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Anna Margarita A.

Hernandez

1PSY2

1. Enthymeme Abbreviated or shortened type of categorical syllogism in that one of its premises or its conclusion is left unexpressed. Type of Enthymeme Missing Major enthymemes are of the missing major category when the major premise of an argument is not expressed. Africans are men, Therefore, they are mortal beings. Missing Minor enthymemes belong to the missing minor category when the minor premise of an argument is omitted. Men are mortal beings, Therefore, Africans are mortal beings. Missing Conclusion enthymemes whose conclusion is not expresses belong to the missing conclusion category. Men are mortal beings, Therefore, Africans are men. 2. Epicheireme A syllogism in which a proof is joined to one or both of the premises. The proof often expressed by a causal clause (for, because, since, etc.) Example: Demagogues are persistent and aggressive because they are intensely-motivated, but because of their commitment to their cause communists are Demagogues, therefore, communists are persistent and aggressive. In this example each premise has a proof. In the major premise the proof is because they are intensely-motivated. In the minor premise the proof is because of their commitment to their cause. 3. Sorites A polysyllogism consisting of a series of simple syllogism whose conclusion, except for the last, are omitted. Types of Sorites Categorical Sorites - Consist of a series of simple categorical syllogisms of the first figure whose conclusions, except for the last, are omitted. It links or separates the subject and predicate of the conclusion through the intermediacy of many middle terms.

Two types of Categorical Sorites o Aristotelian (or progressive) Sorites - The predicate of each premise is the subject of the following premise, and the subject of the first premise is the subject of the conclusion. - Examples: All A is B; All B is C; All C is D; All D is E; Therefore, All A is E. All philosophers are wide readers; All wide readers are intelligent; All intelligent people are creative; All creative people are producers of great ideas; Therefore, all philosophers are producers of great ideas. Goclenian (or regressive) Sorites - The same premises occur, but their order is reversed. - Examples: All A is B; All C is A; All D is C; All E is D; Therefore, All E is B. One who will not sacrifice truth for power is a responsible person. One who is a paragon of honesty will not sacrifice truth for power; One who is worth emulating is a paragon of honesty; A model of decency is worth emulating; Therefore, a model of decency is a responsible person. o There is no essential difference between the Aristotelian sorites and the Goclenian sorites except in the manner of the arrangement of the premises. To construct the Aristotelian sorites from Goclenian and vice-versa, we start with the last premise and end with the first. The conclusion remains the same.

Conditional Sorites - is one whose premise contains a series of conditional propositions, each of which (except the first) has as its antecedent the consequent of the preceding premise.

- Sometimes all the premises, including the last, are conditional propositions, and then the conclusion must be conditional proposition. - Sometimes the last premise is a categorical proposition, and then the conclusion must be a categorical proposition. - Examples If A, then B; If B, then C; If C, then D; If D, then E; Therefore, If A, then E. If A, then B; If B, then C; If C, then D; If D, then E; Therefore, If not E, then not A. If A, then B; If B, then C; If C, then D; If D, then E; but A: Therefore, E. If A, then B; If B, then C; If C, then D; If D, then E; but not E; Therefore, If not E, then not A. 4. Polysyllogism (chain argument) Chain of syllogisms which are constructed in a manner that the conclusion of the first syllogism serves as the premise of the next, and so on. For the syllogism to be valid each individual syllogism must be valid by observing the rules of simple syllogism. Just one invalid individual syllogism in the series will render the whole chain of syllogism invalid. Example: Animals are subject to death, but men are animals, therefore, men are subject to death, but Asians are men, therefore, Asians are subject to death, but Filipinos are Asians, therefore, Filipinos are subject to death but Cebuanos are Filipinos, Therefore, Cebuanos are subject to death,

But Sergio Osmea is a Cebuano, Therefore, Sergio Osmea is subject to death. SOURCES: http://jake-blogs.blogspot.com/2008/02/varieties-of-categorical-syllogism.html http://www.slideshare.net/ulrick04/11-special-types-of-syllogism