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Acid :Mine Waters:-

Acid e drainage is a common problem :ffi the aquatic environment iri. the proxiinlty of coal
mines. Water streatt)s flowing .from oal -mme_s are highly acidic due. to the presence of H2S04.

resulting from oxidation of pyrite, FeS2 which is catalysecl by the iron bacteria, T;hiobacillusferroxidtms
(below pH 3.) and Mett:z logenium (pH 3.5"1.5):
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. FeS2(s) +2H20 + 10'},_- 4H + 4SO +2Fe2+


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2Fe2+ + 02 + 4H:
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4FeJ:+
+ 2H
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Fe2+ +3HO -+Fe(OH)3'(s)+JH+:'


The add mine waters are covete<f with _"yellow boy'\ a semi-gelatinous coating of Fe(OH)3 and
contaitl H2SO4- which is injurious to the environment.
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1. H.S. Frank, '.' The Structur


Water' Sienc, l69_,- 35 (970); ...; ,.
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2. J.N. Butler, IoniC Equilibrlum.;-_,;_A: ,Mahematical."A.Ppih,: _Adgiop.:W.esley .Publig 'C9,

. . of-CJ,r,d.lit4ry

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Rading, Mass, (1964). .


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3 W. Stumm and JJ. Morgan, Aquatic Cllemistry, Wiley Interscience, New Yotk (1970).
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4. R. Mitlull, Water Pollutin Microbiology; Wiley hiterscience, New -York (1970).
. Likens, R. Wright, J. Galloway and T. Butler, "Acid Rain", Sei.Ame_rican, .241.43 (OCt 19j9)
6. I. Suffer, M. McGuire, 1. Jdsephson and L. Ember, Env. SCi, .Tech., U,- 1138 (1978)
7;- E. .Agino,, B . Wixson and _1 Smith,. Ev. Spi. tech., ll, 60 (1971) .
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.8 . S.S.. Butcher (Ed.), Global Biogeochemical . Cycies, Academic . Press s Diego, . CA (l99Z). ..
9. C.D. Becker, Aquati Bioenvironmental Siudies, Elsevier, N.Y.
. (1990)
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1. Jriusti'ate.. and explain the hydrologic cycle.


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2.- What is the average composition of lake water?. How does it differ
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3. Why. is the pH of sea water constant at 8.1 0.2? . .


4 Set-up a seawater model and -Compare with the real ste..:
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ft()Dl that of sea watet? ,

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$. Explain the role ofna ligands in natural and waste water.


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6. Discuss .the amoil 'redox uilibria in sea water;
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8. Explciin the. role .. of. humic substances .in aquatic. environt .Suggest . the. structure. of.hUmic
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.acid. What ar its .degradation p ncts?
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of.water.
9 . Giv ati account of die effects of tJrlcrt>-organisins on- the. chemf&ry
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10 'Write notes on:. .
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(a) .NitrogentransformJdlons:b
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- (b) MiCrobially-mediated teddi 'r3Ctions 'in water bodies anifsoil' : :
: (c) Iron and . mangtmese cteria in water_ boclies
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(d) E<Juatie.sol fuel cell$ . :

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(e) Ptokaryotes d. Eotes
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. I t What are "living catalysts" in living s yste ms ? How -do ey function? .
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