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Mursi-English-Amharic Dictionary

David Turton Moges Yigezu and Olisarali Olibui

December 2008

Culture and Art Society of Ethiopia (CASE) is a nonprofit, non-governmental Society operating in Ethiopia. The Society's mission is to document, nurture and promote the cultural and artistic practices, natural heritage, indigenous knowledge and socio-economic institutions of local communities in Ethiopia and to help these continue to play an active role in their lives. It is committed to fostering the continuation of all activities that the Ethiopian people see as signifying their cultural identity and traditional heritage. Indigenous institutions are imbued with the wisdom needed to keep society healthy, both in terms of economic /material well-being and spiritual satisfaction. They are also rich in ways of caring for and sustaining the environment and the landscape. CASE is committed to studying and promoting these traditional systems and institutions and to finding ways of preserving them as living practices for posterity. The Society is therefore interested in documenting and promoting the linguistic heritage of the Ethiopian people, with a particular focus on the least studied languages, such as that of the Mursi. It was in accordance with this part of its mission, therefore, that the Society supported the production of this dictionary. CASE would like to take this opportunity to thank The Christensen Fund, a USA based organization which

provides support for the conservation and promotion of the traditions and natural environment of Ethiopia. CASE also extends its sincere appreciation to Dr David Turton of the African Studies Centre, University of Oxford, Dr. Moges Yigezu of the Department of Linguistics, Addis Ababa University and Ato Olisarali Olibui, of the Mursi community, for their efforts to produce this important work. Our appreciation also goes to the late Ba Gaha Kirinomeri, a Mursi co-researcher who contributed significantly to the research work and, finally, to the Mursi community as a whole for preserving their linguistic heritage in which so much of their local indigenous knowledge is stored. CASE believes that the publication of this dictionary will play a significant role in promoting and documenting the cultural knowledge of the Mursi and in encouraging forthcoming similar works.

Culture and Art Society of Ethiopia

Mursi-English-Amharic Dictionary

David Turton Moges Yigezu and Olisarali Olibui

December 2008

Cover photo: Ulikoro Konyonamora (Komorakora), the Priest (Komoru) of the northern Mursi, wearing the 'gal' necklace, which symbolizes his office. (Photo courtesy of Ben Dome, 2004)

David Turton, Moges Yigezu & Olisarali Olibui, 2008

Design & Layout: Moges Yigezu ISBIN 978-99944-831-0-5 Printed by Ermias Advertising, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

In Memoriam

Girmalugkoro (Ba Gaha) Kirinomeri


PREFACE Until about ten years ago it was still possible to describe Mursi as an entirely oral culture. In the late 1990s, however, the missionary organisation SIM started an informal Mursi pilot education project which proved very effective in helping a small group of Mursi, living at Makki in the Mago valley, to read and write their own language. Perhaps the most important result of this project was the evident enthusiasm it generated for literacy, not only amongst Mursi living at Makki but also amongst those living elsewhere in Mursiland. The main reason for the success of the project was undoubtedly that it used the students own language to introduce them to the practical uses of the written word. We hope that this first dictionary of the Mursi language will help to satisfy the demand for literacy amongst Mursi themselves, which the SIM project so effectively demonstrated and stimulated. We offer it, first and foremost, as a modest learning aid to the Mursi student, whether he or she is enrolled in a formal school or informal education centre, or working alone. But a dictionary is not just a learning aid: it is also a permanent record, however incomplete, of a particular language and culture. We also hope, therefore, that the dictionary will help to preserve and keep alive not only the Mursi language but also the accumulated cultural knowledge and unique historical experience of the Mursi. The shortcomings of the dictionary will be obvious to any Mursi reader. We apologise for these shortcomings but cannot stress

too strongly that we see this as the beginning of a process, rather than as the end. The task we set ourselves when we began proved much more daunting than we had expected and the result falls far short of our original aims. But if we had been more realistic, perhaps we would not have begun at all. As it is, we hope that this first effort will be followed by bigger and better editions in the years to come. With this in mind, we would greatly welcome the advice of readers, on any aspect of the dictionarys content and style. Please send us your comments and suggestions, including words and phrases (particularly up-to-date ones!) that should be added in the next edition. It is impossible to mention all those Mursi who have, at various times and in various ways, contributed their time, knowledge and expertise to the production of the dictionary. Turton is particularly conscious of the debt he owes to countless patient and long-suffering Mursi, many of whom are now dead, who have helped him to understand whatever he has been able to understand about Mursi life, language and culture. The following, however, were directly involved in the production of the dictionary and should therefore be especially thanked here: the late Girmalugkoro Kirinomeri (whom we all knew as Ba Gaha), Ulikoro Komoru, Zinabu Bichaga and Ulikoro Dumalo. We are grateful also to Ato Alemayehu Agonafir, Colonel Endale Aberra and Major KidaneMariam Abay for their friendship, advice and support, without which our task would have been much more difficult. The preparation of the dictionary was made possible by a grant from the Christensen Fund of Palo Alto, California. We thank the Fund for its support and its Programme Officer for the Southern Rift, Dr Tadesse Wolde, for his interest, encouragement and advice.

The grant was administered by the Culture and Arts Society of Ethiopia (CASE). We thank its Director, Girma Zenebe, and his colleagues for their efficient and always helpful assistance and for their patience and understanding in the face of various delays that held back the completion of the manuscript. We have dedicated the dictionary to the memory of Ba Gaha, a young man of outstanding qualities, who died while it was still in preparation. His tragically early death was a huge loss, not only to his family and friends and to all those who knew and admired him, but also to the Mursi as a whole. Had he lived he would have had much to contribute to helping his fellow Mursi deal with the many changes and challenges which now confront them.

David Turton African Studies Centre University of Oxford Moges Yigezu Department of Linguistics Addis Ababa University Olisarali Olibui Makki South Omo Zone SNNPRS


1. THE PEOPLE The Mursi live in the Lower Omo Valley of southwestern Ethiopia. They call themselves Mun (sing. Muni), and number less than 10,000. Their territory of around 2,000 km2 lies in the South Omo Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), roughly between the River Omo (known as Warr to the Mursi) and the River Mago (known as Mako to the Mursi). Their closest cultural and linguistic links are with the Chai and Tirma, who live west of the Omo and south of Maji. As we know them today, the Mursi are a relatively recent product of three separate population movements, each of which took them into territory they had not previously occupied. First there was a move across the Omo, from the west, which may have taken place around 150 years ago and which is seen by the Mursi as a key historical event in the construction of their current political identity. Next there was an expansionary movement northwards, into better watered territory further up the valley, which took place in the 1920s and 1930s. Finally, beginning in 1979, there was a further expansion, this time north eastwards, into the upper Mago Valley, a move which took the migrants into close and regular contact with their highland

The Mursi and their neighbours in the Lower Omo Valley

neighbours, the plough-cultivating Aari. Each move was made, initially, by a small group of families who travelled a relatively short distance to a new place on the frontier of the settled area. As the pioneers established themselves, they were followed, over succeeding years, by a drift of individuals and families. Accounts given of these movements by Mursi themselves always stress that they were a response to environmental pressures and were part of a continuing effort to find and occupy a cool place (bha lalini), a place with riverside forest for cultivation and well watered grassland for cattle herding. The Mursi are often described by highlanders and government officials as nomads. But although cattle make a vital contribution to their economy, they lead a relatively settled life and depend heavily on the cultivation of grain crops, mainly sorghum and maize. Two methods of cultivation are used. Preparations for flood-retreat cultivation begin along the banks of the Omo and Mago Rivers in October, when the flood waters, which reach their peak in August, have begun to recede. Sorghum, maize, cow peas, beans and tobacco are planted in small riverbank cultivation areas, the fertility of which is constantly renewed by the flood silts. The harvest comes in January and February. Shifting cultivation takes place on higher grounds, in forest clearings further back from the two main rivers and depends entirely on local rainfall. Planting takes place here during March and/or April, as soon as the main rains have begun, and the harvest comes in June or July. Once cleared, the same area may be cultivated for up to six years before being left to revert to bush because of falling crop yields. Although the flood varies in extent from year to year, its timing is predictable because it depends on rain falling over the Ethiopian

highlands. Rainfall in the Omo lowlands, however, is unpredictable, not only in amount and location but also in timing. One cannot tell exactly when, where, or for how long the rain will fall. The unpredictability of local rainfall, and the relatively small area available for flood cultivation, makes cattle products milk, blood and meat - a vital extra source of subsistence. Cattle can also be exchanged for grain in the nearby highlands during times of hunger, due to drought or crop pests. At such times, cattle can provide a last defence against starvation for many families. Although they do not depend primarily on pastoralism for their daily subsistence, the Mursi give overwhelming cultural importance to cattle. Virtually every significant social relationship is based on the exchange of cattle. This applies most obviously to marriage. Bridewealth (ideally consisting of 38 head of cattle) is handed over by the grooms family to the brides father, who has to meet the demands of a wide range of relatives, from different clans, who have a right to share in the bridewealth cattle. With each new marriage, there begins a series of cattle exchanges which continue until long after the bride and groom are dead. Because of this, and because a man may marry several times during his life time, the institution of bridewealth helps to ensure the continual redistribution of this vital form of wealth, as it circulates around the population. As amongst other East African herders, adult men belong to named age sets and pass through a series of age grades. Married women take their age status from their husbands. Grades are associated with specific public tasks and responsibilities, from looking after and defending the herds in dry season grazing areas to taking the lead in political decision-making and the settlement of disputes. Leadership in public life is exercised by individual elders

who have achieved a position of influence in the local community through their oratorical and debating skills, through their knowledge of precedent and tradition and through their reputation for well considered and balanced argument. The only formally defined leadership role in the society is that of Komoru, or Priest. This is an inherited office which is principally of religious and ritual significance. Each major local division of the population (bhuran) has its priest, who embodies in his person the well-being of the group as a whole and acts as a means of communication between the community and God (tumwi), especially when it is threatened by such events as drought, crop pests and disease. Two distinctive features of Mursi society, by which they have become known to outsiders, are ceremonial duelling (sagine) and the large pottery discs or plates (debhinya) which are worn by women in their lower lips. Duelling is a form of martial art, in which teams of men from different parts of the country fight each other with two-metre wooden poles (dongen) in short but fierce bouts, lasting no more than a few minutes. The lip-plate is an expression of female social adulthood. A girl will often say that she wishes to have her lip pierced in order to become like her mother an adult woman of child bearing potential. She has her lower lip pierced, by her mother or another woman of her local community, when she reaches the age of around fifteen. She will continue to stretch the lip, with progressively larger wooden plugs, over the next few weeks or months, until she can wear a plate of up to 10 centimetres or more in diameter. The incorporation of the Mursi into the Ethiopian state began in the last years of the nineteenth century, when the Abyssinian

Selamago Woreda- homeland of Mursi and Bodi (Courtesy USAID: FEWS NET Activity, Regional Overview, 2006:33)

Emperor Menelik II extended his control over the southern lowlands of what is now Ethiopia. Each successive government continued to strengthen central control over the southern periphery of the country. This has meant some increase in access to government services, such as food aid, health and education. Meanwhile the Mursi and their neighbours have become increasingly dependent on market exchange to obtain not only food but also other items which, in the past few years, have become virtual necessities for a satisfactory lifestyle, such as plastic jerry cans, aluminum pots, cotton cloth, blankets and commercially produced clothes.

The pace of change for the Mursi is bound to increase rapidly during the coming years. In responding and adapting to these changes, the Mursi, like their neighbours, will depend above all on their own rich and distinctive heritage of knowledge, historical experience, resilience and ingenuity. This dictionary is a modest effort to assist in the linguistic documentation of that heritage.

Mursi is classified as a member of the Surmic group within the EastSudanic division of the Nilo-Saharan phylum (Bender 1977, Fleming 1976, Dimmendaal 1998). The self-name of the people is Mun (Muni sg.). Another name by which they refer to themselves but only in ritual contexts and at public meetings or debates is Tama, a name also used of them by their northern neighbors, the Bodi (whom the Mursi call Tumura). Whereas much has been published on other aspects of Mursi culture and society, their language has remained largely undescribed. The only grammatical descriptions are by Turton & Bender (1976) and Turton 1981. Moges Yigezu (2001) has provided a short phonological sketch of Mursi with a comparative wordlist of 312 lexical items as part of his comparative-historical analysis of Surmic languages. Sound patterns of Mursi Vowels Mursi has a seven-vowel system like the rest of the southeast Surmic languages such as Bodi-Tishena, Kwegu and Chai-Tirma. The

vowels are: i, e, E, a, O, o, and u. All the vowels occur at all u positions within a word, i.e. word-initially, word-medially and wordfinally (see also Moges 2001). The vowels [I], [U], [E], [O] and [] are listed as allophones I U E O by Turton & Bender (1976:539) but the distribution of these vowels has not been stated. The vowel [] is not attested in our data, however. In closed syllables, [i] and [u] are realized as [I] and [U] i u I U respectively. Some examples: tirtir > [tIrtIr fingernail; murmuri > tIrtIr] tIrtIr [mUrmUri straight. mUrmUri] mUrmUri The following are some examples illustrating the contrasts between the vowels phonemes: Ea aa OO ai send (2sg. imp) cook! (2sg. imp.) go! (2sg. imp.) warm EllE elli ille kolu kola luwa liwa ori uro iba ebo there are call (2sg.imp.) six charcoal (burned place) neck preparing a fence for cows millet village milk grab, take hold of debt

i o cloud odZdZo put! (2sg. imp.) edZdZo shoot! (2sg. imp.) rom ostrich rum cloth huli holi hOli just waterbuck white



Vowel length is also apparent in Mursi but there are few contrastive examples attested between short and long vowels. There are, however, many words occurring with long vowels. Consider the following examples: No Noo dir diir aaga aga tOOa tOO tOa tO rEE SEE dZuu eerro neck descend (2sg.imp.) sleeping place for young boys clay eat! (2sg. imp.) live! (2sg. imp.) kill! (2sg.imp.) climb! (2sg. imp.) body all cooking pot children

In contrast to Chai-Tirma, in Mursi diphthongs are very rare in the system.

Consonants Mursi has 22 consonant phonemes, as given in Table 1 below. Turton & Bender (1976:539) and Turton (1981:335) identified the same consonant phonemes, but were not clear about the status of the

glottal stop. The 22 distinct consonant phonemes are given below in IPA symbols. Table 1: Consonant phonemes of Mursi biabials alveolars voiceless stops voiced stops implosives voiceless fricatives voiced fricatives voiceless affricates voiced Affricates nasals laterals trills approximan ts t b s z tS dZ m n l r N d S h post alveolars palatals velars k g glottals /

The following are some examples illustrating the occurrence of consonant phonemes in the language.

na Na ma gara karra tala tara ira diira uso basso wOhu /uhu nebi ebi ia ija ElE bele/ ele/ tSoba taba

and here water stomach I see buy(imp.2sg) taste (imp.2sg) 'to anoint to sweep witch craft, female to be cured salty soil to anoint oil buffalo ear forget fill, cause to be full create, reproduce bald kiss! (2sg. imp.) cheat! (2sg. imp.)

/ojo kojo No No noN hini hiri Sura tSura dori Ori i o ibo bari baji bo boa oa aha aga

rainy season he travels(moves around blood vein (for cows) he/she heart man to be offended washing clothes house build (imp.2sg.) uphill, above look after, for cattle yesterday under, beneath up root turn over things cook

3. THE ORTHOGRAPHY The Latin-based orthography presented here is primarily designed for the transliteration of Mursi texts in order to enable the reader to reproduce the sounds of Mursi speech with reasonable accuracy. It is hoped that it might also be used for conducting literacy programs in

this hitherto unwritten language, one of the lesser known languages of Ethiopia. Orthographic representation Vowels The following are the graphemes suggested for writing the vowel phonemes of Mursi. Phonemes in IPA Graphemes /i/ /e/ /E/ E /a/ /O/ O /o/ /u/ [i] [e] [] ] [a] [] ] [o] [u]

The only new symbols, as compared to English orthography, are the [] and [] vowels. In order to reproduce Mursi texts more accurately it would be useful to make distinct the more open vowels [] and [] from their closed counterparts [e] and [o]. Vowel length is apparent e in Mursi and is represented by doubling the symbol for the short vowel. Consonants For practical purposes, the consonants may be divided into two categories. The first category consists of those sounds which are similar or identical to English. These are represented by using the same symbols as in English and are given below. Phonemes in IPA Symbols Graphemes /t/


/b/ /d/ /k/ /g/ /s/ /z/ /S/ S /h/ tS/ /tS tS /dZ dZ/ dZ /m/ /n/ // /N/ N /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/

[b] [d] [k] [g] [s] [z] [sh] [h] [ch] [j] [m] [n] [ny] [ng] [l] [r] [w] [y]

In this first category of graphemes, the [h] grapheme is used to represent the glottal fricative /h/, which is an independent phoneme in Mursi. The same grapheme has also been used to represent another feature, the palatal place of articulation, as in [ch] and [sh]. As will be shown below, the same grapheme has been used to represent implosives as in [bh] and [dh]. Hence, the [h] grapheme is used inconsistently representing various features. The graphemes [y] and [g] are also used in the same way, each of them representing two different features. The symbol [y] represents the phoneme [j] and the


palatal feature in [ny] while the grapheme [g] is used to represent the phoneme [g] and the velar feature in [ng]. Despite these inconsistencies in the representations of some sounds, keeping the similar graphemes between Mursi and English will have a pedagogical advantage if we consider the transfer of skills students may apply in learning English as a second language. Focusing on the similarities between Mursi and English orthographies will, therefore, enable students to transfer their reading and writing skills in Mursi to learn English as a second language. Odlin (1989:125-126) notes that when students learn an alphabet having some similarities with the one they have mastered, they make interlingual identifications of familiar letters which reduces the amount of time needed to learn to encode and decode written symbols. The second category consists of consonant sounds that require new symbols or graphemes, as follows. Graphemes Phonemes in IPA symbols /// / // // [] [bh] [dh]

The representation of the above three sounds requires some explanation. The representation of the glottal stop /// and the / glottalized (implosive) consonants // and // is probably the most unfortunate feature of Latin script as observed in many Cushitic languages of Ethiopia such as Oromo, Sidamo, Kembatta, and many others. In many cases, these consonants are represented in two different ways: (1) the glottal stop is represented by an apostrophe, as suggested above, and (2) the same apostrophe is used after /b/ or /d/,

as in /b/ and /d/ respectively, to represent the implosives. Note that in these languages, as in Mursi, the lengthening of consonant sounds makes a difference of meaning. If we consider the simplex and lengthened version of the glottal stop consonant, the simplex may be represented by an apostrophe, as shown above, while the long counterpart has to be represented by a single quotation mark, i.e. (). One of the consequences of this choice is that the orthography gives the impression that the clusters //l/, //n/, //m/ have the same / / / phonological status as // and //, where /b/ and /d/ graphemes are used respectively. It might be confusing to differentiate between <l, n, m> and <b, d>. In the former, the apostrophe is representing the glottal stop /// and in the latter the implosive consonant such as / // and //. This representation makes the relationship between simplex and geminate consonants rather opaque. Another common practice is to use capitals to represent the implosives but this too can be confusing, since the use of a capital letter has a different function in English. In order to avoid or minimize these problems, therefore, we have decided to use a sequence of two letters, /bh/ and /dh/, to represent the implosives, as shown above. It must be admitted, however, that the use of the apostrophe for the glottal stop may not be the best solution, given the fact that the apostrophe is a punctuation mark. Pronunciation guide Vowels [i] As in the English he /hi/ [e] As in the English men /men/ [] As in the French cher /SER/ dear, expensive; similar to ]

the English pet, but the lips are slightly further apart. [a] More or less as in English pat [] As in the French homme /Om/ man [ ] [o] As in the French mot /mO/ road [u] As in the French route /Rut/ road Consonants [t] As in English tea /ti:/ [b] bee /bi:/ [d] [k] [g] [s] [z] [sh] [h] [ch] [j] [m] [n] doe /dU/ cap /kp/ gap /gp/ sip /sIp/ zip /zIp/ ship /SIp/ hat /ht/ chin /tSIn/ gin /dZIn/ map /mp/ nap /np/ vigne /vi/ vine, vinyard. led /led/ red /red/ wet /wet/ yet /jet/

[ny] As in French [l] [r] [w] [y]

[ng] As in English hang /hN/

The following symbols are used to represent sounds which are not heard in English.

[] represents a glottal stop. [bh] represents a bilabial implosive. [dh] represents an apical implosive. The glottal stop sound is used in some English dialects accompanying final voiceless stops, as in cap [k/p hat [h/t hack [h/k etc. k /p], Both implosives, h /t], h /k], bh] dh], [bh and [dh are produced by sucking a puff of air into the mouth dh bh while at the same time trying to say [b] and [d] sounds respectively. b d It is helpful to think of sucking with the larynx and produce unreleased voiced glottalic stops.

4 TRANSLITERATED TEXT The following Mursi text was taken down from Ulijeholi (Bio-itongia) Konyonomora in December 1970 and was first published in Turton (1981). It is here written in Latin-based orthography with a free English translation. How the Buma clan claimed Dirka by means of a trick Zugo ojno rs bai chuk Jinka bhuyo. when nga irrse ma warriny tuno. na hey na ibe The dog put the people down behind Jinka. They moved on and crossed the Omo upstream. Kasha; na ibe Maaji; na hey Gegolo; na hey na hey Dirkaye; na bage baa. They passed Kasha and Maji and reached Gegol. They went on to Dirka and stopped there.


Huli bage bai, Chai l bai. na Chai when na Mun nise bi. na blsne mrr na chibsne Chai. The Chai were living there. The Chai came and the Mursi killed a cow. They cut the stomach lining (peritoneum) into strips and tied them round the necks of the Chai. gia chibsne rhi a ge. The Chai did the same to the Mursi. komoru se ke (komoru a Knynamra sng: The Priest (the only Priest was Konyonamora) said: Chai a gwdinaanano, a zuaganyo; Kasha a zuaganyo; Siyoi (Dlkamo) a zua ganyo. The Chai are my brothers, they are my people. The Kasha are my people; the Siyoi (of Dolkamo) are my people. anyi bare kblsn mrr. Bume wheno. blsn mrr. a zuaganyo se Knynamrai. I have cut up the stomach lining. The Bume (Nyangatom) came. They cut up the stomach lining. They are my people. That is what Konyonamora said. na Bumai ibane shgai na jsne ra tui. na ibane chalai (chalai a gal, gal a komoruiny) A Bumai [clan member] took a sharpening stone and put it in the hot spring. He took a necklace (it was a gal, a priests necklace) na lme ngoye. and wore it round his neck. inye gal lmi kiong? se Komorr ani Komoru? The priest said why are you wearing a gal? Are you a priest? anyi klmi hung I am just wearing it.


a galanano. na tolom na hale aino. It is my gal. You can wear it and then give it back to me. mrra bag chalai na ku kiango tui na gara. The calves swallowed the necklace and it went into their stomachs and was lost. chalai wa gara. Bumai se nganga. ku mrragwi kiango tui. The necklace has gone said the Bumai. Its gone into your calves stomachs. na hale kmnng? a barari hang hang hang. a barari. hale kmnng? What shall I do? said the Priest. It is a powerful necklace. Bumai ib mrra na bl kiango, baag, gwini -. i hololoi.. ngn gasho. The Buma opened a calfs stomach and looked inside - it was empty. They threw it away. bel ngaina, baag, gwini i hololoi. They opened another and looked inside - it was empty. bel ngaina, baag, gwini i hololoi. They opened another and looked inside - it was empty. bl ngaina arru chalai. iba na aje ena. They opened another and saw the necklace. They gave it to the owner. Konynamra se ke a bhanano. Konyonamora said It is my land nng Bumai se ke a bhanano The Bumai said It is my land. a bhanunu? inye bmsi ng?


It is your land? What makes it yours? anyi bha tui ahi tinano ihe "There is something of mine buried here a ng? "What is it?" ihe kau rra na kdlaino. Its there. Lets go to the hot spring and I will show you na hey kare. shraana shgai. They went together. The Bumai pulled out a sharpening stone. ga gnya anyi bikinging a bhanano. Look - it has been my land for ages ee - a bhanunu chirr. Knynamra se nganga. a bhanunu chirr. Yes, it is your land said Konyonamora. It is certainly your land. yk tli bai. They stayed there. References Bender, Lionel M. 1977. The Surma language group: A preliminary report. Studies in African Linguistics Supplement 7:1121. Dimmendaal, Gerrit, J. (ed.) (1998) Surmic Languages and Cultures, Nilo-Saharan. Linguistic Analyses and Documentation Volume 3. Kln: Rdiger Kppe Verlag Fleming, H. 1976. Omotic Overview. In In M.L. Bender (ed.), The Non-Semitic Languages of Ethiopia, pp. 299-323, East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State University. Michigan.

Moges Yigezu (2001) A comparative study of the phonetics and phonology of Surmic languages. Ph.D thesis, Universit Libre de Bruxelles. Odlin. Terence (1989) Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Turton, David (1981) Le Mun (Mursi). In Jean Perrot (ed.) Les langues dans le monde ancient et moderne, Part 1: Les langues de lAfrique subsaharienne. Paris: CNRS, pp. 335-349. Turton, David & M. Lionel Bender (1976) Mursi. In M. Lionel Bender (ed.) The non-Semitic languages of Ethiopia, Occasional Papers Series, Committee on Ethiopian Studies 5. East Lancing, MI: African Studies Center, Michigan State University, pp. 553-561.


abbo: antelope - <L'T@ M abbn antelopes - <L' T@ KA achuk: meat - Y addanyi: hunter (Amharic borrowing) - anngi: what kind is it? aga: cook - U <? - TwcM

sabo kgoi mai ne werio kogi tila First (sabo) Im going to the water (mai) and then Ill cook the porridge (tila). SS] <H< H@ = ueLLG<:: agge: we (pron.) - agginu: those - = aggiya: these - =I ahi: thing - n (L) aha: things - n aha-ganyo aita ori Where have my things gone? ahuy: suck (the breast) ainea: give ? - Sv (<) - Se

kni kaine Duli warra I want (kni) to give Duli a knife (warra).
KK= u=L Se MKG<:: ain nga hira ma

Give (sg.) this person water! K=I c< <H e</e<:: adh nga zukta choi Give (pl.) these people salt (choi)! K=I c < eD<:: ainoi: who? - T aisong: how many? aiwunga: come here! - e? (U IM?) - ! <!

hodhanga: you (pl) come here! akodhotte: forgive - p` TK - M alga: bed (Amharic borrowing) alganya: beds - M alilibi: (it is) sweet - - kn ` allalini: (it is) cold alli: chair, stool, headrest - u`T' u` alley: chairs, stools, headrests u`T' ua alli a gushuruny: toad stool (lit. stool of a hyena) < (w u`T) alinenea: talk, speak - S`'T<^ alichinyo ng What are you (pl.) talking about? eKU< U\? anyi kalisen ngahirunu Im talking to her for [on behalf of] that man. eK=< c< J@ `"D <:: sg. imp.: alid; pl. imp.: alidheo. alo: collect honey - T` Sl[

- }`'}\!


au na aludonyu ret Go (pl.) and collect some honey (ret) for me! H> i T` l[<M (U<M) ama: eat, anoint with clay - SwL' gL ` Skv rri a bekamcha tishu The shade where we ate new sorghum. =e TiL (g) uLu L Y` anyi kami dhebi I am anointing/decorating my face with clay (debi). }@ ugL ` }kvG< /e@< <:: anyi kamisen nga hira dhebi I am anointing this mans face with clay. c<< ugL ` kvG< <:: amsay: bird-scaring platform TT angana: go through a mountain pass - u}^^< S}LK TK kau kanga kedheo Lets go through the pass. uS}LK< H> (K) angido: bite - Se anyi kungussi na, mordhai angidoin sio I was sleeping and a rat (mordhai) bit my hand (sio). } dK D c:: iwa achuk na angido bokna Take (sg.) the meat and bite [off] a piece! Y< <c wL ( `):: angiddo: you bite! - ! amsen: bird-scaring platforms - Sum


angidd: you (pl.) bite! annin': to whom does it belong?

- <! - T<? T <;

anyagasi: old (adj.) - a@ - "K e<M anyakwanai: disabled, crippled anyanne: be tired; be weak - SU anyanyogi: the loser; the defeated - }g anyi: I (pron.) - @ anyi ko inye I and you (sg.). @ } anyi song I only/only me. w anyuyi: doum palm (Hyphaene thebaica) - vv ara: stop, clear up (of rain) - TqU (Kw) kli bai na huli bhw arathi, kauto Lets wait here until the rain has stopped and then go. u< eT>qU =I q u%EL H>:: gwiyo wa aru Has the rain (gwiyo) stopped? u< qS ? arra: see - T iny sabo be ngani arainyo Havent you (sg.) seen me before (sabo)? =I u } <nKI? be ngani karino Ive never seen you [before]. =I u LG<IU (L<pIU) ::


Ba Gaha anyi gro ngani karrtoyo I didnt see Ba Gaha on the road (gro). vH S L LG<U:: arro: hippopotamus -<T_ arrn: hippopotamuses - <T_ ashai: grandchild - M M ashasha: grandchildren - M M - U K< ashwi: tasty, delicious assa: arrive; be together (sexually) - S[e' ` SJ (TS`) atalatte: guinea fowl - ^ atalacha: guinea fowls - ^ uweso: auweso rest uweso nga kauweso Shall we not rest? - Ti

`U ? kau na kauweso nga ritunu i nga Lets go (kau) and rest in that shade. = L x H> [:: awo: fish (vb.) with hook and line - X TS (uSq) kgoi mai na kauwineno Im going to the water (mai) to fish. X KTS (<H) SH@ <:: anyi kauwi urgussa I am catching fish (urgussa). X S< <:: awu: eldest child - SS] M awunya: eldest children - SS] M


babi: unwitting, fool V badhungay: a kind of tree bagai: wooden milk container }c^ } TKu= baganya (pl): milk containers - } S n

bai: below ' u

balaggaray: enemy L balagaranya: enemies - L balasi: castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) - <KA }M ballaine: a kind of store made close to the roof u? <e }c^ IM TekS q bana': fly w banaso: you (sg.) stand up! }e SqU bangadhi: termite mound Ue S] bangadha: termite mounds - Ue S] bangarr: grain drying platform - e Te x bangarra: grain drying platforms - e Te x bangi: pond, pool, small lake <_ banga: ponds - <_ bangka: matchete, bush knife ^' " SS] bankachin: machetes, bush knives - ^' " SS] barabaray: pepper (Amharic borrowing) u`u_

barari: powerful, sacred, highly spiced (of food) - M' }u[' pSU uu (KUw) barbadhoy: a kind of bird bari: yesterday bari: senior man, elder bara: elders bar: at night barshai: small millet basso: be healed L < iTK? - < - uKK= <d S' Se

batiri: flash light, torch v]' x batirinya: flash lights, torches - v]' x bawa: recover, get better TU' ShM (K?)

burto illasa na baya-bhw He was ill and has recovered. V u` G< TEM (}iKAM):: sg. imp.: baa; pl. imp.: ba U!' S<! bawray: a kind of potato bayai: a kind of tree baysi: wise; brave man be': stone bna: stones bekinging: ancient; old bkkai: friend bkanya: friends bele': bald ber: spear wM' u c< - 'a - ' - ' V SL `

berra: spears brggu: year brgunya: years bi': cow bio: cows, cattle bilbiloy: worm, moth binygi: a kind of stone birrini: thorn birrin: thorns

- a S - S LU' LV - LV' w k jI - jJ

bilbilo: worms, moths - k

birroi: Birr (Ethiopian currency) w` bo: pull out (e.g. hair), pull up (e.g. a plant) SkM (K<`& TiL& ls&}) nong bare bo chorri rroruin He pulled out the [pubic] hair of the Rora (adult male age grade) yesterday. a^ (MTd T@ S]) <` L kK:: liwa chidineo na bda gin bhw The sorghum (liwa) is growing close together (chidineo) so (na) pull some out (bhw). TiL< pp wKA eKukK SGK< npMK:: anyi kubwi kali na karage bio Im pulling up a sapling to drive the cattle (bio). w KS ls< kM< <:: bbtai: cheese - w bodor: bark (vb) - SI (K<h) rossi budeo - ore gushero The dogs are barking - they have seen (ore) a hyena.


- <j K< w }M bogoni: sycamore - `" bohe: cobra (snake) w^ vw bohenya: cobras - w^ vx bohun: cliff bohuna: cliffs bokoi: water dropping from a tree L <H boka: water drops - L <H bollongi: cheek < bollonga: cheeks - < (Kw<) boloi: spotted (animal), multi-colored u<^u<_' ww Ku SM Kw: blu: the back of the head - ^e `v< M borkodhoy: a kind of tree brrda: jump SKM nong bare brda nga hunaita He jumped over this stream (hunaita) yesterday. L I U () KK<:: brro dip Jump straight (i.e., with back straight and head up)! k wKI KM! (wI ^eI k `I) boshu: youngest child - S[h (i) M boshunya: youngest children - S[h (i) M btty': a kind of tree budh: look back %EL SSM (T) buluku: blanket (Amharic borrowing) w`Mwe bume: the Nyangatom people


buna: coffee u< bur: ashes S burbur: helicopter H@K=}` burcukkoy: glass (Amharic borrowing) w`q bureni: warm; hot - Kw K' S<p burto: before, the day before yesterday = bussi: joint ST> buti': limestone ^ buttogi: wrong. mistaken (adj.) eI} buttomo: lie <g buy': big Mp bibi: big (pl) - LMp


bha: place, ground, earth x 'S_ bha kummumul / bha dhakakan The whole world. bhabhl: dawn bhacha: sharpen (wood) dM! () kabachi kio na kudhune kdore Im sharpening [a piece of] wood (kio) to make holes in [sew] (kudhune) a belt. uku L k KTu jK< <:: sg. imp: bacha; pl. imp.: bachai. dM !' dK<! bhachchaga: spleen bhaka: eat, live (see also usa) SwL 'S` ain achuk na kabhaga Give me some meat (achuk) to eat. T>uL e e:: ki a be kabhacha tishu The tree (ki) where we ate new sorghum (tishu). TiL g uLu (Y`) inye bhagi ori Where do you live? < U[<? kama bhaka gwoi The bag (kama) has been burnt [lit. eaten by fire (gwoi)]. x`d< }nLDM (d uMM) ::

bhaaga: you (sg) eat! wL! bhalang: rifle bolt - ` bhalal: bile, gall NV bhalai: multi-colored animal u<^u<_ bha lesha: summit (of hill or mountain) bhallogi: leaf pM bhalloga: leaves - pKA (pL pM) bharit: shake (intr.) Skk nga kedem bhari kiong mag dhik/magana dulu Why is the calabash (kedem) shaking? Hold it firmly (dhik/dulu). pK< KU< T>kk<' up `I <:: anyi killasio na rr bharbarit Im ill and my body (rr) is shaking. VM' c< kkM:: bharitto: meet in passing S bharoy: bark, peel M bhaseni: easy, cheap kLM' `"i bhatto: lightning Sw[p bha liiyay: be shy ` bhega: guard Sup inye bhegi ng What are you guarding/watching? U< Uwk<? anyi kebhegi liwa Im guarding the sorghum TiL< upG< <::


bhla: divide, split SM' Scp gwi kebelesen nganano Im dividing a cultivation plot (gwi) for my wife (nganano). `h S_ KT>e "M< <:: bh kio bare belchabhw the axe (bh) handle (kio) split yesterday. S[u=< }ck:: bhelego: uncover SK au na bhelegi bangarr Go and uncover (take the grass off) the grain drying platform (bangarr). H> IK< d\ <e LM<:: sg. imp.: bhelego; pl. imp. bheleg K! ' K<! bbhle: early morning - L' K?K=~ 10 c bhl: create, reproduce S`' S^v bhnni: relative S bhnn: relatives - SV bhra': you (sg) choose U[ bherta': you (pl) choose U[< bhy: axe, adze S[u= bhnya: axes, adzes bhichagn: different (special) }K ( bhiibhi: different (separate) }K bhika: break, fold Seu`' T au bita keno Go and collect firewood (lit. break wood).


H> (H>) ) T MkU (MkT>) eu` (eu]) :: kio ngaina nga bigineo hang a daldali This wood (kio) will not break it is hard/tough/strong (daldali). I cu`U'"^ <:: bhilai: small cattle bell i M (Kw) bhilanya: small cattle bells - i KA (Kw) ) bhilbloy: stream U bhilcho: yellow u= kl a bhilcho: a yellow goat - u= M bhir: smoke (n.) e bhir': short walking stick ` L bhirrido: cut up (into strips) - SMM' Sq^[ bhirridi achuck na elese sus Cut the meat (achuk) into strips and put it in the sun (sus) to dry. Y< MM =`p N L ekK< bhirrio: put on/take off (clothes) T<Kp any kibhirri chaha I am putting on my shoes. T [G< <:: anyi kibhirrian chaha Im taking off my shoes. T KpG< <:: nong bare bhirrio chaha He put on his shoes yesterday. c< T< L `M::

nong bare bhirriana chaha He took off his shoes yesterday. c< T< L <MqM:: bhisni: black and white color l` ' u<^u<_ bho: out; outside <' < bhcha: thin k bhchn (pl.) thin - k bhodha: turn over SMu bhga / kuru: dig (v) q`! q\! bhgana: dig out - qa bhogena: a kind of bird bhogi: poor, orphan H' v K?K< bhoga: poor people, orphan H c v K?L< bhogoy: pool of water <_ <H bhoi: wide - c bhoiyai: Ostrich egg shell necklace - c lLM }W^ @ bhya: Ostrich egg shell necklaces - c lLM }W\ @ bhokkon: some, a part of - m ainy bhokon Give me some (of it ). m e bholisay: showing a sign of victory g UM Td bholisoy: a kind of tree bhololo: talk loudly, argue (see also ngugino) wKA S`'

bonabhwe na awo bhololo ori a gwi Get up and go and argue in your own houses. bholonggoi: corn bob, lid or stopper for container q[q bholongocha: corn cobs - q[q bloya: shell (vb.), peel, remove husk from SMM sabo bloi hgo na eliso, na huli drkta-bhwti, erethe kama na jse ulmai First shell the beans (hgo) and spread them in the sun (eliso) and when they have dried (drkta-bhwhti) pour (erese) [them into] a bag (kama) and put them (ojse) [into] the storehouse (ulmai). SS] voL< MM N L e<& c=`p (eM) U` u}^ ekS<:: iwa kornu na bhlowa Take a maize cob and peel off (the skin). uqKA eI L:: ngdri bhluabhw Remove the scab from the sore (ngdri). leK< p` e<:: sg. imp.: bloya; pl. imp.: bolo MM!'MK<! bhna: arrive, reach - S[e Ba Gaha bare bhno Makarye Did Ba Gaha arrive at Makaro yesterday? L vH: T"a [c; ee-bare bhona Yes - he arrived. `dDM bhongbhongiwa: blistered (adj)

anyi bare kngti keno tii ne sno bhongbhongidhabhwe I was cutting trees for ages (tii) yeaterday (bari) and my hands (sno) became blistered. bhnnoi: from where, from which place? - kuuni bhnnoi Where did you come from? bhonos: leave, get up and go any kobhonsi bh I am going outside. bhoray: a kind of tree bhori: ethnic group, tribe. bhorinya: ethnic groups bhowi: shoulder h bhugo: take out, extract (e.g., a thorn) (jI) bwoi ng What are you taking out? U I/ kM <? kbwoi birrini Im taking out a thorn. jI G</ kK< <:: nng bare bhugo nglai He/she took out two front lower teeth (nglai) yesterday. L G<K `f kK ::

anyi kubhugi kudui I am taking out a bad tooth (kudui). }uLg `c? ekK< <:: o na bhugony kornu gin Go (sg.) and get some (gin) maize [take a maize cob off the stalk] for me. H> m uqKA }M pKI UM:: sg. imp. bhugo; pl. imp.: bhugo kM!' kK<! bhuguy: back part of the body `v bhuha: curse (v.), put a spell on S`U nga hirra bhu noi Who put a spell on this person? I c< [S< T< <; kubhuhiny na rsyo I will put a spell on you and you will die. [T@ KHKG< bhuhogi: evil eye u< bhukkoy: white mushroom Mp < bhoka: white mushrooms - LMp < bhungay: castrated bull; bullock c bhungn: castrated bull; bullock (pl.) c bhuragante: tree species with edible leaves T>uL pM K< bhuran: cattle camp, local group w u[ bhuranyoga: cattle camps, local groups bhure: morning - nga bhureta


This morning. _ roono bhure Tomorrow morning. bhure tun The day after tomorrow. } = bhurrai: egg lLM bhurra: eggs lLKA bhurre: smoke - e bhusoy: evil eye (female) u< (Kc?)


chagi: green, raw - =e' _ (MucK) chahi: shoe - T chaha: shoes - T chahli: light blue; light green - <H cT' [ chai: the Suri people chachi (sg.) chalay': glass bead necklace K? chalanya: necklaces - K? challi: good \ chamochi: wild fig tree (Ficus capensis Thunb.) chamocha: wild fig trees chamun: chin - chamuni: chins - changalay: a kind of edible plant; member of an age grade of young boys - T>uL }M charr: leopard w` charrinya: leopards - wa chargi: cloth - Mwe charaley: a kind of genet (wild animal) - x gT@ chawa: to be full, satisfied - Sw anyi wa kabaka na kachawa Ive eaten (wa kabaka) and am full. u? uMKG<:: bha a chassi

There is no hunger (lit. the land (bha) is full) [Hw KU (\ w <):: chebba: tie (it up) - e`! chbb: tie! (pl.) - c\! cheka: laugh, sew, weave Sdp' Se' SgS wa cheku ng What did you laugh at? U dkI; l bhw ninain Something amused me. J ` ec}:: any bare kecheka wang I had a good laugh yesterday. L Mu? dpG<:: kichigi shebel Im stitching a [knife] sheath. u=L cG< <:: kichigi garrchu Im weaving a basket. p` W^G< <:: chrddni: porcupine ` chrddna: porcupines - ` chidineo: grow close together (e.g. of sorghum) pp wKA SwkM (KTiL) liwa daa bare chudineoy na ngamea tui yk a lanya The sorghum was planted too close together and it is now (ngamea) like grass (lanya). TiL< pp wKA } X` SeKA ukK <:: chinyi: young, small - ' i

chita: boil - TL erese ma ju tui na kichid Pour water (ma) into the pot (ju) and let it boil. <H< Tca U` =L `:: ma wa chide Has the water boiled? <H< L; ma ngani kichidito The water has not boiled yet (ngani). <H< MLU:: choba: kiss chbai: pig - dT chbachin: pigs - XT chobboi: a kind of seed - _ chbsa: suck - SU anyi kchobsi lma Im sucking lma (fruit of the lmai tree). KAT> S< <:: sg. imp.: chbsa; pl. imp.: chboso SU!' U<! chochuy: a kind of soft rock - xH chodha: fill up - SS<L nng bari chdha liwa knna He/she filled the grain store (knnai) with sorghum (liwa) yesterday. L }^< uTiL VL<:: chodhugai: piece of dried meat - s chodhuga: pieces of dried meat - s

chka: have sex with w[ Y < T[ anyi nga whtunu ngani kchku I have not had sex with that girl (nga whtunu). M[ w[ Y < L[G<U:: hin chga He/she wants to have sex. c</ dDw[Y < T[ MM/MK:: chlloy: intestine; stomach ' J' ^ cholla: intestines, stomachs w< ' J' ^ chomaray: witchcraft u<' cLu=' eT} chongu: a kind of guitar - ^` chr: beard, hair, feather =U' <`'Lv chwa: throw a stone at S`` nong bare chwa lukw na erra-bhw He threw a stone at a chicken yesterday and it died (errabhw). c< L a `<aM:: choi: salt (Amharic borrowing) < chuarneng: again - chudhna: twins - S chuka: chase away, defeat, beat (e.g. in ceremonial duelling) Tv[`' Tg' SU (YY` vK< <` U ww) iny chuyain kiong? Why are you chasing me away? KU Uv`[;


Baruba kuchukto na nyeseo The Baruba (a local group) were beaten and they ran away. v\v }vK< u< u (<`) }g gg:: sg. imp. chuga; pl. imp.: chuw. - v``! v`\! chulloi: fresh dung (of cattle) <e v chumun: happiness, smile e' churai: a kind of acacia (Mimosaceae) - ^` churra: clothes washing; end of a mourning period Mwe Tw' N (Mpf) Sh k churreonyeo: too small (of clothes) i S K< Mwe:: nga rum na chureon This cloth/shirt/jacket is too small for me. Mwe K@ cM:: churro: wash - Tw g mai na churr ruminya Go to the water (mai) and wash the clothes (ruminya). kgoi churra Im going to wash (clothes). <[ KwfI w! Sg. imp.: churra; pl. imp.: churroE - w! u<! chutto: be dissolved - STETE chuwan: cold w`


dada: father (term of address - see also shune) - v dadabi: paper, letter (Amharic borrowing) - [k' wu? daha: poor, with few possessions (Amharic borrowing) - H w[ K?K< dahanya: the poor; poor people - J dami: custom, law I' Y` w daminya (pl): customs - I' Y`' x a damitinau It is our custom. ( ) dardario: be surprised S dari: move sneakily uwp SH@ dasio: leave, forget, lose SH@' S`d' T any wa kadasiwa rrum Ive forgotten [my] cloth. Mwc? [dG<:: dotu ori Where did you leave it? < [d< (}<<); wa kadasiwa mai I left it at the water (mai). <H< < }<<:: d: compound, home 'o dehinya: compounds; homes - 'o (

go itim deh Light the fire in the compound. ( ) dllei: the wife (or child) of a wealthy man - HwU c< T>e' U M deshinena: be busy with, be occupied with ue^ SS ue^ S inye deshi ng What are you doing? U c^I <; kedeshi eru tilla Im making porridge (tilla) for the children (eru). KM G< <:: anyi bare kedeshineneo I was busy yesterday. L Y^ uw u`:: kau na kedeshid Lets go and work. e^ sg. imp. desh; pl. imp. deshidh ue^ }S! uY^ }S! dmni: troublemaker, quarrelsome, malicious [' e] c<' }K drr: a kind of cloth (women's cloth) - MU diir: clay gL dindilatai: a kind of rifle - S dip: straight k K dir: a sleeping place for young boys (close to the cows)


S Y^ (uw u[ "vu=) dirro: clean, sweep, wipe T' S[ wo na dirr drri Come here (sg.) and clean the house (drri). u?~ :: kidirri kio Im wiping the table [lit. the wood]. [?< G< <:: sg. imp.: dirro; pl. imp.:dirr - !' ! diski: pot (made of steel or aluminium) w[ e diskinya: pots - w[ e dgo: tread on S^S' SH@ huli dgo liwa na liwa ngani shilaneo If you tread on the sorghum it will not grow. TiL< L H@u U:: anyi kdgi mashari Im treading on a termite. uUe< L H@<u (}^S<u <):: anyi bare kdgi errise I crossed by the ford (errise) yesterday. L SM"< }h`<:: any kdgi rsso jario Im kicking (jario = with the foot) the dog (rosso). <h< u_ SG< (H@<u):: dokai: small shrub; root crushed in water for worm medicine (Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv.) dokku: vagina - c? wM (Ue)

dokolu: gourd with the top cut off ~ }q[ pM dokolunya: gourds - pKA dle: small cooking pot i / e dlya: pots - i e dolety: turtle - ?K= dolecha: turtles - ?K= dollu: pipe (for tobacco)- dolunya: pipes - dolm: frog - l^] donga: duelling pole dongen: duelling poles dori: house u? doren: houses u? dori jaar: wall (lower part) - u? Sc[ dori knna: wall (upper part) - u? L< dri tutu: door - u? u` dorriggo: burn (intr.) - SnM dwun: zebra - T@ I dowuno: zebras - T@ I dudugana: look up; raise one's eyes - SSM' T kare duduga Raise (sg.) your eyes (kare). }SM ! duga: plant - SM kuduk liwa issabai kuli a morruiny One plants in the seventh (month) when the moon wanes (kuli a moruiny). ucv}< ` }LM [n Kk eH@::

kgoi na kudigineno Im going (kgoi) to plant. }M M}M <:: owo dug Go (sg.) and plant! H> M! auwo dukt Go (pl.) and plant! H> K<! duguyi: seed - ` dugu: seeds - a duhu: a place of burial Snw` x dui: overgrown by dense vegetation - pp K n uU a dui - gro ning Its overgrown - there is no path (gro). ("<) uU M - S KU dumany: earring < dumanya: earrings - < dumo: hurt by knocking against a wound or sore place leM S" TdSU dumaino so You are hurting me! dSU (leK?) <:: dunga: deaf SeT }d< c dunggiyoy: a kind of worm lUu<`e dorbhin: Desert Rose (Adenium obesum) - _< T>uL

durioy: dance (at a wedding) ^ (uW` >?) keheyo ngabunu na kudurrioy We are going over there (ngabunu) to a wedding dance = c`< u? K^ SH@ <:: sg. imp. durrio; pl.imp.:durri `!' \! durrumey: tree stump < durumo: tree stumps - < dus: bush land (see also gai) - ls


dhaga: hit, strike, fall, stop SU' S<p' TqU nong dhag ermi He is hitting the child. M S< <:: ipta keno na dhakt Get poles (lit. wood) and fight (each other)! L < }vu<:: anyi bare karaka ba I fell over (lit. hit the ground) yesterday. L pG< (S_ L) :: gwiyo wa dhaka It has rained (lit. rain has hit) [in the distance]. u< u (u< n<):: dhagain hozoi/huin/chuan I am hungry/thirsty/cold (lit. hit by hunger/thirst/cold). @ `xM' UM' u`M' ([Hw'T'w` SM):: dhag ba nga bunu Stop (lit. hit the ground) over there (nga bunu). = lU (= S_~ U):: nong bare dhaga dhrr He smeared mud (dhrr) on his body yesterday. L c<~ n kv (S):: sg. imp. dhaga; pl. imp.: dhago - U! 'U~! '<p! '<l!


dhaldhali: hard, difficult "^ dhale: add! (sg) U` ! (SS`) dhalle: add! (pl) U\ dhaAli: white sorgum TiL dhamw: tobacco UvJ damma: (pl) UvJ dhawu: hit! U! (SU) dhawung: hit! (pl) U~! dhaino: late afternoon T >? dhaai: all, everything G<K<U ` dhebi a tugon: lip-plate u` T>[ gL (vIL @) dhebinya: lip plates gL dhedea: hammar, work with metal Skk' Sww' w[ w[ e^ inye dhed ng What are you hammering/making? U kk <; kedhed muuda Im making an awl (muuda) [for piercing leather]. ku Swh T>J e kk< (uG<) <:: be a kedhedecha sigio A stone for hammering metal (sigio). w[~ KSkk T>J :: dheli: cement, paint eT> kKU dherra: leak di dri wa dherru


Did your house leak? u?I dM; i hung nga dherru It is okay (i hung) - it didnt leak. I < eU:: ba bare dherru ngani dherr Is it still (ngani) leaking where it leaked yesterday (bare)? L e uu[u G<U dM:: dheri: sweat (n.) Lw dheriiso: sweat TLw anyi wa kwoi wang na kedheriisio Ive been hurrying (kwoi wang) and am sweating. }< u` Lu:: dhno: burp (n.) Td dhn: be bloated l dhshi: sneeze (n.) Tee dhia: go with wa SH@ roono dhio ko neng Whom are you going with tomorrow (roono)? T ` H@KI; kidhio ko Ahli Im going with Aholi. JK= ` H@KG<:: di ko nga hira na dhlese gro Go with this person (hira) and show him/her (dhlese) the road (gro). =I c< ` H> S d<:: dhianea: come with - wa SU

dhiano ko neng Whom did you come with? T ` SI; kidhiano ko Aholi I came with Aholi. JK= ` SG<:: dhingdhingi: heavy v (KgU) dhiniyo: full (adj.) S<K< dhiniyo dhik: full to the brim. dhino: puss SM dhinyakayino: forget S`d dhitinena: keep quiet, be silent, put out (fire, light) U TK' d' (Sw^) T dhitinena lai na ngani bokun kyugo He/she kept quiet and said (kyugo) nothing. UU dM wLDM:: go dhita-bhwe Put out the fire! Sw^~ <:: dhiya!!: fill, cause to be full SS<L (see also dhiniyo) dhiya: finish S[e dhiyo: beside ... ' u... w dhobi: a tree used to make bark cloth. (p`~ KMwe T><M) dhobi:: bark cloth p` Mwe dhobinya (pl.)


dho: hump (of cattle) h dhoi: humps - h dhla: show Td dhi ko nga hira na dholese gro Go with this person and show him/her the path. =I c< ` H> ` S d<:: iwa nga kta na dholose hiri Take this and show it to him/her (hiri). I <c d< () sg. imp. dhla; pl. imp. dhlo. d' d dholi: girl M[ dhol: girls - M[ dhma: insult (vb.) ew inye dhmainy kiong Why are you insulting me? KU< Ucu; dhnga: pick up/put down Td& TekS dhonga hada na kwia Pick up the sleeping mat (hada) and bring [it]. U d U<:: zuo dhngn Miso The people have left [the Omo] for Mi. c (V) Kk< T> H@M:: dhnga ju bha Take the pot (ju) off the fire and put it on the ground (bha). Tca< U< L d S_ ekU<:: dhngase nga bunu

Shall I put it down over there? = <`<:: dhne: one (numeral) (l`) dhr: earth, soil, mud `& n dhora golonya: red earth k ` dhrku: dry (vb.) - [p rum ngani kdhrku Has the cloth (rum) dried? Mwc< [k; daa wa dhoroku Yes, it has dried. Mwc< `sM:: liwa burro dhrgoy Has the sorghum (liwa) dried? TiL< [k; daa burro dhrkta-bhwe Yes it has dried. TiL< `sM:: dhwhi: foam [ dhuguma: bend Tue dhulu lai: walk off in silence u SH@ nng bare dhulu lai He went off in silence yesterday. L u () H@:: lai nga dhuli Dont go off in silence. U wKI u H>::


dhum: hill [w dhuminya: hills - [w dhumana: find, collect T' Scwcw (SMkU) anyi kgoi na kudhumani keno Im going to collect [fire] wood (keno). T Mcwew (MKpU) <:: nga kta wa dhuman orri Where did you find this [thing] (nga kta)? I ` <; kudhuman gro bai I found it [lying on] the road (gro). S L G<:: dhuna: make a hole in, pierce Swd' k Tu iwa nga gussita na dhun tugo Take this gourd (gussita) and make a hole in [its] mouth tugo). I pM <c L k wK:: nong bare dhuna nyaba He/she pierced [his/her] ears (nyaba) yesterday. a< (a) L }ud:: sg. imp.: dhuno; pl. imp.: dhunoE; wd' wc< dhunga: nod off to sleep TkL dhungwi: vulture w d dhonga: vultures - w d dhurdhuri: thick (e.g. of soup) ^U (Kj`v) dhutiyoy: drunk Se` any bare kirra gesso wang na kudhutiyo-bhwe


I drank a lot of beer (gesso) yesterday and got drunk. L w< u=^ (L) c`<:: nga hirunu zami keno kiong dhutiy Why is that person pushing a way through the trees (keno) is he/she drunk (dhutiy)? KU< c< u"< <e T><; ca <;




ea: separate, mediate SK' Tcw (< <` Tcw) g krgno na a Go (sg.) between them (krgno) and mediate. sg. imp.: a; pl. imp. dh. uSHL< v K<:: ebbeleshgi: a kind of tree - ebo: debt echa: shoot S}e' SM anyi nebi ngani kto I have never shot a buffalo (nebi). i L<pU:: tlng He shot (him) on purpose. J wKA < K< sg. imp.: ej; pl. imp.: ejiy }<e ' }<c< edho: pull up (e.g. grass) ogo edhs mra lanyoi Go and get some grass for the calves. ( ee: yes ) ( )

egiriyogi: bug, bed bug

egiwa: become ripe, be ready SwcM' SJ

eleso huli liwa egis, kamno When the sorghum (liwa) is ripe, one eats it. TgL c=ueM uLM achuk wa egiwa The meat is ready (to eat). e (KSwM) }}M:: ma wa egida The water has boiled [lit. is ready]. <H (M) }}M:: eleso: put out to dry, stretch tightly Te' S` g na ele rum susso Go and put the cloth (rum) in the sun (suss) [to dry]. H> Mwc< N L e<:: sg. imp.: eleso; pl. imp.: eles e' e< eliyo: call S^ ngakta keli eneng What is this called (lit. what do we call this)? U }wKA < T>^<; keli ke dowhi Its called dowhi (foam). ([) }wKA < T>^<:: eliono na kaibi kare Call me and lets go (kaibi) together (kare). ^S w[ H>:: eres: ford, river crossing (n) ereso (tanno): cross (over) kaiwo kerrei tanno



eri Let's cross over (e.g. the river). ( eri: leather q ero: leather (pl) q ermi: child M eru: children M )





yany: help S` bbega: blow by mouth (to remove chaff from grain) Te (Kv< _< SK) ebeges tishu gngul Blow the new sorghum (tishu) [and put it] into the [wooden] bowl (gngul). =c< TiL e u< U`:: ddeya bhoy: evildoer, offender `' uLi dhmsi: teach, learn Te}T`' ST` dheny: make (an unmarried girl) pregnant Te[ inye wa dhnyu nng Whom did you make pregnant? ; anyi kdhnyi whoi kona I got a certain girl (hoi kona) pregnant.

ga: send SL (unM SM)

h: prepare sleeping place T (S) kknyanyogi: quarrelsome, troublemaker [' l< kknyan: argue, be angry SL' Sq la: water hole U


len: water holes U lerena: carry (by a handle, cord etc.) uS ` SgU gussi klni nng How shall I carry the gourd (gussi)? pK< MgS<; l kdhore lrrgan sio Its got a handle (kdore) carry it by the handle (lit. by the hand (sio). S ` K< uS< (I) }gS<:: neng: how? ngeresa: be afraid S^ nng bare ngersa kinyang na tano ngani koko He/she was afraid of the crocodile (kinyang) yesterday and did not cross (the river). L < ` < dh` k[:: ngersin hang Hes very (hang) afraid of you. uU ^HM anyi bare ktngarau gwiyo-bhw na ngani nga kgoiyo I was afraid of the rain (gwiyo) yesterday so did not go (nga kgoiyo). L u< ` MH@<U:: ra: pour Sp urr wa rseo Have you poured [in] milk (urr)?


rra }~ k<; rse gin Pour [in] some more. U` p! raan ma gin na kotonye seno Pour some (gin) water (mai) for me to wash (ktonye) my hands (seno). Uwu i <H pM:: rra: die SV shunu rr minang when did your father die? vI S < V~; nng bari erra-bhw He died yesterday. L < V~ abo ngani keru ngani a hini The bushbuck (abo) is not yet (ngani) dead it is still (ngani) alive (hin). <L< MV}U uI K:: go wa erra The fire (go) has gone out (lit. has died). d~ M (VM):: rreya: tear Sp kama bare ga rcha-bhw rsha The bag (kama) was torn yesterday. x`d< L < }k<::

rrn bhnoi Where about is it torn? < }k<; rrn madheo It is torn at the top [lit. at the breast]. ~ u (<) < }k<:: kama am nng How did it tear (lit. what ate it)? U k<; kn k It was torn (lit. speared, pierced) by a branch (k). p` < k<:: rsha: platform for sitting or sleeping Sw ssedha: think about, arrange things mentally and physically Tcw' S`` ( S}LK' S} ksrisidheo gro We missed each other on the way (goro). u< L }LK ) sersidheya: miss, cross without seeing each other d}


ga: wait Sup gaan: know (see also taka) Tp' p gaba: market (Amharic borrowing) u gadhim: stone terrace u[ gaha: shelter in cultivation area Sum TT L K i A gahachin: shelters kuni gasho I have come from the bush. s (") < SG<:: gai: our (inclusive, with plural noun) bi a gai el ori Where are our [i.e. your and my] cattle? gaisa: hoe - Ml f gai: bush, uninhabited area (see also dus) ls& S_

gaisachin: hoes
galgali: a person or an animal with big ears Mp a K< c< U cd galishoi: camel SM galmamurikio: cheek bone SL galnen: brothers wife U T>e galish: a kind of sorgum (cream colored) _U TiL galta: small hoe g f


galtanya: small hoes -

galui: a hiding place in bush or long grass u" U u[U X` <e Sum e^ gama: marriage w bi a gamainy Marriage cattle. KAi (w) w gamea: marry Tv inye begamiyo Have you married? w}HM; ee bekagamiyo Yes, Ive married. wKG<:: gamma: marry (imp) v! gangilyoga: dried sorghum porridge, carried on a journey [k TiL KS (K<) T> ganyo: my (with plural noun) bi a ganyo garrtabhw My cattle are lost. But note: sara ganyo a Lusigolonyi My name is Lusigolonyi. gamchala: ginger wM garchu: basket used for serving porridge; hat Tp[u= garcho: baskets; hats - Tp[u= gara: stomach J garra: finished, lost Kk' tilla begarra

The porridge (tilla) is finished. < MsM:: ma wa garrta. The water (ma) is finished. <H< MsM:: chaha ganyo garrtabhwe I have lost my shoes (chaha). T :: nong bare garra He/she died yesterday. c< L V} ():: garatt: monkey garacha: monkeys garsan: salt lick < ScM garseo: disappear S& S ` gasa: work party gasn: work parties gasha: shield h gashanya: shields - h gau: our (exclusive, with plural noun) bi a gau gartabhw Our cattle are lost. gawatty: wooden bowl u gawul: shoulder h gawelo: shoulders - h gla: collect together bride wealth cattle Scwcw (KAi w) kli bio na kagamasen lusi mugai


Im collecting cattle to marry a wife (mugai) for [my] son. M KS` 'KTv KAi w cucw< <:: huli hini nga whta naini, g tla bio If you want (to marry) this girl (whta) of ours (naini), go and collect (some) cattle (bio). M K" w (KAi) cwew ():: geleba: the Dassanech people gelgan: veranda u[ glgnyai: bat KK= glgnya: bats - KK= gene/g: graze i bio bare gene/g ori Where did the cattle graze yesterday? L w < K<; bio bare gene/g bh nga The cattle grazed out (bh) there. w = < i T><:: biagwi g ori Where are your cattle grazing? < w U<K< (U<); bi kn da bare tangil na g/gene donenen One (kn) cow (bi) got lost (tangil) yesterday and grazed alone. L D LU w i K:: gnyo: make (e.g. clay pot or lip-plate) gL Se^ '` gL SY^ iny junya bare gnyn isng How many pots (junya) did you make (yesterday)? L e Tca W^I (c^i);


sg. imp.: tny; pl. imp. tn. grenga: terrible S uU T>c' K grsi: bad S gruy: a kind of weed [U gsa: gnaw a bone S' Sq[U gesso: local beer L gidangi: grey, off white color u<T kKU gigey: bone giga: bones - gilgili: flat, slippery MS< T>g^ gimma: honey wine; mead gina: spear belonging to a Priest vLv~ ` ging: grave gingo: graves gino: ask Sp nong bare gino Ahli He asked Ahli yesterday. JK= L k<:: zuo nga gininyo Didnt the people ask you? c MlIU; Ee nga ginonyo No (lit. yes) - they didnt ask me. c MlU:: sg. imp.: ginno; pl. imp. gin p& l! girari: African wild olive (Olea Africana Mill.) ^ girrid: creep SI

gingini: luke warm Kw K <H

hiri girri kiong Why is he/she creeping? KU< T><; girridesen shigino He/she is creeping [up on] a hartebeest. c< T><... girgiri: stirring rod (see also shibio) TTc giringay: mucus daghain giringai I have a cold [lit. I have been hit by mucus].

girong: nose

girongi: noses -
girwani: cream eMvx go: fire d gochin: fires go amba The grass/bush is on fire [lit: fire is eating the land]. c d gcha: lick di godhoy: a kind of bird godiri: thick (e.g. of cloth) gly: lizard iLK= glna: take out (of a pot) T< (Tca) korlesen nga hirra kornoi kn Take out a maize cob (kornoi) for this man (nga hirra). vI` TiL K=I c< Tca <<K:: torlaan kn

Take one out for me. K@ <M:: golonyi: red k golotto: crawl SI golu: grinding stone gomay: bracelet (round and small) Uv`& w i gongai: mean (adj.) c c< gnggul: boat, canoe Mv gngwi: bark of tree p` gri:cloud grinya: clouds gori: roads gr: road, way, path S ' gorodhong: a material made of thread used for protecting one's arm ` }c^ SL grra: roast (on a griddle or metal) SlL grr bunna na kirriy Roast (sg.) coffee (bunna) for me to drink. u< U< lLM:: iwa kornu na gorra Take some maize (kornu) and roast it. i uqKA <c ue:: Sg. imp.: grra; pl. imp. grro lL& lK<! gshaniyo: clean, remove the scales from a fish ipta nga urgussa na gshani Take (pl.) these fish and clean them! ( )


goso: wheat e gwa: swallow S goidoi: bee hive w k goidoinya: bee hives - w k guchumoi: hip guchumo: hips - guddi: false banana c gul: duelling ground gulu: navel w` gulussi: a kind of tree gumi: duiker `d guminya: duikers - `d gumunyoy: a kind of tree gunchi: animal disease (Rinderpest) w ui gune: castrated goat S< gungkachuy: pumpkin v gungkacha: pumpkins - v guny: look, see SSM kgoi kgunyi bio Im going to look at the cattle. w MSK <:: goiny kta kro nga tui Look inside (tui) this black (kro) thing. =I l` ` <e }SK:: sg. imp.: gnya! pl. imp.: gnyoe! }SM& }SM~! gunyu: your (2nd. person singular with plural noun) eru a gunyu el erneng How are your children?

sara gunyu a ng What is your name? gurguri: smart, cunning. gushuro: hyena w gushurna: hyenas - gussi: calabash, gourd pM gussio: gourds < gususi: big black ant Mp < gususa: big black ants guttuma: flour o gwi: garden, farm M x' `h gwinya: gardens, farms - M x ' `h gwi: your (2nd. person plural with plural noun) eru a gwi el erneng How are your children? gwio': rain w gw: swallow S iwa ma na goi zibu Take (sg.) some water and swallow the medicine (zibu). <H <c S>~ <:: sg. imp.: gwa; pl. imp.: go '<! gwoddine: brother U gwodingen: brothers gwoddonu: your brother - UI (} U)


haanan: number five Ue l` hadha: sleeping mat made from animal skin l`u (KS) hadhachin: sleeping mats. hala: sharpen SdM (KeK) anyi bare kahali mirr na ngamea kgoi duwa I sharpened a planting pole (mirr) yesterday and I am now (ngamea) going planting (duwa). L () K`h T>J `u?KG< (eKG<) 'G< (}LKG<):: sg. imp.: thahala; pl. imp.: tahalai. dM' dK<! (KeK) hala: stomach worms f M haali: later uL halihaali: slowly u' uke hallagi: finger halaga: fingers halagi-a-bo: thumb (lit. big finger) S hang: very much, certainly etc. (emphatic particle) uU u` }. ngakajino hang I will definitely not give (it) to you. u` McIU:: kihini hang I really want (it).


u` (u<) MKG<:: hungagey: chameleon iLK= haradeni: chest (of cow) `v haranchi: white person [ haranchinya: white people - [ harroi (haarru): bees wax cU harra: vomit Te kama girari na kaharro Let us drink (kama) girari [ a drink made from bark of the African Wild Olive] so that we will vomit. =e< ^] ::

sg. imp.: tahara; pl. imp. tahar.

e<' e<<! harramio: sign, put ones thumb print on S[U weny warrkata na harramiyo Take the paper and sign [it]. [k~ <c `Uu:: aiwo harrami warrkata Come (sg.) and sign the paper. `U:: hartt: mule harcha: mules herrta: have diarrhea k' }pT ki a chagi kehereto [When one takes] ki a chaga, one has diarrhea. }pT M:: het: the same as, similar - }Sdd :: h hang

It is very similar. uU }Sdd :: hichana: blow one's nose S nong wa hichana giringai He blew his nose [lit. he blew mucus (giringai)]. c< } (< ):: sg. imp.: tihea; pl. imp. tihida. }& }<! hine: alive uI K' Q<' l hino: want SK huli hin, oge If you (sg.) want it, take it. K< <c<:: nong bare hino bio wechin He/she wanted to go to the cattle (bio) yesterday. w SH@ M (M) u`:: hiri: person c< zuo: people hir-a-ma: man [lit. male person] zu-a-ma: men hir-a-ngaha: woman [lit. female person] c? zu-a-ngaha: women hirkn: number twenty H (l`) hirta: new grain that has been semi-ground. hini: heart Mw hga: sieve any khgi gutuma Im sieving flour. o~ G< <::

hoggir: Southern Oryx XL ` hgt: breath S}e khgdi wang I am out of breath/breathing heavily (wang). i [ uM }e< nong bare tda kutul na hgt wang He climbed (tda) a mountain (kutul) yesterday and was out of breath. L }^^< i a u`:: hgoi: bean voL hggo: beans - voL hohu: lungs dv hl-hli: light (in weight) kLM Kw hli: waterbuck `d hliso: waterbucks - `d hli (adj.): white, clean. ' <I bi a hola: a white cow LU hl: dance, song hlngosay: a kind of tree hlgun: hole (e.g. in cloth, bag etc.) k (KMwe' Kx`d' }) hlgun: holes - k (KMwe' Kx`d' }) hloi: tobacco holder UvJ S hloiya: tobacco holders - UvJ S hlly: empty, naked ^l' `n hrga: a calf that has been weaned <' K (}) hri: deep (of a river) Mp (K)


hry: cheekbone SL hozo: hunger [Hw ba hozo A hungry time [lit. the land is hungry]. [Hw p (\ }`vDM):: hudhug: give birth S<K nga nunu bare hudug Did your wife (nga) give birth yesterday? L T>eI K; ee bare hudug Yes, she gave birth. MK:: huduguno ermi ti nengi Was it a boy or a girl [lit. what kind of child did she give birth to]? c? e K; (U K); hug: red clay used for body painting. k gL ` L KTe@ T><M hugo: dry (vb) [p rum a seno hugain Cloth (rum) for drying the hands (seno). KT[m T>J Mwe iwa lanywi na kuhugi nga donga Get some grass for me to dry this duelling pole (donga). I (vIM S L) T`pu X` MM:: huin: thirst ST hula: when S;


hula be kih ngorogo When I was at Ngorog. a uu`< >? hule: flower, bloom uv hulinya: flowers - uv huli: if I (p) huli hin, iwa na baga If you want (it) take (it) and eat. KI <c wL:: hulkum: short heavy stick, used in fighting; baton ` ^U L KSvu= T><M& hunai: small stream, valley i`' gKq hurroi: gabata (board game) u


i': is (verb to be) < ibaa: warn Tekp ibbanisiyo: wake up Sn ibaisi: cure, save S' S[ ibaisiin noi Who cured you? T I; ibaithi Tumwi God cured me. =wN?` (}[):: ichnchna: teach slowly, over a long period u`' u K[U >? Te}T` Goloinmeri, ichonchnisiony haracinen na kishiga Goloinmeri, teach me English (haracinen) slowly so that Ill understand (kishiga). KA T@] - K= ss =v u e}U[:: idhara: brush away flies w Tv[` (i TK) kiringo merr na anyi kidarrnen teee There are many (merr) flies (kirongo) and Im brushing them away all the time (teee). w< x K<& G<M>? < (i UL) Tv`^<::


Sg. imp.: idara; pl. imp.: idarai. v`' v\! (Kw)! idhibheni: fat (adj.), fat person T' ^U c< (see also kummuli) idho: mist, low-lying cloud idhen: clouds idhoy: add up, equal SS`' SS`' TM idhogido: adopt, bring up. u<= }kuK ' Td anyi kidhogidi ngothoni a nano Im bringing up my nephew (sisters child). I M dG< <:: idonena: live with, share a homestead or location with u u= U k wa S` 'vM SJ inye nga orra idoneno ko neng Whom (neng) are you living with at this homestead (nga orra)? I u= (u?) T ` < U^< (U`u)? kidoneno ko Baduren Im living with Baduren. v_ ` < U`u:: igge: you (pl) } igingor: rest head on stool or pillow KSkS (Ku`T) U K^e T>KM (x`) anyi kigingi ali sabaye Im resting my head (saba) on a stool (ali). ^c? (pL) u`T (x`) L d[< <:: sg. imp.: igingn; pl. imp.: igingit !

igmor: answer (show that one is listening by making the sound ee) ULi Se ( c< S SJ< KSK T>cT< "" T>M U) inye nga igmio Arent you listening? cTI <; sg. imp.: igmn; pl. imp.: igmo. SMe' SMc<! iha: sharpen SdM (KeK) aiyaan shgai na kihai bh Give me the sharpening stone (shogai) so that I can sharpen the axe (bh). V[ e S[u=< MV`<:: ihe: to be present, to live, to stay S`' Sq inye ihi ori Where are you living? < U[<? kihi Romsso Im living at Rom. U[< aU <:: anyi kgoi suki tui na inye t tirumelo bai Im going into the shop (suki) you stay (t) with the car (tirumelo). @ c<p Mv } S=< <e q:: ihir: small sharp blade i eKU UL ikanga: step over }^S' S^S l ki ti i gro na ikangat Theres a tree on the path (gro) so step over it (pl). S L () K'}^S< sg. imp.: ikangn; pl. imp.: ikangat.

}^S' }^S! ilaga: hang up SekM iwa nga bagai-ta na ilag kio tuno Take this milk container (baga) and hang it on the tree (kio). I } S n <c L ekK< (MK<):: sg. imp.: ilaga; pl. imp.: ilagai ekM&ekK<! (MM' MK<)! ilagai: desease, illness ui ' ISU ilaga: illnesses ilal: comfort U ilasa: be ill SSU nng bare illasa na nga burrita tewa chali He/she was ill yesterday but this morning (nga burrita) he/she has recovered (tewa chali). c< /dD L V/T u`:: _ }iKAM/}iLDM:: ilel: impotent }d' KA Mu[<U ililai: spine (of cow) `"] (LU) ililingana: fill in (a hole) SS<L (Kk) nong bare ililingana ela kaare He filled in the (eyes (kaare) of the) water holes (ela) yesterday. c< <H T^kT> (w S <<) <H VL<:: ill: number six ee l` illis: walk digonally to climb a hill or a mountain x U }^^ }T< S<:: ilbcha: try on (of clothes or shoes) SK" (Mwe U T)

iwa nga chaha na illb jare Take these shoes and see if they fit your feet (jare). I T <c JI G< K":: illongo: stack U` imma: plant (v) SM' S^ imme': imp. plural form K<' \ imda: see off, speak privately to a visitor as he or she leaves. Scu& SH@ (Scu~) u uT>e` T` kimodino na ogo Ill see you off (have a private word with you) and then you can go. uM (uT>e`) `I = H@KI:: iniga: eyebrow ii' iM inoi: which? U i ngaa: (it is) here =I i nga bhunu: (it is) over there = ingayinni: I don't know, I dont care (neutral kind of response) inye: you } inyana: touch S" irra: drink S ain ma na kirr Give me water (ma) to drink. T> <H e (e):: bio ma wa irri Have the cattle (bio) drunk?


w <H I; ga t bai na kg kirr ma You stay there (t bai) while I go and drink some water (ma). H> <H e t bwitini na anyi kirr ma Stay here a moment while I go and drink some water. L =I q H@ <H M:: sg. imp.: ire; pl. imp.: irriy. ' < irrita: give birth (of animal), lay egg. S<K (Ked)' lLM SM bi wa irritu Has the cow given birth? LT> K; ee wa irrita Yes, it has (given birth). KT:: lukwe wa irrita The chicken has laid (eggs). a lLM LK' lLKA K<:: iriye: bow irro: smear cattle dung over a bull `T L v Skv iwa chuloi na irr uli na kmg bio Take some dung (chuloi) and smear it on the bull (uli) so that it will serve the cows (bio). i v <c `T< kv< irro: rob S[ irto: imp. plural form [!

sg. imp.: iirro; pl. imp.: irrt v kv' ku<!

isai: greet cLU Se g na isai nga hiranu Go and greet that man [over there]. H> Kc<< cLU e<:: inye nga isaano Arent you going to greet me? cLU cU ; issabhai: number seven cv (l`) isse': number eight eU (l`) isogo: get out of the way ` TK ishra: put sticks into a roof (L) ] e` Sh isng: how much/how many? e/ U IM; itava: lie Sg inye tavain kiong Why are you lying to me? KU gKI; anyi nga katavino Im not lying to you. Mg<IU ito: carry (on head) u^e L SgU inye kama nga itio Arent you carrying a bag (kama)? x`d< <U (gS<U); iwa kama na ta Take (sg.) the bag and carry [it]. x`d< <c }gU:: ipta kamaio na t Take (pl.) the bags and carry [them]. x`d< <c }gS<::

itoono: send SL kama itooni ori Where are you sending the bag? x`d< L<; kitooni Miso Im sending it to Mi T> M?KG<:: itimo: light (a fire, lamp) Sw^ (d' e) go nga itimio Arent you (sg.) going to light the fire (go)? d~ <U; itimisen kornu go He is lighting a fire for the maize (kornu) (i.e. to keep away baboons at night). c< d~ KuqKA K=< (K=u^<) < (a KSup):: itinyaneno: meet S yk bare itinyanenea gro They met on the path yesterday. L S L }<:: nga hunai-ta ko nga kido-a itinyane ori Where does this stream (hunai) join the river (kido)? T><u L <; anyi ki itinyoye I live at the junction. @ U[< S< ( ST>) L <:: iyaga: ignore, fail to respond when called or addressed S' ULi (K\ `) S inye iyagain kiong


Why are you ignoring me? U KI; anyi ngakiyagino nga kishiginen Im not ignoring you I didnt hear you [lit. I was not hearing]. MG<IU' eLMcTG<I <:: iwa: get, take SK' S<c kni kiwa go I want (kni) to get fire (go) d MKG<:: Barrbaiu wa iwana gutuma Baiuy na kwcha Makaroy: Barrbaiu took flour (gutuma) from Baiu to Makaro. v`v=K< o v Ta c:: Sg. imp.: iwa; pl. imp.: ipta. M' <c& M<' <c! iwo: herd, look after stock Sup& w T a ba kiwcha teno Its a place for herding goats (teno). KA T (Sum) x <:: auwo na iwo bio Come (sg.) and herd the cattle (bio). w wp ()::


ja: near, close p`w a jai Its close. p`w < g ja Go close. } jala: flowering tip of corn stalk uqKA (T>wu< "M) jakanio: flatten (sorghum, beans etc.) with grinding stone S (TiL' voL' }) u (vIL) hgo jakanio bare He/she flattened the beans yesterday. c<(dD) L voL< Kk<() (</):: jamjamiyoy: make a mistake Sdd anyi kajamjami gro Ive missed the path. S }dd<:: jare: foot, leg `' pMU jare ba kenkenya: ankle l`UT>

jarhli: white legged animal jma: go first, go ahead, proceed kS' SpU' SkM jimo: lead, go ahead SU^' SpU nong bare jimo sabo

He went ahead yesterday (sabo). c< L kS jem inyoi You (sg.) lead! } U^! sg. imp. jema!; pl. imp. jmt! U^' U\! joo: shit U`' c^ joloy: a kind of bird jon: mother (term of reference see also mamma) jug: mothers - jrg: oryx XL jrgya: oryxes - XL jowana: find a lost article ' T' S ahi a bare ga wa joyau Did you find the thing (ahi) you were looking for yesterday (bare)? L wI ` I; harle kojowana It will turn up later. uL M:: ju: large clay pot for carrying water and cooking porridge Mp Tca K<H SgT> K Twc T><M:: junya: pots


kabari: eye; seed ' ` kaare: eyes, seeds kabi: clan d kabicho: clans kani kabichweti ko Bumai I belong to the Bumai clan. @ u<T d vM :: kachayitto: avenge, exchange SkuM' SK kadha lgo: stutter S}v}w' }}v}u nga hira lgo shau nga yugno ka lgo This person takes a long time to say anything [lit. he doesnt speak (yugno) the word (lgo) quickly (shau)] he stutters. I c< nL e}"KA KS` >? euM:: kadingyogi: a man who spends all his time with his cattle; a brave and hardworking person G<M>? >?< w ` T>dM u ] c< kahi: skirt of cow hide, cut into strips, worn by contestants in ceremonial duelling contestants KuM >? T>Kue q }c] <` kT>e kaiyo: tongue ULe kayii: tongues - UL kakka: grand parent kakkacho: - grandparents -


kalai: shin pMU kalanya: shins pM kalahai: cartridge case kKI kalaha: cartridge cases kK kalangarai: shrub with milky sap (Euphorbia tirucali) lMsM kalai: bone at the back (nape) of the neck kali: day k kgoi kalio I am going during the day. uk H@KG<:: bhw a kali It is daylight. k w`H kalli: switch, thin and flexible stick `T@ kalikali: all the time G<M>? kali kiango: mid-day [lit. stomach of the day] <K k kalkalo: ooze blood e` kalma: utensil for stirring porridge TTc (see also klshu). kaluge arm pit ww kaluga: arm pits ww kama: bag x`d (h) kamaio: bags x`d (h ) kamba: a plant used as medicine for tapeworm (Amharic borrowing) qq kaman: war `

kangai: baboon a kanga: baboons a


kangacho: straw, chaff, hull (of coffee or peanut) \i" kangia: soup j`v kangittn: on the left ue}^ ^ () kantay: sieve, sifter karkari: be tired SU anyi re karkario I am tired [lit. I the body is tired]. karam: colobus monkey A_ karamea: colobus monkeys A_ kareni: downstream, south karbai: a person who keeps his or her possessions hidden from others w[~ K?KA c wq T>` c< karcha: sore leM' qcK karchena: sores le ' kare a bain: ankle bone l`UT> karru: scratch T kasai: sand g kattarukki: partridge qp kayo: tongue ULe ke a tumwin: aeroplane [lit. thing (k) of the sky] - <aL (cT L `) kg: thing, object. `' n a k-ti ke neng What (sort of thing) is it? U<; kedhedhi: ant l kedhedha: ants l kdm: calabash, cup. S pM' j`n

kdma: calabashes, cups S p ' j`n kedha: cut, break Sl[' Seu` anyi bare kedhau chore-bhwe I cut my hair (chore) off (bhwe) yesterday. L <_ }q[< (}e}"M<):: nga mssai ta nga, nga keno This rope (mssai) will not break. S ueU (q[U):: og na ken mssai Go (sg.) and cut the rope. H> S l[<:: auwo na ked mssai Go (pl.) and cut the rope. H> S l[<:: kginynya gashuin: wild animals [lit. things of the bush] ` cd kkchchiyo: ugly ekT> kl: women's skirt made of goat skin M q T>c^ c? Mwe kly: rabbit M kellenya: rabbits - keliko: waves TuM' V kno: firewood T knga: deny S" kngreso: afraid, scared Tu`' S^ kryagi: wire ix kerigni: middle, middle child - uSNM }K i kerigno In the middle.


kshoi: sisal (fibre used for making string and rope) n

kttngsi: shallow Mk K?K< kiango: stomach, centre J' Uw` kengi: stomachs ma kiango Mid-stream [lit. stomach of the water]. <H J (Uw`) kichoga: decorative skin perforations pd kidho: river kidhen: rivers kidhoggitto: feed (a calf or child) TwL 'SSw (KLU 'KM) kidng: drum ua kidngo: drums ua kihinino: want, covet (1st. pers. sg.) SS kilichoi: black kite M kilicha: black kites M kiliinno: squat l= TK kilung: old settlement site kV S] c` (see also yag) kimamu: spices pSTpSU kinoi: wild leaves gathered and boiled to be eaten with porridge. S kinging: ancient, in old times ' ua >? kinyang: crocodile kinyangya: crocodiles kinyinyi: flea l kinyinya: fleas - l

kio: tree, wood. ' keno: trees, firewood '

kio bha bo: tree trunk kiong: why, what for? KU; ma ogi kiong Why are you boiling water? <H UL< KU<; hiri bu kiong He/she is so big! c< =I Mp c< <:: kirre: thread ` kirimogi: root e` kirimoga: roots e

kirin: giraffe k@ kirino: giraffes k@ kirngoi: fly w kirng: flies kisingoi: fire stone <M kising: fire stones <M
kittinyanewo: meet S kitt: scorpion > kitten: scorpion > ki-a-ko rum: cotton plant [lit. cloth plant] ko: with ... ` kidhio ko Aholi I am going with Aholi. JK= ` SH@ <::


koba: follow; follow the tracks of S}M' " S}M kb nga hira Follow (sg) that person! c< }}M! anyi kkbi nebisi jare Im following the tracks (jare) of a buffalo (nebisi). g< " }}M< <:: kbl: cows under-neck LU e` kbhla: testicles qK kobbortta: cartridge belt ` kdha: spear, build (e.g. a house) [lit. put posts or branches in to the ground], write, fish (with harpoon) `' Sv (u?' S_ <e SM) S'X S< (TS) nong bare kdha dri He/she built a house (dri) yesterday. L c<(dD) u? v () inye dri kdhi gering You are building the house badly (gering). u? c^`I \ KU kordhi warrkata Im writing [lit. spearing paper (warrkata)]. < < ([k~ G< <) tordhase warrkata Write it down. <! kordhi urrgussi Im spearing a fish. d< G< <::


kordhi bagai Im spearing [lit. hollowing out with a spear] a (wooden) milk container. } S< n ( }c^) G< (udG<) <:: anyi wa tordhaanyo birrinio-bwh Ive been speared by a thorn (birrinio). ujI } u`:: sg. imp: torda; pl. imp: tordo < !<<! kdhana: take out T< kordhana ju tui na kjathen garchu Take it [porridge] out of the pot (ju) and put it in the basket (garrchu). Tca< <e () < p`~ L `<:: sg. imp.: kdhana; pl. imp. kordhano. <' <<! kdh: large cattle bell w L T>c` nM kdhnya: large cattle bells w L T>c` n kdore: belt ku kdorinya: belts ku kg: Egyptian goose kginya: Egyptian geese kha: cultivate, weed (vb.), clear, hollow out a tree trunk to make a canoe T[e' T[U' SMM anyi roono korw warro na korhi gwinya ganyo Im going to the Omo (warro) tomorrow (roono) to clear my cultivation plots (gwinya). `h KT[e *V H@KG<::

inye gongul khi minang When are you going to make [hollow out] the canoe (gongul)? S < Mv< ("D<) UKK< (Ux[u<[<); Sg. imp.: khe; pl. imp. ksse MM&MK<! koiyagi: mean ^ (see also gongai) kla: ram (male goat) M klachin: rams koli: a kind of bird klmw : scab (e.g. on an ulcer) p` (leM) koloy: type of snail shell M klshu: utensil for stirring porridge; spoon TTc&T= klshunya: spoons TTc&T= klu: charcoal M klo (pl.) kma: count Sl` nng km ng What is he/she counting? U q[() <; nng km lukwenya He/she is counting the chickens. a q[ <:: sg. imp. kma; pl. imp. Kmo l`' l\! kmni: guest kmn : guests

kmru: priest, ritual leader oe' vLv


kmrena : priests o
kmi: knee <Mu kma: knees <Mu kn: one (l`) (see also dhone) ain kna Give me one. e knai: grain store }^ knen : grain stores }^ knen: sisters husband; wifes brother I vM' T>e U knige: (pl) knkna : turn someone against another person TL ' T (u`) bare kknu hirkno Someone (hirkno) turned him against me. c< < L knu: snake vw kna: snakes v kopt: follow S}M kopkop : quickly kra: hail - u[ gwiyo l kra It is hailing. u[ K <:: kori : hat v`@' korkoray: spinal cord `v' `"] kornai: gristle, tendon Y`' T


kornoi: maize vI` TiL' uqKA kornu (pl.) krng: throat <aa krngi: throats <aa korrmi: fish hook Sq korrmicha: fish hooks Sq krroi : black, dark l` & KT ' l` cT bungai ti krroi A black ox. l` u_ bhw a koroi It is dark (i.e. at night). SiM (Ui) korrkra: walk in a single file Kw S ige korrkrro kiong Why are you walking in a single file? KwI KU <KI; keh bokno na goro a nguchui We are going (keh) somewhere (bokno) and the path (gro) is narrow (nguchui). x H@K &S vw <:: koru: lowland qL kowa : come, arrive SU' S[e wa kwo You (sg.) have come. (greeting). S}HM; ee wa kaiwo Yes, Ive come. SKG<

kuni logo Ive come with news [lit. word]. ? SG< (nM SG<) kuni ori Where have you come from? < S< (WLU) kuni Golatiye Ive come from Golati. SG< L+ <:: wunga: come here! (sg) =I ! sg. imp.: aiwo; pl. imp.: hda. !'<! kubbuso: swollen w kuchaiya: bring TU ana bare kwiyaiyo ngau? Didnt I bring [it] yesterday? L LSG<U ; owo na kwi Go (sg.) and bring it. H> U<! auwo na hdai Go (pl.) and bring [it]. H> U<! kuchumbai: Ethiopian from the central highlands. = (< M S) kuchumba (pl.) kuduhe: navel Uw` kuduha: navels Uw` kudumeni: island c? kudumena: islands c?

kudhungusi: a kind of snake vw kudhusai: buttock m (SkS) kudhusa: buttocks m (SkS) kudhuseni: kidney <LK= kudhusena: kidneys - <LK= kuduwi: calabash with a curved neck TT K< pM kugura: snow, ice u[ kuko: broom S[> (TiL T>c^) kula: cattle urine w i kuli: time >? nga kulita At this time, now. u=I >? G< kuli a ungwin Bed time [lit. the time of sleep (ungwin)] S >? kuliloi: animal claw ed ` kulilo: claws kulio: paddle or pole a boat, drive a car Mv Sp' S= S anyi kuli nga hira tano Im paddling this man across [the river]. I c< < KTh` k< <:: tirrumel nga kulio kimagio I will not drive the car (tirrumel) I dont know how to. S= MU& T>U L<pU:: sg. imp. kulio; pl. imp. kulid p' ! p' ! kumo: try (out), weigh SV` ' S}' SS


any kukumi nga dnganuiny nga Im trying (out) this duelling pole (dnga) of yours. I } MV[< <:: ga aino kukumno Give it to me to try (out). e MV` iwa nga kama-ta na kumno Take this bag and weigh it. I x`d <c S<:: nga kammata dingding gure ga kumno This bag (kamma) is very (gure) heavy try it. kumuli: fat (adj.) ^U' T (see also idhibheni) kumuli': round, circle w kumullo: eat together wa SwL kuunasiwa: dream IMU inye huli kuunasi barroi, rri ng When you dream at night (barroi), what (ng) do you see (rri)? KK= eMU U< T>I; kure: shingle (beach) vI` ` kuro: tail ^' ^ kuri: tails ^ ' ^ kurmay: creeping ivy N[ kurrr: bury, dig Spu`' Sq` kuru: plain (landscape), lowland K K T@' u[H kurudoy: worm, maggot M kurutto: snore, growl T^ kuttul: mountain, hill }^^


kuttulo: mountains kwsani: referee, mediator ' TL kwsana: referees ' TL kwia: bring (it)! TU kwia nga Bring (it) here! kwikwi: small black ant kwcha: scabies p` l` < l` < kwikwinya: small black ants


lai: quiet, silent
t lai!: keep quite U TK t lai lai: (pl.) keep quiet! U TK ( lakwinyo: tie (a knot in) Ss`' Tc` nga mossai ta nga kalakwinyi anyi I will tie this rope (mossaita). I S s[KG<:: ipta mossai na lakwinyo Take (pl.) the rope and tie it. S <c c\:: lala: cool off, subside (of pain) Skk' w TK saba bare lalu Is your head (saba) [ache] better? ^e U~ w KMI; ee wa lala Yes, its better. I < (w wKAMM):: tilla a burreni oi bai na kalal The porridge (tilla) is hot (burreni) - put it down and wait for it to cool. < <e <& <`< e=kp wp:: lalai: tree with large pale green leaves, found in wooded grassland (Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm.) lalang: brass bracelet Sw }c^ Uv` lalanga: brass bracelets Sw }c


lalayo: emotion eT@ lal: a kind of antelope T>s lalini: cool, cold (adj) pn? ( n) lama: keep together in one place (e.g. cattle), encircle, surround u x L Scwcw (KUdK? w) Suw komoru bare lama bio The Priest performed the Bio Lama ritual yesterday. oc< L u x cwex v LT T>vK< KA ee` [:: au lamna bio Go (pl.) and collect the cattle. H> w L cweu<<:: Tumura bare lamnaiyo na se kti chirr Some Tumura (Bodi) surrounded us yesterday and were definitely (chirr) going to shoot (kti) [at us]. L x= u< & u` }<c< K=S~ u`:: lamalai: a new-born calf =e }K lamiyo: search for, look for SK lami ng What are you looking for? U KI <; anyi kalami bi nano Im looking for my cow. LT@ KG< <:: sg. imp.: pl. imp.: M' M<! lang: wife's brother (brother in-law) T>e U: lanyoi: grass X`


larange: badger SK larangecha: badgers laway: a kind of sycamore `" lawun: bow and arrow used for bleeding cattle lawun jone: bow lawun wheni: arrow ke lbhng: harvesting season S` (w) >? lddy: a kind of tree lgi: be fine Skp lkny: joint (of knee) ST> (<Mu) leleso: pout, be temperamental T<[' l< SJ lluy: be aborted S leo: thatch S dri wa kiliwa wang Ive thatched the house (dori) well (wang). u?~ (]< ) < iwa lanyoi na l dori Take (sg.) [some] grass and thatch the house. i d` u?~ (]<) :: ipta lanyoi na lid dori Take (pl.) (some) grass and thatch the house. i d` < u?~ (]<) <:: lsagi: greedy; stingy eeU ' (see also gongai) leshi: (n.) clitoris m` leshi: (adj.) sharp eM (eKU) ltani: ear lobe a @ ltana: ear lobes a @

lwai: top of a tree libiso: become sour (of milk), become tired (of a person) SU (K}) TU[`' ScM (Kc<) goiny uro na huli wa libidoiy, erra gin na kwi Look at the milk (uro) and if it has soured, pour (erra) some and bring [it]. }~ < U "K i p U:: uro libisan gering The milk has soured badly (gering). }~ uU UDM (}uLiM):: rr libi wang kion Why am I so tired? [lit. why has (the blood in) my body (rr) become so sour?] KU =I S (cK)&<e? K< U S (T@ S[[); liin: sit down, rest on. SkS' T[ liin alio Sit on the stool. u`T< L }kS liogi: mosquito lioga: mosquitos liin: intercede TTK lito: take the lower of two paths; duck to avoid a blow or missile G<K T^ S < I }' ue (U U T>d?M) KS anyi koi kiliti gro baini Im going to take the lower (baini) path (gro).


< S S}K? <:: inye liti wang kiong Why do you keep (wang) ducking? KU G<K? wdKI; liwa: sorgum TiL (TiL ) liwa dugain: seed grain (lit. grain for planting) ` locheni: leech Mp logi': yellow bird u= logo: word, news nM' ? lginya: words n a logo It is true, correct. < ' ' ?

loi: tree; wood used for bows, axe handles and fire sticks (Cordia gharaf (Forsk.) Ehrenb.) lkorr: elbow lkorra: elbows lollu: crazy w lma: own, have, possess ^e& K(<) & vKu? anyi nga aha dai kolomi kare All (dai) these things (aha) are mine. =I G<K< a @ <:: nga hirra l logo This person has news (lit. word). I c< ? (_) K<:: uro l ma

There is water (ma) in the milk (uro). }~ <H K<' anyi kotolma Shall I keep [it]? LekU<; ee inye tlma Yes you keep it. ekU< sg. imp.: tlma; pl. imp. tlomo lmmai: tree with edible fruit, used to treat sores and wounds. lmugen: co-wives < lomuray: a kind of grass X` loonyy: brain M lorna: carry SgU iwa na lorna Take (sg) [it] and carry [it]. <c }gU! ipta na lorno Take (pl.) [them] and carry [them]. <c }gS<<! losineo: cough SdM (dM) nga biya bare losinena This cow (biya) was coughing yesterday. L LU eeM u`:: losay: a kind of bread x' m loshan: sling (for use in bird scaring) loshanya: slings - ltgi: damp `w ' ^c


loya: fox kua ludum: chest [ ludumi: chests - [ ludduri: a kind of tree lug: hole (in the ground) < (S_ <e) lugo: build (a fence) ` T` zuo luge sari The people are building a fence (for the cattle compound). c Kw T>J u[ c\ (\) <:: au na lugo sari Go (pl.) and build a fence. H> \ \! sg. imp. lug; pl. imp. lukt. `' \! lukkuri: age mate < lukur: age mates - < lukw: chicken a lukwenya: chickens - a lullumi: dark brown (color) SL (u<T) kKU lumiroi: cheat k' L lumiroinya (pl.) cheats k ' L lorru: season of small rains (November) luruktoy: ear disc made of pottery gL }c^ a @ lusi: boy M lusa: boys - M lushoi: rainbow ke}S lushunya: rainbows - ke}S


luwi: spotted, multi-color <`<`


ma: water <H mamma: mother (term of address - see also jon) machiwo: wring out SSp machitto: be handsome, pretty q ' <w madha: straighten out a bent stick u L Tn teach (how to behave) Te}T` ' (Y` Te) inye nga ermita nuini nga madio kiong Why do you not teach this child (nga ermi ta) of yours (nuini) [how to behave]? KU < I MI Y` Te}U[<; ga mato Teach (sg.) [him/her]. e}U[</^! ga madato Teach (pl.) [him/her]. eU\<! maddi: breast (female) < (Kc?) (see also wadi) maddio: breasts < (Kc?) madhogi: spider g[] madhoginya: spiders g[]


madhoi: spiders web g[] ` madhoinya: spiders webs g[] maga: hold S' maga Hold (it)! (sg. imp.) ! dnga ma nga Grip/hold the donga here (i.e. at this point). L< ( S) =I <:: mai: male (adj). hir-a-ma: man (lit. male person) zu-a-ma: men main: husband vM malkw: animal snare ed S malkwnya: animal snares ed S maluka: wear (of clothes) SMue (Mwe) huli t wh a bo, maluko marchan When a girl (wh) is big, she wears a lesser kudu (marchan) [skin]. c? M e ed () q KwdK:: muga malugu shigino A married woman wears (the skin of) a hartebeast (shigin). u< c? > q KwdK<:: maniko: possibly, perhaps UMv mara: dislike L' SL inye marain kiong Why do you dislike me? KU< UL;

anyi nga kamarino I dont dislike you. MLIU:: kamario I dont want to, I refuse. Uu= TK maraga: go round, encircle S`' Suw inye bha maragi kiong Why are you walking in a circle [lit. encircling the land (bha)]? KU< uu< (<]) U^S<; marara: struts of wood used for roasting meat or fish over a fire k [U & Y U X d L KSue T>KM dag marara Roast (it)! uc<! ogio dagi marara Are you going to cook it (in a pot) or () roast it? uTca MkpK< < e Mwc< <; mari: bind up, wind round Tc` ' SpKM kwia shashi na kamar ngdri Bring a bandage [lit. head-band (shashi)] so that I can bind up this sore (ngdri). hg< e leK< Mc`u:: uli maresen mssai kio na kedabhw The bull has wound the rope round the tree and it has broken. `T< S u <] pMKA S }uc:: marrchan: lesser kudu T@ M

marrchana: lesser kudus T@ marrshari: termite Ue marrsharinya: termites Ue marjogi: wall of poles fastened in the ground; horizontal pieces of wood holding the uprights of a wall together T` mata: drink S nong bare mata ma He drank water yesterday. c< L <H M:: kgoi ma matinen Im going to drink some water. @ i <H M <:: matana: take over, take, steal Sc' Se[p Mun burto matanea Nyidi bha In the past (burto) the Mursi (Mun) took the land of the Kwegu (Nyidi). a u >? S<`c? << S_ eM:: nng bare matana nga hira bi He took this mans (nga hira) cow (bi) yesterday (bare). c< =I c< LU L eDM:: mddr: sheep u mederni: sheep - u mere: sons wife, daughter-in-law M T>e mnngi: spirit menenga: spirits meri: many w< meso: do SY^ inye mesi ng

What are you doing? U c^I <; anyi ahi kemesi ninge I am not doing anything. UU c^G< KU:: go ngani mesineneo Are you still using the fire (go)? G<U d~ }kUu < ; mesese: poisonous spider S`T g[] mesesenya: poisonous spiders S`T g[] mezzi: speak, debate, discuss T^ minang: when? S; mirogi: enemy; member of clan into which a person can marry L& Kw T>k d miroga: enemies - L mirr: planting pole S mirro: planting poles S mirrcha: come back SSKe nong bare mirrcha weru He came back (weru) yesterday. c< L < }SKc<:: mirri: afternoon c uL nga mirrita This afternoon. _ c uL mirria: go back, return }SKc' SSKe anyi bare kimirrio weru I went back (weru) yesterday.

L }SMg= H@<:: inye wa ko kiong mirre werio! Why have you (sg.) come? Go back! KU SI; }SMcI H>! mirgari: a kind of thorny plant U miro: colourful (mixed colour) u<^u<_ mdha: saliva U^p modha-bhw: be tired SU wa kuuni rena na wa kmdha-bhw Ive come a long way (rena) and Im tired. [U S < SG< S:: any r modha-bhw My [lit. I] body (r) is tired c< TEM:: mdsi: soft, weak "T mga: have sexual intercourse with e`' (applied properly to animals only) bi bare mkta harchau The mules (harcha) had sex with the cow (bi) yesterday. upKA L LTE ` e] L u\:: nga whta bare mug noi Who had sex with this girl yesterday? = M[ ` w[ Y < S T<; whetunu bare mga hirrunu-bhw That man (hirrunu) had sex with that girl (whetunu) yesterday. c< < M ` w[ Y < S<:: mogi: treeless grass plain K K T@


mknyi: short ` mommu: placenta M mooda: awl; instrument for piercing leather e mooden: awls - e mordhai: rat mordhen: rats mr: rifle barrel S mrr: calf mrra: calves mrru: flute i mrro: flutes i mshoi: fire sticks d S msho: fire sticks d S mssanya (pl) mta: soften KcKc' KeLd kornu wa mdo Is the maize soft? uqKA< KeLd <:: ee wa mta Yes, its soft. KeLd <:: muchan: black cotton soil l` ` muchugi: few m muduka: dry up, heal (of wound or sore) S[p' S ndri bare muduka The sore has dried up [lit. yesterday (bare)].

mssai: rope, string S' c=v (see also ulutani)

leK< `sM' wLDM:: kornu kubuguno belle ngau nga mudusio You picked the maize this morning didnt you wont it have dried up? _ uqKA q`I u`'Mq[U; M[kU; mudhus: dry up, shrink, wither S<K muga: collect up, collect together Scwcw muga zurrwai na itimn go Collect up some dry bits of grass/twigs (zurrwai) and light (itimn) a fire (go). H> i [p X` cwew d~ <:: mugai: married woman v c? muga: married women hogo be-mujudabhw kare The beans are all (kare) rotten. voL G<K<U uewcM:: mula: large rectangular shed e' u?' ckL mula: eat together kLpKA wa SwL gwdingen muln hung Brothers can just eat together. TT w[< SwL LK<:: muln: rhino <^]e mulnya: rhinos <^] muloi: bullet wound u SlcM mum: forehead, face v` ' mumi (pl) muni: Mursi person S<`c=


mujuso: rotten, stinking ucuc' T>g

mun: Mursi people S<`c= mu!!ni: forearm, muscle < munnutto: itch T munyugi: monster, a person who eats lots of meat ^p' w< Y T>uL c<:: mu!!nyu!!nyi!!: star w munyunya: stars munyus: sulk, be annoyed T<[ inye munyusi kiong Why are you sulking? KU `KI; anyi nga kumunyusio Im not sulking. L[<U:: murai': arrow (used to kill birds) ke (K SU) murdha: wrinkles; skin folds q Sgwgw ' ST murni: scar vd muttan: disease ui muttanyoga: diseases - ui


nai: our (inclusive, with singular noun) tu a nai Our language (i.e., my language and your language). nani: paddle Sp: uMv nano: my @ bi a nano garabhw My cow is lost. nau: our (exclusive, with singular noun) tu a nau Our language (i.e. my language but not your language). nebi: buffalo i nebiso: buffaloes nigo: skin (v) q iwa warra na neg bi Get a knife and skin the cow. u=L <c LTE (q) :: ninge: not (negative particle) KU uro gussio ninge There is no milk in the gourd. } KU:: nisa: age set ceremony u}SXX T@ T>< T>kK< T@ ` T>g\u vIL <:: niso: slaughter (livestock, with a stone blow to the head)

T[ (ucL w~ pL T>Su e}^[ ) nong nga burreta wa niso bi He slaughtered a cow this morning (nga burreta). c< _ LU [:: terru roono nisineo nisin ke rorra The teru (young men) will slaughter [oxen] later (roono) [lit. tomorrow] and become adults (rorra). \ () u_ ` MTd g^K<& (vIL <) muga-nano wa illaiya-bhw na anyi wa kino bi bhw na ngamea ma kangia tui My wife (muga-nano) is ill so I slaughtered a cow (bi) and she is now drinking (ma) soup (kangia) T>e TK&eK=I LU [<L' G< j`v <:: nng: he, she, it. c<' dD nunai: fish roe X lLM nuna: fish roes X lL nui: your (2nd. person plural with singular noun) tu a nui Your language. nunu: your (2nd. person singular with singular noun) ermi a nunu me kiong

What is your child (ermi) doing?


nga: here =I wu nga come here! nga bhunu: over there = nga: wife T>e ngwoi: wives ngaga: prise apart, open TLkp' S nga lalanga churiano ngaga This bracelet is too tight for me (churiano) open it. I Uv` K> uU wkM' }< (Lpk<):: ngagadi: highland trader (Amharic borrowing) (< M S) ngagadyu: highland traders - ngahi: female (adj) - c? hir-a-ngaha: woman [lit. female person] c? zu-a-ngaha: women c? ngakalikena: today _ (see also kali) ngamma: yawn T ngama: now, today G<' _ ngmr: right now G<<< nganga: like this, this way =I a nganga That's it; thats how it is.

= <' \ = ngani: not yet, still Ba Gaha ngani karu I have not seen Ba Gaha (yet). v`H LG<U:: hiri ngani ninge He/she is not here yet. MSU:: ngarra: carry (on back) u`v TM (SgU ) kungurri kama bhwiyo Im carrying a bag (kama) on [my] back (bhwiyo). x`d< u`v }gU< <:: ipta kammaio na ngarra Pick up (pl.) the bags and carry them! x`d d }gT<:: ngarrngani: a kind of grass (Andropogon) X` ngashagai: hard red soil "^ k ` ngatuny: lion ud ngatunya: lions ud ngainunu: that one nglmai: the outer part of the jaw SL ngera: share out TM ngera tila na baaga Share out the porridge (tila) and eat (sg.)! < "M wL! kau na kengerr bio Lets go and share out the cattle. H> w "M::


ngerr: healer, diviner

s s

ngerra: healers, diviners

ngeri: division, boundary, between cultivated plots c' u` (u`h <e)

ngidini: Kwegu (neighbouring group) << ngidi: the Kwegu people - <<
nginingini: wild bee ` w ngo: neck ngochin: necks ngdori: sore leM ngdorena: sores le ngoga: pull S} ngkt: fight SL ngla: limp Te hiri ngl kiong Why is he/she limping? KU< T>c<; jare wadino His/her foot hurts (wadino). \ V <:: nglai : lower teeth gap Ln' `e }kKu x ngne: sister I ngnigen: sisters I ngony: vein (of cattle) U e` (LU) ngro: elephant J ngrenna: elephants J ngorrn: butter pu?


ngsni: sisters child I M ngsna: sisters children I M ngotubi: an old wound a leM ngoyo : wind e ngowa: recede, go down, drop L Sgi' SKp' S<[ su wa ngowa The sun has set . N Kk:: ma wa ngda The water (ma) [flood] has receded. <H (}`) L giM:: hiri kbhla ngwaneo His testicles have dropped (i.e., he has reached that age). qK< `DM (M):: ngmgri: easily broken tree ukLK< Tcu` ngunyo: grind S kwia liba na kongnya Bring some sorghum (liba) (for me) to grind. m T> TiL U inye liba nga ngunyio Arent you grinding (any) sorghum? TiL< I <; sg. imp. ngony; pl. imp. ngonyo. !' ! nguwu: discard Te ngyesso: run Sa zugo ngyese gasho engersebhw


The people are running into the bush (gasho) they are frightened. c " a< <' `}M:: Sg. imp.: nyu; pl. imp. nyi. a' a<!


nyaba: blood U nyabi: ear a nyaba: ears a nyaggassi: old person iTK? nyama: return after dark Sg SSKe nn ngama harle nyamno He will come back later (harle) today (ngamea), after dark. c< uL KS SKdM:: nyambarr: anthrax w ui (^e) nyamani: devil c nyanno: be pregnant T` nyangnen: wifes mother T (T>e ) nyattula: cat S nylma: jaw S nyengi: vagina c? wM nyeta: cut down, fell (a tree) Sl[ anyi kengeti kio bhyo Im cutting down a tree (kio) with an axe (bho). uS[u= q[< <:: iwa bh na tenged ki Get (sg.) (iwa) an axe (bh) and cut down the tree (kio). S[u= l[<:: sg. imp. tengediy; pl. imp.: tengetiy l[' l[<


nyida: teeth `e nylora: giraffe tail hair; nylon fishing line k@ ^ nymai: razor blade UL nymanya: razor blades nyugo: shut, close (vb.) S anyi bare koi gabay na dren dai a nyugine I went to the market (gabay) yesterday and all the shops (lit. houses) were shut. L u H@ G<K<U c<q }}< u`:: dri tuk-tuk nyga Shut the house (dri) door (tuk-tuk). u\ ! a nyugine It is closed. } sg. imp.: nyga; pl. imp.: nygo. ' <


ohi: riverside forest with no undergrowth ` " ohi-ena (pl) ` "
olai: a kind of bird ordine: brave, strong, tough u' "^ orlo: ask for, beg, pray Sp' SKS' SK kw korli dhamw Im going to get (ask for) some tobacco. c=^ Mp (MKU) <:: komoru orl tumo The Priest prays to God (tumo). oc< =wH@` K <:: ori: where? kuni ori Where have you come from? orrgmai: basket-work hand guard used in ceremonial duelling. uvIL >? T>kS<u d^ }c^ SL otton: elephant tusk trumpet J `e }c^ <\Uv owana: finish, complete, manage (a journey) S[e' Tkp(<) any kani nyagasi na wechin nga kwano Im old (nyagersi) and will not manage the journey (wechin). @ iTK? & << MK<U::


nng bare wechin owana chir He definitely (chir) finished the journey yesterday (bare). c< L u` << `M (sM)::


cha: put, take TekS& S<c warra ii ori Where is the knife? u=L< <; anyi bare kwocha dori tui I put it in the house (dori) yesterday. L u? <e ekUK<:: kedem wa okcha lusio The calabash was taken by the boy (lusio). pK< M eM:: Nga Chare wa okcha Ulitullai Ulitulla has married [taken] Nga Chare. <K=~L ` v (c):: iwa dabdaninya na ojo bai Take the papers (dabdabinya) and put them away. [k <c = ekU<:: anyi kojasen zibu kare Im putting medicine (zibu) in (his/her/their) eyes (kare). SH> </ND <e S`< <:: ga: open (a bag/sack); release (from prison) S (Kx`d' K)' SMkp (e`) nng bare ga nga kamata He/she opened this bag (kamata) yesterday. c< I x`d L M:: kwia kama na ga


Bring (sg.) the bag and open it. x`d< U }<:: ga kto Open (sg.) [it]! ! inye kchinyan minang When were you released (from prison)? S u` }<; bare kgainyi bare I was released yesterday (bare). L < }KkpG<:: sg. imp. ga; pl. imp.: go gorro: steal Se[p liba gara nga - grru-noi The sorghum (liba) is gone who stole it? TiL< KU' T c[k<; gorr ngahirranu That man stole it. c < c[k<:: ka: go, take away SH@' S<c ho ori Where are you (pl.) going? < UH@<; ag keho rij ungo We are going to the shade (rij) to sleep (ungo). KS} L< H@ <:: nga kama-ta kogoiyo Im taking away (kogoiyo) this bag (kama). I x`d S<c <::

sg. imp.: go; pl. imp.: aibh H>& H>! <c& <c! ktea: separate; break it up (as in a fight or argument) SK' Seu` (uw >?) kt na lgo kagara Break it up and let that be the end of it! (lit. may the word (logo) be finished). eu[< (< `<) S[h< G< (KK):: ng: what? - U; a ng What is it? U <; ngona: throw, launch (of a boat) S``' Mv Ted ( <H< Tev) nong ngn ng What is he throwing (away)? U [[ <:: ngakta a gersi tong gasho This is bad throw (sg.) it away (gasho). I S <& `<[< ( "):: gongul wati wa ma ngn It is time (wati wa) for the boat (gongul) to be launched.. Mv< G< < <H< S (Tev) ngna: smell (vb. intr.), stink Si} (ST) ngna gerreng It smells bad. S i K<:: nyo: wash Tw' Sw nong oiny seno

Hes washing his hands (seno). c< u <:: anyi kwoineno Im washing. w< <:: wo mai na toiny Go (sg.) to the water (mai) and wash. <H< H> w:: auwo mai na toin Go (pl.) to the water (mai) and wash. <H< H> u<:: ga: make a loud noise SI rr: home, homestead u?' k rri (pl.) homes, homesteads u? kogoi orro I am going home. rnya: a knife with a double-edged blade uG<K u<M YK K< u=L riang: python riangya: pythons ssa: roast (on the fire) Sue (ud L) ssany achuk Roast (sg.) me some meat! i Y ueM:: ssai achuk Roast (pl.) us some meat! i Y uc<M:: ' k


rabha: make a small hut in a tree TT L i Se^ radhi': a kind of Acacia ragai: Tamarind large tree with edible fruit (Tamarindus indica L) rakoy: crow, raven l^ ramai: tall [U ramman: number two G<K l` rana: go to get something ` KT Sh rana ahi ti nene He went to get something of his. ^c< J ` KSK H>DM:: g na hali wo na rra bagai Go and come back later for the milk container (bagai). H> } S< KS<c uL }SKe:: r: cooking pan U rnya: cooking pans U rga: spinal cord `"] rgg: pink NU^' kL K regihola: mixture of blood and milk U } wMp rena: far \p g rena Stand further back [lit. go far]. ^p wKI lU! a reni


It is a long way away. [U S <:: rngai: hornet, wasp }`w res: death V bi dodogine kiong ka hin res Why is the cow kicking (dodogine)? It must be dying [lit. it wants death]. LT>~ KU< U^< (U^<)& KSV }n[u SJ Kv:: ret: honey T` recha:(pl.) - T` ( rii: shade L rijen: shade (trees) L riding: dirt qhh kedem l riding The calabash is dirty. pK< qhh <:: rimwoi: stick for cleaning teeth `e Sm rochagi: scout n rochaga: scouts roinyoi: ribs rngde: fishing harpoon X TS rngdi: crooked, bent TT' v roono: tomorrow; in the future ' rra: afternoon c uL ) rezahi: thin (of cloth etc.) ee (KMwe)


kizigio nga rraata I am moving (my homestead) this afternoon. c uL u? MKp <:: rr: body c< rrhi: bodies c< rr ri: skin (of person); also of gourd, as in gussi rr ri c< L (pM L) rr karkario: be tired SU rreyo: wait for Sup kna rreyoiny anyi bh Someone (kna) is waiting for me outside (bh). J c< < uk <:: anyi bare kerr nga hira I waited for this man yesterday. I c< wo< u`:: sg. imp.: rreony; pl. imp.: rredony wp' wl rrimo: chew (e.g. roasted grain, bone) Sq`U:: ga iwa kornu na rrimo Take the (roasted) maize (grains) and chew them. uqKA< qKA <c q`U Sg. imp.: rrimo; pl. imp.: rrim. q`U' q`S<! rirro: thread (a necklace) ` v (c") c[ ainy nylora na kirrirre chala Give me some giraffe hair to thread the necklace.

@< k@ <` e anyi kirrirneno Im threading [a necklace]. @ c`< < iwa chalai na rrirro Take (sg.) the necklace and thread [it]. @< <c ` evu sg. imp.:rrirro; pl. imp. rrirri rrka: make a noise, sound U TcT' U ture bare rrka nga tana There was a rifle shot [lit. a rifle (ture) sounded] yesterday (bare) on this side [of the river]. L < =I T }<e U u`:: hlg bare rrka There was a dance [lit. a dance (hlg) sounded] yesterday. L e U cT u`:: dnga bare rrk There was duelling [lit. duelling (donga) sounded] yesterday. L (vIL) U cT u`:: uli bare rrka goro nga: There was the sound of a bull [lit. a bull (uli) sounded] here on the path yesterday. L `T u_ U cT u`::


rrm: ostrich c rrmena: ostriches c rrsso: dog <h rssi: dogs < rrugo: go early in the morning to ask for something uTK H@ ` Sp roono bhele kurrugineno kurrugi bungai Tomorrow morning Im going to ask (a certain person) for an ox (bungai). H@ u_ ( c<)H@ nKG<:: rruiy: cry TMke inye rrui ng What are you crying for? KU< UKpc<; kurrui hiranano Im crying for a friend [lit. my person (hirranano)] (who has died). KV}< < TKpc<:: rum: cloth Mwe ruminya: cloths, clothes Mw rum a ulubwin: sleeping cloth KK= Mwe


saan: news ? wa saan ibu Have you heard (literally taken) the news? ?< cTI; sabba: head ^e sabbi: heads ^e ( sabbo: earlier, before u sagine: ceremonial duelling contest (vIL) L (<`) sakkal: number nine l` sai: animal skin; womens clothing ed q c? Mwe saio: animal skins - ed q saiddo: porridge not well cooked MucK samuni: soap (Amharic borrowing) dS< san: thigh sania: thighs, hind legs w :L a saniyo: stay with/at, meet wa Sq& S Ulikoro harle kuno na asani bai nga Ulikoro will come later (hale) and meet [us] here (bai nga). <K=a uL S =I M:: ogo na asa bio ) saba tara: the top of the head - ^e L< M


Go (sg.) and stay with the cattle (bio). H> w wp (w[I q):: sara: name eU sarachin: names sarana': snatch Sp' SkT sari: fence around a homestead w ` sawa: smell (vb.) Si} sabi ng What are you smelling? KU< Ug}<; huli dagi giringaiti, nga kasapto If one has a cold (dagi giringaiti) one cannot smell. c< < < K=g MU:: ga sapto Smell (this)! I i! sra: cowery shells AM ( @) slli: a mat made of palm leaves cK? semuy: reedbuck wJ` sno: say TK komru bare sno nganga The Priest said so (ngana) yesterday. oc< L wK<M:: nong bare sno k, kgoi Miso Yesterday (bare) he said: Im going to Mi. L "@ T> H@KG<" wLDM:: ga syo Say (repeat) (sg.) it!

uK<! S<! srrewa: inherit (e.g. a dead brothers wife) <`e (KUdK? U T>e) nong be srrewa muga gwodine He has inherited his bothers (gwodine) wife (muga). S< T>e `dDM:: sibo: scrape (an animal skin) Sp' k inye hadha sibi na meeneng Why are you scraping that sleeping mat (hadha)? l`u~ KU < Uk<; sida: womans animal skin for carrying baby kMv siggi: iron w[ siidai: tick; blood-sucking insect. S` siir: donkey I siirena: donkeys - I siizi: number three Ze l` sil: a single gap in upper teeth Ln (L< `e) silinya: (pl.) sio: hand; arm ' seno: hands; arms ' sio ba kenkenya: wrist sio dul: back of the hand L< (S `v) M sio kangitn: left hand ^ sio muni: arm below the elbow ` u K< M sio sitn: right hand k sio tara: palm of the hand S sira: skirt <` kT>e


siren: skirts <` kT> siro: eland sirocha: elands sirwai: dark brown colour weM U KSM sissai: bee w sissa: bees siten: on the right uk u<M (ue}k) so: warm oneself SVp itim go na kasa Light a fire and lets get warm. d S<p:: rr illaso na kusoi su Im ill [lit. my body (rr) is ill] and Im warming myself in the sun (su) VM N Vp< <:: sodhi: reed oT smni: ember U smna: embers sng: only, alone w zuo a tmmn song There are only ten people. sowa: follow (e.g. a river) S}M (K) ige dhono ori? Which way did you (pl.) come? age ksowana kido We followed the river. u u<M SG<; < }}M::


su: sun, dry season. N u sucha rr: take care of, look after oneself [lit. look after ones body (rr)] - ^e Sup huli keh kamanoi kusude rr-anai: When we go to war, we look after ourselves. ` eH@ ^d wnK:: sudor: build up the fire (under a pot) d TkM inye nga sudeseno go Why arent you building up the fire (go)? KU d~ kMU; sudese tui Push (the burning wood) back (under the pot). d~ qelc<:: sudo: pluck (pull out feathers) SkM (Lv) iwa lukwe na suda chore-bwhe Take the chicken and pluck it [lit. pluck away (bhwe) its feathers (chore)]. a <c Lv kM:: anyi kusudi lukwe Im plucking the chicken. a Lv kM< <:: suggum: bottom, rump. u () sunya: the Aari and Dizzi people sura: duiker T>s surachin: duikers T>s surusi: burnt }nK suso: drain T dhnga tima na suso


Take the boiled grain (tima) off [the fire] and drain it }kkK< a (d~ L) <` <::


shabbala: shoulder h shabbali: flat and wide c shalu: thin porridge k shama: claim, share out, divide up vM TK ' TM bi dhone bara shama Barr Lukwe Barr Lukwe claimed one cow [of bridewealth] yesterday. L v` K< LU (KAi w L) v M K:: lusa hey shame bi-a Hamarruin The boys (lusa) are going to share out the Hamar cattle (which they brought back from a raid). M NS` (`<) S< w K=K< <:: kau na kashama guinya Lets go and share out the cultivation areas (guinya). H> `h< Td K<:: shanta: bag (Amharic borrowing) x`d' h shasha: dry leaves, used to start a fire Kd T T>J [k pLpM shashario: take the leaves off (a branch) pKA gU< (d<) ipta kalio na sharrshari Get some branches (kalio) and take the leaves off them p` M pK< "dI uL w ::

shashi: white cotton head band; bandage v shau: early, soon kU c=M' uKA kuni shau Im coming soon. KA SKG< burto shau Not long ago. w<U Mq ' up`w >? shebel: sheath (for a knife) u=L shebelo: sheathes u=L sh: all G<K< shibio: whisk, stir ibi girgiri na shibi kinoi Take the stirring rod and stir the greens (kinoi). TvKm< <c M~ vMk<:: shiga: listen, understand, find out SeT' S[' Tp age hale haale kishikto Well find out later. uL K:: shiga: a bauru o a ng Listen! Is it a plane (bauru) or what (ng)? eT! I <aL < e; ermi saba daldal kiong logo kyugasen na nga shiko hang The child is so stubborn [lit. it has such a hard head], one tells it how to behave [lit. one speaks the word (logo)] but it doesnt listen. M c=u ` <& Y` S Ku u=[<U cTU::


shigin: hartebeest q`? shigino: hartebeests q`? shilo: stand SqU ga shil-tuno Stand up! lU (}e}I)! w uM! liba shil na a ramai The sorghum is standing up tall (ramai). TiL< k wKA u[S< qTEM:: Sg. imp. shila; pl. imp.: shil. lU' lS< shiroi: weed (n.) shirinya: weeds shishiwoon: blink the eyes T`ww shdigai: half moon Ti =e [n shlanena: to have bad luck; to suffer misfortune Ku=e SJ annyi kshlanen hang Ive got a real problem. U` ` VM:: shoga: cut or tear off (e.g., a piece of cloth) Sl[' Sp (KMwe) rum warray shgi kiong Why are you cutting off a piece of that cloth (rum) with a knife (warray)? KU< Mwc< l^ uu=L Uq^`<; shgai: sharpening stone Sd (u=L }) shganya: sharpening stones Sd shol: sharpened wood used for playing a game g<M

K T><M shrra: urine i shorongeni: the upper part of the nose L< "M shrrosa: urinate Si g na shrroi shrra Go (sg.) and urinate. H> i! sg. imp.:shorra; pl. im.p: shorro. i!' i<! shoshio: fry Sue koshshi medere kuro diskio Im frying a sheeps (medere) tail (kuro) in a metal pot (diskio). u L w[ U L ue< <:: koshoshi bi kurudo Im burning (with a hot knife blade) the maggots on (the sore of) the cow. uK u=L uLTE leM L K< M M< <:: shuli: oil shun: father v (term of reference see also dada) shug: fathers - v shunu rr minang When did your father die?

shura: tighten TU[`' SkU' Tup shushugo: rub S[' Tg iwa tishu na shushugo


Take some [new] sorghum (tishu) and rub it (between the palms of the hands to remove the husks). TiL< g m <c uI g<:: bheleshau, huli kabansan, kushushugi kare When I wake up in the early morning (bheleshau), I rub my eyes (kare). pM en @ gG< ([<):: shwai: bird showa: birds shwai a rete: honey bird T` shw: tasty, delicious


taba: blow ' c' K lusi tabai go hiri nga tabaio A boy (lusi) blows the fire [into flame], not a grown up (hiri). M d~ LM m d MU:: aiwo na tabai go Come and blow the fire [into flame]! d~ uM:: tadha: put on TekS' ekS bare nong tadha tilla ketereny tuno He/she put the porridge (tilla) on the shelf (ketereny) yesterday (bare). L c< < S[] L ekS<:: iwa nga kta na ta ketereny tuno Take this (nga kta) and put it on the shelf (ketereny). I <c S`] L ekU:: tagi: moon; month [n' ` taisinya: moons, months - [n ' tagi tato The moon is low in the sky. [n cT L p wLK::


taka: know, understand Tp' S[ wa taku Have you understood [how to do smething]? wHM ( Uc^<;) ee - wa kataka Yes, Ive understood. wM:: inye gaano Do you know me? <kKI; kimagino No, I dont know you. L<pIU:: takanya: short, stumpy `' <\\ takko: roll up SpKM' kKK ga iwa hadha na takwiyo Get the sleeping mat (hadha) and roll it up l`u~ d pMK<:: sg. imp.: takwo; pl. imp. takuto. pMM' pMK<! tala: exchange, buy Su' S wa talu Have you bought [it]? <; ee wa katala Yes, Ive bought [it]. G<:: nga katalio hang


I will definitely (hang) not buy [it]. u` M<U:: tan: side, part - ' "M' any kii nga tana Im staying on this side [of the river]. @ u=I u<M JKG<:: taan: flood ` tangilo: lose ones way S Sd inye wa tangilor? Did you get lost? SI d; ee anyi wa kitangila wang Yes, I got really (wang) lost. S u` e u`:: taniyo: make requests of someone Sp' SKS inye taniyony kiong Why do you keep asking me [for gifts]? KU< <[I e cI kKI; anyi kataniny minang When (minang) did I ask you [for anything]? S < lI;

tara: liver <u

tarra: taste SpSe' pSe ana bare katarra ngau Didnt I taste [it] yesterday (bare)? L kUg?KG< ;


tawa: deceive, lie TKM' Sg tawanya: slap, clap u^ S' uu ermi tawanyi kiong Why are you slapping the child (ermi)? M KU< u^ tawanya seno Clap (your) hands! ww! tawarr: a rock pool in a river bed or on a mountain u <e U u}^^ L K U :: tehena: want, intend, be ready SK' Tcw' cu' k anyi ketehena Jinka wechin I want to go to Jinka. =" SH@ MKG<:: liwa tehene egise The sorghum is nearly ready for harvesting. TiL< KSq[ `dDM:: tyabhai: sit down SkS tllabhai: (pl) SkS ( tngdha: cut (a tree) Sl[ terrsa j: defecate, shit [lit. pass shit (j)] S g na terr j Go (g) and shit. H> }! anyi ketersineno Im shitting. ) tlgai: July-August U` S` p


}G< <:: tri: dust vD^ trri: young man; member of the trru age grade terru: members of the terru age grade. tesu: home, our place. u? ' S] bha nai ko tesu Our home country, our place. ^' S] tewa: become SJ nong bare tewa gurrgurri He/she has become smart (gurrgurri). c< u JEM:: rr wa tewa chali Are you [ your body (rre)] better? I JHM& }iKAHM ; ee tewa chali Yes, I m (lit. it is] better. I & }iKAM:: liba be tewa mujusi The sorghum has become rotten. TiL< ucuc JEM:: twai: wing twa: wings tya: carry SgU tihai: light rain shower " tihana: light rain showers " tila: porridge, food ' Uw tili (tilinya): forked walking stick carried by women

vL K< KSH@ (KS^S) T>KM L uc? T> tililo: hold in a flame uMvM d L S kitilili dnga na kshgeo Im holding a duelling pole (dnga) in a flame and then Ill peel off the bark (kshgeo). L< ( S) uMvM d L q< =U p`~ MKG<:: tilingo: add to SS` tima: boiled grain a timaka: forget, be ignorant of S`d' KTp saragunyu be kitimagaubhw I have forgotten your name. eUI [dG<:: nong be timaka He/she has forgotten. [eM:: tini: small, young i' a tini It is small. i <:: zukta tino Young people; youngsters. tiyoi: small pegs used to stretch animal skin for drying w q KS` (=`p) T>S "M tirainya: chat, play T<' T teabai na kitirainy Sit down and lets chat.

l uM e+ <:: nga ermita tirainy aha this chld is playing around with the things M u"vu=< vK< ` }} <:: tirinyi: gum tirmaga: the Tirma people +`T tirmagi (sg.) tirre: centre pole of a house Uff (SNM) tirr-tirr: finger nail ` () tisa: plait (string or rope) SS' S nng bare tiso mssanya He/she made [several pieces of] rope (mssanya) yesterday. c< L w< S UDM:: tisho: new sorgum, not fully ripened uw MucK =e TiL titinyogi: heel }[ titnyoga: heels - }[ tiri: fast. wu ke tiri Come quickly! u ! tba: burn off cultivation area `h x TnM runo kgoi kotbi gwinya ganyo Im going to burn off my cultivation areas tomorrow. `h x nLKG<:: tdha: climb ' } (}^^) tdha: kill SM toga: spread (of fire) (intr.) Se (

go bare toga The fire spread yesterday. L d~ }e u`:: tgil: large bull; strong man; brave warrior. Mp u_' "^ c<' u }> ([) tgiwa: float, drift Sd' }d gngul oku ori - bare tgiwa Where has the boat gone? It drifted off [with no one in it] yesterday. Mv< H@; L w< (K c<) }d u`:: tka: drive (animals), herd cows, pay bridewealth w S ' TcT^' KAi anyi ktgi bio mai Im driving the cattle to the water (mai). w G< <:: sg. imp.: toga; pl. imp.: tgo. ' ! tlng: on purpose; deliberately, by choice J }wKA 'uU` tommon : the number ten. tommon ko dhone : the number eleven tonga: throw S``' [[ tng: goat M teno: goats - tnya: wash Tw' u any kgoi mai nya Im going to the water (mai) to wash. @ KSw <H< SH@ <:: tn seno ::


Wash [your] hands! I w! au mai na toin Go (pl.) to the water and wash. H> u<:: tnu: speared S' tri: penis wM trio: penises - wM troga: fart Sd lusa trogaye kiong Why are the boys farting? M KU< T>c<; toyyo: count Sl` tudh: dry, sandy cliff top [p' gT M tugo: mouth, language ' ss tugi: mouths, languages - ' ss tudhungo: test by hitting or knocking uSU U uT"D"D S}i inye ba tudhungi kiong Why are you hitting the ground? KU< S_~ US<; kutudhungi serrtu Im looking for [edible] roots (serrtu). Y^Y` KG< <:: tuho: spit (out) S ' } nong wa tuho moda He has spat out saliva (mda). U^l }

anyi kutuhi giringai Im spitting out flegm (giringai). @ ... }G< <:: tui: cattle enclosure w u[ twinya: cattle enclosures - w u[ tukuro: stir TTcM' TcK iba kio na tukuro Take a stick and stir [it]. <c TeK<:: Sg. imp.: tukuro; pl. imp.: tukuro. TeM' TeK<! tulukku: squirrel i tulukkunya: squirrels i tululun: migrate SKe' Kc' Sc zuo ngwan Magantoy na tululasen Kon Bha The people (zuo) left (ngwan) Maganto and migrated to (tululasen) Kon Bha. c T Kk< v }c:: tumoga: protective and decorative dress worn by duelling contestants - uvIM >? T>Kue @@ Ku Mwe (kT>e) tummi: musical instrument, a kind of guitar ^` tummu: God, sky =wH@`' cT tumura: the Bodi people - x= tumuri: (sg.) tunga: sleep S}' } anyi kg kutungo Im going to sleep. M} <::

g na tungo ungo ramman ngani aiwo Go and sleep for two nights and then come back. H> G<K k (Ui) uL }SMcI :: tung bhai: lie down SU' }S tuno: on; on top of; above L' uL' L kio tuno On the tree. L ido tuno Above the cloud. S< uL issabai tuno 7 Up tunugo: enter, go into (a house), crawl Sv' v ( u? <e) ' }du: anyi bare kutunugi tui I went in (tui) yesterday. L <e w u`:: nng bare tunugo lug He crawled into a hole (lug) yesterday. L c< _< u`:: sg. imp.: tunugo; pl. imp.: tunugw tur: gun, rifle. S turen: guns, rifles - S ture-a-rngdi: musical instrument made from animal horn and played at duelling contests - KvIL Y Y` T>~u ... k }W^ S<=n SX] turguli: deformed wood `v


turrumel: motor vehicle S= turrumelya: motor vehicles - S= turo: pull S} turuinya: push into, down <e S inye turuinyaan dri tui kiong Why are you (inye) pushing me into the house (dri)? u? <e KU< U; kuturuini gutuma Im pushing the flour (gutuma) down into the basket. o~ p`~ <e G< <:: turung: bow and arrow ke turrurruno: empty out (a sack or bag) by up-ending it.; sprinkle SMu (pq) [ ` tururu nga libainu titigure bare dtine kama na ngnya Empty out that little bit (titigure) of grain (libainu) that was left in the bag (kama) yesterday (bare) and grind (ngnya) it. L k[< IM < <e Mw< <:: turrurrese ju gutuma Sprinkle flour (gutuma) into the pot [of boiling water]. o~ L< <H (Tca< <e) ec<:: tuttu: door u`


ubulanena: roll or turn over (intr.) SvKM nga hira ungo gerre king ubulanena teee, na ngani kutugno Why does this person (nga hira) sleep (ungo) so badly he/she kept turning over and I could not sleep (ngani kutungo). KU< c< S } T>}<' U wKA eKT>vKM S} MM<U:: uchurro: use up, exhaust, finish (of liquids) Kk' }kk uro wa uchorro Have you finished the milk? }~ [e; ee uro wa kuchuru Yes, I have finished it. `g?KG<:: huli egi dirr, ma uchurrsnor If it boils (egi) for a long time (dirr), the water will be finished. << K[U >? L } MnM:: uchuranewo: mix together u L SkLkM udulo: shake, bang (e.g. a sleeping mat) ^ kuduli hada kare tumudut Im banging a sleeping mat (hada) close (tumudut) your eyes (kare).

l`u~ ^< <' I :: uduso: warm (tr.) <e' Vp K udusony ma na kire Warm [not to boiling point] some water (ma) for me to drink (kire). U< i <H Vp `M:: sg. imp.: uduso; pl. imp. uduso. uhana: sprout SwkM uhudo: wipe, clean T' kuhudi bh kio Im wiping the handle [lit. wood (kio)] of the axe (bh) S[u=< G< ([<) <:: uhudi nng What are you wiping it with? uU pv I ([I) <; kutaiyo With fat. uj: hit with a stone u SU age kujo uli kbla We are castrating [lit. hitting with a stone the testicles (kbla) of] the bull. `T< kk (qK< u S) <:: iwa b na choi kanga Pick up (sg.) a stone (b) and throw it at the baboons. (kanga) dN a< `<`::


ipta benna na chd kanga Pick up (pl.) stones and throw them at the baboons. <c a< `<\:: ukuri: a small bag for carrying personal belongings x`d ukuranya: small bags - x`d ukuro: clean (the inside of a container) <e< T (KUdK? }^' pM' }...) ' ukuro gussi-bwhe na kiango ket holi Clean out the gourd (gussi) so that it is clean inside [lit. so that its stomach (kiango) becomes clean (holi)] pK< <'<e< <I =J ' sg. imp.: ukuro; pl. imp.: ukurro. uli': bull (not castrated) `T (M}kk) ulinya: bulls - `T ulshi: sorghum stalk TiL ulsho (pl) sorgum stalks - TiL ulubo: cover up i ulub tila Cover up the porridge (tila)! < g<:: rum a kulupcha chuan A cloth (rum) for keeping out [lit. covering oneself against] the cold (chuan. L Sg Mwe ulugunyo: hide Sup umma: call someone by sign c< u (UM) S^


ungo: night [lit. sleep] - u Ui' ungo gro ramman Two nights on the road. G<K Ui uS L unyoi: flea w uny: fleas urgussi: fish (sg.n.) X urgussa: fish (pl. n.) - X uro: milk } ur-a-chala: fresh milk <e } ur-a-lipsa: sour milk S } urrudo: spill, throw away (of liquid) Tce' cc' cc' S alala nga luita urro urrud Hey boy (nga luita) the milk (urro) is spilling! ' } M }kp'}~ cc <:: anyi kurrudi nga galla Im throwing this (nga galla) [liquid] away. I di = M< (Lc<) <:: sg. imp. urrud; pl. imp. urrudo e' ec< urui: blacksmith kn uruinya: blacksmiths - kn usa: eat SwL' uL ain achuk na kusu Give me meat to eat. T>uL Y e:: wa usu na chau Have you eaten and had enough?

uI uM}HM; sg. imp. usu; pl. imp.: usiy. wL' wK<! (cf. baka) usha: enough, finished S[e dri bare tornu na usha Have you finished building (tornu) the house (dri)? u? SY^ (Sv~) [e; dri anyi ngani kuwoshau I havent finished the house yet. KU M[e<U:: usurusio: burn (tr.) TnM ' T[` tilla usurusi kiong Why are you burning the porridge? < KU< UnK<; Yaile tilla was surra go a bwi Yaile has burnt the porridge the fire (go) is [too] big. K? < nKAM (d`aM)' d~ uM:: tilla a surrsi The porridge is burnt. < }nK:: ututudhana: wrap SpKM ' Sg uwhana: winnow Tu`' Te' u[' c uwhani ng What are you winnowing? U< Uu[<; kuwhani liba Im winnowing sorghum. TiL u`< <::

uwhinyo: rub under armpits (as part of a ritual). uvIL ee`' U^p wKA u S[ ' sabo kutugesen moda ngani kuwhinyeo First I spit saliva (mda) [onto fire sticks] and then I rub them under my armpits. SS] T L U T L M = u `KG<::


wadi: female breast c? < (see also maddi) wadio: breasts c? < waddino: hurt, be painful ISU (see also wana) wala: flame uMvM' x K tode keno go na katawal Put wood (keno) on the fire (go) so that it flames. d~ x K `U`u:: go walana ori Where is the fire [lit. where is the fire flaming]? d~ T>uKuK< <; go walana dh The fire is in the d (cooking area outside the house). d~ T u? (Twc< x) u?~ < <:: wana: hurt (intr.) S anyi bare kamati gesso na saba wana hang I drank beer yesterday and Ive got a bad head (saba) ache. L u=^ ^c? uU VM:: wang: very much (emphatic particle) kilasi wang I am really ill. (u`) VM:: wangai: mist, fog waran: gate (esp. of a cattle compound) u[ u` (see also hang)


warr: River Omo *V warra: knife u=L warrachin: knives - u=L welu: bill-hook Ua SX]' u T> ' wel: bill-hooks Ua SX] weneno: loose (e.g. of a tooth) `e T<Kp wenyo: here you are " weshi: tray ] wh: warthog XT whyena: warthogs XT wohu: salty soil <: < T>M ` wokalu: interpreter e}`T> woley: pigeon `w woyo: walk S^S inye koi ori Where are you going? < UH@<; anyi kowoy nganga hung Im just walking. }g^g`< <:: wulugor: argue Snp zuo wulug kiong Why are the people arguing? c KU< T>nl; mate gesso They have been drinking beer (gesso). u=^ (L) < <:: nga hira bare wulugine ko neng

Who (neng) was this person (nga hira) arguing with (ko) yesterday? T u` L c=np u[<; wurio: after, lastly uS[h wush: number four ^ l` wusho: gather (leaves for cooking) KT c T>J pL pM Scwcw:: kgoi ktorsha kinoi Im going to collect leaves (kinoi). pM Mcuew SH@ <::


yabto: defend oneself SS yag: abandoned homestead yaga: take back SMf S<c nong wa yaga bi a gamain He has taken back the marriage (gamain) cattle (bio) [bridewealth]. KKAi c< w SMf c:: nga keta nga kihinio yaga I dont want this (nga keta) take it back. I MMU' SMcI <c:: ' yagaitt: permit, answer Sk: ULi Se yanen: cousin e/ M yelo: love, like S< ngahirra ermi yel hang This man loves [his] child (ermi) very much (hang). c<< M uU M:: anyi keyeli achuk hang I like meat (achuk) very much (hang). Y uU KG<:: yelniyo: loved one or girlfriend c? yri: a kind of bird yir: biceps (upper arm) <

yiri: bicepses yiso: shave SL


nng bare yis sabba He/she shaved his/her head (sabba) yesterday. L <\ }LM:: chre wa yesau-bhw Have you shaved off your hair (chre)? <` }L}HM; g na tsa chre-bhw Go (sg.) and shave off your hair (chre). H> <`I }L yitinya: vein U e` yk: they `c< yoi: wild dog kua yoiya: wild dogs kua yowoy: dance ^ yugo: speak T<^ ' TK hiri yukti a neng Who said so? T< K<; bare yug nga hira This person (nga hira) said so yesterday (bare). I c< L =I K<:: sg. imp. yugo: pl. imp.: yugo


zamio: swim S nong bare se zami ma na illaso They say he was swimming [lit. pushing a way through water (ma)] yesterday and he is now ill (illaso). `c< K< L c= u` G< TEM:: nga hirunu zami keno kiong dhutiy Why is that person pushing a way through the trees (keno) is he/she drunk (dhutiy)?. KU< c< "< T>< (T><); M ; zekta: move (ones homestead) k Kq SH@ inye wa zeku Have you moved? u?I (kI) KkpI; Ngani - nga rraata kizigio Not yet (ngani) - Im moving this afternoon (nga rraata). _ c uL < UKk<: be zegau nga So you moved here? =I < US<; zel: short stick ` L (u T>) zelinya: short sticks - ` L zibu: medicine S> zibunya: medicines - S>

zigai: bachelor Lv ziloi: personal praise song K<c? T> zini: thief K?v zininya: thieves - K?v ( ) zuo: people c zu-a-ma men zu-a-ngaha women c? zuo haanan: the number one hundred [lit. five people] S (Ue c) zuo raman: the number forty [lit. two people] `v (`<S< G<K c TK) zuo raman ko tommon: the number thirty [lit. two people plus ten cLd (`<S< G<K c e`) zuo siizi: the number sixty [lit. three people] eMd (fe c) zuo wush: the number eighty [lit. four people] cT (^ c) zurwai: dry leaves etc. used for starting a fire; rubbish. ^>' [p qhh' d KTkM T><M::