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ABSTRACT

Refrigeration has made the milestone in human life . Since from very long time the human being has developed so many ways of refrigeration for preserving food, cooling water, etc. but yet the techniques are developing. The science of refrigeration has developed so many ways to improve our lifestyle. Our project considers law of conservation of energy maximum utilization of the fossil fuel and saving energy. This project has done LPG as refrigerant, instead of using closed cycle as it is used in normal practice (VCR),the open cycle has been used. Before burning the LPG in burner, it is passed through the expansion device and evaporator and produce the refrigeration effect without using electric energy. LPG is cheap and posses environmental friendly nature with no ozone depletion potential.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY

2. LITERATURE SURVEY

COOLING METHODSFrom the ancient age man always prefers to have cold water for drinking purpose. Also in India, our country the weather is too hot. Particularly in summer season, the normal water temperature in open space is 35 to380 C. The water is not suitable for drinking purpose. The required temperature is at the most 250 C. Hence lowering down of the temperature is an essential task. In old age there was ample space available to keep the earthen container also the houses were sheltered by the trees and bushes which were enough to lower down the water container temperature. Because in most of the situations the temperature was depending on the temperature of the flowing air.

OTHER WATER COOLING PROCESSES:The different water cooling processes incorporated are since old age are as Follows:1. Earthen pots 2. Using ice 3. Using vapour compression refrigeration cycles 4. Using vapour absorption cycle Cooling of water in earthen pot is one of the earliest methods employed by men for cooling the water in their houses. Only in recent years, it has been put on sound footing thermodynamically. It is a process of adiabatic saturation of air when cooling of surface water on container is made to evaporate to cool t with transfer of heat from water to the surroundings. The initial investment cost of such a system is low & the operation is simple & cheap. Simple evaporative cooling is achieved by direct contact of water particles & a moving air stream. The water may be sufficiently cooled by evaporative process to results a considerable degree of drinking comfort in climates of high dry-bulb temperatures associated with low relative humidity. The minimum outdoor temperature required for successful evaporative cooling is above 350 c & another requirement is a relatively low. Wet bulb temperature.

The cooling effect given by the evaporative cooling always depends upon the outdoor temperature although the evaporative cooling does not perform all the function of true water-conditioning but it provides coolness by filtering heat & circulating the cooled air.

LIMITATION OF SIMPLE EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM:

Its capacity is limited by WBT of the ambient air. Maximum cooling achieved is the wet bulb temperature. It is not useful for high D.B.T. & high summer weather conditions. However, even with all this limitations, there are many regions in India as the part of Rajasthan; part of Bihar Vidharbha in Maharashtra & some hot spot in North where evaporative cooling will produce a condition well within the summer comfort zone. There is increasing demand of evaporative earthen pot coolers in these regions, as they are quite inexpensive compared with refrigerated water-cooling system. Hence quick operating and reliable Vapour compression system, which is having the massive capacity of cooling, is used. Generally refrigeration is defined as any process of heat removal. More specially, refrigeration is defined as the branch of science that deals with process of reducing and maintaining the temperature of a space or material bellow the temperature of the surroundings. Since ancient times, human being searched for warmth in cold weather and cooling in hot weather. The ordinary people used lakes and rivers to get relief from hot weather. Others brought the lake water to houses and circulated it inside the house in the form of channels or fountains. But in modern time this search led to refrigeration systems. The system maintained at the lower temperature than surrounding atmosphere temperature is known as refrigeration system while the equipment used to maintain this lower temperature is known as refrigerating machines.

Fundamentals of refrigerationThe refrigeration may be defined as the process of removing heat from substance under controlled conditions. It also includes the process of reducing & maintaining of temperature of body below the general temperature of its surrounding in other words, the refrigeration means continue extraction of heat from a body whose temperature is already below the temperature of surrounding.

Types of refrigeration system1. Air refrigeration system


In air refrigeration cycle, air is used as refrigerant. In olden days, air was widely used in commercial application because of its availability at free of cost. Since air does not change its phase ,therefore the heat carrying capacity per kg of air is very small as compare to vapour absorption system.

2. Vapour compression systemVapour compression refrigeration system is an improved type of air refrigeration system in which a suitable working substance, termed as refrigerant. It condense and evaporates at temperature & pressure close to atm. Conditions. Refrigerant used for this purpose is ammonia, carbon dioxide & sulpher dioxide.

3. Vapour absorption systemThe vapour absorption refrigeration system is one of the methods of producing refrigerating plants. Refrigerant commonly used in vapour absorption system is ammonia.

4. Steam jet refrigeration systemIn this application, however in the system jet have been supplanted generally by system using centrifugal compressor. Now the system jet unit is remaining important especially for industrial uses such as chilling of water to moderate temperature in process industries.

Cold storage
In country like India the problem of storage of vegetables, fruits, and fishes is accomplished by the use of cold storage. It is the best known method of perseveration of food & other things. From very longer time the method of cold storage is known to human beings. The temperature designed for the storage is approximately -202c for most of the foods. Essential requirement of cold storage is to design a refrigerating system that would be energy efficient, less costly, and flexible with high reliability & ease of maintenance. There are various methods of cold storage but as far as medium temperature is taken while designing a cold storage system 0c to 8c temperature range is taken. In case4 of frozen food storage the temperature rang is -18c to -22c is taken. The following table gives different values for different productsPRODUCT STORAGE TEMP.(C) Tomatoes Lime Ginger Orange Mosambi Apples Eggs Mango Frozen foods 7 8 2-4 7-8 6-8 0-15 1-5 8-10 -18 to -20 PRODUCT LIFE (WEEKS) 4-5 6 14 8 8 16-20 20-40 4-6 24 & more April-May, sep-Oct Mar-April, Aug-Sep Feb-April Feb-April Apr-July , Nov-Feb Oct-Mar May-Dec May-June Year round STORAGE SEASON

Figure 1: Schematic of vapour compression refrigeration cycle.

LIQUID CONDENSER

VAPOUR

HIGH PRESSURE

VALVE LOW PRESSURE EVAPORATOR

COMPRESSOR

Win
VAPOUR

VAPOUR & LIQUID

Qout

COP = R.E/Win

Where, R.E = Refrigerating Effect Win= Work Input The above diagram shows the simple vapour compression system. It includes following components,

1. Evaporators
It is an important device used in low pressure side of refrigerating system. The liquid refrigerant from the expansion valve enters in to the evaporator where it is boils & changes in to vapour. The function of evaporator is to absorb heat from surrounding location or medium. Evaporator becomes cold & remains cold due to following two reasons 1. Temperature of evaporator coil is low due to the low temperature of the refrigerant inside the coil. 2. The low temperature of the refrigerant remains unchanged because any heat absorbs is converted to latent heat as boiling proceeds.

CompressorCompressors are the heart of vapour compression system. It performs two functions; one is to draw vapour from evaporator & lowers the pressure of refrigerant in evaporator to desired level. And other is it rises pressure of refrigerating vapour in condenser enough so that saturation temperature is higher than the temperature of cooling medium. In order to secure satisfactory performance, long life, and to protect the compressor against overload, certain design criteria should be observed. Compressor application notes and data should always be consulted when designing a system. Ensure compressors are clearly labelled to indicate that refrigerants are being used in the system. The use of crankcase heaters should be considered to avoid excessive oil solubility.

CondenserThis is another important part of refrigeration system, which needs more considerations its selection. The condenser removes the heat from refrigerant carried from evaporator & added by compressor & convert the vapour refrigerant into liquid refrigerant. It is heat exchanger in which heat transfer takes place from high temperature vapour to low temperature air or water, which is used as cooling medium.The types of cooling media available air water. Both can be used separately combines as per the availability and requirement. The condensers are classified according to cooling medium used.

Expansion valveIt is an important device used in refrigeration. It performs two functions, one is it reduces high pressure liquid refrigerant to low pressure liquid refrigerant before being fed to evaporator. And second it maintains desired pressure difference between high & low pressure side & it also controls the flow of refrigerant. Design and selection criteria are the same as those for conventional fluorinated refrigerants. Capillary tube length is specific to each refrigerant. Computer programmers and tables are available for determining capillary tube size and length, although trial and error is generally the preferred route. Thermostatic Expansion Valves (TEVs) for hydrocarbons are available. Alternatively TEVs for other refrigerants that operate with similar pressure-temperature relationships can be used. Electronic Expansion Valves (EEV) may also be used. EEVs used in hydrocarbon systems must conform to the requirements of electrical components.

RefrigerantsDefinitionAny substance capable of absorbing heat from another required substance can be used as refrigerant.

Desirable properties of refrigerants Low boiling point. High critical temperature. High latent heat of vaporization. Low specific heat of liquid. Low specific volume of vapour. Easy to liquify at moderate pressure & temperature. Easy of locating leaks by odour or suitable indicator. It should be nonpoisonous. It should be non explosive It should be non corrosive It must be nonflammable Leaks should be easy to detect. Leaks should be easy to locate. It should operate under low pressure. Part moving in the fluid should be easy to lubricate. It should be nontoxic (not harmful if inhaled or if spilled on skin). It should be a stable gas.

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Classification of refrigerantsHalo carbon refrigerants 1. R11(C


0.2 bar at -15c 1.2606 bar at 30c B.P=23.77c at atm. Temp. Used in centrifugal compressor system of 200 TR, Leak detected by soap solution halide torch, Cylinder colour code is orange

F) -

Synthetic, non flammable, non toxic, low pressure refrigerant

R12 (C

)-

Popular, colourless, almost odourless, non toxic, non corrosive, non flammable B.P= -29c at atm. Pressure Low latent heat value, Require less sensitive & more positive, Low but positive head & good volumetric efficiency. Refrigerator, freezer, water coolers, room & window Arcs , etc. 0.82 bar at -15 c & 6.4 bar at 30c Latent heat of 159KJ/Kg at -15c Leak can be detected by soap solution, halide torch & electronic detector

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R22 (CHCl

)-

Man made, to maintain temp. of -29c to-40c A/C units & household refrigerators Reciprocating &centrifugal compressors B.P= -41c at atm. Pressure Latent heat is 216.5KJ/Kg at -15c Non toxic, non corrosive, no irritating, non flammable Water mixes well with R22 than R12 by ratio as 3:1 hence drier has to be used Colour code is green

Azeotrope refrigerants R500 Non flammable, non corrosive, less toxic Reciprocating compressor 20% greater refrigerating capacity than R12 Condensing pressure 7.78 bar at -30c & evaporating pressure 1.37 bar at -15c Latent heat 198KJ/Kg at -15c Highly soluble in oil Cylinder colour code is yellow

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Inorganic refrigerants
R717 ( N )Oldest, used in large & commercial plants, where toxicity is secondary Absorption system Under normal condition it is colourless gas B.P= -33.33c at atm. Pressure M.P= -78c from solid Latent heat of vaporisation is 1315KJ/Kg at -15c Large refrigerating effects with small sized machinery Condensers pressure at 30c is 10.78 bar & water cooled type Poisonous & toxic, irritating to eyes, nose & throat Flammable, with 16% to 25% air by volume Lighter than oil hence oil can be easily separated Large reciprocating compressors Ice manufacturing; bear mfg. Food freezing, cold storage, etc.

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HydrocarbonsCode R290 R600a R600 commercial propane commercial butane mixtures of the above values vary Chemical name Propane Isobutene normal butane Triple (c) -189 -145 -138 Boil (c) -42.08 -11.76 -0.54 Critical(c) 96.70 134.70 52.01

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COMPARISON OF REFRIGERANT PRRFORMANCE -

Refrigerant Chemical classification Molar mass (g/mol) Refrigerating effect (J/g) 30C sat. Liquid volume (L/kg) 30C sat. Vapour volume (L/kg) 30C sat. Vapour viscosity (Pas) Condenser pressure (k Pa) Evaporator pressure (k Pa) Condenser gauge (k Pa) COP 0 K suction superheat COP 20 K suction superheat Compressor discharge temp. (C) Effective displacement (L/kJ) Cond. loss par. (Pas) 15C sat. Liquid k (kJ/kgK) Liquid molar volume Leakage speed (1/ns) (mL/mol)

R12 CFC 120.9 116.9 0.773 23.59 12.95 743.2 181.9 641.9 4.69 4.71 39.3 0.79 1.45 0.278 93.5 1.62

R134a HFC 102.0 150.7 0.844 27.11 12.48 770.7 163.6 669.4 4.62 4.71 36.6 0.81 1.31 0.293 86.1 1.67

R600a LPG 58.1 262.3 1.835 95.26 7.81 403.6 89.2 302.3 4.69 4.82 30.0 1.52 0.64 0.496 106.7 0.75

RC270 HC 42.1 359.1 1.636 62.41 9.07 827.0 206.0 725.7 4.88 4.79 52.7 0.65 1.00 0.792 68.8 2.10

Table : Comparison of refrigerant properties and parameters affecting the measured Energy consumption of domestic refrigerators for an idealized reversed Rankin Cycle operating between -15C and 30C saturation temperatures.

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Table compares refrigerant properties (Gallagher et al. 1993) and parameters Affecting COP for domestic refrigerators. Saturated vapour at -15C is assumed to Enter an ideal compressor and saturated liquid at 30C to enter the expansion valve Except for calculating COP with 20 K suction superheat. ASHRAE (1993), Table 7 On page 16.7 also uses these assumptions. Table 5 includes the three refrigerants Currently in mass-produced domestic refrigerators and RC270 which was not in ASHRAE (1993)'s

Table shows R600a has one irrelevant disadvantage and many significant Advantages for domestic refrigerators discussed in the following:.

1. When R12 was introduced, open-drive compressors were common and R600a's Below atmospheric evaporator would cause ingress of air through the shaft Seals reducing reliability. Domestic refrigerators no longer use open-drive Compressors.

2. When the refrigerator is in storage, the evaporator must withstand pressures which normally occur only in the condenser. The condenser gauge pressures For R600a are less than half those for the other refrigerants so many metal thicknesses can be half. This reduces capital cost and environmental impacts and increases COP through reduced heat transfer resistance.

3. The COP calculated for a simple reversed Rankine cycle (Figure 1) with zero sub cooling of liquid and superheat of suction vapour and ideal heat transfer and compression is 1% higher for R600a than R134a. All the refrigerants are close to the reversible COP of 5.74 which is the maximum thermodynamically possible.

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4. Domestic refrigerators use a capillary tube in close thermal contact with the compressor suction line instead of an expansion valve. The liquid-suction heat exchange increases COP for some refrigerants and reduces it for others. With 20 K superheat R600a has an idealized COP only 2% higher than R134a. The measured difference of 10% to 20% must contain other effects.

5. The low compressor discharge temperature for R600a allows a cheaper and more efficient design of electric motor.

6. The large effective displacement of R600a implies a larger compressor but because condenser gauge pressures are half compressor wall thickness can behalf. An overall reduction in compressor mass and hence capital cost is possible. The compressor will still be much smaller than the driving electric motor. The surface finish of the piston and valves will be the same for R600a and R134a. Because the R600a compressor is bigger the relative roughness will be smaller allowing an R600a compressor to be more efficient.

7. Small refrigerators usually have a serpentine condenser with laminar flow at the beginning of condensation. For condensers of the same length and tube mass but differing diameter and wall thickness, the condenser loss parameter includes all refrigerant properties which contribute to COP loss caused by pressure drop. R600a has about half the COP loss due to pressure drop of the other refrigerants.

8. Heat transfer by forced convection in the condenser and evaporator tubes of small units occurs mainly by conduction through the thin liquid _lm on the wall. The usual correlations for this heat transfer (ASHRAE 1993) depend mainly on the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the liquid to its dynamic viscosity, k. Hence heat transfer conductance is greater for R600a than for R12 and R134a. A high heat transfer conductance means a smaller COP loss due to heat transfer resistance.

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9. For hermetic compressors diffusion through the ceiling compounds is a major source of refrigerant loss. Liquid molar volume is related to the size of the molecule. A large molecule means a lower loss rate and a longer period of operation with high COP. In the absence of measurements, R600a's larger molecule suggests it will have lower diffusion loss.

10. Significant refrigerant leaks occur typically by laminar isothermal flow through pinholes or cracks. The leakage speed is approximately inversely proportional to the time a complete charge of a given refrigerant takes to leak out. R600a systems with large leaks will function with high COP much longer. These advantages make R600a desirable in other applications where equipment mass and leakage is important and evaporator or condenser temperatures are high e.g., transport air conditioning and domestic water heat pumps. RC270 is a better replacement for R12 and R134a but if the equipment must be redesigned to minimize GWP; R600a will give a better result. Ammonia R717 has higher heat transfer than all these but its vapour pressure, corrosion and toxicity are higher. The toxicity is especially a disadvantage in domestic applications. LPG refrigerants are completely soluble in and compatible with hydrocarbon lubricants. LPG liquid absorbs only trace amounts of water, like R12, so LPG refrigerants are completely compatible with R12 driers. LPG refrigerants with appropriate vapour pressures are `drop-in' replacements for CFCs on equipment using thermostatic expansion valves. Other expansion devices may require adjustment or replacement.

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LPG as a refrigerantLPG is liquid petroleum product. It is a mixture of crude oil at the head quantity.LPG is also obtained by product during cracking of heavy oil or from natural gas leak, if it occurs. LPG is nothing but mixture of propane & butane viz. in gaseous state at normal temp. & pressure however for convenience in handling, transporting & storage. the cylinder contains a liquid, which vaporize at normal atm. pressure & temperature. What comes out at burner is then gas which you ignite with lighter. LPG is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances & vehicles, & increasing replacing fluro carbons as a refrigerant to reduce damage to the Ozone layer. They are mixture of propane & butane usually with propylene & butylenes present in small concentration. A powerful odorant, ethyl mercaptan, is added so that leaks can be detected easily. LPG is manufactured during refining crude oil or extracted from oil & gas stream as they emerge from the ground. It becomes liquid at room temp. & pressure, so is supplied in pressurized steel bottles. These are usually filled to 85% their capacity with the liquefied gas to provide room for liquid to expand if the bottle gets hot. It has density almost twice as that of air. LPG will ignite only when air is mixed with it in certain proportion called explosive range very narrow.

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Composition of LPGLPG is mixture of C3 & C4 type of hydrocarbons. The chief constituents of LPG are propane (C3H8) & butane (C4H10). Owing to the demand for industry LPG sold as fuel mode largely as propane.

Table no. 4- BIS specifications for LPG (IS 14861-2000)-

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Properties of LPGDensity of LPG = 496.47Kg/m3 Boiling range at 1 atm.= -42c to 0c Gross calorific value of LPG =11400Kcal/Kg Limit of flammability (lower)=1.8%(gas in air /gas mixture ),upper=9% Flash point = -37.73c Auto ignition temp.=493.33c to 548.89c

Advantages of LPG as refrigerant The cooling capacity of LPG is 10% higher than R-12 & vapour pressure is
appropriate.

LPG is naturally occurring & non toxic . Use of LPG as refrigerant also improves the overall efficiency by 10% to 20%. The ozone depletion potential of LPG is zero. It is user friendly & also gives cost advantages. LPG does not form acid & thereby eliminates the problem with blocked
capillaries.

There is 60% reduction in weight of system due to higher density of LPG

Considering the above data it is clear that liquid LPG can be certainly used as refrigerant, but some precautions are to be taken due to the following properties of LPG:

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Hazards and precautions for refrigerants:


The principal hazards are:

Explosion in space Any refrigerant with vapour pressure above ambient can _ash to a larger volume. The potential increase in volume is greater if combustion of lubricant or refrigerant occurs. Explosion venting may be necessary to limit pressure rise to what the space can safely withstand. 2 kPa can blow window glass off a building.

Fire Combustible lubricant and refrigerant must be discharged safely outside a building when a _re occurs especially if the heat of combustion exceeds 200 MJ.

Asphyxiation or poisoning All refrigerants except air and oxygen are asphyxiants. Ventilation must prevent serious injury or death on a sudden total release of refrigerant. The quantity of ventilation necessary varies greatly between refrigerants.

Flying metalSystem must comply with piping and pressure vessel codes.

Corrosion or chemical reaction LPG refrigerants are non-reactive and chemically stable at refrigeration temperatures.

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Chemical or cold burnsAccidental contact between skin and cold metal must be prevented by insulation. Accidental releases of liquid refrigerant must drain safely.

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THEORY OF DESIGN
Considering LPG as refrigerant, the system for cooling water is as designed below . In this section the layout & various components like cylinder , regulating valve, pipe , heat exchanger ,etc used in the system are explained. Also considering various

properties of material properties ,standard specimens, & various theories of design &heat transfer the system is designed.

(A) LayoutThe main principle behind this project is of making use of liquid LPG as coolant for this latent heat required for phase transformation of liquid LPG in to gaseous state is taken from water which is to cooled thus the layout of system is as shown in following fig.

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Block Diagram &Technical Specification

14c C

Gas stove

Cooling tank

LPG cylinder

The layout consist of cylinder ,regulator , suraksha pipes, heat exchanger, burner ,etc. cylinder is as shown in inverted form & regulating valve connected to it so as to get liquid LPG at the outlet of the valve . the heat exchanger is placed in between burner & cylinder with the help of pipe (wire reinforced ). The length of pipe between cylinder & heat exchanger is less as compare with length between het exchanger & burner . so as to allow liquid LPG to enter in heat exchanger & pipe connected between heat exchanger is long enough so as to convert remaining liquid LPG into gaseous state.

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(B) System components1. Cylinder-

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2. Regulating valve-

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3. Pipes-

4. Clamping clips-

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5. Heat exchanger:

5. Coil.

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6. Burner:

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7. InsulationEnergy conservation has gained great importance in the recent years, due to rapidly escalating cost of fuel .Energy conservation calls for better thermal insulating .insulting materials have extremely low thermal conductivity. Properly applied insulation helps in economic running of refrigerating plants. The selection of proper insulating material for a particular purpose depends upon desired properties of insulating material , economics & structural conditions.

Desired properties of an ideal insulating material1. Low thermal conductivity 2. Strength 3. Light in weight 4. High resistance disintegration as result of internal chemical activity 5. Water proof 6. Odorless 7. Sanitary 8. fire proof 9. low cost 10.easily available

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Types of insulating material1. Flake insulation - it composed of small particles that finely divide the air space

E.g-expanded mica
2. Fibrous insulation It is composed of small diameter fibers that finely devide

the air space e.g- inorganic fibers of rock wool ,glass wool
3. Granular insulation-It is composed of small nodules containing voids e.g-

magnesia cork , calcium silicate


4. cellular insulation-it is composed of small individuals cells that finely divide

the air space e.g glass, rubber, or plastic.

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MATERIAL SELECTION

RAW MATERIAL & STANDARD MATERIAL


S.N NAME OF THE COMPONENT . 1 2 3 4 GAS STOVE GAS PIPE EVAPORATOR PIPE REGULATOR MA STEEL - RUBBER CU STD 1 m 0.m 1 MATERIAL QTY

PIPE CLIP

MS

6 7

TANK TEMP INDICATOR

STEEL STD

1 1

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CALCULATIONSEvaporator designThe heat absorbed or heat transfer capacity of an evaporator is given by Q = UA(T2-T1) W or J/S U = Overall heat transfer coefficient W/ A = Area of evaporator surface in = Temperature of medium to be cooled = Saturation temperature of refrigerant at evaporator pressure = Specific heat at constant pressure of LPG = 1.64244 KJ/Kgk = Specific heat at constant volume of LPG = 1.4534KJ/Kgk = Density of LPG = 496.47Kg/ = Inside diameter of evaporator coil = Outside diameter of evaporator coil = Viscosity = 7.7 N-Sec / = Internal corrective heat transfer coefficient = Water side coefficient k

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Refrigeration effect is given by , RE = mCp T 3.5 = m m= but m = V= Di2 V 1.64244 (-)

U=

hi =

Q = UA(T2-T1) A= 2 L= Length of evaporating coil = L = For L = Q=

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TESTING OF SYSTEM

WorkingThe working of LPG cooling prototype may be described as followsBefore starting the experiment some arrangements are necessary which may have given high priority. Firstly LPG cylinder is placed in inverted position on stand properly. Then proper connections are made to evaporator & expansion device. After this regulator is operated & equipment is checked for leakage keeping the regulator in open position. If any leakage is found, it is rectified. For safety, the everything is kept away from burner. The first step is lightening the burner. The flow of LPG is controlled by regulator fitted on cylinder. Thus the controlled flow is maintained to avoid the frosting & liquid accumulation at the burner inlet. After performing many trials we got proper position of valve, at which burner works properly. In our refrigeration there is no need of compressor & condenser, because in LPG cylinder it is stored under high pressure & very low temperature. So the compression process is adopted directly by LPG cylinder. In case of condensation process high pressure vapour is converted into liquid form. The LPG heavier than air. It is stored in liquid form in cylinder. By keeping cylinder vertically downward position, we get high pressure liquid LPG. The liquid form LPG coming out from cylinder is passed through expansion device. Where they converted in low pressure & low temperature & then passed through evaporator. The vapour state LPG coming out from evaporator chamber is then passed through gas chamber to gas burner. Where it burns & gives energy for cooking purpose. The liquid coming out from cylinder takes heat from surrounding to change the phase from liquid to gaseous. For that purpose the length of rubber pipe have kept longer, so it will give enough time for change in phase. The digital thermocouple is used to measure the temperature readings in the experiment. The readings are taken out for varying temperature & time. Thus from that readings we will come to know the change in temperature for specific time.

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Actual construction of project-

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Demo test in college campus-

Actual readings taken during demo test-

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OBSERVATION & RESULTSDEMO TEST NO -1 (with domestic regulator) Demo test readings -Duration of test is
NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TIME(MIN.) INITIAL 3 6 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45

hour.

READINGS IN (C) 34.7 34.7 34.6 34.5 34.3 34.1 33.8 33.4 33.1 32.8 32.5 32.2 31.8 31.8 31.9

Table - Observation table


The above readings are taken in demo test . That time we used the household/domestic regulator. The flow of liquid LPG through this regulator is very small as compare to industrial regulator. Thus because of this reason the readings we got are not accurate. The above chart shows those readings ,they shows very minor cooling effect thus for solving that problem in next demo test we used industrial regulator.

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Time -Temperature Graph


35 34.5 34 Temperature(c) 33.5 33 32.5 32 31.5 31 30.5 30 0 3 6 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 Time(min)

Diagram - Time temperature graph

The above graph shows the readings taken during first demo test. The test readings taken may show very minor temperature change . The test readings shows the

temperature difference of approximately 2.8c .Thus in refrigeration this temperature difference is very low as compare to other refrigerating techniques. There is loss of energy which causes decrease in efficiency of refrigerating effect.

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OBSERVATION & RESULTSDEMO TEST NO -2 (with industrial regulator) Demo test readings - Duration of test is hour.
NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 TIME(MIN.) INITIAL 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 READINGS IN (C) 29.1 27.3 26.1 24.8 23.8 22.7 21.5 20.1 19.1 18.3 17.8 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.7 12.9

Table - Observation table


The above readings are taken in demo test .In previous test we have used the domestic regulator because of its low flow rate ,we used industrial regulator in place of it. They shows gradual decrease in temperature as time get lapsed. The initial reading is 29.1c &final reading is 12.9c. Thus the difference between them shows decrease in temperature. In this case the temperature difference we get is very high as compare to previous test. It shows approximately 16.2c decrease in the initial temperature within hour.

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TIME-TEMPERATURE GRAPH

Time -Temperature Graph


35 30 Temperature(c) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Time(min)

Diagram - TimeTemperature

The above diagram shows the readings taken during demo test with industrial regulator. The time temperature diagram shows the change in temperature & time. As in first case flow rate is less due to domestic regulator but in this case the industrial regulator is used which increases flow of liquid LPG through regulator . This causes the increase in efficiency of refrigeration . The temperature difference given is approximately 16.2c for 30 min. But as time increases the refrigerating effect also increases.

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CONCLUSION

Studying all aspects of LPG it can be stated that, LPG is versatile fluid can be utilized as better cooking gas . A better fuel for IC engine as well as better & eco friendly refrigerant .The zero phenomenon of system is most existing one of this project, which the potential of LPG is directly harnessed from commercial LPG cylinders. Actually the system employed is designed for chilling effect equal to 5c & practically the result obtained are in the range of 6c to 6.6c indicating the efficacy & accuracy of the system. Hence it can be concluded that , whatever the consumption of commercial LPG is considerably high , the system will definitely work positively. This system in beginning fruitful in case of restaurant ,hotels, where consumption of LPG is high enough. The only limitation of the system can be inflammable property of LPG . But the proper arrangement & operation an easily evade this limitations , as the construction & operation made during the process are very handy.

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SCOPE OF IMPROVEMENT

LPG refrigerant system is sufficient only for hotels & restaurant the many of this system having scope of improvement.

By proper maintaining pressure we can re-circulate when burning is not required.

It can be converted into close type system. LPG refrigerants can be used for air-conditioning , ice-plant purpose. It can be used in household refrigerator. In areas with electricity problems or rural or remote areas LPG can be used for cooling purposes.

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REFERENCE

1. FROM BOOKS 1. THERMAL ENGINEERING R.S.KHURMI ; S.CHAND 2008 2. HEAT & MASS TRANSFER PAVASKAR ; NISHANT 2007 3. REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING V.K.JAIN 2008 4. REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING C.P.ARORA 2009

2. FROM PAPERS

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shell_and_tube_heat_exchanger 2. Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating and Thermal Design (2nd Edition ed.) http://www.southwestthermal.com/shell-tube-exchanger.html. 2009-05-08.Sadik Kaka and Hongtan Liu (2002). 3. A screening method for the optimal selection of plate heat exchanger configurations by J.M.Pinto and J.A.W.Gut, University of So Paulo, Brazil(2000). 4. Guidelines for the use of Hydrocarbon Refrigerants in Static Refrigeration and Air Conditioning SystemsFirst Published February 2001 Retrieved

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