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Bibliographic Pathfinder: Motifs in Shakespeares Macbeth

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Pathfinder Motifs in William Shakespeares Macbeth Introduction

William Shakespeares tragedy Macbeth is a dark and complex examination of guilt, fate and the supernatural predetermination of right and wrong. Motifs are used throughout the play to progress the themes. A motif is a recurring element or idea that adds depth to a literary work. There are a many motifs in Macbeth including blood, guilt, manhood, darkness/light, foul/fair, and the supernatural. This pathfinder is designed to be a tool to assist high school teachers with their research and lesson plan ideas for students to explore the motifs in Macbeth. While many high school teachers are familiar with the complexities of this play, others are not, and they have to develop a complex knowledge base quickly in order to teach lessons that challenge high school students of all abilities. The information included in this pathfinder is intended to reach multi-level classes for grades 9-12 as well as provide the teachers who are formulating assessments and lesson plans. For that reason, the resources range from introductory resources to complex analyses of motifs. Each annotation includes suggestions regarding the appropriate audience and grade level for each tool. The sources listed are available in the Waverley Council Library in Bondi Junction, New South Wales, Australia (http://www.waverley.nsw.gov.au/library/home). They also include resources from the State Library of New South Wales, which is a much larger library available to any resident of New South Wales. The Waverley Council and other smaller libraries refer patrons to the State Library on a regular basis. This pathfinder includes only resources in English or, in the case of some critiques, resources that are translated to English. Since Shakespearean analysis dates back to the era of his writing in the 1500-1600s, the resources contained in this pathfinder are not limited by publication date. The scope is large, however the quality of resources is especially important to consider since there is are so many unreliable sources on Macbeth online. This pathfinder does not include every resource in the library regarding the motifs in Macbeth. The resources that are selected have been chosen for their appropriateness for high school students and teachers. It does not include very complex analyses or various introductions included in the different publications of the play Macbeth, but it does include a variety of resources designed to aid a fundamental understanding of the text and of Shakespeares life and times with a special focus on how that relates to the motifs in Macbeth. Also included in this pathfinder are resources available through the State Library of New South Wales (http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/). Given the recent budget cuts, libraries in New South Wales are sharing resources. The State Library has an extensive list of online resources that the Waverley Public Library recommends to patrons. This collection is available to all residents of New South Wales and library cards that provide access to all materials are available with confirmation of a New South Wales address. They can be acquired either by mail or at the library.

In order to understand the motifs in Macbeth, it is important to appreciate the language and background as well. Consequently, many of the resources found in this pathfinder touch on particular aspects of the play as they relate to the study of the motifs. Resources on Shakespeare and Macbeth are plentiful, and students can find additional resources by browsing the shelves, the databases or using the library catalog. Useful information in this regard, including call numbers and possible subject headings are listed in the pathfinder itself. GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS / DESCRIPTIONS

There are many study guides that will provide teachers and students with a general overview in regards to the motifs in Macbeth. It is important to note that these are just a starting point for research, and further research should be conducted by using the reliable sources in the rest of this pathfinder. As a teachers pathfinder and guide to teaching motifs in a new unit in Macbeth, this pathfinder includes resources for specific research on motifs and themes but also general resources helpful for establishing background knowledge on William Shakespeare and Macbeth. The teacher can distinguish which resources will be used for and with students and which might be used for the teacher to gather resources for him or herself. The resources below are beneficial for initial research on the motifs in Macbeth. Gray, Terry A. 1995-2011. Shakespeare and the Internet. http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/ This is a collection of resources both in print and online that attempts to be an annotated guide to the scholarly Shakespeare resources available on the Internet. It is ever growing and includes a timeline, summaries, genealogical charts, reviews and criticism. The section referencing criticism of Macbeth includes an article entitled Shakespeare De-witched by Inge Leimberg, which highlights the motif of witchcraft and gives detailed historical explanations about the origins of witchcraft in Macbeth and its connection to King James and his text Daemonologie. It also includes an extensive list of notes in at the end of the article, which serve as a resource for additional sources and research. Also included in this bibliography is a section entitled Shakespeare in Education, which provides lesson plans on Macbeth with reference to themes and motifs and how to use those in the classroom. It also includes a link to the Penguin Teachers Guides to Macbeth. (http://www.penguinclassics.co.uk/nf/shared/WebDisplay/0,,82524_1_10,00.html) as well as Penguin Guides to other Shakespearean plays The Penguin Teachers Guide is a fantastic resource for teaching themes and motifs in the classroom. It provides complete lesson plans focused on the motifs of ambition, power, and appearance vs. reality. It also includes additional extension activities such as searching newspapers for current uses of themes and motifs, tracing motifs through other texts and using current events to trace the Macbeth themes as they as they apply today. This is valuable resource for teachers, and would be a great aid in planning lessons on motifs in Macbeth. Muir, Kenneth, and Philip Edwards, editors. 1977. Aspects of Macbeth. Sydney: Cambridge University Press. CALL NUMBER: 822.33 The chapter called Image and Symbol in Macbeth by Kenneth Muir, highlights the symbolism in the text and the importance of imagery in exploring motifs in the play. There is specific

attention paid to the motif of darkness and light (pages 68-71), and sleep (pages 71-72). It includes specific quotations that highlight the weird sisters and their role in this motif and the supernatural. It also touches on the role of Scottish weather and location in regards to darkness and light. Sparknotes.com. 2012. Themes, Motifs, and Symbols. Sparknotes.com. Accessed November 3, 2012. http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/macbeth/themes.html

Teachers may decide whether or not to include this as a student resource, however most students are aware of the website, and teachers would benefit from teaching students about the appropriate use of such a source. Sparknotes is ...written and produced exclusively by Harvard students and graduates... SparkNotes come from students studying for exams and cramming for papers just like you. The section entitled Themes, Motifs and Symbols provides a worthwhile overview on the motifs in Macbeth. Additionally, it provides researchers with a clear definition of what motifs are. This is a fantastic resource. SUBJECT HEADINGS The following Library of Congress Subject Headings are suggested when searching for information on motifs in Macbeth. Shakespeare, William -- 1564-1616 Macbeth Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 Tragedies Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 Criticism and Interpretation Macbeth, -- King of Scotland, -- 11th cent. In literature. English literature History and criticism Regicides Scotland Drama Macbeth King of Scotland, - 11th century Drama English Drama 16th Century AD Playwrights Bibliography Shakespeare, William 1564-1616 - Encyclopedias CALL NUMBERS The following Library of Congress and Dewey Decimal call numbers are associated with the topic of motifs in Macbeth. If more browsing or searching is desired, check these areas to locate additional resources. The Waverley Public Library uses the Dewey Decimal System, so the resources below are noted as such, however the Library of Congress Numbers have been included for further research if the user desires to expand their search to other libraries. Library of Congress PR 2823.A94 PR 2892.S447 PR 2983.B76 (PR= English Literature) Dewey 822- English Drama 822.33 Shakespeare 820.9 - English Literature History and Criticism

This pathfinder is directly associated with the resources in the Waverley Public Library and online. Consequently, the examples below are based on that physical location. For teachers and students who are using this pathfinder in other locations, please begin the search by browsing the call numbers above. Below are listed examples of resources in the Waverley Public Library. McFarlane, Brian, ed. 1990. Viewpoints on Shakespeare. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire. CALL NUMBER: 822.33 This book contains a range of essays on Shakespeare which seemed worth preserving for the benefit of senior secondary and first-year tertiary students. The authors note says all essays have a concern for the detailed life of the play in mind. Written for students, the first section begins with the sub-title goodies and baddies, which is inviting and unintimidating for students. There are two essays on Macbeth. First titled the Tragedy of Man by Graeme Henry (pages 16- 35) focused on the motif of manhood throughout. The second is Equivocation and Cosmic Disturbances in Macbeth by Sue Tweg (p. 36- 45) which is a thorough analysis for the themes of the supernatural and guilt. Both articles include suggestions for further reading at the end that are based on the given motifs. Rogers, H.L. 1964. Double Profit in Macbeth. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press). Print. CALL NUMBER: 822.33 The language in this text is advanced, and this book would be most suitable for honors level students in grades 11-12. The analysis is sound in regards to teacher preparation and analysis. This would be a good resource for more advanced students learning how to decipher and analyze professional criticism. Pages 54-65 provide an in depth analysis of the motif fair and foul. It includes specific quotations from the text, which would aid in student research and the collection of materials in researching that genre. It would also provide teachers with resources in regards to the fair and foul motif as well as examples of that motif to share with the students. Additionally, on pages 5-9, Rogers draws attention to the importance of the repetition and variations of motifs throughout the play and provides an overview of how to interpret and critique this text by using those motifs. Brown, John Russell. 2001. Shakespeare: The Tragedies. New York: Pelgrave. CALL NUMBER: 822.33 The chapter dedicated specifically to the analysis of Macbeth (p. 284-316) is titled Macbeth: Power and Imagination. It begins with a discussion about witchcraft that explains the origins of the motif of the supernatural, and it continues to discuss that motif in depth. Additionally, the next section entitled Terror is about the motif of sleep, and blood and how these motifs connect to the building terror throughout the play. It includes specific quotations that reference this motif and pictures from past productions as well. This is a good intermediate text for use with college prep classes. Mack, Maynard. 1993. Everybodys Shakespeare: Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Call Number: 82.33

Great for students and scholars alike, this book is addressed to all or any who enjoy Shakespeare and read for pleasure. The language is accessible and the analysis clear. There is a chapter entitled The Many Faces of Macbeth which focuses on the use of motifs to explain and analyze the many faces or character traits of Macbeth (the character). It is a great resource for introducing the idea of motifs and there are many references and examples to the motifs of the supernatural, blood, and manhood. This is a wonderful resource for explaining to students how motifs can help in developing a character. For example, the chapter traces the use of the word man throughout the play and explains how the definition of the word man changes through the play and, as Macbeths character develops, the definition of manhood changes as well. A read-able piece, with specific information and an overview for a specific research paper on motifs as they relate to character development. EXISTING BIBLIOGRAPHIES Shakespeares Globe Theater. 2012. Recommended Online Resources. http://www.shakespearesglobe.com/education/library-research/libraryarchive/recommended-online-resources. The collection of resources, compiled by Shakespeares Globe Theater in London, England, is a thorough and useful tool for any educator or student of Shakespeare. This resource includes a plethora of resources on all of the motifs included in this pathfinder. They are broken up into seven categories including text resources, online journals, online databases, indexes and online catalogues. This is a comprehensive resource that will help researchers navigate further resources concerning the motifs in Macbeth and allow for further resources beyond this pathfinder. Specifically worth noting are the suggestions for online journals or online databases and indexes, which include links to publications and criticism that detail the motifs in Macbeth and how they connect to other plays. Annotated Bibliography of Macbeth Criticism. Shakespearean Navigators. Accessed http://www.shakespeare-navigators.com/macbeth/SelectedBiblio.html. This annotated bibliography includes complete citations and short reviews on articles about Macbeth. Included in the bibliography are the following articles: Dramatic Irony. Motifs of Air, Blood, Seed and Time by William Blissett (which explains the motif of blood and other motifs), Images of Death: Ambition in Macbeth by R. A. Foakes (which discusses the motif of manhood), and The Secretst Man of Blood by William Blisset (which highlights the use of blood in exploring the motif of guilt and manhood), and The Naked Babe and the Cloak of Manliness by Cleanth Brooks (which explores how the manhood motif is furthered by the appearance of the weird sisters and their prophecies). Both the annotations and the essays themselves would be helpful for teachers exploring these motifs more and for students who are doing research about the various motifs in Macbeth. This collection of criticism would be a worthwhile introduction to criticism on the motifs, and there are quite a few sources to choose from. Gray, Terry A. 1995-2011. Shakespeare and the Internet. http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/

For more information on this resource, please see the General Introduction annotation above. Folger Shakespeare Library. 2001. World Shakespeare Bibliography. Shakespeare Quarterly, 52: 824-836. (Accessed through State Library of New South Wales)

This bibliography is part of the Shakespeare Quarterly. It includes articles and essays on a variety of subjects in Macbeth such as The Linguistic Understanding of Macbeths Soliloquies: Mainly by Lexical Analysis this highlights the motifs of manhood and guilt as they are expressed through Macbeths soliloquies. (This is mentioned in the bibliographic notes.) Examples of included references also include Blood Will Have Blood: Power, Performance, and Lady Macbeths Gender Trouble from Journal X (1998), which explains how Lady Macbeth connects with the motif of manhood and blood by using power relations in a parodic inversion of the ideal wife that puts pressure on masculinist structure. Campbell, Oscar James. Editor, 1966. Shakespeare Encyclopedia. London: Methuen & Co Ltd, London. There is an extensive bibliography included in the back of the reference book, A Shakespeare Encyclopedia. It is arranged by play and/or text, and the Macbeth section is on pages 983-1014. It is very dense, and it mostly consists of older books, but it is a fantastic starting place for resources. Broken into sections, students interest would primarily be in section H: Special Studies which is broken into the following suggested categories: Imagery and language, Themes, Classroom Use of Shakespeare. These are dated, but not outdated. The difference is very important to note when studying Shakespeare. In studying the motif of darkness and light, the supernatural or fair and foul, teachers and students would turn to the Imagery and Language section which details books for further research on the appearance of the weird sister, the weather and the references to the word dark or light throughout the text. The Themes text explains the use of themes such as blood and manhood and gives suggestions for further research. DICTIONARIES Wells, Stanley W. 1998. A Dictionary of Shakespeare. New York: Oxford University Press. Dewey Number: 822.3 (Reference) This resource is set up like a dictionary for easy reference access; there is a plethora of information for every researcher. While it includes specific language definitions, it also includes analysis of plays. The Macbeth section puts the play into a historical context and explores the historical background of the play and its references to the motif of witchcraft. It explores the writing of the play for King James and his obsession with witches and the supernatural (both motifs in Macbeth). It also includes notes on the language and on passages that include the motif of manhood. For example, when Lady Macbeth says unsex me now, students and teachers could look up the definition for the word unsex and understand the definition and, consequently, the motif, more clearly. Shewmaker, Eugene F. 1966. Shakespeares Language: A Glossary of Unfamiliar Words in His Plays and Poems. New York: Facts on File.

Dewey Number: 822.33 (Reference)

This is a 515-page glossary that includes most Shakespearean words, both familiar and unfamiliar. Rife with arcane references, unfamiliar expression, and even made-up words, Shakespeares texts are made easy to understand. This collection includes 15,000 entries that put unfamiliar words into context by using key passages from the text to ensure contextual understanding. For example, in analyzing the theme of darkness vs. light, a student should understand Lady Macbeths famous plea in Act 1 to fill her with the cruelty of the night: Come to my womans breasts, / and take my milk for gall, you murdring minsters / wherever in your slightless substances / you wait on natures mischief! Come thick night, / and pall thee in dunnest smoke of hell (I.iv.45-49). To fully understand all of the motif references in this important paragraph, one would have to understand the following unfamiliar words: gall, murdring, ministers, slightless, pall, dunnest. This resource allows for a complete analysis of this passage because it explains each word in the passage. It would be a very useful way to aid in the full comprehension of the text for teachers in order to instruct students more effectively and to inspire student to be pro-active about their language learning and their understanding of the motifs in the text. It is organized alphabetically, and it includes a useful introduction to Elizabethan language and Shakespearean dialogue. Crystal, David, and Ben Crystal. 2002. Shakespeares Words: A Glossary & Language Companion. New York: Penguin Books. Call Number: 822.33 (Reference) This resource is a comprehensive glossary and dictionary of Shakespeare terms for students. It includes approximately 14,000 vocabulary words that arise out of Elizabethan English. This would aid in understanding the motifs in Macbeth, as a complete understanding of every word is essential when critiquing and interpreting a text. For example, in referencing appearance vs. reality, Macbeth states My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical, / shakes my single state of man, that function / Is smotherd in surmise; and nothing is / but what is not (1, III, 143-150). Once could not analyze these lines associated with appearance vs. reality and guilt without understanding the words smotherd, surmise, and fantastical. These words are present in this resource. Also useful is the diagrams at the back which charts the plot and the players in Macbeth. It would be impossible to trace the above referenced theme of guilt without understanding completely how the King is textually related to Banquo and the witches prophecy, and how Macbeths thoughts are associated with that relationship. This resource would also be a valuable tool to have in the classroom as a reference text to use during reading and for help with unfamiliar vocabulary. ENCYCLOPEDIAS Campbell, Oscar James. 1966. A Shakespeare Encyclopedia. Editor: Oscar James Campbell. London: Methuen & Co. This Encyclopedia includes a wealth of information on all things Shakespeare. The entry called the The Tragedy of Macbeth includes sub-sections for the text, plot synopsis, comments, and criticism. The criticism section highlights the specific motifs in Macbeth and other historical analysis. These sections on pages 112-149 are particularly useful in studying the motifs in

Macbeth, and they highlight the motifs of the supernatural and guilt, complete with quotations and line-by-line analysis. The sections are a bit dense, but read-able for advanced students in grades 9-12. Kastan, David Scott. 2012. The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This source provides a general overview of the themes and motifs that are present in William Shakespeares plays. It specifically addresses the motifs of manhood by tracing the character development of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. This text is particularly useful because it puts the motifs and the manhood theme into context with his other plays and the historical context and traces character development throughout the play. INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS Shakespeare Collection. 2009. Cengage Learning. Gale. www.gale.cengage.com/Shakespeare/

The Shakespeare Collection is available through the State University of New South Wales; it hosts a variety of content ranging from multimedia to criticisms to diaries and historical adaptations and primary sources. It is browseable by date, title, subject or keyword, and typing in Macbeth in addition to a specific motif will glean a variety of results in those specific areas. For example, a search with Macbeth and blood resulted in three articles about the motif and an analysis of the motifs in Kuroasawas film adaptation of Macbeth. Macbeth and motifs will glean eleven results including The State of Man and Nature in Macbeth, and article by Thomas LaBorie from Shakespearean Criticism or Macbeth and the Bearded Women by James Schiffer, also from the Shakespearean Criticism journal, which highlights the motif of manhood and the supernatural. This is an invaluable resource for any scholar studying the motifs in Macbeth. Oxford Reference Online. 2012. Oxford University Press. Web. Accessed www.oxfordreference.com. This resource is available through the State Library of New South Wales; it brings together over 2 million entries that are cross-searchable. It has combined Oxford Quick Reference and the Oxford Reference Library. Oxfords collection is expansive in regards to Shakespeare, and the mere scope of their research makes this a useful site. It is searchable and includes a dictionary, language reference material and other articles and reference material published by the Oxford University Press. There are a variety of resources published by Oxford University Press that highlight the use of motifs in Macbeth including: The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.) which gives brief description of each motif in the play, A Dictionary of English Folklore that highlights the use of the supernatural in Macbeth, and The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, which highlights and analyzes phrases in Macbeth that relate to motifs like the supernatural such as by the pricking of my thumbs, / something wicked this way comes. This resource includes dictionaries, thesauri, books, quotation collections and overview pages. It is a valuable resource for any teacher, student and classroom.

Gale. 2012. Literature Resource Center. Cengage Learning. Accessed via the State Library of New South Wales. http://gdc.gale.com/gale-literature-collections/literature-resourcecenter/. The Gale Literature Resource Center includes full text articles from journals and magazines and those articles include essays, overviews, biographies and much more. Resources that would be useful in studying motifs in Macbeth include Reversals in Polanskis Macbeth, which was published in Literature/Film Quarterly and addresses the role of women and the motif of manhood as well as that of the contrasting motifs of fair and foul or darkness and light. While this article specifically addresses Polanskis film adaptation, the insights into the various motifs are important and relevant even for those only studying the play and with limited film exposure. Of additional interest is the article Living in a Hard Time: Politics and Philosophy in Macbeth by Leon Harold Craig, published in the journal Shakespearean Criticism. It addresses the origins of the motif of manhood and explains how it relates to the motif of blood. Other articles that address the motifs in Macbeth are indexed and searchable. This is a valuable resource for students and educators. MACHINE READABLE DATABASES / DIGITAL MEDIA / WEBSITES For a description of the Waverley Public Librarys machine-readable databases, please see the Online Databases titles listed in the Abstract and Indexes section of this pathfinder. The resources below specifically refer to online reference material through the websites notes. Sparknotes.com. 2012. Themes, Motifs, and Symbols. Sparknotes.com. Accessed November 3, 2012. http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/macbeth/themes.html For more information on this resource, please see the General Information section listed above. Gray, Terry A. 1995-2011. Shakespeare and the Internet. Accessed via the State Library of NSW http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/ For notes on this resource, please see the Existing Bibliographies section of this pathfinder. Shakespeares Globe Theater. 2012. Recommended Online Resources. http://www.shakespearesglobe.com/education/library-research/libraryarchive/recommended-online-resources. For additional information on this resource see its listing in the Existing Bibliographies section of this pathfinder. JOURNALS OR PERIODICALS Steggle, M, editor. 2012. Early Modern Literary Studies. Sheffeld Hallam University: Humanities Research Center. Accessed November 22, 2012. http://extra.shu.ac.uk/emls/emlsjour.html There are a number of articles included in this resource, including Is There a Life After Sex?: Macbeth and Post-Sexuality by Helen Ostovich (McMaster University). Additionally, there is information about specific performances, which could help teachers and students understand how

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to highlight the motifs in theatrical productions For example, the Northern Broadsides production notes discuss the role of manhood and guilt, two important motifs, in that specific production of Macbeth. The production emphasizes the dagger of the mind and uses a lot of blood to show how Macbeths guilt overcomes him. The three other theatrical notes are similar in their included analysis. Connotations Society. 2011. Connotations: A Journal for Critical Debate. Accessed November 21, 2012. http://www.connotations.uni-tuebingen.de/. This electronic journal is a collection of resources about English literature. It is international and refereed, and its primary focus is to encourage scholarly communication on semantic and stylistic elements of texts. The articles that are of interest on the subject of motifs are: Getting a Head in a Warrior Culture: Shakespeares Macbeth and the Problem of Identity by Lynne M. Robertson, which has to do with the motif of manhood and power as it follows Macbeths character developments throughout the play. Also of interest is the article Shakespeare Dewitched: A Response to Stephen Greenblatt by Inge Leimberg, which addresses the role of witchcraft in Macbeth and how the motif of the supernatural is addressed. These and others would not only be useful resources, but it could be an interesting discussion forum for advanced students studying the motifs in Macbeth. Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 96. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2006. Shakespeare Collection. Gale. State Library of New South Wales Public. 30 Oct. 2012 This publication includes a collection essays that provide a more complex and in-depth analysis of the motifs in Macbeth. The journal is accessible through the State Library of New South Wales, and includes a large scope of articles in regards to motifs in Macbeth. For specific titles, please see the resources in the Shakespeare Collection annotation in the Indexes and Abstracts section above. Folger Shakespeare Library. 1950-2012. Shakespeare Quarterly. George Washington University Press. This source has a variety of selections of articles, criticism, reviews and analyses. Easily searchable, the journal includes reviews and analysis. Searching for articles on manhood, for example, one would find highlights such as Womens Fantasy of Manhood: A Shakespearian Theme by D.W. Harding (Vol. 20, No. 3) and Macbeth: The Tragedy of the Hardened Heart by Dolora G. Cunningham (Vol. 14, No. 1) and Integrity in Macbeth: The Search for the Single State of Man by Richard Horwich (Vol. 29, No. 3). Similar searches are available for the other motifs in Macbeth as well as for other Shakespearean analysis and criticism. This is a valuable resource for a high school library to have both for teacher and student use. Zott, Lynn M., Editor. 2003. Shakespearean Criticism. Detroit: Gale, Literature Resource Center. The Shakespearean Criticism journal indexes a large scope of Shakespeare-related articles searchable by the following categories: criticism, overviews, news, primary sources & literary works, and multimedia. Articles include Lady Macbeth by George William Gerwig, which highlights the role of manhood and guilt, Macbeth and the Moral Scale of Tragedy by Sheldon

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P Zitner, which highlights the motif of guilt and blood and Macbeth and the Tragedy of Sin by Ken Colston which also details the specificities of the motif of guilt and manhood in regards to Macbeths character development. BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES Well, Stanley and Michael Dobson. 2012. Biographies of Shakespeare. The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare. London: Oxford University Press. Edited by Michael Dobson and Stanely Wells, this brief analysis is an introduction to the biographies on Shakespeare. It also serves as a collection of resources or a bibliography for further research for students looking into the life of William Shakespeare. Stanley Wells suggests that S. Schoenbaums Shakespeares Lives is the classic biography of Shakespeare, which would be found on the shelves, and, though that specific suggestion is not available in the Waverley Public Library; it would be a good source to find elsewhere for further research for advanced students and teachers further research. In regards to the motif of the supernatural, it would be of interest to investigate Shakespeares relationship with King James and his associations with witchery as it pertains to Macbeth. H.W. Wilson. 2012. Biography Index: Past and Present. EBSCO Industries, Inc. This index is available through the State Library of New South Wales. It is a database full of biographical resources that are referenced and made relevant to current events and/or given perspective through a modern lens. This is particularly useful in studying the role of manhood in Macbeth, as it provides biographical comparisons such as the article From Hillary Clinton to Lady Macbeth: Or, Historicizing Gender, Law and Power through Shakespeares Scottish Play by Carla Spivack and included in the William and Mary Journal of Women & the Law (Fall 2008). Other suggested titles include The Two Deaths of Lady Macduff: Antimetaphysics, Violence, and William Davenants Restoration Revision of Macbeth by Ted Miller in the journal Political Theory (December 2008). Aitchison, Nick. 2000. Macbeth: Man and Myth. Stroud, England: Sutton. This biographical text, available through the State Library of New South Wales and indexed in the Biographical Index Past and Present (H.W. Wilson) above, highlights the character of Macbeth and all his manifestations: historical, mythological and dramatic. It highlights a plethora of material and traces the origins of a variety of motifs in the play. Of interest are the chapters detailing witchcraft and the geographical locations that have an impact on the motif of darkness and light. It also includes analyses of different play adaptations and how each version depicts the motifs differently. GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES Hart, Mathew. 2006. Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Accessed November 11, 2012. http://googlelittrips.com/GoogleLit/912/Entries/2006/10/1_Macbeth_by_William_Shakespeare.html This is a Google Lit Trip using Google Earth and developed by the Google Certified Teachers program. It takes students on a virtual tour to the locations used in Macbeth and students can see

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where the locations are (England, Ireland, Scotland, Norway) and what the places look like today. Additionally, Hart has included quotations from the text that reference the locations and a brief explanation of what is going on in each scene or location. There are links to timelines and there are photographs integrated into the resource and even a visual of Dunsinane Castle created with Google SketchUp. One can also see views of the locations from Macbeths time and how they look today. This is a fantastic resource for anyone studying Macbeth, and it includes valuable information that helps in deciphering the more analytical motifs of the play, especially those relating to location such as fair and foul and the supernatural. It requires a download of a .kmz file and the installation of Google Earth on the computer that is being used. Brendle, Anna. 2002. Gallery: Witchy Animals of Shakespeare. Accessed online November 23, 2012. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/10/1028_021028_HalloweenMacbeth.html This National Geographic resource includes information on the witches potions in Act IV Scene I of Macbeth. It is a useful resource when studying the supernatural motif and the fair and foul motif, because the witches potions play an important role in the play. It also encourages students to look into the locations where these potion ingredients are found and what they actually are. It also provides pictures of the animals and locations of the animals as well, that would then be trace-able on a map. Included in the resource is an audio file of a dramatic reading as well as the full-text of the scene. Schools Net. 2012. Key Stage 3: Macbeth: Act II scenes 1-2. Accessed November 21, 2012. http://www.schoolsnet.com/pls/hot_school/sn_lessons.page_pls_sat_lesson_detail?x=&p_les son_id=1&p_disp_order=8. This interactive map features the locations in Macbeth. It includes the following locations: Birnam Wood, Perth, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dunsinane Castle. Particularly of interest is the location of Birnam Wood, as it directly applies to the motif of the supernatural and fair and foul, since the prophecies of the witches dictate Macbeths fate and say he will not be slain until Birnam Wood come to Dunsinane. In clarifying this line, and the location of both Birnam Wood and Dunsinane, students and teachers will gain a better understanding of the real life location of the text. It also includes an explanation of the historical setting. Both of these contribute to the understanding of the text and how it relates to the supernatural and the fair and foul motifs. Macbeths Scotland. Google Maps. https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&t=h&source=embed&oe=UTF8&msa=0&msi d=100840874611615443178.00048c4cf8a27b7e6ef69 This is a Google Maps trip that highlights the locations in the text Macbeth. It includes the following locations: Forres, Inverness, Fife, and Dunsinane Hill. While the Google Earth trip mentioned above is much more detailed, this is an adequate substitute for studying the locations in Macbeth, especially those relating to location such as fair and foul and/or the supernatural. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS National Endowment for the Humanities. 2010. EDSITment. <http://edsitment.neh.gov>.

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EDSITment is a project of the National Endowment for the Humanities that includes resources for teachers on a variety of subjects. It publishes lesson plans on Macbeth including specific lesson plans on the themes and motifs in Macbeth. Examples include Shakespeares Macbeth: Fear and the Motives of Evil, (http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/shakespeares-macbethfear-and-the-motifs-of-evil) which focuses on the motifs of guilt and manhood in Macbeth. It includes the text, a worksheet, and a specific step-by-step lesson plan. Specifically, the lesson highlights Macbeths choices throughout the play and gives specific sections to explore in regards to that motif. It also references the motif of blood as it relates to evil and guilt. EDSITment also includes The Dagger of the Mind (http://edsitement.neh.gov/lessonplan/shakespeares-macbeth-dagger-mind) which is a lesson plan about the motif of guilt and how to teach this motif in a high school classroom. It includes teachers resources to support the learning and the lesson and also includes links to online texts via MITs website (http://shakespeare.mit.edu/). This resource also includes a bibliographical collection of links to other relevant passages. The lesson includes an analysis of elements in the play as well as a wordless version of act 2, scene 4 (the banquet). It includes extension activities as well. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). 2012. Accessed via the State Library of New South Wales. Accessed November 24, 2012. http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/basic.jsp ERIC, or the Education Resources Information Center, is an online digital library, accessible through the State Library of New South Wales, which includes bibliographic records and a growing collection of full-text articles that pertain to education research and information. It is searchable by audience, and users can select teachers, community or practitioners. By selecting teachers, articles such as the following could be of use: Teaching Macbeth (and More): Better Planning Better Learning by Dan Fickstein. This highlights the themes and motifs in Macbeth and shares strategies and lesson plans that help in designing lessons that help students analyze motifs in the text. Also of use would be From Writing to Media with Literature in EFL by Reta A Gilbert. This classroom guide suggests strategies to teach the interpretation of Shakespeares Macbeth to ESL students. It specifically addresses the various textual elements such as the motifs of blood, and the setting elements such as darkness vs. light. Additionally, the following articles found in ERIC could be used alongside the audio-visual component. They detail how to analyze Roman Polanskis version of Macbeth and how Polanski chose to focus on specific motifs in Macbeth including blood and darkness vs. light. These two articles are only a few examples of what resources can be found to help a teacher with a lesson plan on the motifs in Shakespeares Macbeth as they relate to this pathfinder and the audio-visual components listed below: Berlin, Normand. 1973. Macbeth: Polanski and Shakespeare. Literature/Film Quarterly, v1 n4 290-298. Accessed via ERIC Education and Resource Center and Mullin, Michael. 1973. Macbeth on Film. Literature/Film Quarterly, v1 n4 332-342 Fall, 1973, which compares different versions of the film and allows teachers and students to understand different interpretations of the motifs and themes in Macbeth. AUDIO-VISUALS Polanski, Roman. 1971. Macbeth. Columbia Pictures. DVD.

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This film adaptation of Shakespeares Macbeth is often regarded as one of the most historically accurate and textually complete films. While it is quite dated, it is the motifs in this version of the film that are extremely clear. Particularly worthwhile is the motifs of blood and nature, as these are emphasized in this version. This is a useful text to aid in explaining how Shakespeare was written for performance, as the choices that Polanski makes as a director are focused on motifs, sounds, and special effects that relate to blood and darkness vs. light. Teachers can use this video with their classes or watch the film (or segments of the film) to give a more complete overview of the motifs in Macbeth and how those become clearer in a stage production. Brozel, Mark. 2008. Macbeth Shakespeare Retold. Horsebridge Productions. This is an adaptation of Shakespeares Macbeth that takes place in a top-restaurants kitchen. It is useful in studying motifs because the plot and characters and motifs remain the same, while the setting shifts. It would be a useful aid in helping students understand how the motifs are timeless. For example, the motif of guilt is present in any setting or adaptation of Macbeth. While this version takes place in a restaurant with very different characters, the dialogue and the role of guilt throughout the play remains the same. Macbeth is influenced by the possibilities of power, and he is guilty about the lengths that he has gone to secure his powerful future. HANDBOOKS, DIRECTORIES, MANUALS, ALMANACS Rowse, A.L. 1978. The Annotated Shakespeare. Volume III: The Tragedies and Romances. Edited with Introductions, Notes and a Bibliography. London: Orbis Publishing. This is a thorough collection of plays, criticism and illustrations on each of Shakespeares works. This volume includes Macbeth, and it not only includes a well-annotated version of the play (pages 418-466), but it also a helpful, six-page introduction (pages 412-418). This introduction highlights the motifs and themes in Macbeth with particular attention paid to the motif of the supernatural and sleep. Rowse includes appropriately picked quotations that highlight the motif and its various occurrences throughout the play. Moss, Joyce. 2011. World Literature and Its Times: Celtic Migrations to the Reform Bill . Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historical Events That Influenced Them. (Beginnings 1830). Gale Group. New York. Call Number: 820.9 This source includes a fantastic analysis and summary of Macbeth. It is a great title for new researchers (teachers and students) who would like to explore print resources and put the play in context historically. Especially notable is the analysis of the motifs from a historical perspective, especially that of the supernatural in regards to King James. For example, the focus of the supernatural as a motif in Macbeth originated from King James Is interest in demons and witchcrafts. Consequently, the persecution of witches in the last 1500s led to Shakespeares inclusion of this element in the play. This resource would greatly aid teachers looking for background knowledge as it pertains to the motifs in Macbeth and students conducting a more thorough analysis of this text. Absolute Shakespeare. 2000-2005. Absolute Shakespeare. Accessed November 10, 2012. http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/macbeth/macbeth.htm

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Absolute Shakespeare calls itself the essential resource for William Shakespeares plays, sonnets, poems, quotes, biography and the legendary Globe Theatre. It is broken down into sections such as Quotes, Summaries, Pictures, Films and Essays. This is a useful collection of general information and a great way to check plot and character knowledge. The links to the Essays are particularly useful in regards to motifs. Hazlitts essay is entitled Macbeth Character Analysis that references the guilt, blood and darkness of the play. There is also a critique by Samuel Taylor Coleridge that traces the motif of guilt through an analysis and critique of Macbeths character progression. The website is set up clearly and the language could be used for students as well as teachers. Overall, Absolute Shakespeare is an accessible and useful website. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEWS, AGENCIES INDIVIDUALS CRITICISM Annotated Bibliography of Macbeth Criticism. Shakespearean Navigators. Accessed http://www.shakespeare-navigators.com/macbeth/SelectedBiblio.html. For notes on this resource, please see the Existing Bibliographies section in this pathfinder. University of Sydney. 2000-2012. Bell Shakespeare Education: Australias Shakespeare Resource. Last Updated August 31, 2012. http://sydney.edu.au/education_social_work/professional_learning/teachers/bellshakespeare/index.shtml This is an invaluable resource for all educators teaching Shakespeare. Bell Shakespeare Education provides teaching professionals with fresh ideas and innovative methods of approaching texts in England and Drama classrooms facilitated by Arts Educators who are professional actors and directors keen to share their knowledge and passion for Shakespeare with teachers and practitioners. The website includes web links to interpretations, student activities, courses on particular texts and notes on teaching and working with the text to allow students to form a more in depth analysis of Shakespeares texts. In addition to online resources, Bell Shakespeare Education provides contact information for teachers and students to ask questions about the text of Macbeth and analyze the motifs in Macbeth more effectively. Educators can also come on school visits to present on particular topics such as the motifs in Macbeth, and they have ongoing, activity-based, professional development workshops for teachers to expand their knowledge on teaching Shakespeare in the classroom. Contact Bell Shakespeare Education by phone at +61 9351 2222 or on their website. Atterberry, Tara, editor. 2012. Shakespeare Theater Association of America. Encyclopedia of Associations: National Organizations of the U.S. Detroit: Gale. <http://www.staaonline.org>. This association acts as a tool for actors, and theater productions of all Shakespearean plays. The association also has a forum that enables members to share ideas and resources pertaining to the performance of Shakespeare. For specific information on motifs in Macbeth and how they are demonstrated in live performances, contact the association and/or its members directly.

All Academic. 2012. All Academic Research. Accessed November 24, 2012 http://www.allacademic.com/

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This website includes conference proceedings on a variety of topics. It is fully indexed and searchable. Conference proceedings and papers on Macbeth are available in full text. Included in this pathfinder are two examples of papers presented at conferences that pertain to motifs in Macbeth. Shakespeares Macbeth: The Soul of the Tyrant. by Holloway, C. L (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, April 2009). This paper includes a careful study of the character Macbeth and the motifs of blood, manhood and guilt as his character progresses throughout the play. Also useful is Mind and Tragic Action in Shakespeares Macbeth. by Anthony Raspa (presented at the annual meeting of the RSA Annual Meeting, 2012). This focuses on the motif of manhood and guilt as they relate to the tragic action of the character Macbeth. CONCLUSION Evaluation of Search Strategy Developing this pathfinder was a meaningful learning opportunity and a significant journey. From developing a good topic to clarifying an audience and searching for resources, each step has been a significant learning experience. I have gained a much greater understanding for the resources that are available, and I understand more about which resources can be found in specific locations. Additionally, I gained a lot from learning how to define and evaluate resources and annotate them appropriately and in a way that would benefit the user. I now understand why it is incredibly important to keep a detailed log or record of search strategies employed. For the first few days in completing this assignment, I felt that my research was random and jumbled. I was repeating information and searches and I would lose track of where I had already been and what I had already learned. When I read about keeping track and documenting search strategies, I became more aware, and I documented my records and my search more clearly. I would write down the keywords and search criteria that I used for every given source, and I created notes that helped me keep track of my results. I began with a very specific search, however, given my own history in teaching high school English and specifically Macbeth, I was surprised that there was not a lot to choose from in regards to motifs in Macbeth. A users approach to searching is largely based on their experiences, their comfort level with resources, and their familiarity with the topic, and as time continued, I extended my searches. I used the Waverley Librarys website and talked with the Reference librarian. I acquired a library card for the State University of New South Wales, and I became familiar with their online resources that they share with all residents of New South Wales, including those that use the Waverley Public Library. I made lists of websites and results that I found, and then I followed up on those sources by specifying my search terms and my criteria and slowly accessing resources that related to the six motifs in Macbeth that I had chosen. General Evaluation of the Sources Available for This Topic:

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I have collections of student work and lesson plans documenting the motifs in Macbeth. The motifs of blood, guilt, manhood, darkness/light, fair/foul, and the supernatural could be considered the foundation of the play thematically. Given this, I was surprised at the lack of detailed documentation of these motifs. Many of the resources were student study-guides, geared towards a fundamental appreciation for the play, and often teachers look down upon such study guides. Even though most entries in these study guides are trustworthy and reliable, they are rarely considered noteworthy research. Among the scholarly resources, a comprehensive list of traceable motifs in Macbeth was hard to find. At first, I included biographical information about Shakespeare and not about motifs specifically. Many of the dictionaries were general lists of vocabulary, terms, and locations in Macbeth or other Shakespeare plays, and they were not focused specifically on the motifs. There is a lot of information in annotated publications of the script, and even as an English teacher, that is where I got a lot of my initial information. In order to suggest a variety of resources for the patron using the pathfinder, I had to expand my search. Part of the reason for broadening my search was because of my desire to include a variety of resources, and, for that reason, not all of the categories were necessarily motif-based. The availability of resources initially led me to question how useful the resources would be for the teachers using this pathfinder. Despite my initial collection of more general Macbeth resources, this pathfinder now includes forty-three resources that would provide teachers with ample resources to effectively research and teach about the motifs in Macbeth. If I Were to Do This Again, What Would I Do Differently? While it is important to provide a scope of resources that are diverse and reliable, I found that many of the best resources for specifically documenting the motifs in books were from the following sources: study-guides, books, and websites. The inclusion of journal articles was also helpful, however they were often more complex that I would have hoped for. Many might be considered too advanced for a high school lesson plan, though they would certainly aid the teacher in researching topics more thoroughly to prepare for lessons. If I were to complete a pathfinder in the future, my first step would be to consider what types of resources the patron or the user was looking for and divide the pathfinder accordingly. For example, if a high school student were writing a paper on the motifs in Macbeth, they would not necessarily have an interest in geographical or biographical resources. Those types of resources would be reserved for more general information on Shakespeare or the locations within a specific play. While those resources could be more important for more thorough and advanced research, a high school audience might not find those as useful. Conversely, every teacher is different and approaches their work in a unique manner, so I am confident that this pathfinder will provide opportunities for study in regards to the motifs in Macbeth. Having now completed this assignment I know that if I had to complete another one, I would have picked a topic that had more varied information but that was also more specific. I would consider what information would be ideally included, and then I would adjust the topic accordingly. For example, I would ensure that my topic could include information from sources such as bibliographical sources, geographical sources and government documents. I found those sources particularly difficult to relate to motifs in Macbeth. While they could refer to

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Shakespeare in general or even the play Macbeth, the connection to motifs was particularly difficult and sometimes was a bit of a stretch. I enjoyed doing the extensive research that it took to put this list together, however, in the future, I would consider the requirements more thoroughly, and then pick a topic that suited all of these components more clearly. I would have perhaps considered a topic based on a character in Macbeth, perhaps. In doing so, I would open up my resources to more historical, geographical and biographical resources. The question remains: What type of resources do high school teachers and high school students use to research an idea and create a lesson (or a paper)? If, as a future school librarian, I was creating a pathfinder for a specific teacher, course or curriculum, I would be sure to have a conversation or a series of meetings to determine what the specific needs of the audience were. My guess is that teachers and students would primarily use websites and different types of study guides, but how, as a librarian, can I guide educators in their use of tools other than the standard tools? How can I encourage teachers to go into depth with their research and discover the variety of tools that exist for this type of research? I would have liked to discuss teachers needs before completing this pathfinder, as that would give me a greater focus in my collection of resources. Each teacher is different, and while it was my goal to create a research tool that would meet the needs of many teachers, it would have helped to discuss the specifics with some teachers before I started my work on this project. Understanding the target audience more clearly would have helped me create the most user-friendly pathfinder possible. Ultimately, I am confident that I created a usable, accessible pathfinder for teachers exploring a Macbeth curriculum with a focus on the motifs in the play.