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A weld metal crack in a pipe root

A solidification crack in a weld face

Crater Pipe

Surface cluster porosity

Surface breaking solid inclusion

A slag inclusion in the root of a pipe butt weld

Lack of sidewall fusion (Also causing an incompletely filled groove)

Overlap

Spatter

An Incompletely filled groove

Lack of root fusion

Arc Strikes

Bulbous contour

Poor Toe Blend

Incomplete root penetration bead

Irregular bead width

Base metal, surface undercut

Weld metal, surface undercut

Weld metal, surface undercut

Shrinkage grooves

Base metal, top toe undercut

Excess root penetration bead (Beyond an acceptance limit)

Root concavity

Pitting Corrosion

Surface Scale

Chisel Marks

Grinding Marks

This may lead to a burn through A local collapse of the weld pool leaving a hole in the root area