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Cohesive Devices

Five kinds of cohesion: Reference Substitution Ellipsis Conjunction Lexical cohesion

Reference is a semantic relation that ensures the continuity of meaning in a text (HALLIDAY & HASAN) Example: John goes fishing every other week. He is a very good fisherman.

Substitution is a grammatical relation, where one linguistic item substitutes for a longer one. Example: Jacks car is very old and ugly. He should get a nicer one.

Ellipsis is very similar to substitution, except that in the case of ellipsis the substitution is by nothing. Example: Mary ate some chocolate chip cookies, and Robert [blank] some gummi bears.

Conjunction refers to specific devices (conjunctions) for linking one sentence to another. Example: "There was a time when a fool and his money were soon parted, but now it happens to everybody." (Adlai Stevenson)

Lexical cohesion is generally understood as the cohesive effect [that is] achieved by the selection of vocabulary (HALLIDAY & HASAN 1994:274) #Types_of_cohesive_ties