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Important Mathematical Formulas for Class 10th

Maths Formulas (1.) (a + b)(a b) = a2 b2 (2.) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) (3.) (a b)2 = a2 + b2 2ab (4.) (a + b + c + d)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + 2(ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd) (5.) (a b)3 = a3 b3 3ab(a b)
LINEAR INEQUATIONS (In one variable) Important rule: if each term of an inequation be multiplied or divided by the same negative number, the sign of inequality reverses. Note: N-- Natural number W- Whole number Z or I - Integer Q- Rational Number R- Real Number If replacement set is the set of real numbers, the solution set can only be described in set-builder form, i.e. { } QUADRATIC EQUATIONS >> The standard form of a quadratic equation is real numbers and a where a, b and c are

>> Every quadratic equation gives two values of the unknown variable and these values are called roots of the equation. >> Zero product rules: Whenever the product of two expressions is zero; at least one of the expressions is zero. If (x+3)(x-2)=0 X=3=0 or x-2=0 X=-3 or x=2. Solving quadratic equations using formula: The roots of the quadratic equation using the formula:

where a0 can be obtained by

Discriminant

CASE 1: If a, b and c are real numbers and a0 then discriminant: If D = 0 then the roots are real and equal. If D > 0 then the roots are real and unequal. If D < 0 then the roots are imaginary (not real). CASE 2: If a, b and c are rational numbers and a0, then discriminant: If If If If D D D D = > > < 0 0 0 0 then the and D is and D is then the roots are rational and equal. a perfect square, then the roots are ration and unequal. not a perfect square, then the roots are irrational and unequal. roots imaginary. CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY REFLECTION Coordinate: The position of a point in a plane is expressed by a pair of two numbers (one concerning x-axis and the other concerning y-axis) is called co-ordinate. e.g. suppose co-ordinate of a point P is (x , y) , then x is called x-coordinate or abscissa. y is called y-coordinate or ordinate. Reflection: Reflection in coordinate geometry can be done in five ways Reflection Reflection Reflection Reflection Reflection in x-axis (i.e. y=0) is represented by Mx in y-axis (i.e. x=0) is represented by My in origin is represented by Mo through a line parallel to x-axis through a line parallel to y-axis

>> Reflection in the line y=0 i.e. in the x-axis:


The line y=0 means the x-axis

When a point is reflected in x-axis the sign of the ordinate changes. Symbolically Mx (x, y) = (x, -y) >> Reflection in the line x=0 i.e. in the y-axis:
The line x=0 means the y-axis

When a pint is reflected in y-axis the sign of the abscissa changes. Symbolically My (x, y) = (-x, y) >> Reflection in the origin:

When a pint is reflected in origin the sign of the abscissa and ordinate both changes. Symbolically Mo (x, y) = (-x, -y) >> Reflection of a point in the line x=a i.e. a line parallel to y-axis and at a distance of a unit from it:

>> Reflection of a point in the line y=b i.e. a line parallel to x-axis and at a distance of b unit form it:

Invariant point: Any point that remains unaltered under a given transformation is called an invariant point. e.g. => A (8, 0) is invariant under reflection in the x-axis. => B (0, 8) is invariant under reflection in the y-axis. => C (0, 0) is invariant under reflection in the x-axis, y-axis, and origin. => D (-3, 0) is invariant under reflection in the x-axis. DISTANCE AND SECTION FORMULAE The Distance formula: To find the distance between two given points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) apply the given formula. And so on

AB=

Or

AB=