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H$aU : 2 -

^mJ 1
H$ma n{hbm
dZnVt`m {d{dY ^mJmnmgyZ AJag {_i{d`m`m nVr m`{jH$mgh
Amn`m amoO`m OodUmMr gwdmV daU-^mV d `mda
MVH$moa qb~mMr \$moS> {niyZ AmnU H$aVmo. agmi \$imnmgyZ `mMm
ag H$mTy>Z {n`mV EH$ doJimM AmZX AgVmo. E{b-_o _{h`m_`o
Am`mMm ag H$mTy>Z ImUo. bhmZ _wbmnmgyZ _moR>m _mUgmZmhr
AmdS>Vo. Am~ag-nwar hr _hmam>mMr nwaUnmoir gmaIrM AmoiI
Amho. hmnyg Am~m hr _hmam>mVrb H$moH$UmZo OJmbm KmVbobr ^wai
Amho. Ambo d qb~mgh D$gmMm VmOm ag `m_`o ~\$mMm IS>m
Q>mHy$Z JwhmimV ~gyZ MdrMdrZo {nVmZm ChmMm mg OmUdV Zmhr.
qeXr`m PmS>mnmgyZ H$mT>bobr Zram, Zmaim`m PmS>mnmgyZ
H$mT>bobr _mS>r, VmS>m`m PmS>mnmgyZ H$mT>bobr VmS>r, Q>mo_Q>mo, H$mXm,
_wim, JmOa, ~rQ>, H$mo~r, XYr ^monim, H$mohim `m d`nmH$mVrb
^m`mnmgyZ {_iUmao ag. ehm`mVrb nmUr, mjo, S>mit~, AZZg,
gr, _mog~r, H$qbJS>, Ia~wO, Amdim, qMM, IOya, EH$ Zm
AZoH$ agmMm AmdmX AmnU KoVbobm Agob. hmVmZo qH$dm `m`m
ghm`mZo AmnU ho ag mV H$aVmo. H$arMo VmOo nho, qb~mMo ga~V,
H$moH$_ ga~V hr gd AJagmMrM CXmhaUo AmhoV.
doJdoJ`m \$imnmgyZ, ^m`m_YyZ AmnU `m`m_`o AgUmao
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ> Amamo`

AJ^yV ag {_idyZ Vo amoO`m d`nmH$mV AZoH$ H$mamZr dmnaV


Ambobo nhmVmo. ho {Z`mMo AmnUmg _mhrV Agbobo AJagM hmoV.
_m `mMo AmfYr JwUY_ `oH$mg _m{hVr AgVrbM Ago Zmhr.
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZo_`o AmOmar `pVbm AmfYmonMma
H$a`mgmR>r AmfYr dZnVrVrb H$moU`m ^mJmnmgyZ `mVrb AJag
H$gm H$mT>m`Mm, `mMm AmfYr Cn`moJ Am{U `mMo n`m`r H$ma
AmnU {eH$Uma AmhmoV. A ho AmnUmg amoO bmJVo Am{U AmfY ho
AmOmar nS>`mda `md`mMo AgVo. dZnVrO` AmfY V`ma H$aVmZm
`mVrb nmM _wI H$ma AmnUmg MmJbo Am_gmV H$am`Mo AmhoV.
Vo hUOo AJag, AmfYr JwUmMr MQ>Ur, H$mT>m d {ZH$mT>m, WS>
AmfYr Mhm Am{U Ja_ AmfYr Mhm.
AmnU `m gdmMr H$_mH$_mZo Amn`m `oH$m`m gh^mJmVyZ,
m`{jH$mgh `mMr _m{hVr KoUma AmhmoV. Jm_rU ^mJmVrb _{hbmMo
g~brH$aU H$aVmZm `m {ejUmMm `mZr nwano ay Cn`moJ H$$Z KoV`mg
`mMo dV:Mo, _wbmMo,KamVrb _mUgmMo Amamo` MmJbo R>odVm `oUo hm
`m {ejUdJmMm Coe Am{U `m dJmbm `oUm`m nmM-nmM, Xhm-Xhm
_{hbmM,o nwfmMo N>mQo >o N>mQo >o H$m`JQ> H$Z `mVyZ d`amoOJma {_i{dVm
`oBb. Ho$gm`m dmT>rgmR>r Vob, gmYoXIrgmR>r VgoM bhmZ _wbo d
d`H$a `q$Zm AJmbm Mmoi`mgmR>r Vob, eVmdar H$nmgmaIo
AZoH$ H$n, `dZme, _moamdim `mgmaIo Amd`mnmgyZ Ho$bobo,
~ob\$i, H$ar, qb~y, Am~m `mnmgyZ Ho$bobo _wam~o, AmbonmH$, AJmbm
bmdm`Mo CQ>Uo, Moh`mbm VUnUmV hmoUm`m _w_mgmR>r bmdm`Mo
_wIbon, bhmZ _wbm`m JwQ>r Aem {H$VrVar Jmo>r A`V emewnUo
V`ma H$Z Amn`m Hw$Qw>~mbm Am{WH$ hmV^ma bmdVm `oBb.
AmO`m Amn`m n{h`m dJmMr gwdmV m`{jH$mZo
2

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

H$a`mnydu Amn`m earamda n[aUm_ H$aUm`m Amn`m XoemV VgoM


AmnU `m _hmam>mV amhmVmo {VWo F$VwZwgma hmoUm`m hdm_mZmVrb
~XbmZo Amn`m Amamo`mda H$m` n[aUm_ hmoVmo `mMm WmoS>`mV
AmT>mdm KoD$.
ndr Oer dV:^modVr {\$aVo VerM Vr gy`m^modVrnU {\$aVo
ho AmnUm gdmZm R>mD$H$ Amho. ndr dV:^modVr {\$aVmZm {Xdg d
am hmoVo Am{U gy`m^modVr {\$aVmZm F$Vy Cn hmoVmV. dgV,
Jr_, dfm, eaX, ho_V d {e{ea ho ghm F$Vy Amn`mH$S>o AgVmV.
`oH$ F$Vw_`o qH$dm F$Vy ~XbVmZm hmoUm`m hdm_mZmVrb ~Xbmbm
bhmZmnmgyZ dmn`V gdmZm gm_moao Omdo bmJVo. VgoM `m `m
F$VwZwgma {ZgJmV hmoUmao ~Xb, VgoM dZnVr OJVmV hmoUmao
~Xb An[ahm` AgVmV.
gH$mVrnmgyZ Vo AmfmT> _{h`m`m _`mn`V hUOo 15
OmZodmar Vo 15 Owb n`V`m H$m`H$mbm_`o {e{ea, dgV d Jr_
`m VrZ F$VyMm g_mdoe AgVmo `mbm Cmam`U hUVmV. VgoM 15
Owb Vo 15 OmZodmar n`V`m H$m`H$mbmV dfm, eaX d ho_V `m
VrZ F$Vw`m H$mbmbm X{jUm`Z hUVmV. `m X{jUm`Zm_`o
gwwdmVrbm nmD$g d ZVa WS>r Am{U Cmam`Um_`o WS>r d ZVa
Chmim Ago hdm_mZmVrb ~Xb AgVmV.
earamMo Amamo` {Q>H$d`mgmR>r Amn`m earambm `m gd
hdm_mZmer OwidyZ `mdo bmJVo VgoM `m `m F$Vy_Yrb \$io,
^mOrnmbm `mMo godZ H$amdo bmJVo.
{hdm`m_`o earamV Cgmh d Omo_ AgVmo. `m F$Vy_`o
AmOmanU H$_r AgVo. nmdgmim d Chm`m_`o hmoUmao AmOma ho
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

`m_mZmZo OmV AgVmV. dfm, eaX d ho_V F$VyV {e{ea, dgV,


Jr_ F$Vy`m VwbZoV gy` H$_r Ia AgVmo. `mCbQ> dgVmV
hiyhiy Ia hmoV OmUmam gy` Jr_mV earamVrb VmH$X H$_r H$aVmo.
`m_wio WS>r_`o C~Xma qH$dm CU JwUY_mMo d Chm`mV WS>
qH$dm erVmonMma Ho$bo AgVm ~ao dmQ>Vo. Amn`m earamVrb
{VH$maeVr Am{U AmOmamMo d$n, Amn`m XZ{XZ gd`r,
`m`m_mMm A^md, `gZmYrZVm, amoOMm Amhma, Pmon VgoM _b,
_y, Km_ `mMo `mo` _mUmVrb {dgOZ hUOo earam~mhoa Q>mH$Uo
`m gd Jmo>tMm EH${V qH$dm AmOmamZwgma Ho$bo`m EHo$H$m Jmo>rMm
{dMma hUOoM Amamo`mMm {dMma. `mnojm emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$
AdWoMm Ho$bobm EH${V A`mg hUOo {ZXmZ. nmanm[aH$ AmfYr
`moOZoVZy AmfYmMr {ZdS> H$aVmZm earamgh `mVrb _ZmMmhr A`mg
A{^oV Amho.
AmnU Hw$R>brhr Jmo> H$aVmZm `mMr nyd V`mar AmYr H$aVmo.
`mbm bmJUm`m gd Jmo>r hmVmer R>odVmo hUOo `oH$ {Og
bmJob Vmo AmUm`bm OmV Zmhr. `m_`o EH$Va doioMr ~MV hmoVo
Am{U AmnU H$aUm`m H$VrVrb n>Vm Xe{dVo. AJag hUOo
dZnVr`m {d{dY ^mJm_`o EH$dQ>bo `m AmfYr JwUY_mMm doJdoJ`m
nVtMm Adb~ H$Z H$mT>bobm ag, nmZ, \w$b, \$i, ImoS>, gmb,
_yi, H$X `mnmgyZ Vmo mV Ho$bm OmVmo.
Am`mMm AJag - m`{jH$ n{hbo
gm{h` - Ambo 50 J_
H$Vr 1) Ambo dN> nm`mZo YwdyZ, nwgyZ `mdo.
2) `mdarb nmVi gmb gwar`m qH$dm gmb H$mT>`m`m `mZo
4

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

H$mT>mdr.
3) Am`mMo ~marH$ VwH$S>o gwarZo H$amdo.
4) dN> YwdyZ H$moaS>m Ho$bo`m nmQ>mda Am`mMo VwH$S>o
dadQ>m`m ghm`mZo AJXr Za_ MQ>Ur hmoBn`V dmQ>mdo.
5) dN> hmVmZo MQ>UrMm Vmo Za_ Jmoim WmoS>m WmoS>m \$S>`mV
KmbyZ nmVo`mV K> {niyZ H$mT>mdm.
6) nmVo`mV O_m Pmbobm {hadQ> aJmMm, CJ dmgmMm K>
dnmVrb dn {ZKmbobm Am`mMm ag hUOoM Am`mMm
AJag. hm MdrZo {VIQ> AgVmo.
7) AJag H$mT>`mZVa `mMm Cabobm MmoWm AmnU Am_Q>r,
^mOr H$aVmZm dmn eH$Vmo.
Cn`moJ 1) AOrU Pmbo Agob Va Am`m`m AYm M_Mm agmV
EH$ M_Mm qb~y ag d {M_yQ>^a gYd KmbyZ KoV`mg AOrU Z>
hmoVo. 2) ImoH$`mV X`mMr bjUo AgVrb Va Am`mMm ag AYm
M_Mm + EH$ M_Mm _Y {_giyZ MmQ>Uo. 3) ImoH$bm Agob Va
Am`mMm ag AYm M_Mm + AYm M_Mm qb~mMm ag + EH$ M_Mm
_Y EH$ MmQ>mdo. 4) AmoH$mar hmoV Agob Va Am`mMm ag d
H$mmMm ag g__mUmV {_giyZ `mdm. 5) mg bmJV Ag`mg
Am`mMm ag EH$ M_Mm + AYm M_Mm gmOyH$ Vyn d {M_Q>r^a
gmIa KmbyZ KoV`mg mg ~gVmo. 6) N>mVrV XIV Ag`mg
Am`mMm ag EH$ M_Mm IS>rgmIa nyS> H$$Z VrZ {M_Q>m KmbyZ
`mdm, N>mVrVrb XIUo Wm~Vo. 7) nwfm_`o AS>H$moemV doXZm hmoV
AgVrb Va EH$ M_Mm Am`mMm ag d EH$ M_Mm _Y EH$ H$Z
MmQ>`mg doXZm, H$im Wm~VmV. 8) bhmZ _wbm`m ImoH$`mV
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

EH$-XmoZ W|~ Am`mMm AJag + AYm M_Mm _Y MmQ>{d`mg


Cn`moJr. nmdgm`mV d WS>r_`o Am`mMm Iyn Cn`moJ hmoVmo.
Ambo hm H$X gd F$Vy_`o CnbY AgVmo. VgoM Vmo Amn`m
{Z` dmnamVrb Ag`mZo AJag H$mT>VmZm gd W_ `mMo m`{jH$
AmnU Ho$bo.
hbr`m ~Xb`m H$mimV gd KamVyZ nmQ>m-dadQ>m, bmoIS >r
Ib~mm, CIi-_wgi gmnS>Uo IamoIarMo AdKS> Pmbo Amho.
{_ga`m MQ>Ur`m ^mS>mV N>moQ>m _mUmV Agbobm nXmW
AnojoEdT>m _D$gyV dmQ>bm OmBb `mMr Imr Zmhr. nmQ>m dadQ>mMo
H$m_ {dOo`m CnbYVo{edm`gwm hmoD$ eH$Vo hm _moR>m \$m`Xm.
Jm_rU ^mJm_`o AOyZhr nmQ>m-dadQ>mMm Cn`moJ VoWrb
_{hbm OodUmVrb amoO`m dmQ>UmgmR>r H$aVmV. `mMr Iw_mar H$mhr
doJirM AgVo. bgyU-{_aMrMm R>oMm nmQ>m dadQ>mda Ho$bobm Am{U
Mwbrda eoH$bobr Ja_ ^mH$ar `mMr bOV doJirM AgVo, Agmo!
g`m doJdoJ`m AJagm~b AmnU EoH$Vmo qH$dm nhmVmo.
Vm`m XYr ^mon`mMm ag X`amoJmda `m. JhmH$y amMm ag H$H$amoJmV
`m. S>mit~mMm VmOm ag aV{dH$mamV `m. B`m{X. `m_`o H$mhr
Jmo>r `m m`mo{JH$ dnmV, H$mhr nmanm[aH$ hUyZ Cn`moJmV AmU`m
OmVmV. Q>oZbog Q>rb`m {H$gUrda Vm`m ^m`m, H$X_wio {H$gyZ
\$S>`mVyZ {niyZ `mMm AJag {_i{dbm OmVmo. CXm. H$mH$S>r,
_wim, ~rQ>, H$mo~r, H$mXm, Amdim, H$mohim, XYr ^monim, AZZg B.
Iyn qb~mMm ag H$mT>m`Mm Agob Va qb~m`m _Ymo_Y gwarZo H$mnyZ
qb~mMm ag Xm~yZ H$mT>`mgmR>r ghO gwb^ Ago Xm~ ` ~mOmamV
{_iVo, `m_wio hmVmZo {nimdo bmJV Zmhr.
6

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

_mog~r, g`mMm ag H$mT>`mgmR>r H$mMoMo EH$ N>mZ ag


H$mT>m`Mo gmono ` {_im`Mo. `mMo gwm gwarZo XmoZ ^mJ H$$Z `m
`mda Vmo AYm^mJ Xm~ XoD$Z Jmob {\$adyZ `mVrb ag `m`m
ImobJQ> JmobmH$ma ^mJmV O_m hmoV Ago d Vmo ag JmiyZ Umbm
XoVm `oV Ago. g`m doJdoJ`m H$n`mMo `yga CnbY AmhoV
`m_wio {dZmgm`mg \$imMo ag AmnU H$mTy> eH$Vmo. Q>mo_Q>mo, mjo,
S>mit~, H$qbJS> Aem agmi \$imMo VwH$S>o H$Z \$S>`mVyZ {niyZ
H$mTy>Zhr ag {_i{dVm `oVmV.
qMM, IOya, H$dR>mMm Ja, WmoS>m nm`mV Vmg^a {^OV
KmbyZ, dmQy>Z \$S>`mVyZ {niyZ Cm_ ag {_iVmo. Am~m, Om^wi,
Vwig, H$Sy> qZ~mMr nmZo qH$dm `m nmZmMm AJag AmfYr AmhoV
`mMr AJXr H$modir ZmhrV AJXr OyZ ZmhrV Aer VmOr nmZo KoD$Z
`mMo XoR>, OmS> {eam H$mTy>Z dN> YwdyZ nwgyZ W_ dadQ>mZo
nmQ>mda R>oMyZ `m_`o WmoS>ogo nmUr KmbyZ dadQ>mZo Za_ JwiJwirV
hmoBn`V dmQy>Z, \$S>`mVyZ {niyZ `mMm AJag {_i{dUo e`
Amho. naVw ASw>iemMr nmZo, H$moa\$S>rMr nmZo, Q>|X qH$dm Hw$S>m`m
gmbr `m_Yrb AJag {_i{d`m`m doJ`m nVr AmhoV `mMm
nwT>rb ^mJmV m`{jH$mgh A`mg H$.

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

AmO`m ^mJmV AmfYr dZnVtnmgyZ AJag {_i{d`mMo


A` H$ma d `mMr H$mhr m`{jHo$ H$aUma AmhmoV.
ASw>iem`m nmZmMm AJag - m`{jH$ Xgao
gm{h` - ASw>iemMr VmOr nmZo 50 J_

H$Vr 1) ASw>iemMr 50 J_ nmZo dN> YwdyZ, nwgyZ `mdrV. `mMo


XoR> H$mT>mdo.
2) nmQ>m dadQ>m`m ghm`mZo `mMr _D$gyV MQ>Ur H$amdr.
Oa Va WmoS>ogo dN> nmUr Kmbmdo. MQ>Ur JwiJwirV dmQ>br
nm{hOo.
3) nmQ>mdaMm MQ>UrMm Jmoim EH$ H$amdm.
4) dS>, Ho$ir qH$dm H$Xir`m nmZm_`o hm MQ>UrMm Jmoim
R>odyZ gd ~mOyZr nmZ JwS>miyZ `m nwS>m^modVr Xmoam ~mYmdm.
5) Mmibo`m _mVr_`o AXmOmZo WmoS>o WmoS>o nmUr KmbV _mVrMm
qH${MV K>ga Jmoim H$amdm.
6) `m_`o ASw>iem`m nmZmMr MQ>Ur R>odyZ nwS>m Ho$bm Amho
`m^modVr Amn`m AJR>mEdT>m OmS>rMm _mVrMm bon H$Z
JmobmH$ma Jmoim H$amdm d `mbm WmoS>o gwH$dmdo.
7) Imbrda Jmod`m R>odyZ `m_`o Vmo Jmoim R>odyZ Ar`m
ghm`mZo Vmo bmbga hmoBn`V H$moiem`m {M_Q>m`m
ghm`mZo gd ~mOyZr ^mOmdm.
8) _mVrMm bmbga Pmbobm Jmoim {dVdmnmgyZ Xa H$amdm.
`mdarb _mVr H$miOrnydH$ ~mOybm H$amdr.
9) moUmbm JwS>mibobm Xmoam, MQ>Urda JwS>mibobr nmZo ~mOybm
H$Z Vmo Jmoim EH$m VmQ>brV R>odmdm.
10) dmV Vmo Jmoim R>odyZ `mVrb ag {M_Q>m`m ghm`mZo
Xm~yZ nmVo`mV {niyZ H$mT>mdm.
11) hm ASy>iem`m nmZmMm {_imbobm AJag Amho.
12) `mVrb MmoWm Q>mHy$Z XoUo.

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

^mJ 2
dZnVt`m {d{dY ^mJmnmgyZ
AJag {_i{d`m`m A`nVr - m`{jH$mgh
AmOmar _mUgmbm `m AmOmamVyZ _wVVm {_idyZ Xo`mgmR>r
Amnbm Oa gh^mJ Agob hUOo VmnmV {_R>m`m> nm`m`m KS>m
H$nmimda R>od`mMo H$m_ Agmo. WS> nm`mZo AJ nwgyZ `md`mMo
Agmo. `mMo hmV-nm` MonyZ Xo`mMo Agmo. gS>mgMo qH$dm bKdrMo
^mS>o Xo`mMo Agmo. X_oH$ar UmV `mbm WwH$VmZm qH$dm AmoH$mar
hmoV AgVmZm VV Xo`mMo H$m_ Agmo. Amn`m KamVrb bhmZ
_wbmnmgyZ d`H$a _mUgmn`V _XV H$aUo ho Cm_ dV Amho.
ho H$aV AgVmZm dZmfYtMo Cn`moJ OmUyZ KoVbo. AmfY
H$a`m`m doJdoJ`m nVtMr nm`{jHo$ Ho$br, `m_mJrb H$maUo d
`mMr Cn`wVVm OmUyZ KoVbr Va Amamo` {~KS>bo Va Vo Vm`mda
AmU`mgmR>r H$m` H$am`Mo `mMo kmZ hiyhiy AmnUmg A`mgmVyZ
hmoBb. _mJrb ^mJmV AmnU Am`mMm AJag H$gm H$mT>m`Mm ho
m`{jH$mghrV {eH$bmo.

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

2)

Cn`moJ 1) ASw>iemMm nmZmMm AJag bhmZ _wbmH$[aVm EH$ M_Mm


+ AYm M_Mm _Y KmbyZ ImoH$`m_`o dmnamdm. _moR>m _mUgm_`o
XmoZ Vo VrZ M_Mo AJag + EH$ M_Mm _Y hm ImoH$`m_`o,
ImoH$`mMr C~i `oVmZm X_ bmJUo `m {dH$mamV Cn`moJr VgoM
ZmH$mVyZ, WwH$sVyZ, bKdrVyZ, gS>mgdmQ>o aV OmV Agob Var
Cn`moJr.
Hw$S>mMr, Q>oQy>Mr gmb, gwR>, H$mQ>o [aJUr, gwaU dJao
dZnVtnmgyZ AJag {_i{dVmZm `m nVrMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo.
Jm_rU ^mJm_`o Jmod`m {_iy eH$VmV nU ehar ^mJmV
`mbm {deof H$> `mdo bmJVmV. Aemdoir Jg`m eoJS>rda qH$dm
Q>mohda _mVrMm Jmoim ^mO`mgmR>r d`nmH$mVrb nmnS> ^mOm`Mr
_yR> Agbobr Jmob qH$dm MmH$moZr Omir {_iVo `mda Vmo Jmoim R>odyZ
^mOUo e` Amho.
H$moaS>m ImoH$bm AgVmZm ~ohS>m `m \$im`m gmbrMm Cn`moJ
hmoVmo. `mMo EH$ m`{jH$ `mM dJmV H$. `m_`o ~ohS>m ho VwaQ>
MdrMo \$i AmnU KoUma AmhmoV. `mMm AJag AmnU H$mT>Uma Zmhr.
VgoM `mMr MQ>Urhr H$aUma Zmhr. \$$ \$imMr gmb {d{e> nVrZo
Ja_ H$Z `mMm Cn`moJ H$aUma AmhmoV.
m`{jH$ {Vgao
gm{h` - dN> YwdyZ nwgyZ H$moaS>o Ho$bobo ~ohS>mMo \$i
H$Vr 1)

Jhm`m H$UHo$V WmoS>o nmUr KmbyZ K>ga nrR> _iyZ `mdo.

10

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

~ohS>m`m ^modVr H$aJir EdT>m OmS>rMm H$UHo$Mm Jmobga


bon mdm.
3) H$moiem`m {M_Q>m_`o qH$dm nmnS> ^mOm``m {M_Q>m_`o
Vmo Jmoim AbJX nH$Sy>Z gd ~mOyZr H$UrH$ nyU H$mir
hmoBn`V ^mOmdm. `mH$[aVm Jgda Omir R>odmdr.
4) H$moiemMr eoJS>r Agob Va Imbrda {ZImao R>do Zy {M_Q>m`m
ghm`mZo Jmob Jmob {\$adyZ H${UH$ H$mir hmoBn`V ^mOmdo.
5) JgMr eoJS>r qH$dm H$moiem`m eoJS>rMo H$m_ Pm`m_wio
{dPdmdr.
6) ~ohS>mdarb H${UH$ ~mOybm H$amdr.
7) ~ohoS>mVrb ~r ~mOybm H$amdo.
8) ~ohoS>mMr (\$imMr) gmb `mbm ~ohoS>oXi hUVmV. `mMo
N>moQ>o N>moQ>o VwH$S>o H$amdoV.
Cn`moJ :
1) H$moaS>m ImoH$`mMr C~i Am`mda IS>rgmIao~amo~a ~ohS>mMo
VwH$S>o Vm|S>mV R>odyZ `mMm ag {JiV Jo`mg Amam_ nS>Vmo.
2) bhmZ _wbmg hr gmb _Ym~amo~a ghmUoda CJmiyZ WmoS>m
_mUmV MmQ>d`mg ImoH$bm ~X hmoVmo.
3) `mMr Md VwaQ> AgVo.
Iao hUOo AJag `m {df`mVbo ho CXmhaU qH$dm m`{jH$
Zho nU ASw>iem`m nmZmMm AJag H$mT>VmZm `m`m ^modVr Ho$bo`m
_mVr`m Jmoim`m do>Zm_mUoM `mda H$UHo$Mm bon Ho$bobm AgVmo
`odT>oM gmY`.
AJag {_i{d`mg~Y r AmnU AmUIr H$mhr n`m`mMm A`mg
H$aUma AmhmoV. `mVrb ho m`{jH$ AmnU H$.
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

11

m`{jH$ MdWo - H$moa\$S>r`m nmZm_Yrb AJag {_idUo.


gm{h` - H$moa\$S>rMr MmJbr nmogbobr X nmZo XmoZ Vo VrZ
H$Vr 1)

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

7)

dN> YwdyZ, nwgyZ KoVbo`m H$moa\$S>r`m nmZmMo VwH$S>o Oo


_moXH$nmmVrb Omir`m PmH$Umda ~gVrb EdT>m AmH$mamMo
gwarZo H$mnmdo.
_moXH$nmmV nmUr KmbyZ qH$dm \$S>Ho$ ~mYbo`m nmVo`mV
AY} nmUr ^$Z R>odmdo.
H$moa\$S>r`m VwH$S>mda _moXH$nmmMo PmH$U qH$dm \$S>Ho$
~mYbo`m nmVo`mda ImobJQ> ^mS>o CnS>o R>odmdo.
Ar`m ghm`mZo H$mhr doimVM _moXH$nmmVrb qH$dm
nmVo`mVrb nmUr CH$iyZ `mMr dm\$ V`ma hmoBb.
`m Ja_ dm\o$`m ghm`mZo H$moa\$S>rMo VwH$S>o _D$ga
dm\$miVrb.
CUVm ~X H$Z WmoS>m doimZo _moXH$nmmVrb qH$dm
\$S>`mda R>do bobo H$moa\$S>rMo VwH$S>o WmoS>o Jma Pm`mda hmVmZo
Hw$H$$Z \$S>`mV {niyZ `mMm ag Xg`m nmVo`mV JmiyZ
`mdm.
H$moa\$S>rVbm ag K> AgVmo Vmo ghO {ZKUo AdKS> Amho
hUyZ dm\o$`m _XVrZo Vmo {ZKy eH$Vmo.

Aem VhoZo mV Pmbobm H$moa\$S>rMm ag hUOo `mVrb


Agbobm AJ^yV agM hmo`.
Cn`moJ :
H$moa\$S>rMm ag _moR> m _mUgmZm XmoZ Vo VrZ M_Mo, bhmZ
12

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

_wbmZm EH$ M_Mm `m_`o _Y KmbyZ, `mdoiog ^yH$ Z bmJ`mMr


VH$ma Agob, nmoQ>mg~Yr VH$mar, `H$V d pbhm `mMo {dH$ma, Ow`m
VmnmV, Ae$nUm Ag`mg, ImoH$bm qH$dm X`m_`o, a$ewrgmR>r,
ZmH$mVyZ qH$dm gS>mgdmQ>o aV OmV Agob Va Cn`moJr nS>Vmo.
AJag H$mT>`mMr AmnU Or doJdoJir m`{jHo$ Ho$br Vohm
dZnVtMo AmfYr JwUY_mMo doJdoJio ^mJ VmOo AgUo, agaerV
AgUo JaOoMo Amho. nU gXmgdH$mi gd F$VyV Vo {_iUo e` Zmhr
Aem doiog emmZo {Xbobm n`m` ~Ky.
`m AmfYtMo ^mJ H$m> dnmV AgVrb `mnH$s AmUyZ
`mMo ^aS> MyU EH$eogmR> J_ KoD$Z `m`m XnQ> hUOo {VZeodrg
{_br. nmUr `m_`o KmbyZ EH$m ^mS>mV Ahmoam hUOo Mmodrg
Vmg {^OV R>odyZ `mZVa hmVmZo Hw$H$$Z, JmiyZ KoVyZ Vmo d^mJ
`m dZnVrMm AJag hUyZ dmnamdm. Iao hUOo Va AJag Ko`mMo
EH$m doiMo _moR>m _mUgmMo OmVrV OmV _mU XmoZ Vo VrZ M_Mo
d `mH$[aVm `odT>m _mUmV Ho$bo`m AJagmMo H$am`Mo H$m` ? hm
_ZmV CX^dob `mMo EH$ Cma hUyZ AmfYr Vob qH$dm Vyn
H$aVmZm hm n`m` dmnaV AgmdoV qH$dm EImm AmfYr MyUmMm
^md dmT>{d`mgmR>r `m`m_`o hm ag KmbyZ KmoQy>Z `mbm ^mdZm
XoUo qH$dm nwQ> o Xo`mgmR>r Cn`moJmV AmUV AgVrb.
{Vgam H$ma Iao hUbm Va H$mT>mMmM H$ma Omo AmnU
nwT>o {eH$Uma AmhmoV `mMmM H$ma Amho. dZnVr`m H$m> ^mJmMo
^aS> MyU KoD$Z `m`m AmR>nQ> nmUr KmbyZ MmWm ^mJ eof amhrn`V
CH$iyZ, JmiyZ AJagmMm n`m` hUyZ dmnaUo em_m` Amho.
AJag hm `oH$ doir VmOmM H$Z KoUo MmJbo. `m`mVrb
{Q>H$mD$nUm An AgVmo. A`Wm Vmo Iam~ Pm`mg gd _ohZV
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

13

dm`m OmBb. {edm` U AmfYm{dZm amhrb.


AmfYr Jmo`m H$aVmZm AJagm_`o Jmo`mVrb MyU} KmbyZ
KmoQy>Z KmoQy>Z Jmo`m H$aVm `oVmV. `m AJagm~amo~a H$mhr nyaH$
Jmo>tMm Zoh_rM dmna H$amdm bmJVmo. _Y, Vyn, gmIa, Jyi B. Or
AmfYo nmoQ>mV KoVmZm `mMr Md H$Sy> Agob Va {deofV: bhmZ
_wbmZm d {`mZm KoUo OS> OmVo. {edm` `m nyaH$ Jmo>tZr AmfYmMo
JwUY_hr dmT>VmV.
AJag hr nV AmnU gbJ XmoZ ^mJmV m`{jH$mgh
{eH$bmo. AmfYrH$aUmVrb nm`m^yV nmM H$mamVrb hm W_ H$ma
nMmd`mg OS> Agbm Var ~bH$maH$ Amho.

^mJ 3
H$ma Xgam
AmfYr JwU`wV MQ>Ur
Amn`m amoO`m OodUm_`o H$moaS>r qH$dm Amobr MQ>Ur
Ag`m{edm` ghgm Amnbo OodU hmoV Zmhr. CXmhaUmW - Odg,
Vri, H$maio, bgyU, gwHo$ Imo~ao, bmb {VIQ> d Mdr_mUo KmVbobo
_rR> `mMr bmoIS >r Ib~`m_`o Hw$Q>bb
o r AWdm {_ga`m ghm`mZo
Ho$bobr MQ>Ur. Xgam H$ma hUOo VmOr dmQ>bobr H$moqW~ra, bgyU,
Ambo, {_aMr, Amobm Zmai `mMr MQ>Ur. nmQ>m dadQ>m`m ghm`mZo
AWdm {_ga`m ghm`mZo H$aVmo. `m MQ>UrZo OodUmVrb aJV
dmT>Vo.
OodU Pm`mda Oohm AmnU _wIewrH$aVm {dS>m ImVmo Vohm
Vmo MmdyZ MmdyZ OUy H$m` AmnU `mMr MQ>Ur H$aVmo d `mM doiobm
`mMm _wIag {JiVmo hUOo `mMm AJagM {nVmo d Oohm MmdyZ
MmdyZ _D$ Pmbobm {dS>m {JiVmo Vohm `mMr MQ>UrM OUy {JiVmo.
Amn`m hmVmbm qH$dm nm`mbm Oohm _wH$m _ma bmJyZ gyO
`oVo Vohm ghmUoda JYmgmaIo XmQ> {_lU nm`m`m ghm`mZo gm~aqeJ,
aVMXZ, Am~ohiX, _m`\$i, H$m|~U>ZIr, VwaQ>r CJmiyZ Ja_
H$Z bmdVmo Vo gwm AmfYr JwUY_m`m MQ>UrMoM CXmhaU Amho.

14

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

15

H$nmi XIV AgVmZm Om`\$i, doIS>, gwR> dJao CJmiyZ


bmdUo qH$dm MXZmMo ImoS> CJmiyZ bmdUo hr gwm MQ>UrM hmo`.
lrIS>mV CJmiyZ KmVbobo Om`\$i qH$dm bhmZ _wbmZm JwQ>rVrb
{OZgm CJmiyZ V`ma Ho$bobo MmQ>U ho gwm MQ>UrMoM CXmhaU Amho.

gm{h` - H$Sy>qZ~mMr VmOr H$modir nmZo \w$bmghrV, YZo, {_ao,


qhJ, Amodm, qMM, Jyi d gYd.

Iao hUOo Va AJag V`ma H$aVmZm W_ AmnU AmfYr


Cn`moJr dZnVr dmQy>Z `mMr _D$gyV MQ>Ur H$Z \$S>`mVyZ
{niyZ AJag {_idVmo. AJag hm MQ>Urnojm nMZm`m >rZo WmoS>mgm
OS> Amho. `m_wio AmfYr JwU`wV MQ>UrMm Xgam H$_mH$ bmJVmo.

H$Vr -

`m MQ>UrMm Cn`moJ ~mh CnMmamgmR>r, nmoQ>mV Ko`mgmR>r,


AmfYr Vob, Vyn H$aVmZm hmoVmo. CXra Mmd`mda `m ^mJmda
A{V{dfmMr _wir CJmiyZ bmdVmV. qdMy Mmd`mda IoS>Jo mdmV qMMmoH$m
CJmiyZ bmdVmV. bhmZ _wbm`m nmoQ>mda gmJaJmoQ>m, qhJ CJmiyZ
KmbVmV. `m_wio AnMZmZo Pmbo`m nmoQ>XIrV `mbm \$m`Xm hmoVmo.
ho gd AmfYr JwU`wV MQ>UrMo H$ma, nmQ>mda dadQ>m`m ghm`mZo
dmQ>Uo qH$dm ghmUoda CJmiUo `m Xmohr {H$`m Odinmg gma`mM.
AmfYr JwU`wV V`ma Ho$bobr MQ>Ur `oH$ doim VmOr
H$Z `md`mMr AgVo. VgoM OodT>m _mUmV amo`mbm md`mMr
Agob VodT>rM Ho$br Va Cabobr MQ>Ur dm`m OmUma Zmhr. Amo`m
EodOr dmibo`m dZnVrMm Cn`moJ Ho$bm Va `m`m MyUmV
Oar_mUo nmUr KmbyZ MQ>Ur dmQ>Vm `oBb.
AmO`m ^mJmV AmnU M _{h`m`m n{h`mM {Xder
hUOo JwT>rnmS>`m`m {Xder H$Swqb~m`m nmZmMr MQ>Ur H$aVmo `mMo
m`{jH$ W_ H$.

16

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ> Amamo`

AmfYr JwU`wV MQ>UrMo m`{jH$ n{hboo

_mU - KamV bhmZ, _moR>r _mUgo AgVrb `m _mUmV `oH$mg


WmoS>r WmoS>r XoVm `mdr BVnV.
1)

H$Sy>qZ~mMr nmZo dN> H$Z nmZo d \w$bo KoUo. (dmQy>Z


`mMm qb~mEdT>m Jmoim hmoBb `m_mUmV KoUo.)
2) YZo XmoZ M_Mo, Amodm EH$ M_Mm, {_ao Mma Vo ghm, qMM
gwnmarEdT>r, Jyi gwnmarEdT>m Am{U qhJ qMMmo`mEdT>m `m
_mUmV gd {OZgm nmQ>mda R>odUo.
3) dadQ>m`m ghm`mZo MQ>Ur dmQ>VmZm JaO Agob VodT>oM
nmUr KmbUo. MQ>Ur dmQy>Z Pmbr H$s `mV Mdr_mUo gYd
KmbUo, hUOo MQ>Ur V`ma Pmbr.
Cn`moJ hr ghm agmZr `wV MQ>Ur (JmoS>-Jyi, Am~Q>-qMM, ImaQ>gYd, H$Sy>ag - H$Sy>qZ~ nmZo, {VIQ> - Amodm d {_ao, VwaQ> - YZo
Am{U VwaQ>, {VIQ> ag - qhJ) _amR>r dfm`m W_ {Xder JwT>rbm,
Xodmbm Zdo XmIdyZ KamVrb gdmZr Im`Mr AgVo. hr Amamo`X
MQ>Ur nwT>rb df^a `oUm`m H$Sy>-JmoS> gJmZm Vm|S> Xo`mMr nydV `mar
hUyZ `mMo {VH$ AmhoM. {edm` H${_ZmeH$, nmoQ>mVrb {dH$mamda
Cn`wV Amho.
Zwg`m H$Sy>{Z~m`m nmZmMr Amd`H$ VodT>o nmUr KmbyZ
dmQ>bobr MQ>Ur ~mhmonMmamV Cn`moJr. H$mhr H$maUmZo AnKmVmZo
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

17

OI_ Pmbr AgVm Vr dN> H$Z, `m_`o hr MQ>Ur ^Z, dZ


H$mnS>mMr n>r ~mY`mg OI_ {MKiV Zmhr, VgoM bdH$a H$moaS>r
nS>Vo. nmoQ> AdW Agob qH$dm MwHy$Z nmoQ>mV EImXm {dfmar nXmW
Jobm Va `mM H$Sy>qZ~m`m MQ>UrV nmUr KmbyZ Vr EH$gmaIr H$Z
meZ Ho$br AgVm CbQ>r hmoD$Z ~ao dmQ>Vo.
AmfYr JwU`wV MQ>UrMo m`{jH$ Xgaoo
gwR> d VrimMr MQ>Ur - nmoQ>mVrb {dH$mamda
gm{h` - gwR> nmdS>a AYm M_Mm, 2) nmT>ao qH$dm H$mio Vri EH$ M_Mm, 3) Jyi - gwnmarEdT>m, 4) Ja_ XY H$n^a.
H$Vr 1) nmQ>mda gwR> nmdS>a, Vri d Jyi EH$ H$$Z ~marH$ dmQ>Uo
hUOo hr MQ>Ur V`ma Pmbr.
Cn`moJ - H$n^a Ja_ XYmV hr MQ>Ur {_giyZ M_`mZo T>diyZ
AnMZmZo `mMo nmoQ> XIVo Aem `{$Zo hiyhiy `m`br AgVm
nmoQ>mV XIUo H$_r hmoVo.
aVr _yi`mY Agob Va
H$mio Vri XmoZ M_Mo, ZmJHo$ea nmd M_Mm, VmOo bmoUr XmoZ
M_Mo d gmIa EH$ M_Mm `m _mUmV dVy O_m Ho$`mda H$mio
Vri d ZmJHo$ea EH$ H$$Z qH${MV nmUr KmbyZ nmQ>mda ~marH$
dmQ>mdo. bmoUr d gmIao_`o {_giyZ Vo Imdo. gH$mir VgoM amr
Pmon`mnydr hr MQ>Ur H$mhr {Xdg Im`mg aVr_yi`mYrV nmoQ>
gm\$ hmoD$Z, aV nS>Uo ~X hmoD$Z Amam_ dmQ>ob.
Oo bmoH$ MmVw_mg nmiVmV Vo dfmVrb AmR> _{hZo Am{U Oo
nmiV ZmhrV Vo df^a bgyU, H$mXm ImVmV. Am_Q>rV, ^mOr_`o
bgyU \$moS>Urgh KmbVmV, `mZo ^yH$ dmT>Vo, A Imdogo dmQ>Vo,
18

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

H$Mm bgyU Imbm Va Or^oMr, Vm|S>mMr AmJ hmoVo. bgyUmbm CJ


Xn AgVmo. AmOmar _mUgmbm bgyU XoVmZm Vmo ew H$$Z Xo`mMm
KmV Amho. `m`m XmoZ nVr AmhoV. n{h`m nVr_`o bgUmMo
J>o Am~Q> Xhm_`o Mmodrg Vmg {^OV KmbyZ `mZVa H$mo_Q>
nm`mZo YwdyZ, nwgyZ R>odVmV. `mMm dmna H$aVmZm nmH$`m gmobyZ
`mMm AHy$a H$mTy>Z bgyU qH${MV MmJ`m Vwnmda Jwbm~r aJ `oBn`V
naVyZ dmnaVmV.
Xg`m nVrV bgyUm`m nmH$`m XmoZ-VrZ Vmg Am~Q>
VmH$mV {^OdyZ `mVrb AHy$a H$mTy>Z AmfYmV dmnaVmV. AmVm
`j H$Vr H$$Z ~Ky.
AmfYr JwU`wV MQ>UrMo m`{jH$ {Vgao
bgyU MQ>Ur
gm{h` - ew Ho$bo`m AHy$a H$mT>bo`m Mma-nmM nmH$`m
H$Vr 1) eoJS>rda Vdm R>do Zy _X Jgda ew Ho$bo`m bgUm`m nmH$`m
qH${MV Vynmda aJ Jwbm~r hmoD$Z naVUo.
2) nmQ>mda dadQ>m`m ghm`mZo Za_ MQ>Ur H$aUo.
3) {VimMo Vob qH$dm JmoS>o Vob AYm M_Mm KoD$Z `mV hr
MQ>Ur KmbyZ amo`mg XoUo.
Cn`moJ X`amoJm_`o qH$dm {df_da, X_m, ImoH$bm, ^yH$ Z bmJUo,
gmYo, H$~a, JwS>Ko XIUo, AJmVyZ M_H$m {ZKUo `m {dH$mamV {Z`
godZ Ho$`mg bdH$a Amam_ nS>Vmo.
Aem VhoZo MQ>Ur`m m`{jH$mmao `mMo AmfYr Cn`moJ
AmOmamV {hVH$a H$go Agy eH$VmV `mMr CXmhaUo ~{KVbr.
AJagmnojm MQ>UrMo nMZ gm` Amho. _m nwT>rb VrZ
H$mamnojm OS> Amho.
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

19

^mJ 4
AmfYr JwU`wV VmOm H$mT>m Am{U {ZH$mT>m
AmfYr XH$mZmV {Q>H$mD$ dnm`m H$mT>m`m ~mQ>`m `m
doJdoJ`m AmOmamgmR>r dmnaVm `oVmV Am{U Ko`mgmR>r gmo`m AgVmV.
{edm`o `m {d{e> H$mbmdYrV gn{d`m nm{hOoV Aer H$mb_`mXm
ZgVo. `m`m_`o _mH$mMo _mU H$mhr Q>Ho$ AgVo. {Q>H$mD$ dnmMo
V`ma H$mT>o Ago `mMo dUZ H$aVm `oBb.
CXmhaUmW - ImoH$`mgmR>r - Hw$_mar Amgd, H$ZH$mgd, VmnmgmR>rA_Vm[a>, nmoQ> gm\$ hmo`mgmR>r - A^`m[a> dJao. Amgd Am{U
A[a> H$aUo ho Amn`m A`mgH$_mV Zmhr.
dZnVtMo AJag Am{U AmfYr JwUmZr`wV MQ>Ur ho
H$_mZwgma m`{jH$mghrV {eH$bmo. `m ^mJm_`o AmnU nanaoZwgma
{Vg`m _wI H$mamMr _m{hVr KoUma AmhmoV. H$mT>m hUOo dmibo`m
dZnVt`m AmfYr JwUY_mM m dmna H$aVmZm, {d{e> _mUmV nm`mV
KmbyZ H$T>dyZ hUOo AmQ>dyZ R>am{dH$ nmUr {ebH$ am{hbo H$s
JmiyZ KoD$Z `m_`o `m`m JwUm`m dmT>rgmR>r Jyi, gmIa, _Y,
Vyn, XY, Jmo_y dJao `mnH$s EH$ qH$dm EH$mnojm OmV JwUdYH$
Jmo>r KmbyZ AmOmar `{$g Vm`m dnmV XoVmo `mbm H$mT>m
hUVmV.
AmnU amoO`m OrdZmV Mhm, H$m\$s, H$moH$mo `mgmaIr no`o
20

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

{nVmo. AYm H$n nmUr, AYm H$n XY, MhmMr nmdS>a EH$ M_Mm,
gmIa XmoZ M_Mo `m_mUmV EH$m ^mS>mV CH$i{dVmo. CH$ir Am`mda
Ar Xo`mMo ~X H$Z `mda H$mhr doi PmH$Ur R>odyZ JmiyZ {nVmo.
Mhm`m PmS>m`m nmZmda {H$`m H$Z nmdS>a nmZo Vr CnbY
AgVo. hm Iao Va Vm`m H$mT>mMmM H$ma. MhmZo AmnUmg VaVar
`oVo. H$m\$s qH$dm H$moH$mo `m_`o dZnVr`m ~r`m ^mOyZ `mda
{H$`m H$Z nmdS>a Ho$br OmVo. Mhm nmdS>a EodOr H$m\$sMr nmdS>a
KmVbr H$s H$m\$s V`ma hmoVo. ~mH$sMo {Og VoM AgVmV. H$moH$mo_`o
XYm_`o gmIa Am{U H$moH$mo nmdS>a CH$idyZ `m`bo OmVo. `oH$m`m
AmdS>rZwgma `m no`mMr {ZdS> AgVo.
gXm gdH$mi Vm`m dnmV AmfYr JwU`wV dZnVtMo
^mJ {_iUo e` Zg`mZo `mZm gmdbrV dmidyZ MmJ`m H$mao
`mMr gmR>dUyH$ Ho$`mg JaOoZwgma `mMm dmna H$aVm `oVmo. `m_`o
^aS> MyU `mdo bmJVo. doJdoJ`m nmanm[aH$ nmR>m_mUo EH$mnojm
AZoH$ dZnVtMo ^aS> MyU drg Vo Vrg J_ EH${VnUo ghgm KoVbo
OmVo. dZnVt`m _X, _`_ d H$R>rU ^mJmZwgma `m_`o gmoim
nQ>, AmR> nQ> {H$dm MmnQ> nmUr KmbyZ amr {^OV KmbyZ gH$mir d
gH$mir {^OV KmbyZ g`mH$mir `mMm H$mT>m H$aVmZm EH$ A>_me,
qH$dm EH$ MVwWme qH$dm AYm `m_mUmV Vmo AmQ>dmdm bmJVmo.
gm` d _`_ H$maMo VmOo V`ma Ho$bobo H$mT>o Ae$
`{$, bhmZ _wbo, _{hbmZm MmJbo Cn`moJr nS>VmV.
H$mhr AmOmamV `mMo dn d amo`mMr eVr nmhZ H$Yr
H$Yr VrU H$mT>mMr gwm `moOZm H$amdr bmJVo. nmoQ>m_`o Imbo`m
AmMo ZrQ> nMZ hmoV Zmhr `mV nmoQ> gm\$ Z hmoUo hr VH$ma AgVo,
eara Iyn AdW AgVo. OR>amVrb Z nMbobo A Vm|S>mdmQ>o AmoHy$Z
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

21

~mhoa nS>bo Va amo`mbm Amam_ nS>Vmo. H$mhr doiobm {Xdg {Xdg


emMmbm hmoV Zmhr, ^yH$ _XmdVo, ~oMZr dmT>Vo `mdoiog nmoQ> gm\$
Pmbo H$s gwIH$maH$, _moH$io Pm`mgmaIo dmQ>Vo. Vm`m H$mT>m`m
Cn`moJmZo `m Jmo>r gm` hmoVmV. AmfYr H$mT>mMm E{Z_m Xo`mgmR>rgwm
Cn`moJ Ho$bm OmVmo. doJdoJ`m H$maUmZr earamda Pmbo`m OI_m
dN> Yw`mgmR>r, Vm|S>mVrb {dH$mamV Jwi`m H$a`mgmR>r, Ho$g
Yw`mgmR>r, AmfYr Vob qH$dm Vyn H$a`mgmR>r, Amgd-A[a>
H$a`mgmR>r Ago AZoH$ Cn`moJ H$a`mgmR>r H$mT>mMm dmna Ho$bm
OmVmo.
_hfu AUmgmho~ nQ>dYZ `m`mgmaIo A`V Wmoa d
hmoD$Z Jobo. `mMm ^a Vm`m H$mT>mdaM Agm`Mm. AZoH$ Agm`
AmOmamV `mMm \$m`Xm Ag` UmZr KoVbobm hmoVm. AmO`m
^mJmV H$mT>mMo m`{jH$ H$Z ~Ky. hUOo Amn`m _ZmV H$mhr
eH$m Ag`mg `mMo {ZdmaU hmoBb.
Vmnm_`o ImoH$bm Ag`mg `m H$mT>mMm Cn`moJ hmoVmo.
m`{jH$ n{hbo
gm{h` - Jwidob, H$mQ>o JmoI, gwR>, [aJUr _wi d `o>_Y `mMo
^aS> MyU `oH$s 5 J_, EHy$U dOZ 25 J_, IS>rgmIa 10 J_.
H$Vr ~mOmamV darb AmfYmMo ^aS> hUOo OmS>gaMyU Z {_im`mg
`m AIS> AmUm`mV.
bmoIS>r Ib~`mV dVnUo AmnU `mMo ^aS> MyU H$amdo.
`m nmM g__mUmVrb AmfYtMo EH${V dOZ nMdrg J_ hmoVo.
`m`m AmR>nQ> hUOo 25 Jw{Ubo 8 = 200 {_br nmUr H$mT>m
22

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

H$a`mgmR>r bmJob. hm H$mT>m _X dZmfYtMm Ag`mZo Vmo MVwWme


{ebH$ amhrn`V H$T>dm`Mm. hUOoM nmg {_br. {ebH$ R>odm`Mm
`mH$[aVm C^Q> ^mS>m_`o nZmg {_br nmUr d nMdrg J_ V`ma
Ho$bobo ^aS> MyU KmbyZ _moOn>rZo ^mS>mVrb nm`m`m nmVirnmgyZ
^mS>m`m da`m H$S>on`VMo AVa _moOyZ R>odm`Mo. `mZVa am{hbobo
{XS>eo {_br nmUr KmbyZ ^mS>mda PmH$Ur Z R>odVm _`_ AmModa
H$mT>m CH$i{dV R>odUo. AYyZ _YyZ _moOn>rZo ^mS>m`m H$S>onmgyZ
nm`mMr nmVir _moOUo. nmg {_br nm`mMr nmVir Or AmYr
_moOyZ R>odbobr hmoVr VodT>r Pmbr H$s Ar ~X H$aUo. `mZVa `m
^mS>mda PmH$Ur R>odUo. H$mT>m H$aV AgVmZm ^mS>mda H$Yrhr
R>do m`Mr Zmhr ho nHo$ bjmV R>do m. nmVo`mVrb H$mT>m JmiyZ Ko`mBVnV
Vmn_mZmMm Pm`mda dmVyZ {niyZ `mdm. `m Jmibo`m H$mT>mV
Xhm J_ IS>rgmIa KmbyZ M_`mZo hbdyZ {daKi`mda `m Umbm
Vmn d ImoH$bm Amho `mZm {n`mg mdm. `mZo XmohrVhr Amam_
nS>Vmo. AmfYmMo _mU ho H$nm`m _mnmZo R>adm`Mo Pmbo hUOo `m
H$nmV e^a {_br d nXmW _mdVmo Vmo AYm H$n _moR>m _mUgmZm,
nmd H$n Xhm dfmImbrb _wbmZm d `mImb`m _wbmZm XmoZ Vo VrZ
M_Mo XoUo.
H$mT>m~amo~a AmnU IS>rgmIaoMm VgmM `o>_YmMm dmna
Ho$bm Amho. `m_wio hm H$mT>m Vgm JmoS>gaM Amho. gwR>oMr WmoS>rer
{VIQ> Md, JwidobrMm H$S>ganUm Aer g{_l Md Amho. H$mT>m_`o
Jyi, gmIa, _Y, Jmo_y dJao AmOmamZwgma Kmbmdo bmJVo `mMo
_mU `m `m nmR>m_mUo `mdo. _Yw_ohr UmZm hm H$mT>m XoVmZm
IS>rgmIa Zmhr KmVbr Var Mmbob H$maU `o>_YmMm AmfYmV
g_mdoe Amho.
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

23

m`{jH$ n{hbo - {ZH$mT>m


AmnU `mM H$mT>mMm {ZH$mT>m H$ hUOo `mMohr m`{jH$
AmnUmg_moa Ho$`mZo _ZmV eH$m amhUma ZmhrV. EH$ doim hr AmfYo
CH$iyZ H$mT>`mZVa gnyUnUo `mVrb AmfYr JwU Z> hmoV Zmhr.
VgoM H$mhr _{hbm, bhmZ _wbo d d`H$a `q$Zm g`mH$mi`m
doir V`ma Ho$bobm VmOm H$mT>m H$mhr doiog H$S>H$ nS>Vmo hUyZ
gH$mir VmOm H$mT>m d g`mH$mir gm` {ZH$mT>m Aer nanam Mmby
Pmbr.
hr MmoWm dn JmiyZ {ebH$ Agbobr AmfYr H$moaS>m
nMmZo nwgyZ `mVrb nm`mMm Ae H$mTy>Z nMm_`oM PmHy$Z
g`mH$min`V R>odmdr. nmdgm`mVrb {XdgmV {Xdg^a nmD$g
AgVmo. hdm X_Q> AgVo Vohm g`mH$min`V `m Mmo`mbm ~waer
bmJy eH$Vo qH$dm Am~`mMm dmg `oVmo, Vma gwQ>Vo Vohm _m {ZH$mT>m
A{O~mV H$ Z`o. BVa doir gwm darb _mUo gd H$miOr KoD$Z
dZnVr MmJ`m am{h`m gm` {ZH$mT>m H$amdm hm VaM H$mT>mnojm
_X AgVmo.
`m Mmo`m_`o AmR> nQ> nmUr KmbyZ MVwWme {ebH$ amhrn`V
AmQ>dm`Mo AgVo hUOo naV XmoZeo {_br nmUr KmbyZ nmg {_br
{ebH$ amhrn`V AmQ>dm`Mo. _X AmModa hm {ZH$mT>m H$amdm.
H$mT>m_mUoM C^Q> ^mS>o dmnZ W_ nmg {_br nmUr _moOnmmZo
KmbyZ _moOn>rZo ^mS>m`m da`mH$S>on`VMr nmVir _moOyZ R>odyZ
VodT>rM nm`mMr nmVir `oBn`V AmQ>{dUo. JmiyZ KoD$Z Vmo Umbm
XoUo. `mZVa Vmo MmoWm Q>mHy$Z XoUo.
nanaoZo doJdoJ`m AmOmamH$[aVm Ajae: bmImo H$mT>mMo,
24

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

doJdoJ`m AmfYr dZnVtMo, doJdoJ`m n[a_mUmVbo AZw^yV H$ma


_m{hVr nmZo CnbY AmhoV. `mMo dJuH$aU, _mUrH$aU H$aUo ho
\$ma _moR>o H$m_ Amho.
m`{jH$ Xgaoo
10 dfmImbrb bhmZ _wbmZm AnMZ, Vmn d ImoH$bm
Ag`mg H$mT>m
gm{h` - EaS>_yi, Hw$Q>H$s, [aJUr _yi, dmdqS>J, Y_mgm, gwR>,
~ohS>m, ZmJa_moWo `mMo ^aS> MyU `oH$s 2 J_, Jwidob d `o>_Y
^aS> MyU `oH$s 5 J_, H$Sy>qZ~ nmZo 10, AIS> {_ao 2.
H$Vr OmS> ~wS>m`m C^Q> ^mS>mV AYm H$n nmUr KmbyZ H$Sy>qZ~
nmZo, AIS> {_ao, ~mH$sMr gd ^aS> MyU} KmbyZ nm`mnmgyZ C^Q> d
^mS>m`m darb H$S>oMr CMr _moOn>rZo _moO`mda `m ^mS>mV
AmUIr gmS>oVrZ H$n nmUr KmbUo _X AmModa AYm H$n {ebH$
am{h`mMr _moOn>rZo Imr H$ZM Ar ~X H$amdm. JmiUrZo qH$dm
dmZo {niyZ JmiyZ Xg`m ^mS>mV hm H$mT>m O_m H$amdm. gH$mir,
Xnmar, g`mH$mir EH$ Vo XmoZ M_Mo H$mT>mV AYm Vo EH$ M_Mm
_Y KmbyZ AmOmar _wbmZm hm H$mT>m AmoirZo VrZ-Mma {Xdg {X`mg
_wbo IS>IS>rV AmOma_wV hmoVmV.
`m m`{jH$mmao AmnU ~{KVbo H$s _moR>m _mUgmnojm
H$mT>mVrb AmfYr dZnVtMo _mU {Z`mZo H$_r Amho. `m dJmVrb
`m _mVm AmhoV d `mMr _wbo bhmZ AmhoV `m`mH$[aVm Vm`m
H$mT>mMm n`m` OmVr MmJbm Amho. `m nwVH$mV Oo AZw^yV H$mT>o
{Xbobo AmhoV `mMm Oa Cn`moJ H$amdm. VgoM AJXr bhmZ
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

25

_wbm`mgmR>r JwQ>rVrb AmfYmMm dmna H$amdm. _m `m_`o dN>Voda


gVV bj R>odUo JaOoMo Amho.
H$mT>mMm CnH$ma Xgam - bmIoMo nmUr - m`{jH$mgh
qnni qH$dm dS> dJao PmS>mda AmnUmg bmI {_iVo. `m
bmIoMo AmfYr Cn`moJ AmhoV. bhmZ _wbm`m S>m`m ImoH$`mV,
CMH$s bmJbr AgVm, H$moaS>m ImoH$bm, ImoH$`mVyZ nS>Um`m aVmda,
bhmZ _wbm`m AmH$S>rda, Pmon `o`mgmR>r B`m{X VgoM bmjm{X
Vob, bmjm{X JwJwi `m_`o V`ma H$a`m`m {H$`oV bmIoMm dmna
Ho$bm OmVmo. bmI nm`m_`o H$mT>mgmaIr {eOdbr Va ^mS>m`m
Vimbm {MH$Qy>Z ~gyZ CUVoZo H$anyZ OmBb hUyZ bmIoVrb AmfYr
^mJ {_i{d`mgmR>r AmnU ho m`{jH$ H$a`mMo `mo{Obo Amho. Mbm
Va gwdmV H$`m.
gm{h` - nmg J_ qnnim`m PmS>mdarb bmI.
H$Vr eoJS>rda Q>oZbog Q>rbMo C^Q> ^mS>o R>odyZ `m_`o bmIo`m
ghmnQ> nmUr KmbyZ hUOo VrZeo {_br d Vo MVwWme {ebH$
amhrn`V hUOo nMmhma {_br {ebH$ amhrn`V AmQ>dm`Mo Amho
`m_wio AmYr nMmhma {_br nmUr KmbyZ `m_`o nmg J_ bmI
H$mnS>m`m nwaMwS>rV ~mYyZ Vr nwaMwS>r ^mS>mda R>odbo`m H$mR>rbm
qH$dm Hy$ S>m`habm Aem VhoZo Xmo`mZo bm|~Vr ~mYm`Mr H$s Vr
^mS>m`m Vimbm Q>oH$Uma Zmhr VgoM nm`m~mhoa ahmUma Zmhr.
`mZVa nMmhma {_br nm`mV ~wS>bo`m nwaMwS>r_wio nm`mMr nmVir
d ^mS>m`m daMr H$S> `mMr CMr _moOn>rZo _moOyZ R>odUo ZVa
`m_`o Cabobo gdmXmoZeo {_br. nmUr KmbyZ _XmrZo AmQ>{dUo
26

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

gw H$. _YyZ _YyZ WmoS>m WmoS>m doimZr _moOn>rZo nmUr {H$Vr


AmQ>bo `mMm AXmO KoD$Z Amd`H$ VodT>o nmUr AmQ>`mMr Imr
Ho$`mda Ar ~X H$Z nm`mVrb bmIoMr nwaMwS>r H$mTy>Z EImm
VmQ>brV R>do mdr. ho nmUr WmoS>o WS> Pm`mda {\$Q>a nona`m ghm`mZo
JmiyZ KoD$. ho Jmibobo bmIoMo nmUr hUOo H$mT>o nVrVrb Xgam
CnH$n hmo`.
`m nm`mMm Cn`moJ WwH$sVyZ aV OmUm`m AmOmar
_mUgmH$[aVm BVa AmfYm~amo~a Ho$`mg aV nS>Uo Wm~Vo. `m nm`mMo
EH$m doiog Ko`mMo _mU nmg Vo e^a {_br. Amho. bmjm{X Vob
V`ma H$aVmZm `m nVrZo {_i{dbo`m bmIo`m nm`mMm Cn`moJ
hmoVmo. Aem VhoZo H$mT>m`m CnH$nmMo g`moJ AmnU {ejU KoVbo.
`mbm bmIoMm ag nU hUVmV.
H$mT>mMm CnH$ma 3 am - _mgag
AmOH$mb AmOmamMr `mVr Am{U H$ma dmT>V Mmbbobo
{XgVmV. ~XbV Mmbbobr OrdZebr, AmYw{ZH$Vo`m _mJo X_N>mH$
hmoBn`VMr amoOMr Ymdni, XfUmMm {diIm, Am{WH$ {df_Vm,
ImD$Z ImD$Z Jbob> Pmbobr _mUgo dOZ H$_r H$a`m`m qMVoV
Va AYnmoQ>r ahmdo bmJUmar Hw$nmo{fV ~hg ` OZVm `m_wio _hmJS>m
CnMmamZm n`m` hUyZ H$m hmoBZ m nmanm[aH$ AmfYmMm pdH$ma H$aUmar,
nanaoda lm AgUmar _mUgo Am{U `mMm \$m`Xm KoD$Z H$`m
_mbm`m qH$_Vr AdmVd dmT>{dUmar Z\o$Imoa _S>ir `m_wio AmOmar
nS>Uo hm EH$ JwhmM Pm`mMo IoXmZo hUmdo bmJVo. WmoS>ogo {df`mVa
Pmbo Var `mVrb dmVdVm AdW H$aUmar Amho. Agmo.
XrKnUmVrb AmOmamV amo`mMr _moR>m _mUmV ~bhmZr Pmbr
Va `m`m ~bdrgmR>r _mgagmMm Cn`moJ Ho$bm OmVmo. {ZamoJr
nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

27

VU ~H$`mMo, H$m|~S>r dJao m`m`m _mgmMm ag {_i{d`mgmR>r


Mma dmQ>r nm`mV EH$ dmQ>r _mgmMo ~marH$ VwH$S>o hUOo {I_m
KoD$Z MVwWme nmUr amhrn`V hUOo EH$ dmQ>r nmUr Caon`V AmQ>dyZ
JmiyZ KoD$Z Vmo K> _mgag AmOm`mMr nMZeVr hiyhiy gwYm
bmJ`mda Xo`mMm n`m` Amho. hm _mgag `mbm VwnmMr gwR>, {_ao,
_rR> dJao Md `oUm`m {OZgmMr \$moS>Ur XoD$Z qH$dm \$moS>Ur{edm`
mdm.
`mMm Xgam H$ma hUOo Mma dmQ>r nm`mV nmD$U dmQ>r
{I_m EH$ dmQ>r _mgag {ebH$ amhrn`V {eOdyZ, JmiyZ
\$moS>Ur{edm` qH$dm \$moS>Ur`wV hm _`_ K> ag nMZeVrV
gwYmaUm Pm`mda {Xdg^amV WmoS>m WmoS>m `md`mMm AgVmo Am{U
`mVrb {Vgam H$ma hUOo Mma dmQ>r nm`mV AYu dmQ>r {I_m
{eOdyZ EH$ dmQ>r _mgag {ebH$ amhr`mg darb XmoZ H$mamnojm
nmVi Agbobm _mgag _rR>mgh qH$dm \$moS>Ur XoD$Z AmOmar _mUgmbm
`m`m nMZeVrZwgma XoV am{h`mg `m`m earamVrb _mgdr
hmoD$Z V~oV nydnXmda `oVo.

dZnVrMm AmfYr JwU `oVmo.


Xgao _mU AmfYr dZnVt`m nYam nQ> XY d VodT>oM
nmUr EH$ H$Z \$V XY {ebH$ amhrn`V AmQ>{dUo. AWmV `m
Xmohr H$mamV `m AmfYmVrb H$mhr JwUmMr VrdVm H$_r H$Z
`mbm _XVm mV H$Z {Xbr OmVo. AmO`m `m ^mJmV XmohtMr
m`{jHo$ AmnUmg_moa H$Z `m CnH$nmMr _m{hVr KoD$.
ApW^J Pmbo`m hUOoM hmS> _moS>bo`m `{$g VgoM,
X` {dH$ma Agbo`m `{$_`o H$_tMm mg Agob `mda `m
XYm`m godmZmZo {deof \$m`Xm hmoVmo. Mbm Va m`{jH$ H$.

EH$m_`o AmfYr dZnVrMm EH$ ^mJ, XY `m`m AmR> nQ>


d `m_`o nmUr XYm`m MmnQ> hUOo ~mrg nQ> AmfYr dZnVr`m
`mZVa AmR> nQ> {ebH$ amhrn`V AmQ>{dUoo hUOo XYmEdT>o hUOo
\$V XYmMm ^mJ {ebH$ amhrn`V AmQ>{dUo `m XYm_`o `m

gm{h` - AOwZgmb ^aS> ghm J_, dmdqS>J d gwR> ^aS> `oH$s


XmoZ J_, EHy$U dOZ Xhm J_, XY XrS>eo {_br AWmV JmBMo, nmUr
XrS>eo {_br, gmIa XmoZ M_Mo.
H$Vr W_ AOwZgmb, gwR> d dmdqS>J `mMr {Xbo`m dOZm_mUo
^aS> KoD$Z Q>oZbog Q>rb`m C^Q> ^mS>mV 150 {_br. XY
KmV`mda `m`m nmVirnmgyZ ^mS>m`m daMr H$S> _moOn>rZo
_moOyZ R>odmdr. `mZVa `m ^mS>mV 150 {_br nmUr KmbyZ _`_
AmModa XY {ebH$ amhrn`V AmQ>{dUo. _moOn>rZo _YyZ _YyZ _moOUr
H$amdr. Ano{jV XYmMr nmVir Am`mda Ar ~X H$Z, XY WmoS>o
WS> Pm`mda JmiUrZo Xg`m ^mS>mV JmiyZ `mdo. `m XYmbm
AOwZgmbr_wio Jwbm~r aJ mV hmoBb. gwR>oMm dmg `oBb.
Cn`moJ Umbm _Yw_ho Zg`mg AmfYr{g XYmV Mdr_mUo gmIa
KmbyZ H$mo_Q> AgVm `m`bm mdo. _Yw_ohr Umbm gmIa Kmb`mMr
JaO Zmhr. X` amoJmV X`mbm ~b XoUmao ho AmfYr{g XY Amho.

28

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

H$mT>mMm CnH$ma 4 Wm
AmfYr XY m`{jH$mgh
AmfYr JwU`wV XY V`ma H$aVmZm XmoZ _mUo dmnabr
OmVmV.

nmanm[aH$ AmfYr `moOZoVyZ Amamo`

29

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