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Agricultural and Rural Land Use

Key Issue #3: Where are Agricultural Regions in More Developed Countries?

Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming


Where?
Most common form of agriculture in the United States west of the Appalachian and east of 98 degrees west

Much of Europe from France to Russia

Characteristics of Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming


The integration of crops and livestock Most crops are fed to animals Livestock provide manure of income comes from animal products (beef, milk, eggs, etc) The mix of crops and livestock reduces the variation in seasonal income

Crop Rotation Systems


Farms are divided into fields The crop planted on each rotates A year fallow

Choice of Crops
Corn The Corn Belt Soybeans

Dairy Farming
Where?
The most important type of commercial farming near large urban areas of the NE U.S., SE Canada, and NW Europe Also, South and East Asia India the largest producer of milk

Why Dairy Farms Locate Near Urban Areas


Transportation factors milk is highly perishable! Milkshed

Regional Differences in Dairy Products


The farther the farm is from urban areas, the smaller is the percentage of output devoted to fresh milk New Zealand

Problems for Dairy Farmers


Declining revenues and rising costs Dairying is labor intensive Feeding the cows during winter = expensive

Grain Farming
Grain the seed from various grasses (wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, etc) Grains are primarily grown for human consumption Output is sold to food manufacturers The most important wheat The worlds leading export The worlds breadbasket

Grain Farming Regions


The U.S. is the largest commercial producer of grain A few other countries: Canada, Argentina, Australia, France and the U.K. Generally found in regions too dry for mixed crop and livestock agriculture

The McCormick Reaper

A Combine Machine

Livestock Ranching
Ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area Semiarid or arid land Practiced in PEDs where vegetation is sparse and soil is bad

Cattle Ranching in Popular U.S. Culture


Beginning of U.S. cattle ranching:
Columbus first brought cattle to America on his second trip Immigrants from Spain and Portugal began ranching in the Americas Cattle Ranching expanded in the 1860s

Transporting cattle to market


To reach cities: cowboys drove them over trails through Texas to the nearest railway They were transported to on cattle cars

Fixed Location Ranching


Cattle ranching declined in the 1880s The Code of the West Early cattle ranchers in the West owned little land, only cattle

Range Wars
The U.S. government owned most of the land that was used for grazing The government sold the land to farmers Barbed wire The farmers won the battle, and ranchers had to buy or lease land

Changes in Cattle Breeding

Hereford

Longhorn

Ranching Outside the U.S.


Other PED regions Rare in Europe, except Spain and Portugal Argentina, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay The interior of Australia New Zealand, the Middle East, South Africa Ranching is part of the meat-processing industry

Mediterranean Agriculture
Climate prevailing winds provide moisture and moderate winter temperatures Land is very hilly A smaller percentage of income is derived from animal products than mixed use and livestock regions

Mediterranean Climate Regions

Mediterranean Crops
Most are for human consumption Horticulture the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers Two most important cash crops olives and grapes

Wine Production
2/3 of the worlds wine production is in the areas surrounding the Mediterranean (France, Italy, Spain) The Remaining 1/3 produced in other Mediterranean climate regions (California, Chile, South Africa, and Australia)

Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming


Where?
In the SE United States truck farming Apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, mushrooms, and tomatoes

Specialty Farming
A form of truck farming spread to New England Profitably growing crops that have demand from affluent customers Asparagus, peppers, mushrooms, strawberries, etc

Importance of Access to Markets


Von Thnen Model helps to explain the importance of proximity to market and the choice of crops on commercial farms
Johann Heinrich von Thnen, 1826, Germany Which crops? Which animals? The cost of land vs. the cost of transporting goods Farms close to market tend to have products that are expensive to transport Farms further from the market have products that are cheaper to transport

Von Thnen Model

Application of Von Thnen Model


Based on experiences in the early 19th Century First ring outside of city market oriented gardens and milk producers Second timber Next various crops Last land for grazing Other factors a river or other transportation can change the model