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By the author

of

A Book of Colors

Shigenobu Kobayashi

Applications of 130 basic


colors fully explained

Over 1,000
express any

color combinations to

mood,

taste,

or

lifestyle

Two easy-to-use

indexes

$12.91

Color Image Scale


Shipcnobu Kobayashi
L'sing

and combining colors

is

now

easy with the

revolutionary new (x)lor Image Scale developed by Japan's leading color psychologist, Shigenobu Kobayashi, the author of the bestselling A Book of
Colors.

After three years of intensive research, Kobayashi

and

his

team

at the

Nippon Color

&

Design

Research Institute have matched 130 basic colors and over 1,000 color combinations to 180 key image words, allowing you the expression of any

mood,
If

lifestyle,

or taste through the creative use


to

of color combinations.

you want

make an

interior or an outtlt

"elegant," "romantic," or even "provocative," just

look up the word in the key image word index, and choose any one of the dozens of color combinations listed under the entry. (Conversely, if you would like to know what mood certain colors or color combinations suggest, refer to the color
index.

Used by thousands of major designers and manufacturers in japan, the Cx)lor Image Scale is a unique color resource for both professionals and
iniateurs alike.

Jacket design by Takehiko Akiyama

COLOR IMAGE SCALE

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2009

http://www.archive.org/details/colorimagescaleOOkoba

COLOR IMAGE SCALE


by Shigenobu Kobayashi
Translated by Louella Matsunaga

KODANSHA INTERNATIONAL
Tokyo New York London

Originally published in 1990 in Japanese as Color Image Scale

by

Kodansha, Ltd.

Kodansha America, Inc., 1, and in the United Kingdom and continental Europe by Kodansha Europe, Ltd., Gillingham House, 38-44 Gillingham Street, London, SWIV IHU. Published by Kodansha International, Ltd., 17-14 Otowa 1-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112, and Kodansha America, Inc.
Distributed in the United States by
1

14 Fifth Avenue,

New York,

NA' 1001

Copyright

1990 Nippon Color & Design Research Institute, Inc.


1991

All rights reserved

Printed in Japan
First edition

91 92

939495 1098

765432

ISBN: 4-7700-01564-X
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kobayashi, Shigenobu. 1925-

Color Image Scale


translated
p.

/ by Shigenobu Kobayashi by Louella Matsunaga. 1st ed. cm.

Originally published in 1990 in Japanese.

Includes indexes

L Color

Psychological

aspects.

I.

Title.

BF789.CK579 1991 701'.85dc20


91-32102

CIP

Contents

Introduction

2
3

How this book works How to look at tlie data


Explanatory Notes

4-5

The colors used in this book (Hue and Tone System) Single Color Image Scale Color Combination Image Scale
Key Word Image Scale 180 Image Word Data Base
Taste and Lifestyle

6-7
8-9
10-1

12-13

14-17
17-20

Color Image Scale

Red
Yellow Red

22-33
34-45

YR
Y

Yellow

46-57
58-69
70-81

Green Yellow

Green Blue Green


Blue

GY G BG
B

82-93

94-105
106-117 118-129
130-141 142-151
-

Purple Blue
Purple

PB
P

Red Purple
Neutral

RP

Index

152-156 156-160

Index

II

Introduction

it\'

Ours is an age of increasing sensitivto color. But what meanings are


life? If

links
(e.g.,

between the worlds of objects fashion, interior design) and

conveyed by the colors that surround

lifest\des.
I

we could grasp their real meanings, perhaps we would be able to use them more effectively. The first step toward a more effective
us in ever)day
use of color
sify colors
is

believe that this classification of

colors based

on images

is

the key to

understanding the way in which color

combinations are perceived, and that


this

to systematize

and

clas-

systems opens a path to the future,


sensitivity to color will
I

through key words that ex-

when

continue

press their meanings

and through im-

to grow.

hope, therefore, that this

ages that express the differences be-

book
I

will

have

deep and lasting

tween them.
For single colors
this

appeal.

can be done by

arranging them sequentially according


to their place in the spectrum. But this
is

to express

would like to take this opportunity' my profound gratitude to Mr. Junichiro Matsuoka of Kodansha,
Ltd. for his interest in this

not possible for color combinations,


it is

approach

and though

obvious

at a

glance

and for all his help and encouragement


in the publication of this

that different color

combinations conis

book.

And

vey different images, the problem

must also thank the staff of the Nippon


Color

how

to classify

them

in a systematic

& Design

Research

Institute, in

way. This book introduces the Color

Image
the

Scale

particular, Katsura

Iwamatsu, Keiko

a data base developed at

Yoshida, Hiroko Suzuki, and Akihiko

Nippon Color

& Design Research

Suzuki, for their assistance in this


project.

Institute for systematically classifying

color combinations.

The

scale

was developed by using

Shigenobu Kobayashi

130 basic colors to

make

different

three-color combinations.

We
in

then

input into our computer 180 image

words

that relate to the

ways

which

people perceive colors, and also data

on which words were


which
colors.

associated with

From

this

we

generated

a 130-page data base that

shows the

images associated with the color combinations created by using each of the

130 basic colors. These images are

How this book works


In

what way and

should you use colors? In


dress this issue

what situations book, we adby focusing on the images


in
this
1

of colors, as detailed in paragraphs


below.

to 5

image you wish to project, consult the separate image genre index on pp 152-155 first. Alternatively, check page to see which color combination is closest to the image you are looking for, and then consult the
1 1

index.

Understanding the interrelationships between colors Cx)lors do not exist as single entities. It is essential to examine carefully the different images conveyed by variations in hue and
1
.

4.

Color combinations
at

learning how to
in this

look

and use them The 130 colors shown

the nine different color combinations


for each color each have their

book and shown

tone.

you want to know what image is conveyed by the color brown, first consult the Hue and Tone S\tem table on pp. 6-7 and find the shade of brown closest to the one you have in mmd. Then turn to
-> For example,
if

vidual character and also their

own indiown charm


is

and beaut)'. As

far as the color


first

combinations

are concerned, the

point to consider

the page for that shade.

whether you want to create a unified effect through the use of a gradation of hues or tones, or whether you want to make your
chosen color stand out,
in

which case a color

2.

Examining differences
hue change
as the

in

image

combination using contrasting colors would


be more
-> for
effective.

How do the images conveyed by colors of


a red

tone changes?

for colors of the

vivid tones

how does
on
p. 9.

same tone

And

more

details

for example,

techniques, please consult

on color combination A Book of Colors

their

image change

with a change in hue?


- For

an overview of the images conFurther details are given

veyed by each color, consult the single color

image
in the

scale

(Kodansha International, Ltd., 1987). "* For an over\'iew of the images conveyed by different color combinations, please refer to the Color Combination Image Scale on p. 11.
5.

key word image scale on pp. 12-13.

> Alternatively, the

image word

list

on

Practical applications of color images

pp. 14- 17 can be used as a data base to find

the color combinations appropriate to the

image you are seeking


3.

to project.

is included to help you which color, or color combination, is appropriate to the image you wish to con-

On each page data

find

vey.

For example, vivid purple P/\')


(

is

used

Checking the characteristics of indiIf

a great deal in fashion, but not in interiors.

vidual colors

For interiors the basic color

is

a light grayish

age,

you want to project a fashionable imwhat color should you choose? Clear or

tone of yellow red (YR/Lgr).

- For each color, the fields in which


with one or
ence.

it

has

gra\ish? Purple or red purple in hue? Light

been most widely used to date are marked

or light grayish in tone?

more

stars () for easy refer-

you have already decided on the word that goes with the image you are looking for, you can find the colors corresponding to that word in the index on pp.
156-160.

- If

- Data on taste and lifestyle has also been


show which colors appeal to what sort of people. Further details on our approach to this issue can be found on pp.
included, to
17-20.

if

you have only

vague idea as to the

How to look at the data


Widely used
Fashion
Intenor Design
in...

Lifestyle.

Produa Design

Modem

1.

Theme color

The data

for each color

is

set

out on pp.
in sections

2.
3.

Name of color
Main color combinations and their image
patterns

22-151 and structured as shown 1-9 in the example above.

4. Typical color 5.

combination images
1.

Examples of three-shade color combinations (nine examples)

Theme color
One page
is

devoted to the data on each

of the 130 colors in this book.


6.

Color reference code (hue/tone)

-^ For a complete table of all colors used,


is

7. Fields in

which the theme color

most

see pp. 6-7.

widely used
8. Taste/lifest)4e
9.

checkpoint
use this color

2.

Color name

Hints on

how to

The code
at the top,

for the

hue and tone are given

with the

name of the color under-

neath.
^ See table

on pp. 6-7

^ For an explanation of the Hue and Tone System, see p. 8. Most of the names given are in evenday use, and can cover a

6.

is

Color reference code (hue/tone) Underneath each color a reference code given denoting hue and tone (see table on

range of shades.

pp. (y-7).

3.

Main color combinations and their imThe color image patterns


that can be

7.

Fields in

which the theme color is most


re-

age patterns
achieved with the theme color are arranged
in

widely used

We

used data obtained from market

search conducted in japan by our institute

order to be understood

at a glance.

For an explanation of this system, see pp. 8-13.

between 1985 and 1988. The items in the sur\'ey were: fashion (women's and men's
sweaters); interior design (curtains); prod-

The 180 image word data base


on pp. 14-17.
4.

is

found

uct design (automobiles, household electrical

goods); and visual media (mainly Japa-

nese printing ink sample books).

Typical color combination images

Many
ver\'

stars

mean

that the
field,

theme color

is

Image Word Data Base we have chosen the words that most accurately

From

the 180

often used in the

no

stars indicates

low frequency of use. The frequencv' of use

represent the special characteristics of the

indicated by

numbers of stars

is

shown

be-

theme color
used

(usually about nine words).

The
is

low. Please consult individual color tables


for examples.

frequency with which the theme color


in color

combinations to project a given image is shown by the number of stars () shown next to each adjective. There are
five levels

of frequenc)':

most often
ver>'

often

often
quite often

sometimes
image does not have
is

No

star: this

a high

rating in the data but

included for refer-

ence purposes.

5.

Examples of three-color combinations


Nine of the images with the highest rating

(nine examples)

have been selected from the color combination data base.

The numbers before

the im-

age words refer to the 180 Image

Word

Data

Base on pp. 14-17. For colors with a low frequency of use, we have made new color

combinations. The image words for these

combinations are given

in brackets.

The

colors used in this

book (Hue and Tone System)

tone

The 120 chromatic

colors

and 10 achromatic colors used

in this

book

are arranged

below by tone

(along the vertical axis) and hue (along the horizontal axis)

BG

PB

RP

Neutral

N9.5
P82
P94
P 106

PI 18

PI 30

P142
P83

P95

P107

PI 19

P131

N9
PI 43

P84

P96

PI08

PI 20

PI 32

P.

85

P97

PI 09

P121

PI 33

P86

P98

P87

Single Color

Image

Scale

Hue and Tone System


(for

the scale and have ven,' different images.

hue and tone

table, see pp.

6-7)

Conversely, colors that are close to each


other on the scale have similar images.

Colors can be divided into t^vo categories: chromatic, such as red, orange, or yellow,

Calm, gra\ish colors may be found


correspondingly clear-cut images
of all
the purple at the center;
cool, soft

in the

and achromatic, such


gradation of hues,

as white, gray, or

center of the scale, while clear colors with

black. If chromatic colors are arranged in a

R-YR-Y-GY-G-BG-Bis

may be found around the edges. The calmest color


is
it is

PB-P-RP-R,

a circle of colors (or hues)

neither

formed. Here, ten hues are used as a base, in accordance with the JIS Japanese Industrial
(

warm nor

nor hard.
of the scale
to-

Taking the zero

at the center

Standard).

as the starting point, as

you move out

Each hue
sober. In

may be bright or dull, showy or other words, each hue has a numis

ber of tones. The tone of a color

the result

of the interaction of two factors: brightness,


or value, and color saturation, or chroma. Single color images

ward the edges of the chart the images of the colors become stronger: 1 = fairly, 2 = very, 3 = extremely. For vivid tones, the image varies dramatically according to the hue. Conversely, dark gra\ish tones with low chroma, show little variation in the images associated with
different hues.

We have developed the Color Image Scale


meanings or images of each individual color, and to enable assessment and comparison of colors. In the Single Color Image Scale on the following page, 130 colors 120 chromatic colors and
in order to

make

clear the

Vivid tones
\'

\'ivid, bold, clear. Full

of life, attract

at-

tention. Sharp

and

lively.

Slightly duller

than vivid tones. Sturdy

ten achromatic colors) have been arranged

and
ing.

substantial,

convey a practical

feel-

according to their hue and tone (ten hues

and

t\velve tones).

.\11

the colors have been positioned along

Bright tones

three axes: warm-cool, soft-hard, cleargrayish. Colors of the

Bright and clear, like sparkling jewels


reflecting the light.

same tone

are arat

Convey images \vith

ranged
the
left

in

order of hue, starting from red


scale.

a sweet flavor.

of the

The

lines linking colors

P
\'p

Pale tones, create a dreamlike atmosphere. Prett\', sweet,

of the same tone show the range of images


that tone can convey.

and dreamy.

Light colors that convey a feeling of


softness

The achromatic

colors

form an

arc in the

and delicaq^

cool half of the scale, running along the soft-

hard axis, from white at the top through the various grays to black bottom (hard).

(soft)
at

Subdued tones
Lgr Simple, gentle, quiet colors.

the

Convey
Little

Gr

a mild and charming image. pigmentation, simple, quiet and

How
Scale

to look at the Single Color

Image
Dl

elegant.

Quiet and sophisticated, old-fashioned.

The

further the distance between colors

on the scale, the greater the differences between their respective images. So, for example, red, black, and white are far apart on

Dark tones

Dp Deep

tones, full-bodied, tasteful.


feeling.

Con-

vey a substantial

Single Color

Image Scale
soft

IMAGE SCALE PAT 1 106334 NIPPON cOLon a design research institute

NEUTRAL

IN

VALUE:

FAIRLY;

2:

VERY;

3:

EXTREMELY

hard

Dk

Dark, but with a subtle tinge of hue. Resonant colors, convey an atmosphere
ofstabilit)'.

refreshing, while black


vere.

is

heasy and

se-

The

grays range from light to dark

Dgr Close to black, severe, serious, Convey a feeling of precision.

austere.

and can readily be used to convey a calm feeling. As achromatic colors have no hue, they provide an effective foil to
chromatic colors.

The images of achromatic


A\\ of these

colors
is

have a cool image. White

Color Combination Image Scale


Color Combination Image Scale Until now, there has been no way to order
color combinations colorimetrically, but
if

bination's distinguishing characteristics are


easier to see,

and

their

images can be

differ-

entiated with greater precision.

we

use the

same co-ordinates that we use for

single colors to classify color combinations,

From colors to key words, from key words


to colors,

from the point of view of their psychological significance, then an infinite number of color combinations can be ordered on an image scale. Since three-color combinations can express subtle differences in image,
these are the basic units of this system.

how to grasp the image

This image scale was created with the aim


of presenting the differences between images
clearly in a visual form,

on the

basis of

research

on

colors.

As

far as possible,

our our

strategy has
tive

been to break down

in

an objec-

An overview of
binations

the images of color com-

and sensitive way the abstract areas of the meanings of objects, product images, and individual taste, and to transpose the
images of colors into words.

The Color Combination Image Scale on 1 1 shows the subtle differences that exist between different color combinations.
p.

How to

look

at the

Color Combination
far apart

Within the limits of the sample of combinations shown, an over\'iew of the images of color combinations can be obtained at a
glance.

Image Scale
Color combinations that are
have opposing images, those that are close
together have similar images. Color combi-

The word beneath each combination


it.

expresses the image associated with

nations on the periphery of the scale use

By consulting the Key VV^ord Image Scale and using this Color Combination Image Scale as a base, the different color combinations can be ordered according to whether

mainly clear colors


tions (see note
1 ),

in contrasting

combina-

while color combinations

with a calm image, using gradations of


grayish colors (see note 2), are concentrated
in the center

they are
grayish.

warm

or cool, soft or hard, clear or

of the

scale.

This scale should

be viewed

in

conjunction with the key word

Within this overall system, color combinations that resemble each other are grouped together into categories, such as
pretty or casual, so that each color

image scale on the following page. For concrete examples of each image,
please consult the index

on pp. 152-156.

com-

^
-> Objects/ People

10

Color Combination Image Scale

soft

IMAGE SCALE PAT. 1 106334 NIPPON COLOR & DESIGN RESEARCH INSTirUTE

0:

NEUTRAL

IN

VALUE:

FAIRLY;

2:

VERY;

3:

EXTREMELY

hard

Notes
1

A color of a contrasting tone is placed between two colors of the same tone in ora weak tone beder to separate them

For further details of the color combination technique, please consult

A Book of Colors (Kodansha International, Ltd.,


1987).

tween two strong tones or a strong tone between t\vo weak tones. 2 Subtle gradations of hue and tone.

//

KeyWord Image

Scale

Differences between key words, differences between images A common feeling runs through the images that people hold
of colors.

On

the basis of research linking adjectives associated

we have developed the Key Word Image Scale. Three axes have been used on the scale, as described on p. 8, in order to obtain an objective assessment uninfluenced by value judgments based on likes or dislikes, or by our current
with these images and colors,

environment.
scale

Broadly speaking, the key words in the warm-soft area of the have an intimate feeling, and convey a casual image, while

those in the warm-hard section have a dynamic character.

The

key words in the cool-soft section have a clear feeling and suggest a good sense of color, while those in the cool-hard section
conveys an image of reliability and formality. To make the scale easier to understand, key words that convey a similar image have been grouped together into broad categories. The names of these categories have been taken from

terms used

such as "elegant" or "romantic." image scale should not be taken as applying to just one point on the scale. The images they convey tend to have a ripple effect, spreading over a wide area, but the image gradually becomes weaker as it spreads. The words at the edge
in fashion, in this

The words

flamboyant

color

of the scale should, however, be taken

at face value.

warm

showy

vivid

Words and colors that are located at the same point along the warm-cool and soft-hard axes have the same image. It is the image that forms the link between the word and the color. These image words do not apply only to colors. In their
broadest sense they can be applied to shapes, patterns, materials,
interior design, fashion,

and poduct design

as a

way of order-

ing images

from

a psychological point of view.

Notes
1

Six

words

diftlcult to locate precisely


salty,

our data base have a broad application and are on the image scale: grand, intrepid, aqueous, pastoral, and dewy. Excluding these, 174
in
scale.

words are shown on the

12

soft

intimate

/gerieruub generous

^^^^

wnoi esurne

pc o^cmi

pleasant restful sweet-sourleminine ^\tranquil jghthearted healthy / cultured


i

pure and simple

^"^^''

endly
\

smooth
dry

delicate\
natural

^resh

domestic emotional simple and appealing

open

/"

mild / gentle and elegant

sleek pure and elegant y^^9


polished

elegant
,
, .

graceful

sedate ( noble ^,
i

cOOL-CASUAL
I

fashionable

smart

speedy
agile

ELEGANT
01
brilliant

subtle
'''I

^
quiet

Western
^^i^^^^

sporty

interesting

chic

urban

fascinating noble and elegant composed mysterious f^oclest ^/^ Japanese ubstantial glossy, / distinguished J^ iromaticalluring\^-7^-T\/simple, CHIC intellectual

progressive

qooI

GORGEOUS jy provincial
mature
|

quiet

sober
stylish"

modern

and elegant
,

cultivated precise

xtravagant

rustic

gorgeous ^gUQ^ tasteful xunous complex


I

exact
I

sharp

diligent

rational
,

decorative

subtle

and mysterious
I

masculine

^Id-fashioned

eminent quiet and sophisticated


bitter

sublime
earnest'
/

MODERN

aristocratic

precious proper
\

olacid

dapper

practical

sound

DANDY /
heavy and deep
sturdy
\^

formal
^
,

solemn,
I

majestic

FORMAL

dignified

strong and robust

hard

180 Image

Word Data Base


Words
in alphabetical order.

Notes 1 The 80 words appear


1

with a high selection rate as a liked


in the

image (ranked

top thirty words) are

These words are referred to

in the

Key Word

marked

with a low selection rate as a liked


in the

Image Scale on pp. 12-13.


3

Words
are

Among the

180 words, those that are liked/ disliked (according to the results of a survey

image (ranked

bottom

thirty

words)

marked

conducted between

987 and

988

27. colorfrd
1

abundant a
active
agile

28. 29.

2. 3.

complex A composed

30. conservative 31. crystalline 32. cultivated 33. cultured 34. cute

4.
5.

agreeable to the touch


alluring

6.
7.

amiable

8. 9.

amusing a aqueous A
aristocratic

D
35.

10.

aromatic

dapper

11. authoritative

A
B

36. dazzling 37. decorative 38. delicate 39. delicious

12. bitter
13.

40.

dewy A

bold

41. dignified

14. bright

42. diligent 43. distinguished 44. 45.

15. brilliant

domestic

dreamy
dry

16.

calm

46. 47. 48.

17. casual
18.

charming

dynamic dynamic and

active

19. cheerful

20. chic

49. earnest
50. elaborate 51. elegant 52.

21. childlike 22. citrus 23. classic


24. clean 25. clean

and

eminent
emotional

fresh

53.

26. clear

54. enjoyable

14

55. ethnic

85. intimate 86. intrepid

56. exact 57. extravagant

87. Japanese
58. fascinating 59. fashionable

60. feminine 61. festive 62. fiery 63.

88. light 89. lighthearted 90. hvely 91. luxurious

flamboyant

64. forceful 65. formal

M
92.
93. 94.

66. free
67.

fresh
and young

majestic

masculine

68. fresh

mature _

69. friendly

95.
96. 97.

mellow merry
metallic

70.

generous

98. 99.

mild

71. gentle
72. gentle 73. glossy 74.

modern
modest

and elegant

100.

101. mysterious

gorgeous

75. graceful 76.

102. natural 103. neat

grand

H
77.

104. noble 105. noble

happy

and elegant A

78. healthy

106. nostalgic

79.

heavy and deep


z^

80. hot

107. old-fashioned
108.
81.

open

innocent

82. intellectual 83. intense


84. interesting

109. pastoral 110. peaceful 15

111. placid
112. plain

142. simple

143. simple, quiet


144. sleek

and appealing and elegant a

113. pleasant

114. polished 115. practical


116. precious

145. smart 146.

smooth

147. sober 148. soft 149. 150.

117. precise 118. pretty

solemn a

119. progressive 120. proper a


121. provincial 122. provocative

sound

151. speedy
152. sporty 153. steady 154. striking

123. pure 124. pure 125. pure

and elegant

155. strong

and robust _

and simple

156. sturdy 157. stylish 158. sublime

126. quiet

159. substantial

127. quiet

and sophisticated

160. subtle 161. subtle

and mysterious a

R
128. rational 129. refined

162.

sunny

163. supple

164. sweet 165. sweet

130. refreshing 131. restful 132. rich 133. robust 134. romantic 135. rustic

and dreamy a

166. sweet-sour

136. salty

i.

137. sedate 138. serious

139. sharp 140.

showy A

141. simple

177.
174. vigorous

Wholesome

178. wild

175. vivid

W
176.

179.

young

Western

180. youthful

Taste and Lifestyle

A simple way to assess your taste


Choose
your
taste

Prefers the feeling of clear colors

words that correspond to from the Image Word Data Base


twent\'

Casual: Colorful, enjoys a free and easy


lifestyle.

Attracted by things with a


has recently

on pp. 14-17. Choose ten colors that correspond to your taste from the table on pp. 6-7. First, consult the Key word Image Scale on pp. 12-13 to check which areas of the scale your chosen words are located in. Then, check the special features of each color you have chosen in the section on that color. Finally, by checking the colors and words you dislike, you can assess the
boundaries of your
taste.

refreshing, invigorating feel.

cool-casual

lifest>'le

The related become

more widespread

in lapan.

Modem:
soft,

Cool and sharp. Invigorating.


(includes pretty):
Likes a

Romantic

dream-like atmosphere.
natural feeling.

Prefers the calm feeling of grax-ish colors

Natural: Likes a
Elegant:

light,

Calm and

delicate.

Chic: Intellectual and refined.


Classic (includes gorgeous): Feeling of
tradition, authenticity.

Thinking about lifestyle

Dandy: Hard and masculine.

become colorful, and tastes more varied. From the abundance of objects that surround them people select those which have meaning for them and
Contemporarylife

has

The data on each color indicates with which of these eight types of lifestyle that color fits best with. Such basic colors as
white, gray, black, or ivor\' can blend well

discard those that


interplay of

do not. So, through the word and color images in the image scales, we can detect a general pattern
in the differences

with any

lifestv'le.

between people's

sensi-

tivities.

From

the differences in individual

patterns.

We

can get a feeling for different


terms,

kinds of

lifestyles. So, in practical

when you can make

are creating a

new product you

use of the connections between

words, colors, and objects.


Lifestyles

eight basic types (see the

have been divided here into Key Word Image

Scale

on pp. 12-13).
17

Eight Taste and Lifestyle Types

Casual

In contrast with formal, casual


cheerful

is

and easygoing. It has an open, waward, happy image. This t)'pe prefers vivid, clear colors, and is mainly attracted by the vivid, strong, or bright tones. Contrasting color combinations using

many

different hues give a characteristic

sport)' effect.

Modem

The

feeling here

is

cool and urbane,

with a clear-cut, functional, sharp image.

Strong contrasts are favored. The neutral


colors that
sign,

we

see in fashion, interior de-

and of course product design are popular with this t)'pe. The key color is
black, with white providing a contrast.
\'ivid colors, giving

an accent, are used to

create a bold effect.

The

colors are clear.

Romantic

The

colors used here are soft, sweet,

and dreamy, with a touch of fantasy. The main color combinations are light pastel tones and white, giving a poetic, soft effect with a feeling of delicaq- and sweetness. Since the image is soft and charming, it tends to be popular with young girls. Colors with too strong a hue or too
sport>' a feel are

not suited to this t)pe; the

atmosphere

is

more one of

tenderness.

The
Natural

colors used are clear.


natural,

warm, simple appearance,

with a heartwarming image. Full of the


richness of natural materials.

The

feeling

opposed to the artificial feeling of modern. The impression are is one of serenit>\ The main colors shades of beige, ivor\% and yellow green. The basic color combinations are subde
here
is

diametrically

gradations of grayish colors.

18

Elegant

taste for subtlet)', a

nonchalant

styie,

beaut)' with a sense of balance

and charm.

The elegance one can

see in Japanese dress.

Refinement, tenderness, and calm

this

is

the image of elegant. Grayish colors are fa-

vored by
trasts

this type,

showy tones and con-

should be avoided. The color com-

binations used are subtle gradations.

Chic

This
egance.

t\'pe is

sober and calm, quiet and


el-

sophisticated, with an air of simple

The atmosphere

is

quiet

and pol-

ished, self-possessed, adult,

and

intelligent,

with a cooler image than that of the elegant


t^pe. Sober, grayish colors predominate.

Color combinations use subtle differences


of tones and grayish colors.

Classic

Elaborate, decorative, and formal, an

image of authenticit)'
classic t\pe.

is

at the heart

of the

The

colors used are hard


black,

grayish.

The use of brown,

green gives a feeling of tradition


ity-.

and and olive and quala feel-

By adding wine and gold colors


is

ing of gorgeousness
trasts

created.

The conis

used are moderate, and the feeling

one of calm.

Dandy

self-possessed tone, stability,

mascuis

linity,

and quiet

sophistication, this

the

basis of dandy.

Compared

to classic, this
feel.

t\pe

is

simpler and cooler in

The basic

colors are hard, such as brown, na\T blue,

or dark gray, used in combination with calm, gravish colors. This type appeals to a
verv adult and masculine
taste.

19

Taste and Lifestyle

distinguishing characteristics

RP22~33

^^^
YR i'34~45

Y P46~57

C
In the data presented below, chromatic

GY

f'

5 8-69

G P70~81

Color Image Scale


colors are placed
first

and are ordered by

^^^^^|

BG ^82-93

hue, starting with red. Within each hue

group they are ordered by tone: vivid bright - subdued -* dark. The neutral colors follow.

For an oveniew of the colors used, please


consult the table on pp. 6-7.

B P94~105

PB P106-117

P P118~129

RP P130~141
N
P142~151

21

R/V

R/S

Widely used

in...

R/P
Flamingo

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

Romantic

Product Design
\'isual

Media

Typical Color

/
^COOL-'dW^iu/i-

Combination Images
sweet

sweet-sour

sunny
pretty

sweet and dreamy

^mjSi
aOROEOUSr'

generous
cute

feminine
childlike
jovful

* * *
**

CL*tSi

Ik .!^eti^V

pleasant

PftT.

1186334

smooth, domestic

sweet

pretty

4
R/P
Y/Vp

YR/P

generous

R/L

R/P

Y/Vp

sweet -sour

R/Vp

R/Lgr
Pink Beige

Widely used

in...

R/L

R/Gr

R/Dl

R/Dp
Brick Red

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
Classic

Product Design
Visual

Media

7:r55 5irfTTi?rr:

Typical Color

PRE7TV

Combination Images
robust
luxurious

ri.

-^

u
CHIC

C00L-C?5^f.
::p^

rich

untamed, ethnic
extravagant,

mellow
active, wild

m
E
7-H/<

/
4.-

dynamic and
elaborate

mature, substantial
decorative, gorgeous

1^^"
: J-',D(3JiDS

hot

PAT. 1166334

NCD INST.

extravagant

mellow

ethnic

R/Dp
rich

Y/S

P/Dp

R/Dp
robust

Y/S

GY/Dk

N1.5

R/Dp

R/Dk

R/Dk
Mahogany

Widely used in...


Fashion
Interior Design

Lifestyle.
Classic

Product Design
\"isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
traditional

substantial

\cooL-cmufl

elaborate

old-fashioned--

hea\y and deep


ethnic
fruitful

VrSpopeftM
I

mellow, mature,
strong and robust

rich,

untamed, sturdy

PftT.

1106334

NCD INST.

fruitful
^Ji;^

ethnic

elaborate

R/Dk

R/DI

YR/L

mellow

R/Dk

R/DI

P/Dp

hea\T and deep

R/Dgr
Maroon

Widely used

in...

YR/V

YR/S
Persimmon

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...
(Casual

Product Design
X'isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
rich

delicious

abundant


active

dynamic and
aromatic

luxurious, bright, fascinating, untamed,


eniovable, substantial

PAT.1106334

HC INST.

^
aromatic

YR

YR/B
Apricot

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Casual

Product Design
\'isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
friendly

lighthearted
delicious

merr\'



young

healthy

open amusing
bright, tropical, cute, lively, casual,

dehcious

YR/P
Sunset

Widely used

in...

YR

YRA^p

YR/Lgr

YR

YR/L
Beige

Widely used

in...

YR/Gr
Rose Beige

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Product Design
Visual

Media

Chic
Elegant

Dandy
Classic

-.,

.^'-'ii-ertP

Typical Color

Combination Images
placid
chic,

modest

-cwSwri^

provincial, simple, quiet

and elegant

aqueous
subde and mysterious, calm

gende and
sober, dry

elegant, mild

tasteful, classic

diligent, precious

J -.reitJDv

PftT.

1186334

calm

modest

aqueous

YR/Gr

Y/Lgr

Y/Gr

provincial

Y/L
placid

Y/DI

YR/Gr

Y/Dk

YR/Gr

R/Dgr

YR/DI

YR/Dp

YR/Dk
Coffee Brown

Widely used

in...

YR/Dgr
Falcon

Widely used

in...

Y/V
Yellow

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

Casual

Product Design
Visual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
flamboyant, \ivid
dazzling

show)% dynamic
bold, intense
lively, sport)'
fier)'

d\Tiamic and active


striking, forceful

enjoyable, merr\'
colorful, tropical

provocative,

amusing

NCD INST.

citrus,

hot

vivid

flamboyant

sportv'

^^^H
RP/V
YR/V

p/v

Y/V

RP/V

YR/V

P/V

Y/V

bold

dynamic

Y/V

R/V

N1.5

RP/V

Y/V

N1.5

Widely used

in...

Y/B
Camellia Yellow

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Casual

Product Design
Visual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
casual

youthful,

young

cheerful, pretty
friendly, enjoyable

bold, shovs^

open, childlike

happy, dazzling
sweet-sour, citrus
vivid

cheerful

Y/P
Sulphur

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
Casual

Romantic
Natural

Product Design
Visual Media

_JJM.+nfty^'l'l'i^^. ^^?^,

\/'"'^'
\

Typical Color

Combination Images
KjaTIIDAJ
"

cute, childlike
citrus

young, cheerful

merry
youthful,

**
*

open

healthy, free
lighthearted,
active, casual

happy

pretty, sweet-sour

enjoyable,

sunny

PAT. 1186334

NCD INST.

cheerful

heahhy

YR/P
cute

R/B

Y/P

YR/B
childlike

RP/B

Y/P

G/P

merry

Y/P

Y/Vp
Ivon-

Widely used

in...

Y/Lgr
Light Olive Gray

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Product Design
\'isual

Natural
Elegant

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
tranquil

intimate

dry
restful

natural, plain

simple and appealing, pleasant


generous, friendly
gentle

and elegant

calm, peaceful
gentle, pastoral

amiable, aromatic
PAT. 1186334
salt)'

restful

plain

tranquil

YR/P
intimate

YR/Vp

Y/Lgr

Y/Lgr
natural

GY/Vp

GY/Lgr

Y/Lgr

G/Vp

G/Lgr

simple and appealing

YR/L
pleasant

Y/Lgr

Y/L
Mustard

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
Natural

Product Design
Visual

Media

_*^tH4mtr-^^,

Typical Color

Combination Images
natural

wholesome
calm
provincial

intimate

simple and appealing


restful

*** ** ** **
*

interesting

pastoral

dry
salty

K.DfitlPV

PAT. 11Q6334

mtimate

wholesome

simple and appealing

Y/L
restful

YR/L

Y/Lgr

YR/L

calm

YR/S
pastoral

Y/Lgr

Y/L

Y/Gr
Sand Beige

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

Chic

Dandy
Hlegant

Product Design
N'isual

Media

^A^m^^tti^^^^

.^-'-'H.e.nF

Typical Color

Combination Images
conservative,
dr\',

sound

Japanese

sober, dapper
nostalgic, subtle

and mysterious

calm, simple, quiet and elegant


quiet and sophisticated, provincial
practical,

simple and appealing

modest, authoritative
aot-effi)

diligent, bitter

ETMC
PftT.

118633'

NOD IMST,

:alm

Y/Dl

Y/Dp
Khaki

Widely used
lashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
C^lassic

Dandy
Natural

Product Design
X'isual

Media

Typical Color
PRE^-Vv

Combination Images
bitter

rustic

A--*-

eucb*^

extravagant
.y-*-\.

elaborate--

ethnic
pastoral

decorative-

wild

hot

PrtT.

1166334

NOD IHST.

extravagant

decorative

Y/Dk
Olive

Widely used

in...

Y/Dgr
Olive

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Brown

Dandy
Classic

ssssiia

Product Design
Visual

Media

_^A<*t^>fnir^~

'\r -''H;^!^

Typical Color

Combination Images
rustic

dapper
cwiiirl
f

strong and robusttasteful-

serious
bitter

old fashioned-

DVN6M.H:

r
roRJ>AL

quiet and sophisticated, heavy and deep,


placid, progressive, rich, sturdy

PAT. 118633.4

tasteful

GY/V
Yellow Green

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Casual

Product Design
Visual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
healthy

open
festive

flamboyant
striking

clean

and fresh

amusing
fresh, enjoyable, steady, intense,
'

* *
fier\',

tropi-

cal

PAT. 1196334

NCD INST.

enjoyable

healthy

fresh

YR/V
festive

Y/V

GY/V

Y/V

N9.5

GY/V

GY/V

N9.5

G/Vp

open

clean and fresh

R/V

N9.5

GY/V

Y/V

Y/Vp

GY/V

GY/V
striking

N9.5

PB/B

flamboyant

amusing

!
YR/V
GY/V

RP/V

RP/B

P/V

GY/V

RP/V

N1.5

GY/V

It

is

perhaps a reflection of the Japanese

the eye

is

drawn
It is

to the beautiful yellow green of

fondness for
in

new

things that the

word "green"

new

shoots.

the freshness of this color that

Japanese used to refer to yellow green, the


the ultimate symbol of newTiess, a
living things begin to stir

people find appealing.

color of spring.

When combined
festive,

uith red, yellow green


its

is

Spring

is

while yellow brings out

healthy,

open

time

when many

and

quality.

58

GY/S

PrtT.

1186334

sweet-sour

GY

GY/P
l.cttuce (>reen

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Natural

Casual

Product Design
X'isual

Media

r55HWTTrFKCTT

Typical Color

Combination Images
free

sweet-sour
citrus

fresh
P

healthy

youthful
tranquil

lighthearted
fresh

and young

amusing

PrtT.

1186334

MCD INST,

sweet -sour

tranquil

fresh

Y/Vp
free

R/P

GY/P

GY/P

Y/Vp

G/Lgr

GY/P
fresh

BG/B

B/Vp

and young

YR/L
healthy

Y/Vp

GY/P

GY/P

Y/V

Y/Vp

GY/P
youthful

N9

BG/B

lighthearted

YR/P

YR/Vp

GY/P

YR/B

GY/P

Y/Vp

PB/B

GY/P

B/B

Lettuce green creates a cool, soft atmosphere,


free,

haiku entitled Salad Annivcruiry:


Its

fresh,

and young. Nowadays

in

Japan,

youthful, fresh quality can be enhanced


it

young people often


ditional
shift in

eat salad instead of the tra-

by combining

with cool shades or white,

miso soup, and this shade evokes that cultural values, echoing the fresh, sweetof the collection of

while using lemon yellow as an accent gives a

more
is

lively

impression. With orange, the effect

sour

feel

modern Japanese

lighthearted

and

healthy.

61

GY

GY/Vp

GY

GY/Lgr
Mist Circen

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Natural
Hlegant

Product Design
Visual

Media

Typical Color
PR.E.rT'v

"\._^_

/'

Combination Images
plain

N.

natural
tranquil

**

COOL-CTOUri.

wholesome
pastoral
restful

* ** *
**
* * *

?<:hic

/
soft

interesting

domestic
Dvheiii

gentle
VoRjirtL
?'

^'.DijtiDV

PrtT.

1166334

soft

tranquil

plain

R/Lgr
restful

N9

GY/Lgr

YR/Vp

GY/Lgr

N7

GY/Lgr
natural

wholesome

YR/Vp

YR/P

GY/Lgr

YR/L
pastoral

Y/Vp

GY/Lgr

domestic

GY/DI
Leaf Green

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in.

Lifestyle.
Classic

Chic

Product Design
\'isual

Dandy

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
Japanese

mature, ethnic, diligent, simple, quiet and


elegant, pastoral, rustic, uild

PAT. 1186334

NCD INST,

pastoral

simple, quiet

and elegant

Japanese

GY/Dp
Olive Cireen

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

LifestyleClassic

Product Design
\'isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
untamed
grand
hea\y and deep, mature,

rich,

abundant

PftT.

1186334

NCD INST.

pastoral

(natural)

Y/S
rich

R/S

GY/Dp

YR/Dp

Y/L

GY/Dp

GY/Vp

GY/L

GY/Dp

;omplex)

grand

R/Dp

Y/S

GY/Dp

RP/S

PB/Dp

GY/Dp

G/L

GY/Dp

B/Dp

(elaborate)

untamed

heavy and deep

P/Dp

GY/Dp

Nl

YR/Dgr GY/Dp

N2

GY/Dp

N7

Nl

Of

the dark shades, deep tones have the

low, while with black or cot)! colors

it

becomes

highest color saturation

quite a shov>y effect.

and can therefore give When making color comthe showiness of the deep

hea\y and deep and conveys a more masculine


impression.

binations with this shade, vivid tones should he

avoided

in

order to
in

let

Note:

tone emerge

an unforced way.
red or yel-

are not part of the test data

The color combinations in brackets and have been in-

Olive green gives a mature, rich, luxurious


effect

when used with deep tones of

cluded for reference purposes only. Please use them t) develop ideas for color combinations.

67

GY/Dk

GY/Dgr
Seaweed

Widely used

in...

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

LifestyleCasual

Modern

Product Design
N'isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
flamboyant
vi\id

**

*
*

steady

lively,
ic,

vigorous, showy, provocative, d\Tiam-

active

vigorous

vivid

R/V
livelv

Y/V

G/V

RP/V

G/V

Y/V

flambovant

R/V

PB/V

G/V

provocative

RP/V

P/Dp

G/V

G/S
Malachite Green

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...
(Casual

Product Design
\'isual

Media

ITESHWTf^^
'

'ei^ftF

Typical Color

Combination Images
r-{

"NAtURAsteady

fresh, clean,

young, flamboyant

E iMt*

CL-^S;
i^^ttes

PAT. 116633-

NCD INST,

(vouthtul

fresh

clean and fresh

b
GY/V
RP/V

Y/P

G/S

G/S

Y/Vp

G/P

G/S
relaxed

N9

BG/P

flamboyant

young

Y/V

G/S

G/S

Y/P

PB/S

GY/Lgr
steady

G/S

G/Dk

(dynamic)

(tropical)

Y/V

G/S

Nl

RP/S

Nl

G/S

PB/Dk

feeling of mountains
its

Although colors of a green hue have a strong and fields, this shade takes
Japanese

ness.

When combined

with

warm

colors

it

cre-

ates a flamboyant effect, while with C(k>1 colors


it

name from

the verdigris

t)f

cop|X*r

has a steady, clean, fresh feeling.

rooves, probably because lapanese pvople associate


it

with the rtxnes of shrines where

the>'

go

Note:

The

color combinations

brackets
in-

to worship.

arc not part of the test data


is

and have been

Malachite green

a dull color, but

it

has a

cool quality that gives an impression ot fresh-

cluded for reference purpt>ses only. Please use them as further ideas for color combinations.

G/B

G/P
Opaline Green

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Natural

Casual

Product Design
Visual Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
steady
refreshing

**
*
fresh,

cute

pure and simple,


open, free

young, progressive,

PftT.

1186334

NCD INST.

tree

G/Vp
Pale Opal

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Natural

Romantic

Product Design
\'isual

Casual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
innocent
clear

supple
neat
c

fresh

and young-

citrus

fresh, quiet, progressive,

charming,

delicate,

tranquil

PftT.

1196334

charming

neat

fresh

and young

R/Vp
supple

N9.5

G/Vp

G/Vp
citrus

N9.5

BG/Vp

N9.5
clear

G/Vp

BG/P

i
N9.5

RP/Vp

N8

G/Vp

Y/P
fresh

G/L

G/Vp

G/Vp
quiet

B/P

innocent

RP/P

G/Vp

R/Vp

GY/V

N9.5

G/Vp

G/Vp

B/Lgr

BG/Gr

This

is

a clear color

crystalline, refreshing,

is

to

combine pale opal with


it

cool, soft, colors or

and pure. However, as it is green in hue, it also has a cool qualit)', and this together with its ver>'
pale tone gives
ing.
it

with white. Alternatively, with warm,


supple,
soft,

can be combined
also easy to

shades to create an innocent,


It is

an innocent, supple, neat

feel-

charming impression.

convey a quiet, fresh

feeling with this shade.

One effective way of bringing out this image

74

G/Lgr
Ash
Ciray

Widely used

in...

G/L

G/Gr
Mist (ireen

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in.

Lifestyle...
c:hic

Product Design
N'isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
quiet-

grand-

st>lish,

urbane, fashionable, sober, peaceful,

interesting,

smart

PAT. 1196334

HCD IHST.

peaceful

G/Dl
Jade Green

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
Classic

**

Product Design
Visual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
complex
interesting,

abundant

PAT. 1196334

abundant

(natural)

(intellectual)

YR/S
(adult)

R/S

G/DI

GY/Gr

Y/L

G/DI

G/DI
(quiet)

N9.5

(tranquil)

RP/Lgr

LB
G/DI

RP/Dgr

Y/Dk

N9

G/DI

complex

interesting

RP/S

R/Dk

G/DI

Y/L

G/DI

Widely used
N'iridian

in...

Lifestyle.
(Casual

Fashion
Interior Design

Product Design
N'isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
ethnic, tropical, wild

PAT. 1186334

NCD INST.

tropical

G/Dk

G/Dgr
ungle Cireen

Widely used

in...

BG/V
Peacock Green

Widely used

in...

BG/S
Jewel

Widely used
Fashion
interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
(Casual

Green

Modern

Product Design
V^isual

Media

^tu**^

mrf^rz:

Typical Color

Combination Images
agile, sharp, sporty,

provocative, tropical, ac-

tive

"^-^rik^^lt
PAT. 1166334

NCD INST.

sporty

active

agile

R/V
tropical

N9.5

BG/S

RP/V

YR/B

BG/S

provocative

BG/B
Turquoise

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Casual

Modern

Produa Design
Visual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
young
tropical

clean

and

fresh

refreshing
colorfril

progressive
pretty, childlike

youthfril, enjoyable

fresh

and young, speedy

Western

PAT. 1196334

NCD INST,

pretty

BG/P
Light

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
(Casual

Aqua Green

Natural

Product Design
X'isual

Media

.^-fc^'ffn-H--

.,'"^<.-e'='f:

Typical Color

Combination Images
dean
neat
clean and fresh

*
* *

COOL -CWSUr*.

Western
fresh

and young

healthy

pure
cultivated

crystalline,

refreshing,

pure

and

simple,

fresh, clear, agile

PAT. 1186334

NCD INST.

healthy

pure

Y/P

Y/Vp

BG/P

clean and fresh

G/S

N9.5

BG/P

Western

R/Vp

P/DI

BG/P

BG/Vp
Horizon Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in.

Lifestyle...

Casual
Natural

Product Design
Visual

Media

_&^>t4rmTr^

Typical Color

Combination Images
neat

pure
soft

crystalline

supple

dreamy
gentle

steady
clean

pure and elegant-

PftT.

1106334

NCD INST,

supple

R/Vp
soft

N9

BG

BG/Lgr

BG/L
Venice Green

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
Natural

Casual

Product Design
Visual

Media

.,_i*<+=(rrrTC-

Typical Color

Combination Images
cultivated-

fresh,

young,

dewy,

casual,

mysterious,

amusing. Western, steady

PftT,

1106334

NCD INST.

casual

fresh

fresh

and young

i
R/L

Y/P

BG/L

GY/Lgr

N9.5

BG/L

N9.5

BG/Vp

BG/L

amusing

dewy

steady

RP/B

Y/B

BG/L

BG/Vp

BG/L

B/DI

B/Vp

BG/L

PB/DI

mysterious

cultivated

Western

RP/S

BG/L

P/V

BG/L

YR/Vp

PB/DI

BG/L

N9.5

PB/DI

Venice green has a watery quality that has a


special significance for the Japanese. In Japan
is
it

casual

feel. It

can, however, also convey a re-

fined, distinguished, intelligent

atmosphere.
a calm

said that water

also

symbol of culture, but it is associated with youth and freshness. This


is

Although

this

shade lacks the brilliance of


its

the bright tones,


quality'. It also

light

tone gives

it

dual character

is

apparent in the images that


steady

contains

more yellow tint than its


feel.

can be conveyed by this shade.

counterpart in the blue color group (B/L), and


effect
is
it

With white or dark blue, the and Western, while with warm

this gives

it

a slightly warm

colors

has a

BG/Gr
Blue Spruce

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in.

Lifestyle.
Chic-

Elegant

Product Design
\'isual

Media

A^mrfiF^

Typical Color

Combination Images
distinguished

noble

aqueous

dewy

quiet, chic, sober, intellectual, urbane, fash-

ionable

FORJl<ftL

^"^^^-fe.^^
PT. 1166334

NCD INST.

quiet

^H

dewy

BG/DI
Cambridge Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
Classic

Modern

Product Design
\'isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
decorative

complex
modern, smart,
exact, elaborate, mysterious

PAT. 1106334

NCD INST,

(ethnic)

exact

BG/Dp
Prussian CJrecn

Widely used

in...

BG/Dk
Teal Green

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

Dandy
Classic

Product Design
\'isual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
ethnic
intrepid

untamed, elaborate,
jestic, metallic,

conser\'ative, exact,

ma-

diligent

ethnic

BG/Dgr
Duskv Cireen

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in.
n

Lifestyle.

Dandy
Classic

Product Design
Visual

Media

ST^ifrfTF^

Typical Color

Combination Images
classic

lcOOL-'c??S\Jn.

masculine, serious, sturdy, hea\y and deep,


placid

^
rvHefLHC

nf
NCD INST.

ET-MlUC
PrtT. 119633.*

(calm)
j

(magnificent

masculine

YR/Lgr
classic

Y/Gr

BG/Dgr

BG/Gr
sturdy

BG/Dl

BG/Dgr

BG/Dgr B/Vp
placid

PB/DI

R/Dgr

YR/Gr

BG/Dgr

P/Dgr

Y/Gr

BG/Dgr

(untamed)

hea\y and deep

BA^

B/S
Light Blue

Widely used

in...

B/B
Sky Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Casual

Modern

Product Design
Visual Media

IS^WTfrFr
PRE7'fv

Typical Color

'V

Combination Images
enjoyable
agile

**

open

H
H-JI?

refreshing-

fresh,
clear,

**

youthfulspeedy
striking

k -ir
-k

crystalline,

healthy,

modem,

sharp

NCD INST

open

YR/V

Y/Vp

B/B

enjoyable

B/P
Aqua Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

(Casual

Romantic

Product Design
X'isual

Media

W
doRGEOUy

^&<^sm-^

Typical Color

,/
CO<^-^^^f^ .

Combination Images
clean

cute
clear

* *
fresh

childlike
crystalline

peaceful

smart
simple
clean

and

PAT. 1106334

peaceful

dear

crystalline

YR/P
cute

Y/Vp

B/P

G/Vp
simple

N9.5

B/P

B/Vp
clean

N9.5

B/P

R/P
childlike

Y/P

B/P

B/Gr
clean

N9.5

B/P

PB/P
smart

N9.5

B/P

and

fresh

R/B

Y/Vp

B/P

BG/B

N9.5

B/P

PB/B

B/P

Aqua

blue possesses qualities that

reflect a

and

childlike qualiry.

It

can also create a sense of


this serene, clear color

clean, clear, cr\'stalline,

When

it

is

and refreshing image. combined with cool tones, with

coolness and casualness.

As the properties of
is

white used as a separating color, a naturally

are in direct contrast to those of the dull colors,


it

simple appearance can be conveyed. With the


clear tones

difficult to

mix them, and they are

rarely

of

warm

colors,

it

takes

on

a cute

seen together.

97

Widely used
Pale Blue

in...

PftT.

1106334

charming

romantic

RP/P

RP/Vp

B/Vp

dreamy

RP/P

B/Vp

Y/Vp

pure and simple

B/Lgr
Powder Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

C:hic

Modern

Product Design
Visual Media

^Um Wl-hi--^.

.^'''W^=.R

Typical Color

Combination Images

^'i

dewy
pure and simple
quiet-

polishedsalty

eminent-

urbane,

sharp,

rational,

delicate,

gentle,

grand

PftT.

1186334

NCD INST.

delicate

salty

pure and simple

YR/Vp
polished

P/Lgr

B/Lgr

Y/L
quiet

N9.5

B/Lgr

F
B/Lgr

PB/Vp

B/L

dewy

P/Gr

N9.5

B/Lgr

eminent

P/Dp

B/Lgr

PB/Dgr

B/L
Aquamarine

Widely used

in...

B/Gr

B/Dl
Shadow Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Dandy Modern
Chic

Product Design
Visual Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
exact
practical

precise
rational

composed

** * * *

masculine, urbane, modern, sober, sublime,


distinguished

Pfl 1.1186334

sober

urbane

rational

PB/P
exact

PB/Gr

B/DI

N5

N9.5

B/DI

B/DI

N9

PB/Dp

composed

modern

N4

BG/Gr

B/DI

N8

B/DI

N1.5

B/DI

N9.5

N2

practical

masculine

precise

Y/Gr

B/DI

GY/Dgr N6

B/DI

B/DI

PB/Lgr

PB/Dk

Shadow blue has


as
it

a subdued, dull tone,

and
ef-

character,

it

conveys images that are precise and


used as a separating color in
is

contains a

lot

of gray, the attractive tone


it

composed.

fects

produced when

is

combined with
it

light

When

white

is

gray,

medium

gray, or dark gray give

a fash-

combinations, the impression created


ern and reserved.

mod-

ionable appearance. Moderate and sober in

102

B/Dp

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in.

Lifestyle...

Dandy Modern

Product Design
\'isual

Media

__-&<> TT-rt~_^

Typical Color

Combination Images
/ NflTURftintellectual

CASUAL
COOL-C??^i=I

dapper
masculine

urbane

~^^ *

rational

earnest

* * *
com-

conservative, dignified, exact, sport)',

r^'i
^i-:

posed, metallic

.D/jJiBV

PftT.

1196334

sporty

urbane

masculine

Y/V

N9.5

B/Dk

PB/Gr
rational

PB/Lgr

B/Dk

B/Dk
earnest

N8

PB/S

intellectual

B/Dk

N8

BG/Gr

PB/DI

PB/Lgr

B/Dk

N5

N9

B/Dk

conservative

dignified

dapper

YR/Dk

Y/DI

B/Dk

R/Dgr

B/Dk

Teal

is

darker and deeper in tone than peathis gives


it

be conveyed when a

soft gray or a light

tone

is

cock blue, and


tellectual

more

severe
its

and
in-

used as a separating color in combinations.

masculine character as well as enhances

and dapper qualities. The impression conveyed is cool and dark. However, an urbane and rational image can

With brown, teal takes on a calm qualit)-; when showy colors, such as yeUow, are used as an accent, yet other

images emerge.

104

B/Dgr
Prussian Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Dandy Modern
Classic

Product Design
Visual

Media

Zizs^m

Typical Color

Combination Images
dapperrobust-

solemn, hea\y and deep, progressive, practip


cal,

sublime, precise, strong and robust

i>vheiii

PftT.

1106334

practica

PB/V
Ultramarine

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Casual

Modem

Product Design
Visual

Media

-&'& stNTT?-

Typical Color

Combination Images
lively

speedy
agile

vigorous
striking

progressive
clean and fresh

young,

sport)', sharp, active, vivid, intense

CL'^SSJC^^
PAT. 1186334

lively

PB/S
Sapphire

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Modern
Casual

Product Design
Visual Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
young
refreshing
intellectual

**
* * *

masculine

youthful, urbane, rational, pure, neat,


steady

PAT. 1186334

youthful

neat

pure

Y/P

N9.5

PB/S

N9.5

BG/Vp

PB/S

PB/S

N9.5

B/Vp

young

urbane

refreshing

Y/P
Steady

BG/P

PB/S

PB/L

PB/Vp

PB/S

PB/S

N9.5

B/B

masculine

intellectual

G/P

Y/Vp

PB/S

PB/Lg,

PB/S

N1.5

N1.5

N9.6

PB/S

The

color sapphire dates back to the time of

the silk road. Even


that era.

now
full

it

reminds people of

conveys a cent to interiors or in exterior signs. It youthful impression, has a neat, steady, rational
appearance, and suits lapanese skin color when used for business clothing. This is one of the
basic colors of everyday
life.

The image
idealistic

created by this cultivated

shade

is

and
is

of hope for the future.


to give

As

it

has intellectual, masculine, and intelligent

qualities, sapphire

used in

retail

an ac-

707

PB/B

PB/P
Sky Mist

Widely used

in...

PB

PB/Vp
Pale Mist

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in.

Lifestyle.

Romantic
Elegant

Product Design
Visual

Chic

Media

^^^_ WfTTTTc^^.^^

.,,'^-cAR
I

Typical Color

Combination Images
light

romantic
emotional
pure and simple

dreamy composed
polished
sedate

pure

PAT. 1166334

NCD INST,

emotional

light

pure

RP/Lgr

PB/Vp

romantic

PB/Lgr
Moonstone Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...
("hie

Kiegant

Product Design
Visual

Romantic

Media

.^-'''Hpertf?

Typical Color

Combination Images
subtle
delicate

fashionable
quiet

urbane, polished
precise, exact

noble and elegant, eminent


cultured, sedate
devv7,

aqueous

.E>miic_
CL>f<s;

jc

.DtjWDV

PAT. 1166334

NCD INST.

delicate

fashionable

polished

PB/Lgr
subtle

P/Lgr

N9

G/Vp

PB/Lgr

N6

PB/Lgr
quiet

N9

B/Lgr

urbane

P/Vp

RP/Lgr

PB/Lgr

PB/Gr
exact

N8

PB/Lgr

N9
precise

PB/Lgr

N6

noble and elegant

RP/G^ PB/Lgr

N2

N4

PB/Lgr

PB/DI

B/L

PB/Lgr

B/Dgr

Japanese people devote


ing

many

years to learn-

posed

feeling.

It is

a cool color,

and when used


is

how
and

to present images that arc subtle, deliexact.

in place

of

light

gray the effect of noble eleaccentuated.

cate,

gance, sedateness, and precision


a quiet

Moonstone blue conveys

and com-

It

has a neat quality that

is ver>'

appealing.

Ill

PB/L

PB/Gr
Slate Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Chic
Hlegant

Product Design
Visual

Media

Modern

_iiK>ft

Wf-}^-^.

-'Si^rtF

Typical Color

Combination Images
refined

chic

urbane
majestic

polished

aqueous
graceful, sleek

sober, aristocratic
precise, subtle

eminent, noble
E y-HH
I

c
,DtJtiDS ^"^ikj

PAT. 1106334

NOD INST.

refined

graceful

aqueous

RP/Lgr
chic

N7

PB/Gr

P/Lgr

P/L

PB/Gr

PB/Gr
sober

PB/P

N8

polished

YR/Gr
majestic

N8

PB/Gr

PB/Vp

P/Lgr

PB/Gr

P/Gr
precise

N8

PB/Gr

urbane

P/Dk

PB/Gr

N2

B/Lgr

PB/Gr

N4

PB/Gr

N8

PB/Dk

If

you wish

to create an elegant
is

impression, this

good shade

to use.

and graceful Remi-

has a polished, subtle


majestic, chic effect.

feel

and can produce

With

gray, cool or grayish

niscent of a Japanese landscape in the mist,

tones, slate blue projects a refined qualiry.

when used

in

combination with similar tones

it

113

PB/DI

PB/Dp

PB/Dk

PB/Dgr
Midnight Blue

Widely used

in...

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

Casual

Modern
Classic

Product Design
Visual

Media

__*W WT-lt^--..
PRE^rv
''\

Typical Color

Combination Images
NA
fascinating

CASUAU

provocative

showy
glossy

mysterious
decorative

** *** ** ** **
* * *
gorgeous intense,

amusing
dazzling

brilliant, colorful,
tropical,
^,D5U.DS

noble and elegant

PAT. 1106334

NCD INST,

dazzling

Widely used

in...

P/B
Lavender

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Casual

Elegant

Product Design
Visual

Media

^^Ai^frmx'-..^

Typical Color

Combination Images
'~"

'3

''

glossy

V
refined, sleek, brilliant, colorful, alluring,

modern, pure and

elegant,

amusing

PAT. 1196334

NCD INST,

colorful

refined

pure and elegant

Y/B

R/B

P/B
brilliant

N8

PB/P

amusing

R/B
glossy

GY/P

P/B

P/B
alluring

P/P

P/S

P/B

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.
Elegant

Romantic

Product Design
X'isual

Media

ZISZ^^fxTvF^

.^'''H^i^R

Typical Color

Combination Images
pure and elegant
feminine

emotional

pure and simple


sweet and dreamy
brilliant

tender
sleek

fascinating
v'N^fLK:

PftT. Iie633.<

tender

sweet and dreamv

pure and simple

RP/P
R/Vp

P/P

R/P

RP/Vp

P/P

P/P

N9

PB/Lgr

feminine

emotional

pure and elegant

M
RP/L
P/P
P/Vp

RP/Vp
brilliant

P/P

P/Gr

B/Vp
sleek

P/P

PB/L

fascinating

P/P

RP/B

P/DI

P/B

P/P

P/S

P/P

PB/Gr

P/Lgr

No

other shade convev's an image of purirv'


successfully than
lilac.

qualities

and

is

often used in fashion.

and elegance more


this reason,
it

For

To

create images that are emotional, pure,

is

often used for Japanese clothes,


feel

simple, sweet, dreamy, and tender, this shade

and

its

feminine
live a

appeals

to

Japanese
life

women who
city. Lilac

simple and quiet

in the

should be combined with very pale tones. Alternatively, mixing it with red-purple or purple
shades gives a fascinating and
brilliant eft'ect.

possesses sweet, dreamy,

and tender

121

P/Vp

P/Lgr
Starlight Blue

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle... Elegant

Chic

Product Design
\'isual

Media

_ju>Hi(Tn t^--,

Typical Color

Combination Images
subtle

CASUAL

cultured
elegant
iCO||->7?^|ft
I

sedate

>

<'

noble
chic
gentle

and elegant

oEouar'

feminine, graceful

calm, noble and elegant


interesting

PAT. 1166334

NCD INST.

gentle

and elegant

sedate

delicate

R/Lgr
elegant

RP/Vp

P/Lgr

P/Lgr

RP/Lgr

PB/Lgr

P/Vp

P/Lgr

PB/Lgr

cultured

noble

RP/Vp
graceful

P/Lgr

RP/Gr

RP/Lgr
subtle

P/Gr

P/Lgr F

P/Lgr
chic

P/Lgr

P/L

PB/Gr

N8

P/Lgr

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in....

Lifestyle...

Elegant

Product Design
Visual

Media

*>w ^rrwt-^.

-~,

.,''<=^=CftP

Typical Color

Combination Images
graceful

elegant
brilliant

tender
fashionable
interesting

feminine

emotional, pure and simple, refined,


pleasant, glossy, fascinating

^ J--^,D5tlB Y

PAT. 1186334

NCD INST.

feminine

emotional

RP/P
tender

YR/Vp

P/L

RP/L
brilliant

P/Vp

P/L

P/Gr
Pigeon

Widely used

in...

P/Dl
Dusty
Lilac

Widely used

in...

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...
Classic

Product Design
Visual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
gorgeous
precious

luxurious

mellou
alluring

extravagant

eminent
brilliant

fascinating

decorative

PAT. 1166334

NCD INST.

colorful

brilliant

RP/V

Y/V

P/Dp

luxurious

R/Dp

Y/S

P/Dp

gorgeous

P/Dp
Prune

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in.

lifestyle.
Classic

Product Design
Visual

Media

_&<+ mTTt!---^^

Typical Color

Combination Images
majestic

mellow
classic

traditional

elaborate
tasteful

sublime

modest
decorative

extravagant

complex
PftT.

1106334

NCD INST.

mellow

tasteful

modest

P/Dgr
)usky X'iolet

Widely used

in...

RP/V
Magenta

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

Casual

Product Design
Visual Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
provocative
tropical

showy, vivid
colorful,
fiery,

**
* **
*

flamboyant

dazzling

intense,

dynamic

fascinating, glossy

striking

bold, brilliant

mysterious

PAT. 1186334

NCD INST,

dazzling

vivid

flamboyant

RP/V
tropical

N9.5

Y/V

RP/V

G/V

Y/V

RP/V
colorful

Y/V

B/V

showy

RP/V

YR/B

BG/S

Y/S

RP/V

P/Dp

dynamic

provocative

RP/V

Y/V

N1.5

GY/V

RP/V

N1.5

P/V

RP/V

BG/S

This shade
ca, as
it

is

popular

in

Europe and Ameri-

black or blue a dynamic and tropical image

is

looks good on white skin.

Men find ma-

achieved. This kind of shade has a fiery glow,


that
in
is both captivating and sexy. Even in Japan, comparison wdth vermilion, crimson is

genta dresses attractive because they create a

and provocative effect. Magenta produces a dazzling and flamboyant impact when combined with orange or yellow. With
fascinating

charged with emotion.

130

Widely used
Spinner Red
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...
(Casual
(classic

Product Design
X'isuai

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
alluring

mysterious
brilliant

decorative
glossy

Western

complex
amusing, abundant

PAT. 1106334

NCD INST,

abundant

RP/B
Rose Pink

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

Casual

Product Design
Visual Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
amusing
cute

enjoyable

happy
merr)'
childlike

** ** ** **
*

pretty
colorful

fascinating

PAT. 1196334

cute

amusing

childlike

RP/B

Y/P

BG/B

YR/B

G/P

RP/B

RP/B
pretty

Y/P

B/P

happy

merry

RP/B

P/Vp

R7^^^

fascinating

RP/P
Mauve Pink

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

Romantic
Hlegant

Product Design
X'isual

Media

TinESStefTTTF^

.,'-<!^^f=.P

Typical Color

Combination Images
charming
sweet and dreamy
pretty
*-k-k-k

** ##
-tn,

tender

innocent

dreamy
feminine
soft

-kit

romantic
sweet-sour
gj^lWDV

PAT. 1196334

NCD INST,

prett\'

soft

RP/P
sweet

N9.5

Y/P

R/P

YR/Vp

RP/P

sweet and dreamv

RP/P

R/Vp

P/P

RP

RPAVp

RP/Lgr
Rose Mist

Widely used

in...

RP/L
Orchid

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle-

Elegant

Product Design
Visual

Media

Typical Color

Combination Images
graceful
alluring

glossy

* *

tender, feminine, sedate, pleasant,

Western, nostalgic, sweet- sour

PftT.

1186334

pleasant

tender

feminine

R/Gr

R/Lgr

RP/L

RP/L
sedate

P/Vp

P/L

RP/L
gracefiil

P/P

P/Vp

nostalgic

R/Gr
glossy

GY/Dk

RP/L

RP/V

P/S

RP/L

!
RP/L
alluring

P/Gr

RP/DI

RP/L

RP/Gr

P/DI

Western

RP/DI

RP/L

P/DI

PB/Vp

RP/L

PB/Dk

Although an elegant image


the

is

characteristic
is

It

should not be combined with

vivid, strong

of light tones of every hue, this orchid shade

or hard tones, as these will detract from the ele-

most graceful of them

all. Its

natural beauty

gant quality of this graceful tone. The shade

gives a pleasant, tender impression,

and when

cannot

easily

convey a clear or sporty feel.

combined with white or gray and feminine effect.

it

creates a sedate

136

RP/Gr

RP/Dl
Old Mauve

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in..

Lifestyle
Classic

Elegant

Product Design
\^isual

Media

*r"^--^^_ ^-'i=eftR

Typical Color

Combination Images
alluring
sleek

complex mellow
interesting
tasteful
classic

extravagant
cultured

PAT. 1196334

NCD INST,

sleek

RP/DP
Wine

Widely used

in...

_JiK*wWr-T^-,

,'"<5i;rtP

DVh^M.H:
E ^-Hf^_I_c_
ZLfiS^. J.C ,D^P>

PAT. 1196334

RP/Dk
Red Grape

Widely used

in...

RP/Dgr
laupc Brown

Widely used

in..

N
Neutral
N9.5

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

White

Product Design
X'isual

Media

Modern
Casual

Romantic

ZZr&^i^frrFFr::;^

Typical Color

Combination Images
cr\'stalline, clear

pure, neat
festive,

simple
fresh

clean
agile,

and

speedy

refreshing
light, fresh

and young

youthfril, sporty

proper
sharp, smart
bright,
fresh,

Western

romantic

PAT. 1196334

NCD INST.

romantic

clear

crystalline

RP/Vp
festive

N9.5

G/Vp

BG/P
simple

N9.5

B/Vp

BG/P
vouthfiil

N9.5

PB/B

R/V
sporty

N9.5

Y/V

N8
fresh

N9.5

PB/L

Y/P
sharp

N9.5

G/B

R/V

N9.5

PB/Dp

GY/B

N9.5

PB/B

BG/V

N9.5

N1.5

WTiite

is

a clear

jects a cry^staUine

and simple color that proand refreshing image. When


red,
it

t\', it is

difficult for

it

to

convey those images

in

the elegant zone in the middle of the image


scale.

combined with yellow or


tive feeling.

expresses a fes-

A sports' tricolor is achie\'ed by the


If the
it

combination of red, white, and na\y blue.


unique properties of white are
is

This sample color combination was selectit

skillfully used,

ed because
this

shows the wide range covered by

easy to create warm-soft and cool-soft color


reflects puri-

image.

combinations. However, as white


142

Neutral

Widely used

in...

N9
Pearl

Gray

g
p^

Neutral

Widely used

in..

N8
Silver

Gray

Neutral

Widely used

in...

N7
Silver

Gray

II

Neutral

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle.

N6
Medium Gray

Product Design

Msual Media

Chic

Modern
Elegant

_&->f* *Trr-rr^-^,

Typical Color

Combination Images
solemn
provincial

modest
intellectual

masculine
simple, quiet

and elegant

sublime
simple and appealing formal

proper

PftT.

1106334

NCD

INST,

simple and appealing, simple, quiet and


elegant intellectual

simple and appealing

simple, quiet and elegant

intellectual

GY/Gr

Y/Lgr

N6

YR/Gr

N6

N8

PB/Vp

N6

PB/Dk

provincial

modest

solemn

I
Y/DI

N6

Y/Gr

N6

GY/Gr

R/Dgr

PB/Dgr N6
sublime

N2

masculine

formal

'-

'^

GY/Dgr N6

B/DI

YR/Dk

N6

PB/Dp

N6

N1.5

P/Gr

Although

this

shade

is

even duller in

feel, it

Subtle color combinations can be created by

retains a delicate qualit)'.

Medium gray suggests


and

using

medium

gray with the grayish or dull


this

a simple but appealing pro\incial world


also conveys a

tones. Sober

and calm,

shade conveys a

With

black,

it

solemn and modest atmosphere. has an intellectual, sublime feel.

simple, quiet, chic image.

146

Neutral

Widely used

in.

N5
Medium
(irav

Neutral

Neutral

Widely used

in...

N3
Smoke
(irav
II

Neutral

Widely used

in

N2
Charcoal Gray

Neutral

Widely used
Fashion
Interior Design

in...

Lifestyle...

*
*

Modern
(Casual

Product Design
X'isual

Media

Dandv

Typical Color

Combination Images
rj

,
'^

MATURE

/ ASUrtL

^>\
COOL-Cff^H-

bold, intense
forceful, striking,
fiery

dynamic
sharp

modern, dynamic and


majestic, metallic
active, robust

active

MT*
PAT. 1166334

proper, formal
authoritative, strong

and robust

intrepid

hea\T and deep, solemn

untamed,
NCD INST.

stviish

bold

stv'lish

modern

B/Vp

BG/V

N1.5
striking

YR/V

R/V

P/V

Y/V

Nl

Nl

N9

PB/V

strong and robust

metallic

I
RP/V
Nl
5

BG/V

YR/Dgr

YR/Gr

N1.5

N1.6

PB/DI

N7

Black and white convey contrasting images, and black can he used for a range ot hard cfiects
that white

namism and

sharpness, and
It is

it

is

asscK'iated with

strong feelings.

a bold

and

striking color.

cannot produce,
used

it

can create

many
ot

images: dynamic, old-fashioned, dapper, formal, mixlern.


fields,
It

is

in a

wide variety

including fashion and interior and prod-

because
image.

This sample color combination was chosen it shows the wide range covered by this

uct design. Black's

main

characteristics are dy-

151

Index I
This index serves as a reference
to look

list

up the words

describing images according to their position in the image


scale pattern.

As words with similar images are grouped together,

this

index can be used to select the words that match a desired

image and the appropriate color. "^ The Combination Image Scale on p. 11 and the Key W^ord Image Scale on p. 12- 13 are used as references. "^ The letters refer to the color hue and the numbers the IMAGE SCALE PAT. page on which it appears.

1063J4

PRETTY

34
2

cute

childlike

R25 Y49 GY60 G73 B97 RP 132 R24 25 Y49 B97 RP 1 32

118

pretty

164

sweet R24 25

R25Y48BG84 87 RP 132 YR37RP 133

133

CASUAL

7
14
17

bright

19

27 36
39

54
61

63 69
77

96
1 1 1

40
7

amusing YR36 GY58 BG88 P 1 1 8 1 20 RP 1 3 1 1 32 R22 24 YR35 36 GY60 G72 casual R28 YR34 Y48 BG82 88 91 B95 PB109 cheerful R24 YR37 Y48 49 colorful R24 BG84 P 1 20 1 27 RP 130 132 dazzling YR34Y46 PI 18 RPl 30 delicious R30 YR34 35 36 43 enjoyable YR34 35 Y48 GY58 G72 BG84 B96 RP 1 32 festive R22 24 GY58 N142 flamboyant YR34 Y46 GY58 G70 7 1 RP 1 30 friendly YR36 37 Y48 50 5 1 GY60 BG87 9 happy R24 RPl 32 merr>' R24 YR36 Y49 G72 RP 1 32 shouT Y46 48 G70 72 BG82 B94 P 1 1 8 RP 1 30
tropical

YR34 G7 1 79 BG83 84 RP 1 30

75
2

vivid

Y46 G70 B94 RP 1 30

DYNAMIC

active BG82 83 B94 boldR22Y46B94N151 47 d\Tiamic R22 Y46 G70 71 RPl 30 48 d\Tiamic and active R22 3 33 YR35 G70 62 fiery RP130N151 64 forceful R22 YR34 80 hotR22Y47 83 intense Y46PB 106 Nl 51 90 lively R22 YR34 36 Y46 G70 PB 06 1 22 provocative G70 72 BG83 B94 P 8 RP 30 54 striking GY58 B96 PB 06 N 5 1 74 vigorous R22 G70 BG82 PB 06 1 1

13

1 1

1 1

152

GORGEOUS

abundant R23 32 VR34 35 (i78 80 RP131 alluring R23 30 PI 19 120 127 129 RP131 136 137 138 139 10 aromatic YR35 42 43 44 15 brilliant R24 PI 18 119 120 121 124 126 127RP131 39 37 decorative Y47 55 C,79 BG90 P 8 28 RP 3 57 extravagant R3 Y47 55 P 27 RP 38 39 58 fascinating R23 P 8 2 RP 32 73 glossy R23 PI 18 119 120 RP131 136 74 gorgeous YR36GY58BG88 PI 18 120 RPl 31 132 91 luxurious R23 31 YR35 Y47 P127 RP139 141 94 mature R23 30 Y47 G Y66 67 RP 39 40 4 95 mellow R23 29 30 31 32 Y54 PI 27 128 RPl 38 139 140 1 32 rich R23 3 YR35 Y47 GY67 G80 59 substantial R32 YR44 Y47 RP 1 40
1

ETHNIC

55GY59 66 68G79BG90 91 92B103P126RP139 G80 B 05 N 150 untamed R23 3 32 33 YR35 43 45 Y56 GY59 67 68 69 G80 BG92 93 1 72 178 wildR33Y55GY66 68G79BG91
55

ethnicR31 32Y47
robust R31

133

ROMANTIC

6
18

45
8
1

34

48 63
65
22

R26 27 YR39 RP 34 YR39 40 charming R26 YR38 G74 B98 RPl 33 134 dreamy YR38 Y50 BG86 B98 PB P 22 RP 33 innocent R26 G Y62 G74 RP 33 34 romantic B98 PB P 22 RP 34 N 42 soft R26 27 YR38 G Y62 63 BG86 P 22 RP 33 supple R26 27 G74 75 BG86 RP 34 35 sweet and dreamy R25 26 P 2 22 RP 33
agreeable to the touch
1

amiable R26 27

1 1

NATURAL

citrus

Y49 GY60

61

44

domestic R28 YR37 38 40

G74 76 GY63 64 G75

46 66 67
70
7

72

78
85

89
98
1

02

06
08
10

dryYR39Y51 53 N 143 free YR37 Y50 GY60 61 G73 fresh GY58 60 61 G71 72 73 74 76 BG88 B96 PB108 N142 generous R25 28 YR39 40 Y50 GY64 gentle R26 YR39 Y50 BG86 gentle and elegant R27 28 29 YR40 P 23 RP 34 healthy YR36 Y49 GY58 61 G76 BG85 intimate YR37 38 39 40 Y5 52 lighthearted YR36 37 C]Y59 61 64 G72 BG87 mildR27 28YR38 39RP135 137 natural YR40 Y50 52 G Y59 63 64 nostalgic R29 30 Y53 54 RP 36 open YR36 Y48 49 50 GY58 G72 73 B96 peaceful Y50 GY64 G75 76 77 BG87 B97 100
1 1 1 1

153

1 1 1 1 1 1

42

146 162

166 170 177

Y50 5 1 GY62 63 G75 R28 30 YR39 40 Y5 1 RP 1 34 1 36 restfiil YR37 Y5 1 52 G Y63 64 simple and appealing Y5 1 52 G Y64 65 G75 N 1 45 1 46 smooth R26 27 YR39 sunny R25 YR37 38 GY62 RP134 sweet-sour R25 GY60 61 62 tranquil Y51 GY61 62 63 G75 76 BG91 XI 45 wholesome YR40 Y51 52 GY59 63 64 67 G75 78 79
plain

pleasant

ELEGANT

16

33

38
51

calm GY69 BlOl 105 PBl 17 P129 RP141 N146 147 149 cultured R27 P122 123 RP135 138 N143 delicate YR38 B99 PBl 1 1 P122 123 RP135

53

59

60
75

84
101

R29P123 124 125 RP137N145 GY62 PBllO P121 124 RP134 135 137 fashionable G77 PB 1 1 P 1 24 1 25 feminine R25 YR38 P121 122 124 RP133 135 136 graceful R28 PBl 13 P123 124 125 RP135 136 137 interesting R30 Y52 GY59 63 65 G77 78 B 100 PI 24 RP 138 mysterious BG83 88 90 B103 PI 18 1 19 RP131
elegant

emotional R28 29

104 114 124


129 137

noble

BG89B95P123N143
113N143
P 120 121
1

polished B99 PBl 09 110 111

pure and elegant PB 109


refined

12

PB109 112 113P120 125RP135N144 R29 PBl 10 P123 125 RP136 N143 144 sleek R29P120 121 125 RP135 137 138 160 subtle PBl 1 1 P122 123 125 RP137 N145 168 tender R27 28 BG87 P121 122 124 RP133 136 137
sedate

CHIC
1

20
87

chic

YR41 BG89 PBl 13 114 P123RP137N144 145 147 148

00

105

126
143 147

GY65 66 P 1 25 modest YR4 1 GY65 P 1 28 N 1 46 noble and elegant BlOO PBl 1 1 PI 19 126 quietG74 77 78 80BG89B99 101 PBl 11 114N143 144 simple, quiet and elegant YR41 42 Y54 GY66 N144 145 146 sober YR41 Y53 GY65 G77 BG89 B 102 PBl 09 113 N144 145 147
Japanese R29 Y53

157

st>4ishG77BG87B100P126N151

CLASSIC

23

28
30 50 79

07
2

YR42 G80 BG93 P128 RP138 140 complex GY67 G78 BG90 RP131 138 conserx-ative YR44 45 Y53 56 GY68 G8 1 BG92 B 1 04 P 1 29 N 1 49 elaborate R31 32 Y54 55 GY67 BG90 91 92 PI 19 128 RP 139 140 heavy and deep R32 YR44 45 Y57 GY67 G8 1 BG93 B 1 05 PB 1 1 RP141 N150 old-fashioned R32 33 YR42 Y54 56 RP 1 40 N 1 50 provincial YR4 1 42 Y52 54 G Y65 N 1 46 1 48
classic

154

135

156
1

rustic VR42 43 44 V55 57 {;V66 RP141 sturdyVR43 44 45V56BC;93PB117F129RP141 N150 67 tastetiil R30 Y56 57 G Y6 F 28 RF 38 40 69 traditional R32 YR42 43 45 Y56 G Y65 68 69 FB 7 F 28
1
1

DANDY

FB 2 F 9 26 Y55 56 57 Ci8 N 49 35 dapper Y53 57 B 104 42 diligent R30 YR42 Y54 C,\'bb 69 B(,92 52 eminent B99 FB116 Fl 19 126 127 placid R33 YR4 44 Y56 57 G8 B(i93 1 1
9
aristocratic
bitter
1
1 1 1

48

YR43 44 45 (iY65 69 G79 80 B102 105 127 quiet and sophisticated R33 YR45 Y54 56 57 (;Y66 68 G81 N149 38 serious R33 Y57 GY69 BG93 F 29 RP 4 X 48 150 sound YR45 Y53 G79 81 N147 strong and robust R33 YR45 Y57 G8 B 05 FB 7 RF 40 N 47 5 1 55 161 subtle and mysterious YR41 Y53 GY68 FBI 12 F125 N148 149 150
115
practical
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1

FORMAL

179

180

young BlOO 101 102 103 105PB111 113 116N148 youthful Y48 49 GY60 61 G71 72 BG84 B96 PB107 108 N142

MODERN

29
32

43 56
82

93 97 99
117
1

19

128 139 173

composed BlOl 102 103 PBl 10 1 15 X143 cultivated BG85 88 PBl 14 distinguished BG89 B99 101 PB109 1 16 P126 N144 149 exact BG90 92 BlOl 102 PBl 1 1 X147 148 149 intellectual G78BG89 91 BlOO 104 PB107 112 114 116 N144 146 150 masculine GY69 BG93 B95 102 103 104PB107 114 115 116P129 XI 46 metallic BG92 B103 PBl 17 X143 145 151 modern BG82 90 B95 102 PB114 P120 129 X144 151 precise BlOO 101 102 103 105 PBl 11 113 116X148 progressive G73 79 BG82 84 B 105 PB 106 108 1 14 rational B102 104 PBl 15 P129X144 sharp BG82 83 B94 PB106 116 X142 151 urbane G77BG89B99 100 102 104 PBl 07 111 112 113X148

Index

II

This index corresponds to the data base of words describing images on


p. 14- 17.

The

letters refer to the

color hue and the

numbers the page on

which
1

it

appears.

2
3

abundant R23 32 YR34 35 G78 80 RP131 active BG82 83 B94 agile BG82 83 B96 103 PB106 115 116
agreeable to the touch
alluring

4
5

R26 27 YR39 RP134 R23 30 PI 19 120 127 129 RP131 136 137 138 139 6 amiable R26 27 YR39 40 7 amusing YR36 GY58 BG88 P 1 1 8 1 20 RP 1 3 1 1 32
8

9
10
1

aqueous YR4 1 BG89 PB 1 1 aristocratic PBl 12 PI 19 126

12 13

14
15

YR35 42 43 44 B 1 1 PB 1 1 7 X 1 49 1 50 bitter Y55 56 57 G81 X149 boldR22Y46B94X151 bright R22 24 YR35 36 GY60 G72
aromatic
authoritative
brilliant

R24 PI

18

19 120 121 124 126 127

RP131

16
17
1

19

20
2

calm GY69 BlOl 105 PBl 17 P129 RP141 X146 147 149 casual R28 YR34 Y48 BG82 88 91 B95 PBl 09 charming R26 YR38 G74 B98 RP 1 33 1 34 cheerful R24 YR37 Y48 49 chicYR41BG89PB113 114 P123 RP137 X144 145 147 148 childlike R24 25 Y49 B97 RP 1 32

156

11

citrus
classic

Y49

C,

V60 6

(^.74

76

23 24 25

clean

YR42 G80 BG93 PI 28 RP138 140 BG85 86 B97PB 109


1

B97 PB106 B97 98 PB 08 X 42 27 colorful R24 BC;84 P 20 27 RP 30 32 28 complex GY67 (^78 B(;90 RP 3 38 29 composed BlOl 102 103 PBl 10 15 X143 30 conserN'ative VR44 45 V53 56 G Y68 (i8 B(i92 B 04 P 29 31 crystalline G75 BG85 86 B96 97 98 PB108 12 N142 32 cultivated BG85 88 PBl 14
clean and fresh (iY58 (i71 B(i84 85
1

26

clear (i74

49

33

34
35

36
37 38 39

40
41

42 43

44
45

R27 P 22 23 RP 35 38 X 43 R25 Y49 GY60 G73 B97 RP 32 dapper Y53 57 B 104 105 dazzling YR34 Y46 P 8 RP 30 decorative Y47 55 G79 BG90 P 8 28 RP 3 39 delicate YR38 B99 PBll 1 P122 123 RP135 delicious R30 YR34 35 36 43 deuy BG88 89 B99 dignified R33G80 81 BlOl 104 PBl 17 P129 X147 diligent R30 YR42 Y54 GY66 69 BG92 XI 48 distinguished BG89 B99 101 PB109 16 P126 X144 149 domestic R28 YR37 38 40 GY63 64 G75 dreamy YR38 Y50 BG86 B98 PB 1 P 1 22 RP 33
cultured
cute
1 1 1 1 1
1

1 1

53X143 dynamic R22 Y46 G70 7 RP 30 48 dynamic and active R22 31 33 YR35 G70 49 earnest B104 PBl 15 116X145 147 50 elaborate R31 32 Y54 55 GY67 BG90 91 92 51 elegant R29 P123 124 125 RP137 X145
46 47
dr\'YR:39Y51
1 1

PI 19 128 RPl 39 140

52 53

eminent B99 PBl 16 PI 19 126 127 emotional R28 29 G Y62 PB P 2


1 1 1

54
55

enjoyable

YR34

ethnic R31 32
exact

24 RP 34 35 37 GY58 G72 BG84 B96 RPl 32 Y47 55 GY59 66 68 G79 BG90 91 92 B 103 PI 26 RPl 39
1
1 1

35 Y48

56
57
58

extravagant R31

59

60
61

62
63

64 65

66 67

102 PBll X147 148 149 Y47 55 PI 27 RPl 38 139 fascinating R23 PI 18 121 RPl 32 fashionable G77 PBl 1 P124 125 feminine R25 YR38 PI 21 122 124 RPl 33 135 136 festive R22 24 GY58 XI 42 fiery RPl 30 XI 51 flamboyant YR34 Y46 GY58 G70 71 RPl 30 forceful R22 YR34 formal PBl 16 XI 46 148 150 free YR37 Y50 G Y60 6 G73 fresh GY58 60 61 (i71 72 73 74 76 BG88 B96 PB108 N142
1 1

BG90 92 BlOl

157

and young GY61 G73 74 76 BG85 88 B95 98 PB108 YR36 37 Y48 50 5 1 GY60 BG87 9 70 generous R25 28 YR39 40 Y50 GY64 71 gentle R26 YR39 Y50 BG86 72 gentle and elegant R27 28 29 YR40 PI 23 RP134
68
fresh

69

friendly

R23P118 119 120 RP131136 YR36 GY58 BG88P118120RP 131132 75 graceful R28 PBl 13 P123 124 125 RP135 136 137 76 grand YR43 GY67 G76 77 BG83
73
glossy

74

gorgeous

77
78

happy

R24RP 132
YR36 Y49 GY58
61

healthy

79 80
I 8

heavy and deep R32 YR44 45 Y57

G76 BG85 GY67 G81 BG93 Bl 05 PBl 17

RP141 N150 hotR22Y47


innocent R26
intellectual

82

GY62 G74 RP 1 33 1 34 G78BG89 91 BlOO 104PB107

112 114

116N144 146 150

Y46 PBl 06 Nl 51 84 interesting R30 Y52 GY59 63 65 G77 78 BlOO PI 24 RP 138


83 85
intense

intimate
intrepid

86
J

YR37 38 39 40 Y51 52 BG92 B 1 03 RP 1 4

87
88

Japanese
light

R29Y53GY65

66 PI 25

GY62 PBl 10 89 lighthearted YR36 37 GY59 61 64 G72 BG87 90 lively R22 YR34 36 Y46 G70 PB 1 06 1 1 91 luxurious R23 31 YR35 Y47 P127 RP139 141 92 majestic BG92 PBl 13 P128 RP140 141 N147 93 masculine GY69 BG93 B95 102 103 104 PB107 N146 94 mature R23 30 Y47 GY66 67 RPl 39 140 141
95

14

15

16 P129

mellow R23 29 30 31 32 Y54 PI 27 128 RPl 38 139 140 mern- R24 YR36 Y49 G72 RP 1 32 97 metallic BG92 B 103 PBl 1 7 N143 145 151 98 mild R27 28 YR38 39 RP 1 35 1 37 99 modern BG82 90 B95 102 PBl 14 P120 129 N144 151 100 modest YR41 GY65 P128 N146 101 mysterious BG83 88 90 B103 PI 18 119 RP131
96

102
1

YR40 Y50 52 GY59 63 64 G74 76 BG85 86 87 PB 1 07 104 nobleBG89B95P123X143


natural

03

neat

105

noble and elegant BlOO PBl


nostalgic

1 1

PI 19 126

106

O
P

107
108

109
1

10

1 1

R29 30 Y53 54 RP136 old-fashioned R32 33 YR42Y54 56 RPl 40 N 150 open YR36 Y48 49 50 GY58 G72 73 B96 pastoral YR43 44 Y52 54 55 GY63 64 65 66 67 68 peaceftil Y50 GY64 G75 76 77 BG87 B97 100 placid R33 YR4 1 44 Y56 57 G8 1 BG93

158

(0

A 239

:tiffi2,000R

ISBN4-7700-1564-X C0070 P2000E

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