76mm.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Mircea87 File:M101-105mm-howitzer-camp-pendleton-20050326.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:M101-105mm-howitzer-camp-pendleton-20050326.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Benchill, Bukk, Bukvoed, FieldMarine, KTo288, PMG, SuperTank17 File:25 Pounder Gun.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:25_Pounder_Gun.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Nhl4hamilton File:155HowLeftRear.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:155HowLeftRear.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Jason Long Original uploader was Sturmvogel 66 at en.wikipedia File:M-71-cannon-towed.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:M-71-cannon-towed.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Ido Stern File:Ordnance bl55 140mm gun hameenlinna 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ordnance_bl55_140mm_gun_hameenlinna_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Balcer File:Bloodhound SAM at the RAF Museum.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bloodhound_SAM_at_the_RAF_Museum.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Arpingstone, Catsmeat, KTo288, Liftarn, Rcbutcher, Uwe W. File:SA-2 Guideline.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SA-2_Guideline.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Tourbillon File:2K12 Kub backside at Central Museum of Russian Armed Forces.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2K12_Kub_backside_at_Central_Museum_of_Russian_Armed_Forces.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Yuriybrisk File:Hwasong 6.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hwasong_6.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Fabe27 File:SA-16 and SA-18 missiles and launchers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SA-16_and_SA-18_missiles_and_launchers.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Megapixie at en.wikipedia File:Amd 2s6.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Amd_2s6.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Denniss, G PViB, High Contrast, Johnny Yen, Ras67, Smat File:SA-3 EP 2006.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SA-3_EP_2006.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: User:Cloudaoc File:61-K.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:61-K.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: One half 3544 File:QF 40mm Mk1 CFB Borden 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:QF_40mm_Mk1_CFB_Borden_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:Balcer File:Rcl106lat2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rcl106lat2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: BasilioC File:Carl Gustav recoilless rifle.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carl_Gustav_recoilless_rifle.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Soldatnytt from Oslo, Norway

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License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/