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1.4.1 The value of f for Laminar flow ..................................................................................................................................7

1.4.2 Blasius equation for f ..................................................................................................................................................7

1.4.3 Nikuradse ....................................................................................................................................................................7

1.4.4 Colebrook-White equation for f ..................................................................................................................................8

1.5.1 Losses at Sudden Enlargement..................................................................................................................................10

1.5.2 Losses at Sudden Contraction ...................................................................................................................................12

1.5.3 Other Local Losses....................................................................................................................................................12

1.7 Pressure Head, Velocity Head, Potential Head and Total Head in a Pipeline........................................................15

1.10.1 Pipes in Series Example .......................................................................................................................................19

1.11.1 Pipes in Parallel Example.....................................................................................................................................20

1.11.2 An alternative method ..........................................................................................................................................22

1.12.1 Example of Branched Pipe – The Three Reservoir Problem................................................................................24

1.12.2 Other Pipe Flow Examples...................................................................................................................................28

1.12.2.1 Adding a parallel pipe example .......................................................................................................................28

1. Fluid Flow in Pipes

We will be looking here at the flow of real fluid in pipes – real meaning a fluid that possesses viscosity

hence looses energy due to friction as fluid particles interact with one another and the pipe wall.

Recall from Level 1 that the shear stress induced in a fluid flowing near a boundary is given by Newton's

law of viscosity:

du

τ ∝

dy

This tells us that the shear stress, τ, in a fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient - the rate of change

of velocity across the fluid path. For a “Newtonian” fluid we can write:

du

τ =μ

dy

where the constant of proportionality, μ, is known as the coefficient of viscosity (or simply viscosity).

Recall also that flow can be classified into one of two types, laminar or turbulent flow (with a small

transitional region between these two). The non-dimensional number, the Reynolds number, Re, is used

to determine which type of flow occurs:

ρud

Re =

μ

For a pipe

Laminar flow: Re < 2000

Transitional flow: 2000 < Re < 4000

Turbulent flow: Re > 4000

It is important to determine the flow type as this governs how the amount of energy lost to friction relates

to the velocity of the flow. And hence how much energy must be used to move the fluid.

The pressure at the upstream end, 1, is p, and at the downstream end, 2, the pressure has fallen by Δp to

(p-Δp).

The driving force due to pressure (F = Pressure x Area) can then be written

driving force = Pressure force at 1 - pressure force at 2

πd 2

pA − ( p − Δp) A = Δp A = Δp

4

The retarding force is that due to the shear stress by the walls

= shear stress × area over which it acts

= τ w × area of pipe wall

= τ wπdL

As the flow is in equilibrium,

driving force = retarding force

πd 2

Δp = τ wπdL

4

τw 4 L

Δp =

d

Equation 1

Giving an expression for pressure loss in a pipe in terms of the pipe diameter and the shear stress at the

wall on the pipe.

The shear stress will vary with velocity of flow and hence with Re. Many experiments have been done

with various fluids measuring the pressure loss at various Reynolds numbers. These results plotted to

show a graph of the relationship between pressure loss and Re look similar to the figure below:

This graph shows that the relationship between pressure loss and Re can be expressed as

laminar Δp ∝ u

turbulent Δp ∝ u a

where 1.7 < a < 2.0

As these are empirical relationships, they help in determining the pressure loss but not in finding the

magnitude of the shear stress at the wall τw on a particular fluid. If we knew τw we could then use it to

give a general equation to predict the pressure loss.

In general the shear stress τw. is almost impossible to measure. But for laminar flow it is possible to

calculate a theoretical value for a given velocity, fluid and pipe dimension. (As this was covered in he

Level 1 module, only the result is presented here.) The pressure loss in a pipe with laminar flow is given

by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation:

32μLu

Δp =

d2

or in terms of head

32μLu

hf =

ρgd 2

Equation 2

Where hf is known as the head-loss due to friction

(Remember the velocity, u, is means velocity – and is sometimes written u .)

In this derivation we will consider a general bounded flow - fluid flowing in a channel - we will then

apply this to pipe flow. In general it is most common in engineering to have Re > 2000 i.e. turbulent flow

– in both closed (pipes and ducts) and open (rivers and channels). However analytical expressions are not

available so empirical relationships are required (those derived from experimental measurements).

Consider the element of fluid, shown in figure 3 below, flowing in a channel, it has length L and with

wetted perimeter P. The flow is steady and uniform so that acceleration is zero and the flow area at

sections 1 and 2 is equal to A.

CIVE 2400: Fluid Mechanics Pipe Flow 4

p1 A − p 2 A − τ w LP + W sin θ = 0

A( p1 − p 2 ) − τ w LP − ρgAΔz = 0

this can be rearranged to give

[( p1 − p2 ) − ρgΔz ] − τ P

=0

o

L A

where the first term represents the piezometric head loss of the length L or (writing piezometric head p*)

dp *

τo = m

dx

Equation 3

where m = A/P is known as the hydraulic mean depth

Writing piezometric head loss as p* = ρghf, then shear stress per unit length is expressed as

dp * ρgh f

τo = m =m

dx L

So we now have a relationship of shear stress at the wall to the rate of change in piezometric pressure. To

make use of this equation an empirical factor must be introduced. This is usually in the form of a friction

factor f, and written

ρu 2

τo = f

2

where u is the mean flow velocity.

Hence

dp * ρu 2 ρgh f

= f =

dx 2m L

So, for a general bounded flow, head loss due to friction can be written

fLu 2

hf =

2m

Equation 4

More specifically, for a circular pipe, m = A/P = πd /4πd = d/4 giving

2

4 fLu 2

hf =

2 gd

Equation 5

This is known as the Darcy-Weisbach equation for head loss in circular pipes

(Often referred to as the Darcy equation)

This equation is equivalent to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow with the exception of the

empirical friction factor f introduced.

It is sometimes useful to write the Darcy equation in terms of discharge Q, (using Q = Au)

CIVE 2400: Fluid Mechanics Pipe Flow 5

4Q

u=

πd 2

64 fLQ 2 fLQ 2

hf = =

2 gπ 2 d 5 3.03d 5

Equation 6

Or with a 1% error

fLQ 2

hf =

3d 5

Equation 7

The f value shown above is different to that used in American practice. Their relationship is

f American = 4 f

λ = f American = 4 f

Consequently great care must be taken when choosing the value of f with attention taken to the source of

that value.

The value of f must be chosen with care or else the head loss will not be correct. Assessment of the

physics governing the value of friction in a fluid has led to the following relationships

1. hf ∝ L

2. hf ∝ v2

3. hf ∝ 1/d

4. hf depends on surface roughness of pipes

5. hf depends on fluid density and viscosity

6. hf is independent of pressure

Consequently f cannot be a constant if it is to give correct head loss values from the Darcy equation. An

expression that gives f based on fluid properties and the flow conditions is required.

1.4.1 The value of f for Laminar flow

As mentioned above the equation derived for head loss in turbulent flow is equivalent to that derived for

laminar flow – the only difference being the empirical f. Equation the two equations for head loss allows

us to derive an expression of f that allows the Darcy equation to be applied to laminar flow.

32μLu 4 fLu 2

=

ρgd 2 2 gd

16μ

f =

ρvd

16

f =

Re

Equation 8

Blasius, in 1913, was the first to give an accurate empirical expression for f for turbulent flow in smooth

pipes, that is:

0.079

f =

Re 0.25

Equation 9

This expression is fairly accurate, giving head losses +/- 5% of actual values for Re up to 100000.

1.4.3 Nikuradse

Nikuradse made a great contribution to the theory of pipe flow by differentiating between rough and

smooth pipes. A rough pipe is one where the mean height of roughness is greater than the thickness of

the laminar sub-layer. Nikuradse artificially roughened pipe by coating them with sand. He defined a

relative roughness value ks/d (mean height of roughness over pipe diameter) and produced graphs of f

against Re for a range of relative roughness 1/30 to 1/1014.

A number of distinct regions can be identified on the diagram.

2. Transition from laminar to turbulent

An unstable region between Re = 2000 and 4000. Pipe flow normally lies outside this region

3. Smooth turbulent

The limiting line of turbulent flow. All values of relative roughness tend toward this as Re

decreases.

4. Transitional turbulent

The region which f varies with both Re and relative roughness. Most pipes lie in this region.

5. Rough turbulent. f remains constant for a given relative roughness. It is independent of Re.

Colebrook and White did a large number of experiments on commercial pipes and they also brought

together some important theoretical work by von Karman and Prandtl. This work resulted in an equation

attributed to them as the Colebrook-White equation:

1 ⎛ k 1.26 ⎞

= −4 log10 ⎜ s + ⎟

⎜ 3.71d Re f ⎟

f ⎝ ⎠

Equation 10

It is applicable to the whole of the turbulent region for commercial pipes and uses an effective roughness

value (ks) obtained experimentally for all commercial pipes.

Note a particular difficulty with this equation. f appears on both sides in a square root term and so cannot

be calculated easily. Trial and error methods must be used to get f once ks¸Re and d are known. (In the

1940s when calculations were done by slide rule this was a time consuming task.) Nowadays it is

relatively trivial to solve the equation on a programmable calculator or spreadsheet.

Moody made a useful contribution to help, he plotted f against Re for commercial pipes – see the figure

below. This figure has become known as the Moody Diagram. [Note that this figure uses λ (= 4f) for

friction factor rather than f. The shape of the diagram will not change if f were used instead.]

Figure 5: Moody Diagram.

He also developed an equation based on the Colebrook-White equation that made it simpler to calculate

f:

⎡ ⎛ 200 k 10 6 ⎞1 / 3 ⎤

f = 0.001375 ⎢1 + ⎜⎜ s

+ ⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ d Re ⎟⎠ ⎥

⎦

Equation 11

This equation of Moody gives f correct to +/- 5% for 4 × 103 < Re < 1 × 107 and for ks/d < 0.01.

1 ⎡ k 5.1286 ⎤

= −4 log10 ⎢ s + 0.89 ⎥

f ⎣ 3.71d Re ⎦

Equation 12

or

2

⎡ ⎛ k 5.1286 ⎞⎤

f = 1 ⎢− 4 log10 ⎜ s + 0.89 ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎝ 3.71d Re ⎠⎦

Equation 13

Here the last term of the Colebrook-White equation has been replaced with 5.1286/Re0.89 which provides

more accurate results for Re > 105.

The problem with these formulas still remains that these contain a dependence on ks. What value of ks

should be used for any particular pipe? Fortunately pipe manufactures provide values and typical values

can often be taken similar to those in table 1 below.

Pipe Material ks

(mm)

Brass, copper, glass, Perspex 0.003

Asbestos cement 0.03

Wrought iron 0.06

Galvanised iron 0.15

Plastic 0.03

Bitumen-lined ductile iron 0.03

Spun concrete lined ductile 0.03

iron

Slimed concrete sewer 6.0

In addition to head loss due to friction there are always head losses in pipe lines due to bends, junctions,

valves etc. (See notes from Level 1, Section 4 - Real Fluids for a discussion of energy losses in flowing

fluids.) For completeness of analysis these should be taken into account. In practice, in long pipe lines of

several kilometres their effect may be negligible for short pipeline the losses may be greater than those

for friction.

A general theory for local losses is not possible, however rough turbulent flow is usually assumed which

gives the simple formula

u2

hL = k L

2g

Equation 14

Where hL is the local head loss and kL is a constant for a particular fitting (valve or junction etc.)

For the cases of sudden contraction (e.g. flowing out of a tank into a pipe) of a sudden enlargement (e.g.

flowing from a pipe into a tank) then a theoretical value of kL can be derived. For junctions bend etc. kL

must be obtained experimentally.

Consider the flow in the sudden enlargement, shown in figure 6 below, fluid flows from section 1 to

section 2. The velocity must reduce and so the pressure increases (this follows from Bernoulli). At

position 1' turbulent eddies occur which give rise to the local head loss.

Apply the momentum equation between positions 1 and 2 to give:

p1 A1 − p2 A2 = ρQ (u 2 − u1 )

p1 A1 − p2 A2 = ρA2u 2 (u 2 − u1 )

Rearranging gives

p2 − p1 u 2

= (u1 − u2 )

ρg g

Equation 17

Now apply the Bernoulli equation from point 1 to 2, with the head loss term hL

p1 u12 p u2

+ = 2 + 2 + hL

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g

And rearranging gives

u12 − u22 p2 − p1

hL = −

2g ρg

Equation 18

Combining Equations 17 and 18 gives

u12 − u 22 u 2

hL = − (u1 − u 2 )

2g g

hL =

(u1 − u2 )

2

2g

Equation 19

Substituting again for the continuity equation to get an expression involving the two areas, (i.e.

u2=u1A1/A2) gives

2

⎛ A ⎞ u2

hL = ⎜⎜1 − 1 ⎟⎟ 1

⎝ A2 ⎠ 2 g

Equation 20

Comparing this with Equation 14 gives kL

2

⎛ A ⎞

k L = ⎜⎜1 − 1 ⎟⎟

⎝ A2 ⎠

Equation 21

When a pipe expands in to a large tank A1 << A2 i.e. A1/A2 = 0 so kL = 1. That is, the head loss is equal to

the velocity head just before the expansion into the tank.

1.5.2 Losses at Sudden Contraction

In a sudden contraction, flow contracts from point 1 to point 1', forming a vena contraction. From

experiment it has been shown that this contraction is about 40% (i.e. A1' = 0.6 A2). It is possible to

assume that energy losses from 1 to 1' are negligible (no separation occurs in contracting flow) but that

major losses occur between 1' and 2 as the flow expands again. In this case Equation 16 can be used from

point 1' to 2 to give: (by continuity u1 = A2u2/A1 = A2u2/0.6A2 = u2/0.6)

⎛ 0.6 A2 ⎞ (u 2 / 0.6 )2

2

hL = ⎜⎜1 − ⎟⎟

⎝ A2 ⎠ 2g

u 22

hL = 0.44

2g

Equation 22

i.e. At a sudden contraction kL = 0.44.

Large losses in energy in energy usually occur only where flow expands. The mechanism at work in these

situations is that as velocity decreases (by continuity) so pressure must increase (by Bernoulli).

When the pressure increases in the direction of fluid outside the boundary layer has enough momentum to

overcome this pressure that is trying to push it backwards. The fluid within the boundary layer has so

little momentum that it will very quickly be brought to rest, and possibly reversed in direction. If this

reversal occurs it lifts the boundary layer away from the surface as shown in Figure 8. This phenomenon

is known as boundary layer separation.

At the edge of the separated boundary layer, where the velocities change direction, a line of vortices

occur (known as a vortex sheet). This happens because fluid to either side is moving in the opposite

direction. This boundary layer separation and increase in the turbulence because of the vortices results in

very large energy losses in the flow. These separating / divergent flows are inherently unstable and far

more energy is lost than in parallel or convergent flow.

Some common situation where significant head losses occur in pipe are shown in figure 9

Tee-Junctions

Y-Junctions

Bends

Figure 9: Local losses in pipe flow

The values of kL for these common situations are shown in Table 2. It gives value that are used in

practice.

kL value

Practice

Bellmouth entry 0.10

Sharp entry 0.5

Sharp exit 0.5

90° bend 0.4

90° tees

In-line flow 0.4

Branch to line 1.5

Gate value 0.25

(open)

Table 2: kL values

1.6 Pipeline Analysis

To analyses the flow in a pipe line we will use Bernoulli’s equation. The Bernoulli equation was

introduced in the Level 1 module, and as a reminder it is presented again here.

Bernoulli’s equation is a statement of conservation of energy along a streamline, by this principle the

total energy in the system does not change, Thus the total head does not change. So the Bernoulli

equation can be written

p u2

+ + z = H = constant

ρg 2 g

or

energy per + energy per + energy per = energy per

unit weight unit weight unit weight unit weight

As all of these elements of the equation have units of length, they are often referred to as the following:

p

pressure head =

ρg

u2

velocity head =

2g

potential head = z

total head = H

In this form Bernoulli’s equation has some restrictions in its applicability, they are:

• Flow is steady;

• Density is constant (i.e. fluid is incompressible);

• Friction losses are negligible.

• The equation relates the states at two points along a single streamline.

1.7 Pressure Head, Velocity Head, Potential Head and Total Head in a Pipeline.

By looking at the example of the reservoir with which feeds a pipe we will see how these different heads

relate to each other.

Consider the reservoir below feeding a pipe that changes diameter and rises (in reality it may have to pass

over a hill) before falling to its final level.

Figure 10: Reservoir feeding a pipe

To analyses the flow in the pipe we apply the Bernoulli equation along a streamline from point 1 on the

surface of the reservoir to point 2 at the outlet nozzle of the pipe. And we know that the total energy per

unit weight or the total head does not change - it is constant - along a streamline. But what is this value

of this constant? We have the Bernoulli equation

p1 u12 p2 u22

+ +z = H = + +z

ρg 2 g 1 ρg 2 g 2

We can calculate the total head, H, at the reservoir, p1 = 0 as this is atmospheric and atmospheric gauge

pressure is zero, the surface is moving very slowly compared to that in the pipe so u1 = 0 , so all we are

left with is total head = H = z1 the elevation of the reservoir.

A useful method of analysing the flow is to show the pressures graphically on the same diagram as the

pipe and reservoir. In the figure above the total head line is shown. If we attached piezometers at points

along the pipe, what would be their levels when the pipe nozzle was closed? (Piezometers, as you will

remember, are simply open ended vertical tubes filled with the same liquid whose pressure they are

measuring).

pressure

head

H

elevation

As you can see in the above figure, with zero velocity all of the levels in the piezometers are equal and

the same as the total head line. At each point on the line, when u = 0

p

+z = H

ρg

p

The level in the piezometer is the pressure head and its value is given by .

ρg

What would happen to the levels in the piezometers (pressure heads) if the water was flowing with

velocity = u? We know from earlier examples that as velocity increases so pressure falls …

velocity Total head line

head

pressure hydraulic

head grade line

H

elevation

p u2

+ +z = H

ρg 2 g

u2

We see in this figure that the levels have reduced by an amount equal to the velocity head, . Now as

2g

the pipe is of constant diameter we know that the velocity is constant along the pipe so the velocity head

is constant and represented graphically by the horizontal line shown. (this line is known as the hydraulic

grade line).

What would happen if the pipe were not of constant diameter? Look at the figure below where the pipe

from the example above is replaced by a pipe of three sections with the middle section of larger diameter

velocity Total head line

head

pressure hydraulic

H

elevation

Figure 13: Piezometer levels and velocity heads with fluid flowing in varying diameter pipes

The velocity head at each point is now different. This is because the velocity is different at each point. By

considering continuity we know that the velocity is different because the diameter of the pipe is different.

Which pipe has the greatest diameter?

Pipe 2, because the velocity, and hence the velocity head, is the smallest.

This graphical representation has the advantage that we can see at a glance the pressures in the system.

For example, where along the whole line is the lowest pressure head? It is where the hydraulic grade line

is nearest to the pipe elevation i.e. at the highest point of the pipe.

1.8 Flow in pipes with losses due to friction.

In a real pipe line there are energy losses due to friction - these must be taken into account as they can be

very significant. How would the pressure and hydraulic grade lines change with friction? Going back to

the constant diameter pipe, we would have a pressure situation like this shown below

velocity

head

Total head line

pressure

head

hydraulic

grade line

H − hf

elevation

Figure 14: Hydraulic Grade line and Total head lines for a constant diameter pipe with friction

How can the total head be changing? We have said that the total head - or total energy per unit weight - is

constant. We are considering energy conservation, so if we allow for an amount of energy to be lost due

to friction the total head will change. Equation 19 is the Bernoulli equation as applied to a pipe line with

the energy loss due to friction written as a head and given the symbol h f (the head loss due to friction)

and the local energy losses written as a head, hL (the local head loss).

p1 u12 p u2

+ + z1 = 2 + 2 + z 2 + h f + hL

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g

Equation 23

The pipe diameter is 100mm and has length 15m and feeds directly into the atmosphere at point C 4m

below the surface of the reservoir (i.e. za – zc = 4.0m). The highest point on the pipe is a B which is 1.5m

above the surface of the reservoir (i.e. zb – za = 1.5m) and 5 m along the pipe measured from the

reservoir. Assume the entrance and exit to the pipe to be sharp and the value of friction factor f to be 0.08.

Calculate a) velocity of water leaving the pipe at point C, b) pressure in the pipe at point B.

a)

We use the Bernoulli equation with appropriate losses from point A to C

and for entry loss kL = 0.5 and exit loss kL = 1.0.

For the local losses from Table 2 for a sharp entry kL = 0.5 and for the sharp exit as it opens in to the

atmosphere with no contraction there are no losses, so

u2

hL = 0.5

2g

Friction losses are given by the Darcy equation

4 fLu 2

hf =

2 gd

Pressure at A and C are both atmospheric, uA is very small so can be set to zero, giving

u2 4 fLu 2 u2

zA = + zC + + 0.5

2g 2 gd 2g

u2 ⎛ 4 fL ⎞

z A − zC = ⎜1 + 0.5 + ⎟

2g ⎝ d ⎠

Substitute in the numbers from the question

u2 ⎛ 4 × 0.08 × 15 ⎞

4= ⎜1.5 + ⎟

2 × 9.81 ⎝ 0.1 ⎠

u = 1.26m / s

b)

To find the pressure at B apply Bernoulli from point A to B using the velocity calculated above. The

length of the pipe is L1 = 5m:

2

pB u 4 fL1u 2 u2

zA = + +z + + 0.5

ρg 2 g B 2 gd 2g

pB u 2 ⎛ 4 fL1 ⎞

z A −zB = + ⎜1 + 0.5 + ⎟

ρg 2 g ⎝ d ⎠

pB 1.26 2 ⎛ 4 × 0.08 × 5.0 ⎞

− 1.5 = + ⎜1.5 + ⎟

1000 × 9.81 2 × 9.81 ⎝ 0.1 ⎠

p B = −28.58 × 103 N / m 2

When pipes of different diameters are connected end to end to form a pipe line, they are said to be in

series. The total loss of energy (or head) will be the sum of the losses in each pipe plus local losses at

connections.

1.10.1 Pipes in Series Example

Consider the two reservoirs shown in figure 16, connected by a single pipe that changes diameter over its

length. The surfaces of the two reservoirs have a difference in level of 9m. The pipe has a diameter of

200mm for the first 15m (from A to C) then a diameter of 250mm for the remaining 45m (from C to B).

Figure 16:

For the entrance use kL = 0.5 and the exit kL = 1.0. The join at C is sudden. For both pipes use f = 0.01.

hf2 = head loss for 250mm diameter section of pipe

hL entry = head loss at entry point

hL join = head loss at join of the two pipes

hL exit = head loss at exit point

So

H = hf1 + hf2 + hL entry + hL join + hL exit = 9m

fL1Q 2

hf 1 =

3d15

fL2Q 2

hf 2 =

3d 25

2

u2 1 ⎛ 4Q ⎞ Q2 Q2

hLentry = 0 .5 1 = 0 .5 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ = 0.5 × 0.0826 4 = 0.0413 4

2g 2 g ⎝ πd1 ⎠ d1 d1

u22 Q2 Q2

hLexit = 1.0 = 1.0 × 0.0826 4 = 0.0826 4

2g d2 d2

2

⎛ 1 1 ⎞

⎜

2 ⎜ 2 −

⎟

hLjoin =

(u

1 − u2 )

2

⎛ 4Q ⎞ ⎝ d1 d 2 ⎠

=⎜ ⎟

2 ⎟

2⎛ 1 1 ⎞

= 0.0826Q ⎜⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟⎟

2

2g ⎝ π ⎠ 2g ⎝ d1 d 2 ⎠

hf1 + hf2 + hL entry + hL join + hL exit = 9

1.11 Pipes in parallel

When two or more pipes in parallel connect two reservoirs, as shown in Figure 17, for example, then the

fluid may flow down any of the available pipes at possible different rates. But the head difference over

each pipe will always be the same. The total volume flow rate will be the sum of the flow in each pipe.

The analysis can be carried out by simply treating each pipe individually and summing flow rates at the

end.

Two pipes connect two reservoirs (A and B) which have a height difference of 10m. Pipe 1 has diameter

50mm and length 100m. Pipe 2 has diameter 100mm and length 100m. Both have entry loss kL = 0.5 and

exit loss kL=1.0 and Darcy f of 0.008.

Calculate:

a) rate of flow for each pipe

b) the diameter D of a pipe 100m long that could replace the two pipes and provide the same

flow.

a)

Apply Bernoulli to each pipe separately. For pipe 1:

p A u A2 p u2 u 2 4 flu12 u2

+ + z A = B + B + z B + 0.5 1 + + 1.0 1

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g 2 g 2 gd1 2g

pA and pB are atmospheric, and as the reservoir surface move s slowly uA and uB are negligible, so

B B

⎛ 4 fl ⎞ u2

z A − z B = ⎜⎜ 0.5 + + 1.0 ⎟⎟ 1

⎝ d1 ⎠ 2g

⎛ 4 × 0.008 × 100 ⎞ u12

10 = ⎜1.0 + ⎟

⎝ 0.05 ⎠ 2 × 9.81

u1 = 1.731 m / s

πd12

Q1 = u1 = 0.0034 m 3 / s

4

For pipe 2:

p A u A2 p u2 u 2 4 flu22 u2

+ + z A = B + B + z B + 0.5 2 + + 1.0 2

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g 2 g 2 gd 2 2g

Again pA and pB are atmospheric, and as the reservoir surface move s slowly uA and uB are negligible, so

B B

⎛ 4 fl ⎞ u2

z A − z B = ⎜⎜ 0.5 + + 1.0 ⎟⎟ 2

⎝ d2 ⎠ 2g

⎛ 4 × 0.008 × 100 ⎞ u 22

10 = ⎜1.0 + ⎟

⎝ 0.1 ⎠ 2 × 9.81

u 2 = 2.42 m / s

πd 22

Q2 = u 2 = 0.0190 m 3 / s

4

For this pipe, diameter D, velocity u , and making the same assumptions about entry/exit losses, we have:

p A u A2 p u2 u 2 4 flu 2 u2

+ + z A = B + B + z B + 0.5 + + 1.0

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g 2 g 2 gD 2g

2

⎛ 4 fl ⎞u

z A − z B = ⎜ 0.5 + + 1.0 ⎟

⎝ D ⎠ 2g

4 × 0.008 × 100 ⎞ u

2

⎛

10 = ⎜1.0 + ⎟

⎝ D ⎠ 2 × 9.81

⎛ 3.2 ⎞ 2

196.2 = ⎜1.0 + ⎟u

⎝ D⎠

The velocity can be obtained from Q i.e.

πD 2

Q = Au = u

4

4Q 0.02852

u= =

πD 2 D2

So

2

⎛ 3.2 ⎞⎛ 0.02852 ⎞

196.2 = ⎜1.0 + ⎟⎜ ⎟

⎝ D ⎠⎝ D 2 ⎠

0 = 241212 D 5 − 1.5D − 3.2

which must be solved iteratively

0 = 241212D 5 − 3.2

D = 5 3.2

241212

D = 0.1058m

Writing the function

f ( D) = 241212 D 5 − 1.5D − 3.2

f (0.1058) = −0.161

So increase D slightly, try 0.107m

f (0.107) = 0.022

i.e. the solution is between 0.107m and 0.1058m but 0.107 if sufficiently accurate.

CIVE 2400: Fluid Mechanics Pipe Flow 21

1.11.2 An alternative method

An alternative method (although based on the same theory) is shown below using the Darcy equation in

terms of Q

fLQ 2

hf =

3d 5

And the loss equations in terms of Q:

u2 Q2 42 Q 2 Q2

hL = k =k = k = 0.0826 k

2g 2 gA2 2 gπ 2 d 2 d4

For Pipe 1

10 = hL entry + hf + hL exit

Q2 0.008 × 100Q 2 Q2

10 = 0.0826 × 0.5 + + 0.0826 × 1.0

0.054 3 × 0.055 0.054

Q = 0.0034 m 3 / s

Q = 3.4 litres / s

For Pipe 2

10 = hL entry + hf + hL exit

Q 2 0.008 × 100Q 2 Q2

10 = 0.0826 × 0.5 + + 0.0826 × 1.0

0.14 3 × 0.15 0.14

Q = 0.0188 m 3 / s

Q = 18.8 litres / s

If pipes connect three reservoirs, as shown in Figure 17, then the problem becomes more complex. One of

the problems is that it is sometimes difficult to decide which direction fluid will flow. In practice

solutions are now done by computer techniques that can determine flow direction, however it is useful to

examine the techniques necessary to solve this problem.

A B

C

D

For these problems it is best to use the Darcy equation expressed in terms of discharge – i.e. equation 7.

fLQ 2

hf =

3d 5

When three or more pipes meet at a junction then the following basic principles apply:

1. The continuity equation must be obeyed i.e. total flow into the junction must equal total flow out

of the junction;

2. at any one point there can only be one value of head, and

3. Darcy’s equation must be satisfied for each pipe.

It is usual to ignore minor losses (entry and exit losses) as practical hand calculations become impossible

– fortunately they are often negligible.

One problem still to be resolved is that however we calculate friction it will always produce a positive

drop – when in reality head loss is in the direction of flow. The direction of flow is often obvious, but

when it is not a direction has to be assumed. If the wrong assumption is made then no physically possible

solution will be obtained.

In the figure above the heads at the reservoir are known but the head at the junction D is not. Neither are

any of the pipe flows known. The flow in pipes 1 and 2 are obviously from A to D and D to C

respectively. If one assumes that the flow in pipe 2 is from D to B then the following relationships could

be written:

z a − hD = h f 1

hD − z b = h f 2

hD − z c = h f 3

Q1 = Q2 + Q3

The hf expressions are functions of Q, so we have 4 equations with four unknowns, hD, Q1, Q2 and Q3

which we must solve simultaneously.

The algebraic solution is rather tedious so a trial and error method is usually recommended. For example

this procedure usually converges to a solution quickly:

1. estimate a value of the head at the junction, hD

2. substitute this into the first three equations to get an estimate for Q for each pipe.

3. check to see if continuity is (or is not) satisfied from the fourth equation

4. if the flow into the junction is too high choose a larger hD and vice versa.

5. return to step 2

If the direction of the flow in pipe 2 was wrongly assumed then no solution will be found. If you have

made this mistake then switch the direction to obtain these four equations

z a − hD = h f 1

z b − hD = h f 2

hD − z c = h f 3

Q1 + Q2 = Q3

Looking at these two sets of equations we can see that they are identical if hD = zb. This suggests that a

good starting value for the iteration is zb then the direction of flow will become clear at the first iteration.

Water flows from reservoir A through pipe 1, diameter d1 = 120mm, length L1=120m, to junction D from

which the two pipes leave, pipe 2, diameter d2=75mm, length L2=60m goes to reservoir B, and pipe 3,

diameter d3=60mm, length L3=40m goes to reservoir C. Reservoir B is 16m below reservoir A, and

reservoir C is 24m below reservoir A. All pipes have f = 0.01. (Ignore and entry and exit losses.)

We know the flow is from A to D and from D to C but are never quite sure which way the flow is along

the other pipe – either D to B or B to D. We first must assume one direction. If that is not correct there

will not be a sensible solution. To keep the notation from above we can write za = 24, zb = 16 and zc = 0.

For flow A to D

z a − hD = h f 1

f1 L1Q12

24 − hD = = 16075 Q12

3d15

Assume flow is D to B

hD − zb = h f 2

f 2 L2Q22

hD − 8 = = 84280 Q22

3d 25

For flow is D to C

hD − zc = h f 3

f 3 L3Q32

hD − 0 = = 171468 Q32

3d 35

The final equation is continuity, which for this chosen direction D to B is

Q1 = Q2 + Q3

Now it is a matter of systematically questing values of hD until continuity is satisfied. This is best done in

a table. And it is usually best to initially guess hD = za then reduce its value (until the error in continuity is

small):

hj Q1 Q2 Q3 Q1=Q2+Q3 err

24.00 0.00000 0.01378 0.01183 0.02561 0.02561

20.00 0.01577 0.01193 0.01080 0.02273 0.00696

17.00 0.02087 0.01033 0.00996 0.02029 -0.00058

17.10 0.02072 0.01039 0.00999 0.02038 -0.00034

17.20 0.02057 0.01045 0.01002 0.02046 -0.00010

17.30 0.02042 0.01050 0.01004 0.02055 0.00013

17.25 0.02049 0.01048 0.01003 0.02051 0.00001

17.24 0.02051 0.01047 0.01003 0.02050 -0.00001

So the solution is that the head at the junction is 17.24 m, which gives Q1 = 0.0205m3/s, Q1 =

0.01047m3/s and Q1 = 0.01003m3/s.

Had we guessed that the flow was from B to D, the second equation would have been

zb − hD = h f 2

f 2 L2Q22

8 − hD = = 84280 Q22

3d 25

and continuity would have been Q1 + Q2 = Q3 .

If you then attempted to solve this you would soon see that there is no solution.

An alternative method to solve the above problem is shown below. It does not solve the head at the

junction, instead directly solves for a velocity (it may be easily amended to solve for discharge Q)

[For this particular question the method shown above is easier to apply – but the method shown below

could be seen as more general as it produces a function that could be solved by a numerical method and

so may prove more convenient for other similar situations.]

Again for this we will assume the flow will be from reservoir A to junction D then from D to reservoirs B

and C. There are three unknowns u1, u2 and u3 the three equations we need to solve are obtained from A

to B then A to C and from continuity at the junction D.

Flow from A to B

p A u A2 p u2 4 fL2u12 4 fL2u 22

+ +z A = B + B +zB + +

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g 2 gd1 2 gd 2

Putting pA = pB and taking uA and uB as negligible, gives

4 fL2u12 4 fL2u22

z A −zB = +

2 gd1 2 gd 2

Put in the numbers from the question

4 × 0.01 × 120u12 4 × 0.01 × 60u22

16 = +

2 g 0.12 2 g 0.075

16 = 2.0387u12 + 1.6310u22

(equation i)

Flow from A to C

p A u A2 p u2 4 fL2u12 4 fL3u32

+ + z A = C + C + zC + +

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g 2 gd1 2 gd 3

Putting pA = pc and taking uA and uc as negligible, gives

4 fL2u12 4 fL3u32

z A − zC = +

2 gd1 2 gd 3

Put in the numbers from the question

4 × 0.01 × 120u12 4 × 0.01 × 40u32

24 = +

2 g 0.12 2 g 0.060

24 = 2.0387u12 + 1.3592u32

(equation ii)

Fro continuity at the junction

Flow A to D = Flow D to B + Flow D to C

Q1 = Q2 + Q3

πd 2

πd 22 πd 32

1

u1 = u2 + u3

4 4 4

2 2

⎛d ⎞ ⎛d ⎞

u1 = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ u 2 + ⎜⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ u3

⎝ d1 ⎠ ⎝ d1 ⎠

with numbers from the question

u1 − 0.3906u 2 − 0.25u3 = 0

(equation iii)

the values of u1, u2 and u3 must be found by solving the simultaneous equation i, ii and iii. The technique

to do this is to substitute for equations i, and ii in to equation iii, then solve this expression. It is usually

done by a trial and error approach.

i.e. from i,

u 2 = 9.81 − 1.25u12

from ii,

u3 = 17.657 − 1.5u12

substituted in iii gives

u1 − 0.3906 9.81 − 1.25u12 − 0.25 17.657 − 1.5u12 = 0 = f (u1 )

u f(u)

1 -1.14769

2 0.289789

1.8 -0.03176

1.85 0.046606

1.83 0.015107

1.82 -0.00057

Giving u1 = 1.82 m/s, so u2 = 2.38 m/s, u3 = 12.69 m/s

Flow rates are

πd12

Q1 = u1 = 0.0206 m 3 / s

4

πd 2

Q2 = 2 u 2 = 0.0105 m 3 / s

4

πd 2

Q3 = 3 u3 = 0.0101 m 3 / s

4

Check for continuity at the junction

Q1 = Q2 + Q3

0.0206 = 0.0105 + 0.0101

1.12.2 Other Pipe Flow Examples

A pipe joins two reservoirs whose head difference is 10m. The pipe is 0.2 m diameter, 1000m in length

and has a f value of 0.008.

a) What is the flow in the pipeline?

b) It is required to increase the flow to the downstream reservoir by 30%. This is to be done

adding a second pipe of the same diameter that connects at some point along the old pipe and runs

down to the lower reservoir. Assuming the diameter and the friction factor are the same as the old

pipe, how long should the new pipe be?

10m

Original pipe

New pipe

100

0m

a)

fLQ 2

hf =

3d 5

0.008 × 1000Q 2

10 =

3 × 0.25

Q = 0.0346 m 3 / s

Q = 34.6 litres / s

b)

H = 10 = h f 1 + h f 2 = h f 1 + h f 3

∴

hf 2 = hf 3

2 2

f 2 L2Q2 f LQ

5

= 3 3 53

3d 2 3d 3

as the pipes 2 and 3 are the same f, same length and the same diameter then Q2 = Q3.

So

Q1

Q2 =

2

and

L2 = 1000 -L1

Then

10 = h f 1 + h f 2

f1 L1Q12 f 2 L2Q22

10 = +

2d12 2d 22

f1 L1Q12 f 2 (1000 − L1 )(Q1 / 2)

2

10 = +

2d12 2d 22

As f1 = f2, d1 = d2

10 =

f1Q12 ⎛

L +

(1000 − L1 ) ⎞

2 ⎜ 1 ⎟

3d1 ⎝ 4 ⎠

The new Q1 is to be 30% greater than before so Q1 = 1.3 × 0.034 = 0.442 m3/s

L1 = 455.6m

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