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lkekftd foKku

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o&1


d{kk 9 osQ fy, bfrgkl dh ikB~;iqLrd

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ISBN 81-7450-571-7

Fke laLdj.k
ebZ 2006 T;s"B 1927
iqueqZ .k
iQjojh 2007 ek?k 1928
iQjojh 2009 ek?k 1930
PD 120T SC

jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuql/


a ku vkSj f'k{k.k ifj"kn~ ]

2006

lokZf/dkj lqjf{kr
q

dk'kd dh iwoZ vuqefr osQ fcuk bl dk'ku osQ fdlh Hkkx dks Nkiuk rFkk
bysDVkWfudh] e'khuh] iQksVksfrfyfi] fjdkWfMZx vFkok fdlh vU; fof/ ls iqu% ;ksx
ifr }kjk mldk laxzg.k vFkok lkj.k oftZr gSA
bl iqLrd dh fch bl 'krZ osQ lkFk dh xbZ gS fd dk'kd dh iwoZ vuqefr osQ fcuk
;g iqLrd vius ewy vkoj.k vFkok ftYn osQ vykok fdlh vU; dkj ls O;kikj }kjk
m/kjh ij] iqufoZ; ;k fdjk, ij u nh tk,xh] u csph tk,xhA
bl dk'ku dk lgh ewY; bl i`"B ij eqfzr gSA jcM+ dh eqgj vFkok fpidkbZ xbZ iphZ
(fLVdj) ;k fdlh vU; fof/ }kjk vafdr dksbZ Hkh la'kksf/r ewY; xyr gS rFkk ekU;
ugha gksxkA

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,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- osQ izdk'ku foHkkx osQ dk;kZy;


,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- oSaQil
Jh vjfoan ekxZ
u;h fnYyh 110 016
108] 100 iQhV jksM
gsyh ,DlVsas'ku] gksLMsosQjs
cuk'kadjh III bLVst
csaxyq# 560 085

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iQksu % 011&26562708

iQksu % 080&26725740

uothou VLV Hkou


Mkd?kj uothou
vgenkckn 380 014

iQksu % 079&27541446

lh-MCY;w-lh- oSaQil
fudV% /udy cl LVkWi ifugVh
dksydkrk 700 114
lh-MCY;w-lh- dkWEIySDl
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#-75-00

iQksu % 033&25530454

iQksu % 0361&2674869

dk'ku lg;ksx

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,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- okWVjekoZQ 80 th-,l-,eisij ij eqfnzrA

dk'ku foHkkx esa lfpo] jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku


vkSj f'k{k.k ifj"kn~] Jh vjfoan ekxZ]
u;h fnYyh 110 016 }kjk ---------------- ----------------------------------- --------------------------------------------- }kjk eqfnzrA

v;{k] dk'ku foHkkx


eq[; mRiknu vfkdkjh
eq[; laiknd
eq[; O;kikj ca/d
lgk;d laiknd
mRiknu lgk;d

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is;Vh jktkoqQekj
f'ko oqQekj
'osrk mIiy
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'kf'k pak
izdk'k rfgy;kuh

vkoj.k ,oa lTtk


ikfFkZo 'kkg rFkk mudh lgk;d Jkcksuh jk; ,oa
'kf'k izHkk >k
fp=kkadu
osQ- oxhZk

vkeq[k
jk"Vh; ikB~;p;kZ :ijs[kk (2005) lq>krh gS fd cPpksa osQ LowQyh thou dks ckgj osQ
thou ls tksM+k tkuk pkfg,A ;g flkar fdrkch Kku dh ml fojklr osQ foijhr gS
ftlosQ Hkkoo'k gekjh O;oLFkk vkt rd LowQy vkSj ?kj osQ chp varjky cuk, gq,
gSA ubZ jk"Vh; ikB~;p;kZ ij vk/kfjr ikB~;e vkSj ikB~;iqLrosaQ bl cqfu;knh fopkj
ij vey djus dk ;kl gSaA bl ;kl esa gj fo"k; dks ,d ekcwr nhokj ls ?ksj
nsus vkSj tkudkjh dks jVk nsus dh o`fk dk fojks/ 'kkfey gSA vk'kk gS fd ;s dne
gesa jk"Vh; f'k{kk uhfr (1986) eas of.kZr cky&oasQfnzr O;oLFkk dh fn'kk esa dkI+kQh nwj
rd ys tk,xsA
bl ;Ru dh liQyrk vc bl ckr ij fuHkZj gS fd LowQyksa osQ kpk;Z vkSj
v;kid cPpksa dks dYiuk'khy xfrfof/;ksa vkSj lokyksa dh enn ls lh[kus vkSj
vius vuqHko ij fopkj djus dk volj nsrs gSaA gesa ;g ekuuk gksxk fd ;fn txg]
le; vkSj vkkknh nh tk, rks cPps cM+ksa }kjk lkSaih xbZ lwpuk&lkexzh ls tqM+dj vkSj
tw>dj u;s Kku dk l`tu djrs gSaA f'k{kk osQ fofo/ lk/uksa o ksrksa dh vuns[kh fd,
tkus dk eq[k dkj.k ikB~;iqLrd dks ijh{kk dk ,dek=k vk/kj cukus dh o`fk gSA
ltZuk vkSj igy dks fodflr djus osQ fy, k:jh gS fd ge cPpksa dks lh[kus dh
f;k esa iwjk Hkkxhnkj ekusa vkSj cuk,] mUgsa Kku dh fu/kZfjr [kqjkd dk xzkgd ekuuk
NksM+ nsaA
;s ms'; LowQy dh nSfud fkanxh vkSj dk;Z'kSyh esa dkI+kQh isQjcny dh ekx djrs
gSaA nSfud le;&lkj.kh esa yphykiu mruk gh k:jh gS ftruh okf"kZd oSQys.Mj osQ
vey esa pqLrh] ftlls f'k{k.k osQ fy, fu;r fnuksa dh la[;k gdhdr cu losQA
f'k{k.k vkSj ewY;kadu dh fof/;k Hkh bl ckr dks r; djsaxh fd ;g ikB~;iqLrd
LowQy esa cPpksa osQ thou dks ekufld ncko rFkk cksfj;r dh txg [kq'kh dk vuqHko
cukus esa fdruh Hkkoh fl gksrh gSA cks> dh leL;k ls fuiVus osQ fy, ikB~;ozQe
fuekZrkvksa us fofHkUu pj.kksa esa Kku dk iqufuZ/kZj.k djrs le; cPpksa osQ euksfoKku ,oa
v;kiu osQ fy, miyC/ le; dk ;ku j[kus dh igys ls vf/d lpsr dksf'k'k
dh gSA bl dksf'k'k dks vkSj xgjkus osQ ;Ru esa ;g ikB~;iqLrd lksp&fopkj vkSj
foLe;] NksVs lewgksa esa ckrphr o cgl vkSj gkFk ls dh tkus okyh xfrfof/;ksa dks
kFkfedrk nsrh gSA
,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- bl iqLrd dh jpuk osQ fy, cukbZ xbZ ikB~;iqLrd fuekZ.k
lfefr osQ ifjJe osQ fy, o`QrKrk O;Dr djrh gSA ifj"kn~ lkekftd foKku lykgdkj
lewg osQ v;{k ksI+ ksQlj gfj oklqnsou vkSj bfrgkl ikB~;iqLrd lfefr osQ eq[;
lykgdkj ksI+ksQlj uhykfnz Hk^kpk;Z dh fo'ks"k vkHkkjh gSA bl ikB~;iqLrd osQ fuekZ.k
esa dbZ f'k{kdksa us ;ksxnku fn;k_ bl ;ksxnku dks laHko cukus osQ fy, ge muosQ
kpk;ks osQ vkHkkjh gSaA ge mu lHkh laLFkkvksa vkSj laxBuksa osQ fr rK gSa ftUgksaus
vius lalkkuksa] lkexzh vkSj lg;ksfx;ksa dh enn ysus esa gesa mnkjrkiwoZd lg;ksx fn;kA

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ge ek;fed ,oa mPp f'k{kk foHkkx] ekuo lalk/u fodkl ea=kky; }kjk ksI+ksQlj
e`.kky ehjh ,oa ksI+ksQlj th-ih- ns'kikaMs dh v;{krk esa xfBr fuxjkuh lfefr
(ekWfuVfjax desVh) osQ lnL;ksa dks viuk ewY;oku le; vkSj lg;ksx nsus osQ fy,
kU;okn nsrs gSaA O;oLFkkxr lq/kjksa vkSj vius dk'kuksa esa fujarj fu[kkj ykus osQ
fr lefiZr ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- fVIif.k;ksa o lq>koksa dk Lokxr djsxh ftuls Hkkoh
la'kkskuksa esa enn yh tk losQA

ubZ fnYyh
20 fnlacj 2005

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funs'kd
jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku
vkSj f'k{k.k ifj"kn~

bfrgkl vkSj cnyrh nqfu;k


jkskejkZ dh fkanxh thrs gq, tc ge v[kckjksa esa nqfu;k Hkj dh ?kVukvksa osQ ckjs esa i<+rs
gSa rks vkerkSj ij ge Bgj dj mu ?kVukvksa osQ yacs bfrgkl osQ ckjs esa ugha lksprsA
phksa gekjh vk[kksa osQ lkeus cnyrh jgrh gSa ysfdu ge dHkh ;s ugha lksprs fd og
cny D;ksa jgh gSa\ cfYd vdlj ge bl ckr ij Hkh ;ku ugha nsrs fd igys phksa
,slh ugha FkhaA bu cnykoksa ij yxkrkj ukj j[kuk] ;s le>uk fd cnyko D;ksa vkSj
oSQls vk jgs gSa] vkSj ;g Hkh fd ge vkt ftl nqfu;k esa th jgs gSa og dSls cuh
gS & ;gh bfrgkl gSA

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d{kk IX vkSj X dh bfrgkl dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk eq[; kksj ;gh le>us ij gS fd


ledkyhu fo'o oSQls cuk gSA fiNyh d{kkvksa (VI-VIII ) esa vkius Hkkjr osQ bfrgkl
osQ ckjs esa i<+k gSA vxys nks lkyksa (d{kk IX vkSj X) dh bfrgkl dh iqLrdksa esa vki
;g tkusaxs fd fdl rjg Hkkjr osQ vrhr dh dgkuh nqfu;k osQ yacs bfrgkl ls tqM+h
gqbZ gSA tc rd ge bl lacak ij fopkj ugha djsaxs rc rd bl ckr dks vPNh rjg
ugha le> ik,xs fd Hkkjr esa D;k vkSj oSQls gks jgk FkkA ;g ckr blfy, vkSj Hkh
egoiw.kZ gks tkrh gS fd vkt reke vFkZO;oLFkk, vkSj lekt fnuksafnu xgjs rkSj ij
,d&nwljs ls tqM+rs tk jgs gSaA bfrgkl dks ges'kk HkkSxksfyd lhekvksa esa can djosQ ugha
ns[kk tk ldrkA

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oSls Hkh jk"Vh; HkkSxksfyd lhekvksa dks gh vius v;;u dk ,dek=k osaQnzfcanq eku ysuk
Bhd ugha gksxkA dbZ ckj ,sls ekSosQ vkrs gSa tc ,d NksVs ls {ks=k & ,d bykosQ] ,d
xko] fdlh jsfxLrkuh ih] fdlh taxy] ;k fdlh igkM+ & ij ;ku osaQfnzr djus ls
gesa yksxksa osQ thou esa ekStwn Hkkjh fofokrk vkSj mu bfrgklksa dks le>us esa enn
feyrh gS ftuls fdlh jk"V dk bfrgkl curk gSA u rks ge yksxksa osQ fcuk jk"V dh
ckr dj ldrs gSa vkSj u gh jk"V osQ fcuk fdlh bykosQ dh ckr dj ldrs gSaA i+ zQkalhlh
bfrgkldkj I+kQukM czkWnsy osQ 'kCnksa esa ge ;g Hkh dg ldrs gSa fd ^fo'o osQ fcuk
jk"V dh ckr ugha dh tk ldrh*A

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vxys nks lky vki tks ikB~;iqLrosaQ i<+saxs muesa blh y{; dks vyx&vyx Lrjksa ij
lkkus dh dksf'k'k dh xbZ gSA bl nkSjku ge oqQN [kkl leqnk;ksa vkSj bykdksa dk
v;;u djrs gq, jk"V osQ bfrgkl rd vkSj Hkkjr o ;wjksi osQ bfrgkl ls gksrs gq,
viz+Qhdk vkSj baMksusf'k;k osQ ?kVukeksa rd tk,axsA gekjs v;;u dk osaQnz fo"k; osQ
fglkc ls cnyrk tk,xkA
;s fo"k; D;k gSa vkSj mUgsa oSQls O;ofLFkr fd;k x;k gS\ fo"k;oLrq dk pquko fdl
vkkkj ij fd;k x;k gS\
vc rd vkkqfud fo'o dk bfrgkl vdlj if'peh nqfu;k osQ bfrgkl ij vkfJr
jgk gSA ekuks lkjs ifjorZu vkSj lkjh rjDdh flI+kZQ if'pe esa gh gksrh jgh gksA ekuks
ckdh ns'kksa osQ bfrgkl ,d le; osQ ckn Bgj dj jg x, gksa] xfrghu vkSj tM+ gks
x, gksaA bl bfrgkl esa if'pe osQ yksx m|e'khy] jpukRed] oSKkfud eskk;qDr]
esgurh] oqQ'ky vkSj cnyko osQ fy, rRij fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA nwljh rjI +kQ iwohZ

lekt & ;k viz+Qhdk vkSj nf{k.kh vesfjdk & osQ yksxksa dks ijaijkfu"B] vkylh]
vakfo'oklh] vkSj cnykoksa ls dUuh dkVus okyk fn[kk;k tkrk gSA
bfrgkldkj cgqr lkyksa ls bu LFkkiukvksa ij loky [kM+k djrs vk jgs gSaA vc ge
vPNh rjg tku pqosQ gSa fd gjsd lekt esa ifjorZu dk viuk bfrgkl gksrk gSA
blhfy, vkkqfud fo'o dh jpuk dks le>us osQ fy, gesa bl ckr ij ;ku nsuk
iM+sxk fd fofHkUu lektksa us bu cnykoksa dks fdl rjg vuqHko fd;k vkSj mUgsa oSQls
'kDy nh gSA gesa ns[kuk iM+sxk fd vyx&vyx ns'kksa osQ bfrgkl fdl izdkj ,d&nwljs
ls tqM+ jgs gSaA oSQls ,d lekt esa gq, cnykoksa dk vlj nwljs lekt esa ns[kk tk
ldrk gS_ oSQls Hkkjr o vU; mifuos'kksa dh ?kVukvksa us ;wjksi dks izHkkfor fd;kA
vk'k; ;g fd ledkyhu fo'o dk :i&Lo:i flI+kZQ if'pe ls r; ugha
gqvk gSA
ledkyhu fo'o dk bfrgkl flI +kZQ m|ksx vkSj O;kikj] foKku vkSj izk|
S ksfxdh] jsyos
vkSj lM+dksa dk bfrgkl ugha gSA buosQ lkFk&lkFk ;g ouokfl;ksa vkSj pjokgksa] ?kqearw
dk'rdkjksa vkSj NksVs fdlkuksa dk Hkh bfrgkl gSA bu lHkh lkekftd lewgksa us vkt dh
nqfu;k dks vkt tSlk cukus esa viuk ;ksxnku fn;k gSA bl lky vki bl fofokrk
Hkjh nqfu;k osQ ckjs esa gh i<+us tk jgs gSaA

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d{kk IX vkSj X] nksuksa iqLrdksa esa rhu [kaM vkSj vkB v;k; gSaA gesa mEehn gS fd
vki lHkh v;k;ksa dks i<+us dk vkuan mBk,xsA ysfdu ijh{kk dh n`f"V ls vkidks
osQoy ikp&ikp v;k; gh i<+us gSa & nks&nks v;k; [kaM I vkSj II ls rFkk ,d
v;k; [kaM III lsA

nksuksa fdrkcksa osQ [kaM I esa oqQN ,slh ?kVukvksa vkSj izf;kvksa ij ;ku fn;k x;k gS
tks vkkqfud fo'o dks le>us dh n`f"V ls dkI+kQh egoiw.kZ gSaA bl lky [kaM I esa
vki iz+Qkalhlh kafr] :lh kafr vkSj ukRlhokn osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA vxys lky vki
Hkkjr rFkk vU; ns'kksa esa jk"Vokn vkSj mifuos'kokn fojkskh vkanksyuksa osQ ckjs esa tkusaxsA
[kaM II esa ukVdh; ?kVukvksa ij n`f"Vikr djrs gq, ge yksxksa osQ thou dh lkekU;
ckrksa & mudh vkfFkZd xfrfofk;ksa vkSj vkthfodk osQ Lo:i & rd tk,axsA bl fgLls
esa vki ns[ksaxs fd tutkrh; leqnk;ksa] pjokgksa vkSj fdlkuksa osQ fy, ledkyhu fo'o
dk D;k eryc jgk gS_ mUgksaus bu cnykoksa dk lkeuk fdl rjg fd;k vkSj mUgsa fdl
rjg izHkkfor fd;kA vxys lky vki vkS|ksxhdj.k vkSj 'kgjhdj.k] iwthokn vkSj
mifuos'kkn osQ ckjs esa vkSj foLrkj ls tkusaxsA

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[kaM III vkidks nSfud thou osQ bfrgkl ls ifjfpr djkrk gSA bl Hkkx esa vki [ksy
vkSj igukos osQ bfrgkl (d{kk IX) rFkk NikbZ&i<+kbZ vkSj miU;kl o v[kckjksa osQ
fodkl osQ ckjs esa i<+saxs (d{kk X)A vki iwN ldrs gSa fd gesa [ksy&owQn vkSj
os'k&Hkw"kk dk bfrgkl i<+us dh Hkyk D;k k:jr gS\ D;k ge muosQ ckjs esa v[kckjksa
vkSj if=kdkvksa esa jksk gh ugha i<+rs\
cs'kd] ge bu phkksa osQ ckjs esa cgqr oqQN i<+rs jgrs gSaA ysfdu buosQ ckjs esa ge tks
oqQN i<+rs gSa mlls gesa buosQ bfrgkl osQ ckjs esa oqQN [kkl irk ugha py ikrkA gesa
vi

;s irk ugha py ikrk fd ;s phksa fdl rjg fodflr gqbZ gSa vkSj D;ksa cnyrh gSaA tc
ge vius vkl&ikl dh phkksa osQ ckjs esa bfrgkl dh n`f"V ls loky mBkuk lh[k tkrs
gSa rks bfrgkl ,d u;k vFkZ xzg.k dj ysrk gSA gesa jkskejkZ dh lkkkj.k phkksa dks Hkh
,d vyx dks.k ls ns[kus dk ekSdk fey tkrk gSA gesa vglkl gksus yxrk gS fd tks
phksa bruh ekewyh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSa mudk Hkh ,d bfrgkl gS tks gekjs fy, egoiw.kZ gSA
ledkyhu fo'o fdl rjg vfLrRo esa vk;k gS] bls le>us osQ fy, ge Hkkjr ls
viz+Qhdk vkSj ;wjksi ls baMksusf'k;k rd dk lI+kQj djsaxsA bl e esa ge cM+h&cM+h
?kVukvksa osQ ckjs esa Hkh i<+saxs vkSj nSfud thou dks Hkh djhc ls ns[ksaxsA bu ;k=kkvksa osQ
nkSjku vki [kqn eglwl djus yxsaxs fd bfrgkl Hkh fdruk fnypLi gks ldrk gS] ftl
nqfu;k esa ge jgrs gSa mls le>us esa fdruk ennxkj gks ldrk gSA

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uhykf Hk^kpk;Z
eq[; lykgdkj & bfrgkl

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ikB~;iqLrd fodkl lfefr


v;{k] lkekftd foKku ikB~;iqLrd lykgdkj lfefr
gfj oklqnsou] izksI+kQs lj] bfrgkl foHkkx] dydRrk fo'ofo|ky;] dksydkrk (v;k; 2)A
eq[; lykgdkj
uhykf Hk^kpk;Z] izksI+kQs lj] ,sfrgkfld v;;u osaQnz] lekt foKku laLFkku] tokgj yky
usg: fo'ofo|ky;] ubZ fnYyh (v;k; 5 vkSj 6)A

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lnL;

eksfudk tqustk] izksI+ksQlj] ekfj;k&xks,IisV&Z es;j xsLV izksI+ksQlj] fgLVksfjpsl lsfeukj] guksoj
fo'ofo|ky;] teZuh (v;k; 1)A

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oanuk tks'kh] ysDpjj] Jh osadVsLoj dkWyst] fnYyh fo'ofo|ky;] ubZ fnYyh


(v;k; 3)A
uafnuh lqanj] izksIk+ sQlj] lekt'kkL=k foHkkx] fnYyh LowQy vkWI+ kQ bdukWfeDl] fnYyh
fo'ofo|ky;] fnYyh (v;k; 4)A
eqoqQy osQlou] izksI ks+ Qlj] bfrgkl foHkkx] tkfe;k fefYy;k bLykfe;k] ubZ fnYyh
(v;k; 7)A
+ j LVMhk bu lks'ky lkbalsk] dksydkrk (v;k; 8)A
tkudh uk;j] izks Iks+ Qlj] lsaVj IkQkW
js[kk ".ku] gsM vkWI+kQ lhfu;j LowQy] olar oSyh Ldwy] ubZ fnYyhA

jf'e ikyhoky] ,dyO;] gks'kaxkckn] e; izns'kA


vt; nkaMd
s j] fofkfVax Ik+ Qs yks] VkVk baLVhV~;wV vkWI +kQ lks'ky lkbalsk] eqacbZA
izhrh'k vkpk;kZ] jhMj] jhtuy baLVhV~~;wV vkWI+kQ ,tqosQ'ku] Hkqous'oj] mM+hlkA

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fganh vuqokn

;ksxsUnz nk] ljk;&lh-,l-Mh-,l-] fnYyh (v;k; 2] 3] 5)


jfodkUr] ljk;&lh-,l-Mh-,l-] fnYyh (v;k; 7] 8)
ujs'k xksLokeh] Lora=k vuqoknd ,oa 'kks/drkZ (v;k; 6)

f'kokuan mik;k;] 'kks/kFkhZ] fganh] tusfo] ubZ fnYyh (v;k; 1)


dey oqQekj feJk] bafMisaMsaV Ik+ sQyks] ljk;&lh-,l-Mh-,l-] fnYyh (v;k; 4)
lnL;&la;kstd
fdj.k nsonas ]z izksIk+ sQlj] izkFkfed f'k{kk foHkkx] ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-] ubZ fnYyhA

vkHkkj
;g iqLrd cgqr lkjs bfrgkldkjksa] f'k{kdksa vkSj f'k{kkfonksa dh lk>k dksf'k'kksa dk ifj.kke gSA
gjsd v;k; osQ ys[ku] ml ij ppkZ vkSj la'kkskuksa esa dbZ&dbZ eghus dk le; yxk gSA bu
ppkZvksa esa fgLlk ysus okys lHkh lkfFk;ksa dks ge kU;okn nsuk pkgrs gSaA
cgqr lkjs yksxksa us iqLrd osQ vyx&vyx v;k;ksa dks i<+k gSA fo'ks"k :i ls ge fuxjkuh
lfefr osQ lnL;ksa dks kU;okn nsuk pkgrs gSa ftUgksaus fofHkUu v;k;ksa osQ izkjafHkd ikBksa ij
viuh fVIif.k;k nhaA ukjk;.kh xqIrk vkSj oqQeoqQe jkW; us fujarj izkRs lkgu vkSj lgk;rk nh_ fjpMZ
bokal us ukRlhokn osQ ckjs esa fy[ks x, v;k; dks i<+k & bu lHkh dks kU;oknA ikaMqfyfi;ksa
ij tks Hkh lq>ko feys] mu lHkh dks 'kkfey djus dk geus gj&laHko iz;kl fd;k gSA
cgqr lkjs laLFkkuksa vkSj O;fDr;ksa dh lgk;rk osQ fcuk bu iqLrdksa dh ,slh lkt&lTtk laHko
ugha FkhA eklkbZ ,lksfl,'ku] ukWFkZ MdksVk LVsV ;wfuoflZVh yk;csjz h] ;qukbVsM LVsV~l gkWyksdkLV
E;wfk;e] ;wuLs dks ikjkkWj izkt
s Ds V vkSj efgyk fodkl v;;u osQna ]z fnYyh us gekjs vkxzg ij
vius vfHkys[kkxkjksa ls vko';d fp=k vkSj vU; lkexzh miyCk djkbZA dqN rLohjsa yk;czsjh
vkWI +kQ dkaxl
sz fizVa l
~ ,s.M I+kQksVksxkz I+kQ fMfoku] T;wb'k fgLVkWfjdy baLVhV~;Vw ] okWjlkW] iksyMaS ] jchanz
Hkou I+kQksVks vkdkZbOk] vkSj fo'oHkkjrh fo'ofo|ky;] 'kkafrfuosQru ls yh xbZ gSAa lat; cjusyk]
eqoQq y ekaxfyd vkSj olar lcjoky us pjokgksa vkSj oukfJr leqnk;ksa dh rLohjksa osQ vius laxgz
dk bLrseky djus dh gesa btkkr nhA igukos osQ bfrgkl ij osQafnzr v;k; osQ fy, rLohjsa
tqVkus osQ okLrs geus ekyfodk dkysd
Z j ls laioZQ fd;k tcfd fosQV ls lacafkr fp=kksa osQ
fy, geus jke xqgk dh enn yhA vuh'k ouk;d us fp=kksa ls lacafkr 'kksk esa enn nhA ge
ljk;&lh-,l-Mh-,l- ls tqMs+ lkfFk;ksa dks /U;okn nsuk pkgrs gSa ftUgksua s iqLrd ij gqbZ ppkZvksa
esa lfozQ; Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA

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bl rjg dh fo"k;oLrq dk vuqokn ges'kk vklku ugha gksrk] [kklrkSj ls tcfd fdrkc de
mez fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ fy, rS;kj dh tk jgh gSA bl pqukSrh dks ns[krs gq, vuqoknd Vhe us 'kCnksa
osQ p;u] Hkk"kk;h izokg vkSj vo/kj.kkRed vfHkO;fDr dks ysdj xgu fopkj&foe'kZ fd;k
vkSj dbZ egoiw.kZ lokyksa ij cgl NsM+hA vkyksd jk;] ujsanz O;kl vkSj jktsanz izlkn frokjh
us vuqokn ij vewY; fVIif.k;k nhA g;kr flag usxh us iwIz +kQ i<+kA lat; 'kekZ bl iqLrd dh
rS;kjh osQ izR;sd pj.k esa fgLlsnkj jgsA mUgksaus u osQoy iwjh fdrkc dk vuqokn tkpk] dkWih
laiknu fd;k vkSj iwzI+kQ jhfMax dh cfYd fo"k;oLrq dks fganh ek;e fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ fy, lgt
cukus osQ loky ij pyh fo"k;kRed vkSj :ikRed cglksa esa Hkh mRlkgiwod
Z fgLlk fy;k vkSj
dbZ vge lq>ko fn,A vafre pj.kksa esa ifj"kn~ osQ Hkk"kk foHkkx ,oa fganh izdks"B osQ v;{k
izks- jketUe 'kekZ us 'kSyhxr ijke'kZ nsdj fdrkc dks fu[kkjus esa enn dhA ifj"kn~ dh vksj ls
Mh-Vh-ih- vkWijsVj vjfoan 'kekZ vkSj fot; oqQekj rFkk dkWih ,fMVj lrh'k >k us viuk iw.kZ
;ksxnku fn;kA brus de le; esa dke iwjk dj nsus vkSj iwjh ifj;kstuk esa bruh fnypLih ysus
osQ fy, ge bu lHkh lkfFk;ksa osQ izfr vkHkkj O;Dr djrs gSaA

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ftUgksua s bl fdrkc esa viuk ;ksxnku fn;k gS mu lHkh osQ uke fdrkc osQ var esa nsus dk geus
gj eqefdu iz;kl fd;k gSA vxj Hkwyo'k fdlh dk uke NwV x;k gS rks ge ,sls lHkh lkfFk;ksa
ls {kek ekxrs gSaA

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fo"k;&lwph

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vkeq[k

bfrgkl vkSj cnyrh nqfu;k

[k.M I : ?kVuk, vkSj izf;k,


1. i+zQkafllh kafr

iii
v

1-74
3

2. ;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

25

3. ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

49

[k.M II : thfodk] vFkZO;oLFkk ,oa lekt

75-138

4. oU; lekt ,oa mifuos'kokn

77

5. vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

97

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n

6. fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

[k.M III : jkskkuk dh fkanxh] laLfr vkSj jktuhfr

117

139-178

7. bfrgkl vkSj [ksy% fosQV dh dgkuh

141

8. igukos dk lkekftd bfrgkl

159

vkHkkj

179

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[k.M I

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?kVuk, vkSj izf;k,

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v;k; 1 i+zQkalhlh kafr osQ ckjs esa gSA vkt ge eqfDr] Lora=krk vkSj lekurk dks lgt&lqyHk vkSj
lkekU; eku dj pyrs gSaA ysfdu gesa ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd bu lcdk Hkh ,d bfrgkl jgk gSA i+zQkalhlh
akfr osQ kfj, vkidks bl bfrgkl osQ ,d fgLls dks le>us esa enn feysxhA i+zQkalhlh kafr us i+zQkal
esa jktra=k dks lekIr dj fn;kA fo'ks"kkfkdkjksa ij vkkkfjr O;oLFkk ls 'kklu dh ,d ubZ O;oLFkk mfnr
gqbZA kafr osQ nkSjku rS;kj fd;k x;k ekuo vfkdkj ?kks"k.kki=k ,d u, ;qx osQ vkxeu dk |ksrd FkkA
lcosQ ,d leku vfkdkj gksrs gSa vkSj gj O;fDr cjkcjh dk nkok dj ldrk gS & ;g lksp jktuhfr
dh ubZ Hkk"kk dk fgLlk cu xbZA lekurk vkSj Lora=krk dh ;g lksp u, ;qx dk osaQnzh; fopkj Fkh_ ysfdu
fofHkUu ns'kksa esa bu fopkjksa dks ukuk :iksa esa le>k vkSj lkkk x;kA Hkkjr vkSj phu] vi+zQhdk vkSj nf{k.kh
vesfjdk osQ mifuos'kokn&fojkskh vkanksyuksa us dbZ ,sls fopkjksa dks tUe fn;k tks csgn jpukRed vkSj
ekSfyd Fks ysfdu bu vkanksyuksa dh Hkk"kk vkSj eqgkojs dks vBkjgoha lnh osQ mkjkkZ dh ?kVukvksa ls gh
oSkrk fey jgh FkhA
v;k; 2 esa vki ;wjksi esa lektokn osQ vkxeu vkSj ml ukVdh; ?kVuke osQ ckjs esa i<+saxs ftlosQ
pyrs :l osQ 'kkld kkj fudksyl&II dks lkk NksM+uh iM+hA :lh kafr us lekt ifjorZu dk ,d
u;k rjhdk x<+us dk iz;kl fd;kA bl kafr us vkfFkZd lekurk vkSj eknwj&fdlkuksa dh csgrjh dk
loky mBk;kA bl v;k; esa vki ubZ lksfo;r ljdkj }kjk 'kq: fd, x, cnykoksa] mlosQ lkeus vkbZ
leL;kvksa vkSj muls fuiVus osQ fy, ljdkj }kjk mBk, x, dneksa osQ ckjs esa tkusaxsA lksfo;r :l dh
ljdkj us [ksrh osQ vkS|ksxhdj.k vkSj e'khuhdj.k dk dk;Ze rks n`<+rk osQ lkFk vkxs c<+k;k ysfdu
mlus ukxfjdksa osQ dbZ ,sls vfkdkjksa dk guu Hkh fd;k tks fdlh Hkh yksdrkaf=kd lekt osQ lapkyu
osQ fy, vfuok;Z gksrs gSaA fiQj Hkh] lektokn dk ukjk fofHkUu ns'kksa osQ mifuos'kokn&fojkskh vkanksyu
dk fgLlk cukA vkt lksfo;r la?k fc[kj pqdk gS vkSj lektokn ladV esa gS] ysfdu chloha lnh osQ
iSekus ij ledkyhu fo'o dk :ikdkj r; djus esa ;g lcls 'kfDr'kkyh rkdr FkkA

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I+kzQkalhlh kafr

?kVuk, vkSj izf;k,

bl [k.M esa vki i+Qz kalhlh kafr] :lh kafr vkSj ukRlhokn osQ mn; dk bfrgkl i<+saxsA vkkqfud fo'o
dh jpuk esa bu rhuksa ?kVukvksa dk egoiw.kZ ;ksxnku jgk gSA

v;k; 3 esa vki teZuh osQ ckjs esa tkusaxsA bl v;k; esa fgVyj osQ mn; vkSj ukRlhokn dh jktuhfr
dk fo'ys"k.k fd;k x;k gSA ;gk vki ukRlh teZuh esa vkSjrksa o cPpksa dh n'kk vkSj Ldwyksa o ;kruk
x`gksa osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA bl v;;u ls vkidks irk pysxk fd ukRlhokn us fdl rjg fofHkUu
vYila[;d lewgksa dks thus osQ vfkdkj ls oafpr dj fn;k Fkk] fdl rjg mUgksaus ;gwfn;ksa dk lI+kQk;k
djus osQ fy, ;gwnh&fojkskh Hkkoukvksa dks HkM+dk;k vkSj yksdra=k o lektokn osQ f[kykI +kQ ,d ekjd
;q NsM+ fn;kA ukRlhokn osQ mn; dh dgkuh flI+kZQ dqN [kkl ?kVukvksa] lkk dh iS'kkfpd pkg]
gR;kdkaMksa vkSj ekSr dh dgkuh Hkj ugha gSA ;g fofHkUu Lrjksa ij pyus okyh ,d foLr`r vkSj fny
ngyk nsus okyh O;oLFkk dh dgkuh gSA Hkkjr esa Hkh dqN yksx fgVyj osQ fopkjksa ls dkI+kQh izHkkfor gq,
ysfdu ;knkrj yksxksa dks ukRlhokn osQ mn; ij [kkSI+kQ gh eglwl gqvkA

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vkkqfud fo'o dk bfrgkl flI+kZQ Lora=krk vkSj yksdra=k osQ iQyus&iwQyus dh dgkuh Hkj ugha gSA ;g
fgalk vkSj fujaoqQ'krk] e`R;q vkSj egkfouk'k dh dgkuh Hkh gSA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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v;k; 1

iz+Qkalhlh kafr
pkSng tqykbZ 1789 dh lqcg] isfjl uxj esa vkrad dk ekgkSy FkkA lezkV
us lsuk dks 'kgj esa ?kqlus dk vkns'k ns fn;k FkkA vi+Qokg Fkh fd og lsuk
dks ukxfjdksa ij xksfy;k pykus dk vkns'k nsus okyk gSA yxHkx 7000 enZ
rFkk vkSjrsa VkWmu gkWy osQ lkeus ,d=k gq, vkSj mUgksaus ,d tu&lsuk dk
xBu djus dk fu.kZ; fd;kA gfFk;kjksa dh [kkst esa os cgqr&ls ljdkjh
Hkouksa esa tcju izos'k dj x,A
varr% lSdM+ksa yksxksa dk ,d lewg isfjl uxj osQ iwohZ Hkkx dh vksj
py iM+k vkSj ckLrhy (Bastille) fdys dh tsy dks rksM+ Mkyk tgk Hkkjh
ek=kk esa xksyk&ck:n feyus dh laHkkouk FkhA gfFk;kjksa ij dCks dh bl
l'kL=k yM+kbZ esa ckLrhy dk dekaMj ekjk x;k vkSj oSQnh NqM+k fy, x,]
;|fi mudh la[;k osQoy lkr FkhA lezkV dh fujaoqQ'k 'kfDr;ksa dk izrhd
gksus osQ dkj.k ckLrhy fdyk yksxksa dh ?k`.kk dk osaQnz FkkA blfy, fdys
dks <gk fn;k x;k vkSj mlosQ vo'ks"k ckkkj esa mu yksxksa dks csp fn,
x, tks bl oal dks crkSj Le`fr&fp latksuk pkgrs FksA
bl ?kVuk osQ ckn dbZ fnuksa rd isfjl rFkk ns'k osQ nsgkrh {ks=kksa esa dbZ
vkSj la?k"kZ gq,A vfkdka'k turk ikojksVh dh egxh dherksa dk fojksk dj
jgh FkhA ckn esa bl nkSj dk flagkoyksdu djrs gq, bfrgkldkjksa us bls ,d
yacs ?kVuke dh ,slh 'kq#vkrh dfM+;ksa osQ :i esa ns[kk ftudh ifj.kfr
i+zQkal osQ lezkV dks iQklh fn, tkus esa gqb]Z gkykfd ml le; vfkdka'k yksxksa
dks ,sls urhts dh mEehn ugha FkhA ,slk D;ksa vkSj oSQls gqvk\

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I+kzQkalhlh kafr

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fp=k 1 & ckLrhy dk oalckLrhy oal osQ ckn fp=kdkjksa us bl ?kVuk dh ;kn esa dbZ
fp=k cuk,A
3

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

vBkjgoha lnh osQ mkjkkZ esa i+zQkalhlh lekt

lu~ 1774 esa cwcks jktoa'k dk yqbZ XVI kal dh jktxh ij vklhu gqvkA
ml le; mldh mez osQoy chl lky Fkh vkSj mldk fookg vkWfLV;k
dh jktoqQekjh esjh ,Urks,usr ls gqvk FkkA jkT;kjksg.k osQ le; mlus
jktdks"k [kkyh ik;kA yacs le; rd pys ;qksa osQ dkj.k i+zQkal osQ fokh;
lalkku u"V gks pqosQ FksA olkZ; (Versailles) osQ fo'kky egy vkSj
jktnjckj dh 'kkuks&'kkSdr cuk, j[kus dh fIkQkwy[kphZ dk cks> vyx ls
FkkA yqbZ XVI osQ 'kkludky esa i+zQkal us vesfjdk osQ 13 mifuos'kksa dks
lk>k 'k=kq fczVsu ls vkkkn djkus esa lgk;rk nh FkhA bl ;q osQ pyrs
iz+Qkal ij nl vjc fyozs ls Hkh vfkd dk dkZ vkSj tqM+ x;k tcfd ml
ij igys ls gh nks vjc fyosz dk cks> p<+k gqvk FkkA ljdkj ls dkZnkrk
vc 10 izfr'kr C;kt dh ekx djus yxs FksA iQyLo:i i+zQkalhlh ljdkj
vius ctV dk cgqr cM+k fgLlk fnuksafnu c<+rs tk jgs dkZ dks pqdkus ij
etcwj FkhA vius fu;fer [kpks tSls] lsuk osQ j[k&j[kko] jktnjckj]
ljdkjh dk;kZy;ksa ;k fo'ofo|ky;ksa dks pykus osQ fy, i+zQkalhlh ljdkj
djksa esa o`f osQ fy, ck; gks xbZ ij ;g dne Hkh ukdkI+kQh FkkA
vBkjgoha lnh esa i+Qz kalhlh lekt rhu ,LVsV~l esa cVk Fkk vkSj osQoy
rhljs ,LVsV osQ yksx (tulkkkj.k) gh dj vnk djrs FksA
oxks esa foHkkftr i+zQkalhlh lekt e;dkyhu lkearh O;oLFkk dk vax
FkkA ^izkphu jktra=k* in dk iz;ksx lkekU;r% lu~ 1789 ls igys osQ
i+Qz kalhlh lekt ,oa laLFkkvksa osQ fy, gksrk gSA
fp=k 2 i+zQkalhlh lekt dh oxZ&O;oLFkk dks n'kkZrk gSA iwjh vkcknh esa
yxHkx 90 izfr'kr fdlku FksA ysfdu] kehu osQ ekfyd fdlkuksa dh
la[;k cgqr de FkhA yxHkx 60 izfr'kr kehu ij oqQyhuksa] ppZ vkSj
rhljs ,LVsV~l osQ vehjksa dk vfkdkj FkkA izFke nks ,LVsV~l] oqQyhu oxZ
,oa iknjh oxZ osQ yksxksa dks oqQN fo'ks"kkfkdkj tUeuk izkIr FksA buesa ls
lcls egoiw.kZ fo'ks"kkfkdkj Fkk&&jkT; dks fn, tkus okys djksa ls NwVA
oqQyhu oxZ dks oqQN vU; lkearh fo'ks"kkfkdkj Hkh gkfly FksA og fdlkuksa
ls lkearh dj olwy djrk FkkA fdlku vius Lokeh dh lsok&&Lokeh osQ
?kj ,oa [ksrksa esa dke djuk] lSU; lsok, nsuk vFkok lM+dksa osQ fuekZ.k esa
lg;ksx vkfn&&djus osQ fy, ck; FksA
ppZ Hkh fdlkuksa ls djksa dk ,d fgLlk] Vkbn (Tithe, kkfeZd dj)
osQ :i esa olwyrk FkkA mQij ls rhljs ,LVsV osQ reke yksxksa dks ljdkj
dks rks dj pqdkuk gh gksrk FkkA bu djksa esa Vkby (Taille, izR;{k dj )
vkSj vusd vizR;{k dj 'kkfey FksA vizR;{k dj ued vkSj rEckowQ tSlh
jkskkuk miHkksx dh oLrqvksa ij yxk;k tkrk FkkA bl izdkj jkT; osQ fokh;
dkedkt dk lkjk cks> djksa osQ ek;e ls turk ogu djrh FkhA

izFke ,LVsV
iknjh oxZ

f}rh; ,LVsV

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oqQyhu oxZ

r`rh; ,LVsV

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cM+s O;olk;h] O;kikjh] vnkyrh


deZpkjh] odhy vkfn
fdlku vkSj dkjhxj

NksVs fdlku] Hkwfeghu


eknwj] ukSdj

fp=k 2 & ,LVsV~l dk lekt ;ku nsa fd r`rh; ,LVsV esa oqQN yksx vehj gSa rks oqQN xjhc Hkh gSaA

u, 'kCn

fyozs % i+ Qkaz l dh eqnkz ftls 1794 esa lekIr


dj fn;k x;kA
,LVsV % kafr&iwoZ kalhlh lekt esa lkk
vkSj lkekftd gSfl;r dks vfHkO;Dr djus
okyh Js.khA
iknjh oxZ % ppZ osQ fo'ks"k dk;ks dks djus
okys O;fDr;ksa dk lewgA
Vkbn % ppZ }kjk olwy fd;k tkus okyk
djA ;g dj f"k mit osQ nlosa fgLls osQ
cjkcj gksrk FkkA
Vkby % lhks jkT; dks vnk fd;k tkus okyk
djA

^cspkjk Xkjhc vukt] iQy] iSlk] lykn lc oqQN


ykrk gSA eksVw kehankj lc oqQN Lohdkj djus dkss
rS;kj cSBk gSA ij og mldks ,d ukj ns[krk rd
ughaA*

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f;kdyki

crk, fd fp=kdkj us oqQyhu O;fDr dks edM+s vkSj


fdlku dks eD[kh osQ :i esa D;ksa fpf=kr fd;k gSA

fp=k 3 & edM+k vkSj eD[kh ,d vuke mRdh.kZ fp=kA

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1-1 thus dk la?k"kZ

^'kSrku dks ftruk nks] mldk ykyp mruk gh c<+rk tkrk gSA*

i+zQkal dh tula[;k lu~ 1715 esa 2-3 djksM+ Fkh tks lu~ 1789 esa
c<+dj 2-8 djksM+ gks xbZA ifj.kker% vukt mRiknu dh rqyuk esa mldh
ekx dkI +kQh rskh ls c<+hA vfkdka'k yksxksa osQ eq[; [kk|&ikojksVh&dh
dher esa rskh ls o`f gqbZA vfkdrj dkexkj dkj[kkuksa esa eknwjh djrs
Fks vkSj mudh eknwjh ekfyd r; djrs FksA ysfdu eknwjh egxkbZ dh nj
ls ugha c<+ jgh FkhA iQyLo:i] vehj&xjhc dh [kkbZ pkSM+h gksrh xbZA
fLFkfr;k rc vkSj cnrj gks tkrha tc lw[ks ;k vksys osQ izdksi ls iSnkokj
fxj tkrhA blls jkskh&jksVh dk ladV iSnk gks tkrk FkkA ,sls thfodk
ladV izkphu jktra=k osQ nkSjku i+zQkal esa dkI+kQh vke FksA

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

^oqQyhu O;fDr edM+k gS vkSj fdlku


eD[khA*

u, 'kCn
thfodk ladV % ,slh pje fLFkfr tc thfor
jgus osQ U;wure lkku Hkh [krjs esa iM+us
yxrs gSaA
vuke % ftldk uke ekywe ugha gSA
5

1-2 thfodk dk ladV oSQls mRiUu gksrk gS


vc xjhc&xqjck
ikojksVh ugha
[kjhn ik,xs

[kjkc
I+kQly

egkekjh

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fp=k 4 & thfodk ladV dk p -

f;kdyki

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

1-3 mHkjrs e; oxZ us fo'ks"kkfkdkjksa osQ var dh


dYiuk dh

igys Hkh dj c<+us ,oa vdky osQ le; fdlku vkSj dkexkj fonzksg dj
pqosQ FksA ijarq muosQ ikl lkekftd ,oa vkfFkZd O;oLFkk esa cqfu;knh
cnyko ykus osQ fy, lkku ,oa dk;Ze ugha FksA ;s fkEesnkjh rhljs
,LVsV osQ mu lewgksa us mBkbZ tks le` vkSj f'kf{kr gksdj u, fopkjksa osQ
laioZQ esa vk losQ FksA
vBkjgoha lnh esa ,d u, lkekftd lewg dk mn; gqvk ftls e;
oxZ dgk x;k] ftlus iSQyrs leqnzikjh; O;kikj vkSj uh rFkk js'keh oL=kksa
osQ mRiknu osQ cy ij laifk vftZr dh FkhA uh vkSj js'keh diM+ksa dk
;k rks fu;kZr fd;k tkrk Fkk ;k lekt osQ le` yksx mls [kjhn ysrs FksA
rhljs ,LVsV esa bu lkSnkxjksa ,oa fuekZrkvksa osQ vykok iz'kklfud lsok o
odhy tSls is'ksoj yksx Hkh 'kkfey FksA ;s lHkh i<+s&fy[ks Fks vkSj budk
ekuuk Fkk fd lekt osQ fdlh Hkh lewg osQ ikl tUeuk fo'ks"kkfkdkj ugha
gksus pkfg,A fdlh Hkh O;fDr dh lkekftd gSfl;r dk vkkkj mldh
;ksX;rk gh gksuh pkfg,A Lora=krk] leku fu;eksa rFkk leku voljksa osQ
fopkj ij vkkkfjr lekt dh ;g ifjdYiuk tkWu ykWd vkSj ;k kkd
:lks tSls nk'kZfudksa us izLrqr dh FkhA vius Vw VhVkbksk vkW I+kQ xouZesaV esa

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uhps fn, x, 'kCnksa esa ls lgh 'kCn pqudj fp=k 4


osQ fjDr LFkkuksa dks Hkjsa % [kk| naxs] vUukHkko]
e`rdksa dh la[;k esa o`f] [kk| inkFkks dh
c<+rh dher] dekksj 'kjhjA

ykWd us jktk osQ nSoh vkSj fujaoqQ'k vfkdkjksa osQ flkar dk [kaMu fd;k
FkkA :lks us blh fopkj dks vkxs c<+krs gq, turk vkSj mlosQ izfrfufk;ksa
osQ chp ,d lkekftd vuqcak ij vkkkfjr ljdkj dk izLrko j[kkA
ekWUrsLD;w us n fLifjV vkWI+kQ n ykWk uked jpuk esa ljdkj osQ vanj
fokkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk vkSj U;k;ikfydk osQ chp lkk foHkktu dh ckr
dghA tc la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk esa 13 mifuos'kksa us fczVsu ls [kqn dks
vkkkn ?kksf"kr dj fn;k rks ogk blh ekWMy dh ljdkj cuhA i+zQkal osQ
jktuhfrd fpardksa osQ fy, vesfjdh lafokku vkSj mlesa nh xbZ O;fDrxr
vfkdkjksa dh xkjaVh izsj.kk dk ,d egoiw.kZ ksr FkhA
nk'kZfudksa osQ bu fopkjksa ij dkWI+kQh gkmlksa o lSykWu dh xksf"B;ksa esa
xekZxeZ cgl gqvk djrh vkSj iqLrdksa ,oa v[kckjksa osQ ek;e ls budk
O;kid izpkj&izlkj gqvkA iqLrdksa ,oa v[kckjksa dks yksxksa osQ chp kksj ls
i<+k tkrk rkfd vui<+ Hkh mUgsa le> losaQA blh le; yqbZ XVI }kjk
jkT; osQ [kpks dks iwjk djus osQ fy, fiQj ls dj yxk;s tkus dh [kcj
ls fo'ks"kkfkdkj okyh O;oLFkk osQ fo# xqLlk HkM+d mBkA

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izkphu jktra=k esa gq, vuqHkoksa dk o`kkar


1- vkxs pydj kafrdkjh jktuhfr esa lf; gksus okys tkWtZ nkUru us viuh i<+kbZ iwjh gksus osQ ckn osQ le; dks ;kn
djrs gq, lu~ 1793 esa vius ,d fe=k dks fy[kk %
^eSa Iysfll osQ vkoklh; dkWyst esa FkkA ogk eq>s dbZ egoiw.kZ yksxksa dk lkfUu; feyk---A i<+kbZ iwjh gksus osQ ckn
csdkjh osQ fnuksa esa eSa ukSdjh dh ryk'k esa tqV x;kA isfjl osQ U;k;ky; esa ukSdjh feyuh vlaHko FkhA lsuk esa ukSdjh
dk fodYi Hkh esjs fy, ugha Fkk D;ksafd eSa u rks tUetkr oqQyhu Fkk vkSj u gh esjk dksbZ laj{kd FkkA ppZ Hkh eq>s
vkljk ugha ns ldkA eSa dksbZ vksgnk Hkh [kjhnus dh fLFkfr esa ugha Fkk D;ksafd esjh tsc esa ,d lw (i+zQ kalhlh iSlk)
rd ugha FkkA iqjkus nksLrksa us Hkh eqg eksM+ fy;k FkkA --- O;oLFkk us gesa i<+k&fy[kk rks fn;k Fkk ysfdu gekjh izfrHkk
osQ bLrseky osQ volj miyCk ugha djk, FksA*
2- vkFkZj ;ax uke osQ ,d vaxzsk us lu~ 1787&1789 osQ nkSjku i+zQkal dh ;k=kk dh vkSj viuh ;k=kk dk foLr`r o`kkar
fy[kkA bl o`kkar esa mldh ;g fVIi.kh fnypLi gS %
^lsok&Vgy esa yxs vius xqykeksa] [kklrkSj ij muosQ lkFk cqjk O;ogkj djus okys dks irk gksuk pkfg, fd bl rjg
og viuh fkanxh dks ,slh fLFkfr esa Mky jgk gS tks ml fLFkfr ls fcYoqQy fHkUu gksrh ftlesa mlus eqDr yksxksa dh
lsok, yh gksrha vkSj muls csgrj crkZo djrkA tks vius ihfM+rksa dh djkg lqurs gq, Hkkst mM+kuk ilan djrs gSa mUgsa
naxs osQ nkSjku viuh csVh osQ vigj.k ;k csVs dk xyk jsr fn, tkus dk nq[kM+k ugha jksuk pkfg,A*

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f;kdyki

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

ksr d

ksr

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;gk ;ax D;k lans'k nsus dh dksf'k'k dj jgs gSa\ ^xqykeksa* ls mudk D;k vk'k; gS\ og fdldh vkykspuk dj jgs gSa\
lu~ 1787 esa mUgsa fdu [krjksa dk vkHkkl gksrk gS\

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

kafr dh 'kq#vkr

fiNys Hkkx esa vki ns[k pqosQ gSa fd fdu dkj.kksa ls yqbZ XVI us dj c<+k
fn, FksA D;k vki lksp ldrs gSa fd mlus ,slk oSQls fd;k gksxk\ izkphu
jktra=k osQ rgr iz+Qkalhlh lezkV viuh ekhZ ls dj ugha yxk ldrk FkkA
blosQ fy, mls ,LVsV~l tsujky (izfrfuf/ lHkk) dh cSBd cqyk dj u,
djksa osQ vius izLrkoksa ij eakwjh ysuh iM+rh FkhA ,LVsV~l tsujky ,d
jktuhfrd laLFkk Fkh ftlesa rhuksa ,LVsV vius&vius izfrfufk Hkstrs FksA
ysfdu lezkV gh ;g fu.kZ; djrk Fkk fd bl laLFkk dh cSBd dc cqykbZ
tk,A bldh vafre cSBd lu~ 1614 esa cqykbZ xbZ FkhA
i+zQkalhlh lezkV yqbZ XVI us 5 ebZ 1789 dks u;s djksa osQ izLrko osQ
vuqeksnu osQ fy, ,LVsV~l tsujky dh cSBd cqykbZA izfrfufk;ksa dh
eskckuh osQ fy, olkZ; osQ ,d vkyh'kku Hkou dks ltk;k x;kA igys
vkSj nwljs ,LVsV us bl cSBd esa vius 300&300 izfrfufk Hksts tks
vkeus&lkeus dh drkjksa esa fcBk, x,A rhljs ,LVsV osQ 600 izfrfufk
muosQ ihNs [kM+s fd, x,A rhljs ,LVsV dk izfrfuf/Ro blosQ vis{kkr
le` ,oa f'kf{kr oxZ dj jgs FksA fdlkuksa] vkSjrksa ,oa dkjhxjksa dk lHkk
esa izos'k oftZr FkkA fiQj Hkh yxHkx 40] 000 i=kksa osQ ek;e ls mudh
f'kdk;rksa ,oa ekxksa dh lwph cukbZ xbZ] ftls izfrfufk vius lkFk ysdj
vk, FksA
,LVsV~l tsujky osQ fu;eksa osQ vuqlkj izR;sd oxZ dks ,d er nsus dk
vfkdkj FkkA bl ckj Hkh yqbZ XVI blh izFkk dk ikyu djus osQ fy,
n`<+izfrK FkkA ijarq rhljs oxZ osQ izfrfufk;ksa us ekx j[kh fd vcdh ckj
iwjh lHkk }kjk ernku djk;k tkuk pkfg,] ftlesa izR;sd lnL; dks ,d
er nsus dk vfkdkj gksxkA ;g ,d yksdrkaf=kd flkar Fkk ftls felky
osQ rkSj ij :lks us viuh iqLrd n lks'ky dkWUVSDV esa izLrqr fd;k FkkA
tc lezkV us bl izLrko dks vLohdkj dj fn;k rks rhljs ,LVsV osQ
izfrfufk fojksk trkrs gq, lHkk ls ckgj pys x,A
rhljs ,LVsV osQ izfrfufk [kqn dks laiw.kZ i+zQkalhlh jk"V dk izoDrk
ekurs FksA 20 twu dks ;s izfrfufk olkZ; osQ bUMksj Vsful dksVZ esa tek gq,A
mUgksaus vius vki dks uS'kuy vlsacyh ?kksf"kr dj fn;k vkSj 'kiFk yh fd
tc rd lezkV dh 'kfDr;ksa dks de djus okyk lafokku rS;kj ugha fd;k
tk,xk rc rd vlsacyh Hkax ugha gksxhA mudk usr`Ro fejkC;ks vkSj vkcs
fl, us fd;kA fejkC;ks dk tUe oqQyhu ifjokj esa gqvk Fkk ysfdu og
lkearh fo'ks"kkfkdkjksa okys lekt dks [kRe djus dh k:jr ls lger FkkA
mlus ,d if=kdk fudkyh vkSj olkZ; esa tqVh HkhM+ osQ le{k kksjnkj
Hkk"k.k Hkh fn,A vkcs fl, ewyr% iknjh Fkk vkSj mlus ^rhljk ,LVsV D;k
gS\* 'kh"kZd ls ,d vR;ar izHkko'kkyh izpkj&iqfLrdk (iSE+ysV) fy[khA

oqQN egoiw.kZ frfFk;k


1774
yqbZ XVI i+zQ kal dk jktk curk gSA ljdkjh [kkkuk
[kkyh gks pqdk gS vkSj izkphu jktra=k osQ lekt esa
vlarks"k xgjkrk tk jgk gSA

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1789
,LVsV~l tsujky dk vkkuA r`rh; ,LVsV uS'kuy
vlsca yh dk xBu djrk gSA ckLrhy ij geyk] nsgkr
esa fdlkuksa dk fonzksgA

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1791
lezkV dh 'kfDr;ksa ij vaoQq 'k yxkus vkSj lHkh euq";ksa
dks ewyHkwr vfkdkj iznku djus osQ fy, lafokku
cuk;k tkrk gSA
1792&93
i+zQkal x.kjkT; curk gS_ flj dkV dj jktk dks ekj
fn;k tkrk gSA
tSdksfcu x.kjkT; dk iru_ i+zQ kal ij fMjsDVh dk
'kkluA
1804
usiksfy;u i+ zQkal dk lezkV curk gS_ ;wjksi osQ fo'kky
HkwHkkx ij dCkk dj ysrk gSA
1815
okWVjyw esa usiksfy;u dh gkjA

f;kdyki

r`rh; ,LVsV osQ izfrfufk e; esa ,d esk ij [kM+s


vlsacyh v;{k cs;yh dh vksj gkFk mBkdj 'kiFk
ysrs gSaA D;k vki ekurs gSa fd ml le; cs;yh
fuokZfpr izfrfufk;ksa dh vksj ihB djosQ [kM+k jgk
gksxk\ cs;yh dks bl rjg n'kkZus (fp=k 5) osQ ihNs
MsfoM dk D;k bjknk izrhr gksrk gS\

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ftl oDr uS'kuy vlsacyh lafokku dk izk:i rS;kj djus esa O;Lr
Fkh] iwjk i+zQkal vkanksfyr gks jgk FkkA dM+kosQ dh BaM osQ dkj.k I +kQly ekjh
xbZ Fkh vkSj ikojksVh dh dhersa vkleku Nw jgh FkhaA csdjh ekfyd fLFkfr
dk I+kQk;nk mBkrs gq, tek[kksjh esa tqVs FksA csdjh dh nqdkuksa ij ?kaVksa osQ
barkkj osQ ckn XkqLlk;h vkSjrksa dh HkhM+ us nqdku ij kkok cksy fn;kA
nwljh rjI+kQ lezkV us lsuk dks isfjl esa izos'k djus dk vkns'k ns fn;k FkkA
q HkhM+ us 14 tqykbZ dks ckLrhy ij kkok cksydj mls usLrukcwn dj
fn;kA
nsgkrh bykdksa esa xko&xko ;g vI+kQokg iQSy xbZ fd tkxhjksa osQ
ekfydksa us HkkM+s ij yBSrksa&yqVsjksa osQ fxjksg cqyk fy, gSa tks idh I+kQlyksa
dks rckg djus fudy iM+s gSaA dbZ fkyksa esa Hk; ls vkkar gksdj fdlkuksa
us oqQnkyksa vkSj csypksa ls xzkeh.k fdyksa (chateau) ij vke.k dj fn,A
mUgksaus vUu HkaMkjksa dks ywV fy;k vkSj yxku lacakh nLrkoskksa dks tykdj
jk[k dj fn;kA oqQyhu cM+h la[;k esa viuh tkxhjsa NksM+dj Hkkx x,]
cgqrksa us rks iM+kslh ns'kksa esa tkdj 'kj.k yhA
viuh fonzksgh iztk dh 'kfDr dk vuqeku djosQ] yqbZ XVI us varr%
uS'kuy vlsacyh dks ekU;rk ns nh vkSj ;g Hkh eku fy;k fd mldh lkk
ij vc ls lafokku dk vaoqQ'k gksxkA 4 vxLr] 1789 dh jkr dks
vlsacyh us djksa] dkZO;ksa vkSj cakuksa okyh lkearh O;oLFkk osQ mUewyu dk
vkns'k ikfjr fd;kA iknjh oxZ osQ yksxksa dks Hkh vius fo'ks"kkfkdkjksa dks
NksM+ nsus osQ fy, foo'k fd;k x;kA kkfeZd dj lekIr dj fn;k x;k
vkSj ppZ osQ LokfeRo okyh Hkwfe kCr dj yh xbZA bl izdkj de ls de
20 vjc fyosz dh laifk ljdkj osQ gkFk esa vk xbZA

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fp=k 6 & Hk; dh ygj dk izlkj ekufp=k ls irk pyrk gS fd fdl rjg fdlkuksa osQ tRFks ,d txg
ls nwljh txg iSQyrs pys x,A

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

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fp=k 5 & Vsful dksVZ esa 'kiFk ,d fo'kky isafVax osQ fy, kkd&yqbZ MsfoM }kjk cuk;k x;k 'kq#vkrh js[kkaduA ;g rLohj uS'kuy vlsacyh esa yxkbZ tkuh FkhA

2-1 i+ zQkal laoSkkfud jktra=k cu x;k


uS'kuy vlsacyh us lu~ 1791 esa lafokku dk izk:i iwjk dj fy;kA bldk
eq[; ms'; Fkk&&lezkV dh 'kfDr;ksa dks lhfer djukA ,d O;fDr osQ gkFk
esa osaQnzhr gksus osQ ctk; vc bu 'kfDr;ksa dks fofHkUu laLFkkvksafokkf;dk]
dk;Zikfydk ,oa U;k;ikfydkesa foHkkftr ,oa gLrkarfjr dj fn;k x;kA
bl izdkj i+Qz kal esa laoSkkfud jktra=k dh uhao iM+hA fp=k 7 fn[kkrk gS fd
u;h jktuhfrd O;oLFkk oSQls dke djrh FkhA

U;k;ikfydk

dk;Zikfydk
lezkV

U;k;kkh'k

fu;a=k.k

uS'kuy vlsacyh (745 lnL;)

fu"ks/

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ea=kh

oksV

a=k.k
fu;

oksV
fuokZpd (50] 000 iq#"k)

oksV
lf; ukxfjd % erkfkdkj izkIr yksxA 2-8 djksM+
dh tula[;k esa yxHkx 40 yk[k yksxA

fuf"; ukxfjd % erkfkdkj izkIr ughaA yxHkx 30 yk[k


iq#"kksa] efgykvksa] cPpksa vkSj 25 o"kZ ls de mez osQ
O;fDr;ksa dks erkfkdkj izkIr ugha FkkA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 7 & 1791 osQ lafokku osQ varxZr jktuhfrd O;oLFkk -

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lu~ 1791 osQ lafokku us dkuwu cukus dk vfkdkj uS'kuy vlsacyh


dks lkSai fn;kA uS'kuy vlsacyh vizR;{k :i ls pquh tkrh FkhA loZizFke
ukxfjd ,d fuokZpd lewg dk pquko djrs Fks] tks iqu% vlsacyh osQ
lnL;ksa dks pqurs FksA lHkh ukxfjdksa dks ernku dk vf/dkj ugha FkkA
25 o"kZ ls vfkd mez okys osQoy ,sls iq#"kksa dks gh lf; ukxfjd
(ftUgsa er nsus dk vf/dkj Fkk) dk ntkZ fn;k x;k Fkk] tks de&ls&de
rhu fnu dh eknwjh osQ cjkcj dj pqdkrs FksA 'ks"k iq#"kksa vkSj efgykvksa
dks fuf"; ukxfjd osQ :i esa oxhZr fd;k x;k FkkA fuokZpd dh
;ksX;rk izkIr djus rFkk vlsacyh dk lnL; gksus osQ fy, yksxksa dk
djnkrkvksa dh mPpre Js.kh esa gksuk k:jh FkkA
10

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fokkf;dk

fp=k 8 & ^iq#"k ,oa ukxfjd vfkdkj ?kks"k.kki=k* dk 1790 esa


ys ckfcZ;s }kjk cuk;k x;k fp=kA nk;ha vksj dh vkfr i+zQkal dks vkSj
ck;ha vksj dh dkuwu dks fu:fir djrh gSA

ksr x

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iq#"k ,oa ukxfjd vfkdkj ?kks"k.kki=k

1- vkneh Lora=k iSnk gksrs gSa] Lora=k jgrs gSa vkSj muosQ
vfkdkj leku gksrs gSaA
2- gjsd jktuhfrd laxBu dk y{; vkneh osQ uSlfxZd
,oa vgj.kh; vfkdkjksa dks lajf{kr j[kuk gSA ;s
vfkdkj gSa & Lora=krk] lEifk] lqj{kk ,oa 'kks"k.k
osQ izfrjksk dk vfkdkjA
3- lexz laizHkqrk dk ksr jkT; esa fufgr gS_ dksbZ Hkh
lewg ;k O;fDr ,slk vukfkdkj iz;ksx ugha djsxk
ftls turk dh lkk dh Lohfr u feyh gksA
4- Lora=krk dk vk'k; ,sls dke djus dh 'kfDr ls gS
tks vkSjksa osQ fy, uqdlkunsg u gksA
5- lekt osQ fy, fdlh Hkh gkfudkjd R; ij ikcanh
yxkus dk vfkdkj dkuwu osQ ikl gSA
6- dkuwu lkekU; bPNk dh vfHkO;fDr gSA lHkh ukxfjdksa
dks O;fDrxr :i ls ;k vius izfrfufk;ksa osQ ek;e
ls blosQ fuekZ.k esa Hkkx ysus dk vfkdkj gSA dkuwu
dh ukj esa lHkh ukxfjd leku gSaA
7- dkuwulEer izf;k osQ ckgj fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks u
rks nks"kh Bgjk;k tk ldrk gS vkSj u gh fxj+ rkj
vFkok ukjcan fd;k tk ldrk gSA
11- izR;sd ukxfjd cksyus] fy[kus vkSj Nkius osQ fy,
vkkkn gSA ysfdu dkuwu }kjk fukkZfjr izf;k osQ
rgr ,slh Lora=krk osQ nq#i;ksx dh fkEesnkjh Hkh
mlh dh gksxhA
12- lkoZtfud lsuk rFkk iz'kklu osQ [kpsZ pykus osQ fy,
,d lkekU; dj yxkuk vifjgk;Z gSA lHkh ukxfjdksa
ij mudh vk; osQ vuqlkj leku :i ls dj yxk;k
tkuk pkfg,A
17- pwf d laifk dk vfkdkj ,d ikou ,oa vuqy?a kuh;
vfkdkj gS] vr% fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks blls oafpr
ugha fd;k tk ldrk gS] tc rd fd fofk }kjk
LFkkfir izf;k osQ rgr lkoZtfud vko';drk osQ
fy, laifk dk vfkxzg.k djuk vko';d u gksA
,sls ekeys esa vfxze eqvkokk k:j fn;k tkuk
pkfg,A

lafokku ^iq#"k ,oa ukxfjd vfkdkj ?kks"k.kki=k* osQ lkFk 'kq: gqvk FkkA
thou osQ vfkdkj] vfHkO;fDr dh Lora=krk osQ vfkdkj vkSj dkuwuh
cjkcjh osQ vfkdkj dks ^uSlfxZd ,oa vgj.kh;* vfkdkj osQ :i esa
LFkkfir fd;k x;k vFkkZr~ ;s vfkdkj izR;sd O;fDr dks tUeuk izkIr Fks
vkSj bu vfkdkjksa dks Nhuk ugha tk ldrkA jkT; dk ;g dkZO; ekuk x;k
fd og izR;sd ukxfjd osQ uSlfxZd vfkdkjksa dh j{kk djsA

ksr [k

kafrdkjh i=kdkj ;k&ikWy ejk (Jean-Paul


Marat) us vius v[kckj ykfe n iIy (turk
dk fe=k) esa uS'kuy vlsacyh }kjk rS;kj fd, x,
lafokku ij ;g fVIi.kh dh Fkh %
^turk osQ izfrfufkRo dk dk;ZHkkj vehjksa dks lkSia
fn;k x;k gS --- Xkjhcksa vkSj 'kksf"krksa dh n'kk osQoy
'kkafriw.kZ rjhdksa ls dHkh ugha lqkj ldrhA ;g bl
ckr dk vdkV~; izek.k gS fd kuk<~; oxZ dkuwu dks oSQls izHkkfor djrk gSA fiQj
Hkh ;s dkuwu rHkh rd pysaxs tc rd yksx bUgsa ekusaxsA ftl rjg mUgksaus oqQyhuksa
}kjk ykns x, tq, dks mrkj isaQdk gS ,d fnu ogh gJ vehjksa dk djsaxsA*

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lekpkji=k ykfe n iIy ls m`rA

11

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

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ckWDl 1

jktuhfrd izrhdksa osQ ek;us


vBkjgoha lnh esa ;knkrj L=kh&iq#"k i<+s&fy[ks ugha FksA blfy, egoiw.kZ fopkjksa dk izpkj djus osQ fy, Nis gq, 'kCnksa osQ ctk; vdlj
vkfr;ksa ,oa izrhdksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk FkkA ys ckfcZ;s us viuh isafVax (fp=k 8) esa vfkdkjksa osQ ?kks"k.kki=k dks yksxksa rd igqpkus osQ
fy, vusd izrhdksa dk iz;ksx fd;kA vkb,] bu izrhdksa dks le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaA
VwVh gqbZ kathj % nklksa dks ckkus osQ fy, kathjksa dk iz;ksx gksrk FkkA
VwVh gqbZ gFkdM+h mudh vkkknh dk izrhd gSA

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NM+ksa dk cNhZnkj x_j % vosQyh NM+ dks vklkuh


ls rksM+k tk ldrk gS ij iwjs x_j dks ughaA ,drk
esa gh cy gSA

f=kHkqt osQ vanj jks'kuh fc[ksjrh vk[k % loZn'khZ vk[k Kku dk


izrhd gSA lw;Z dh fdj.ksa vKku :ih vaksjs dks feVk nsaxhA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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jktnaM % 'kkgh lkk dk izrhdA

viuh iwN eqg esa fy, lki % lukrurk dk izrhdA vxwBh dk


dksbZ vksj&Nksj ugha gksrkA

12

yky kbft;u Vksih % nklksa }kjk Lora=k gksus osQ ckn


iguh tkus okyh VksihA

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uhyk&lI +ksQn&yky % i+zQ kal osQ
jk"Vh; jaxA

f;kdyki

1- ckWDl 1 esa Lora=krk] lekurk ,oa cakqRo osQ


izrhdksa dh igpku djsaA
2- ys ckfcZ;s osQ ^iq#"k ,oa ukxfjd vfkdkj
?kks"k.kki=k* (fp=k 8) esa fpf=kr izrhdksa dh
O;k[;k djsaA

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fofk iV % dkuwu lcosQ fy, leku gS vkSj mldh ukj esa


lc cjkcj gSaA

5- i+Qz kal dh ?kVukvksa ls fujaoqQ'k jktra=k okys iz'kk]


vkWfLV;k] gaxjh ;k Lisu vkfn ns'kksa ij iM+us okys
izHkkoksa dh dYiuk dhft,A i+Qz kal esa gks jgh
?kVukvksa dh [kcjksa ij jktkvks]a O;kikfj;ks]a fdlkuks]a
oqQyhuksa ,oa iknfj;ksa us oSQlh izfrf;k nh gksxh\

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

MSuksa okyh L=kh % dkuwu dk


ekuoh; :iA

3- 1791 osQ lafokku esa ukxfjdksa dks fn, x,


jktuhfrd vfkdkjksa osQ ?kks"k.kki=k (ksr x)
osQ vuqPNsn 1 ,oa 6 esa fn, x, vfkdkjksa ls
rqyuk djsaA D;k nksuksa nLrkosk ,d&nwljs osQ
vuq:i gS\a D;k nksuksa nLrkoskksa ls ,d gh fopkj
dk cksk gksrk gS\
4- 1791 osQ lafokku ls i+Qz kalhlh lekt osQ dkSu&ls
lewg ykHkkfUor gq, gksrs\ fdu lewgksa dks blls
vlarks"k gks ldrk Fkk\ ejk us Hkfo"; osQ ckjs esa
dkSu&ls iwokZuqeku (ksr [k) yxk, Fks\

13

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

i+Qz kal esa jktra=k dk mUewyu vkSj x.kra=k


dh LFkkiuk

i+zQkal dh fLFkfr vkus okys o"kks esa Hkh rukoiw.kZ cuh jghA ;|fi yqbZ XVI
us lafokku ij gLrk{kj dj fn, Fks] ijUrq iz'kk osQ jktk ls mldh xqIr
okrkZ Hkh py jgh FkhA i+zQkal dh ?kVukvksa ls vU; iM+kslh ns'kksa osQ 'kkld
Hkh fpafrr FksA blfy, 1789 dh xfeZ;ksa osQ ckn gksus okyh ,slh ?kVukvksa
dks fu;af=kr djus osQ fy, bu 'kkldksa us lsuk Hkstus dh ;kstuk cuk yh
FkhA ysfdu tc rd bl ;kstuk ij vey gksrk] vizSy 1792 esa uS'kuy
vlsacyh us iz'kk ,oa vkWfLV;k osQ fo# ;q dh ?kks"k.kk dk izLrko ikfjr
dj fn;kA izkarksa ls gkkjksa Lo;alsoh lsuk esa HkrhZ gksus osQ fy, tek gksus
yxsA mUgksaus bl ;q dks ;wjksih; jktkvksa ,oa oqQyhuksa osQ fo# turk dh
tax osQ :i esa fy;kA muosQ gksBksa ij ns'kHkfDr osQ tks rjkus Fks muesa dfo
jkWtsV fn ykby }kjk jfpr ekflZys Hkh FkkA ;g xhr igyh ckj ekflZysl
osQ Lo;alsfo;ksa us isfjl dh vksj owQp djrs gq, xk;k FkkA blfy, bl xkus
dk uke ekflZys gks x;k tks vc i+zQkal dk jk"Vxku gSA
kafrdkjh ;qksa ls turk dks Hkkjh {kfr ,oa vkfFkZd dfBukb;k >syuh
iM+hAa iq#"kksa osQ ekspZs ij pys tkus osQ ckn ?kj&ifjokj vkSj jkskh&jksVh dh
fkEesokjh vkSjrksa osQ dakksa ij vk iM+hA ns'k dh vkcknh osQ ,d cM+s fgLls
dks ,slk yxrk Fkk fd kafr osQ flyflys dks vkxs c<+kus dh k:jr gS
D;ksfa d 1791 osQ lafokku ls flI+kQZ vehjksa dks gh jktuhfrd vfkdkj izkIr
gq, FksA yksx jktuhfrd Dycksa esa vas tek dj ljdkjh uhfr;ksa vkSj viuh
dk;Z;kstuk ij cgl djrs FksA buesa ls tSdksfcu Dyc lcls liQy Fkk]
ftldk uke isfjl osQ HkwriwoZ dkWUosVa vkWI+kQ lsVa tsdc osQ uke ij iM+k] tks
vc bl jktuhfrd lewg dk vak cu x;k FkkA bl iwjh vofk esa efgyk,
Hkh lf; Fkha vkSj mUgksua s Hkh vius Dyc cuk fy,A bl v;k; osQ [k.M 4
esa vki mudh xfrfofk;ksa ,oa ekxksa osQ ckjs esa vkSj tkusxa As
tSdksfcu Dyc osQ lnL; eq[;r% lekt osQ de le` fgLls ls vkrs
FksA buesa NksVs nqdkunkj vkSj dkjhxj&&tSls twrk cukus okys] isLVh cukus
okys] ?kM+hlkk] NikbZ djus okys vkSj ukSdj o fngkM+h eknwj 'kkfey FksA
mudk usrk eSDlfefy;u jkscLs I;sj FkkA tSdksfcuksa osQ ,d cM+s oxZ us xksnh
dkexkjksa dh rjg kkjhnkj yach irywu iguus dk fu.kZ; fd;kA ,slk mUgksua s
lekt osQ I +kSQ'kuijLr oxZ] [kklrkSj ls ?kqVus rd igus tkus okys czhpsl
(?kqVUuk) iguus okys oqQyhuksa ls [kqn dks vyx djus osQ fy, fd;kA ;g
czhpsl iguus okys oqQyhuksa dh lkk lekfIr osQ ,yku dk mudk rjhdk FkkA

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u, 'kCn
dkWUosaV % kkfeZd thou dks lefiZr lewg dh bekjrA
fp=k 9 & lkSa oqQykWr (fcuk czhpsl okys) naifk 14

fp=k 10 & ukuhu okySa] fycVhZ (Lora=krk);g fdlh efgyk dykdkj }kjk jfpr nqyZHk fp=kksa esa ls ,d gSA
kafrdkjh ?kVuke osQ ckn efgykvksa osQ fy, ;g laHko gks x;k fd
os LFkkfir fp=kdkjksa osQ lkFk izf'k{k.k izkIr dj losQa vkSj gj nks lky
esa yxus okyh lSykWu uked uqekb'k esa vius fp=kksa dks iznf'kZr dj
losaQA ;g rLohj Lora=krk dk ukjh :id gS vFkkZr~ ukjh&vkfr
Lora=krk dk izrhd gSA

f;kdyki

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bl fp=k dks ;ku ls ns[ksa vkSj mu oLrqvksa dh lwph


cuk, ftUgsa vkius jktuhfrd izrhdksa osQ :i esa
ckWDl 1 esa ns[kk gS (yky Vksih] VwVh gqbZ kathj] NM+ksa
dk cNhZnkj x_j] vfkdkjksa dk ?kks"k.kki=k)A fijkfeM
lekurk dk izrhd gS ftls vdlj ,d f=kHkqt osQ
:i esa fn[kk;k tkrk FkkA bu izrhdksa dh lgk;rk ls
bl fp=k dh O;k[;k djsaA Lora=krk dh izfrewfrZ bl
efgyk ewfrZ osQ ckjs esa vkiosQ D;k fopkj gSaA

blfy, tSdksfcuksa dks ^lkSa oqQykWr* osQ uke ls tkuk x;k ftldk 'kkfCnd
vFkZ gksrk gS & fcuk ?kqVUus okysA lkSa oqQykWr iq#"k yky jax dh Vksih Hkh
igurs Fks tks Lora=krk dk izrhd FkhA ysfdu efgykvksa dks ,slk djus dh
vuqefr ugha FkhA
lu~ 1792 dh xfeZ;ksa esa tSdksfcuksa us [kk| inkFkks dh egxkbZ ,oa
vHkko ls ukjkk isfjlokfl;ksa dks ysdj ,d fo'kky fgald fonzksg dh
;kstuk cuk;hA 10 vxLr dh lqcg mUgksaus V~;wysfj, osQ egy ij kkok
cksy fn;k] jktk osQ j{kdksa dks ekj Mkyk vkSj [kqn jktk dks dbZ ?kaVksa rd
cakd cuk;s j[kkA ckn esa vlsacyh us 'kkgh ifjokj dks tsy esa Mky nsus
dk izLrko ikfjr fd;kA u;s pquko djk;s x,A 21 o"kZ ls vfkd mez okys
lHkh iq#"kksa & pkgs muosQ ikl laifk gks ;k ugha & dks ernku dk vfkdkj
fn;k x;kA
uofuokZfpr vlsacyh dks dUosa'ku dk uke fn;k x;kA 21 flracj
1792 dks blus jktra=k dk var dj fn;k vkSj i+zQkal dks ,d x.kra=k ?kksf"kr
fd;kA tSlk fd vki tkurs gSa] x.kra=k ljdkj dk og :i gS tgk ljdkj
,oa mlosQ izeq[k dk pquko turk djrh gSA ;g oa'kkuqxr jkt'kkgh ugha
gSA vki oqQN vU; x.krkaf=kd ns'kksa osQ ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr djus dh
dksf'k'k djsa vkSj ns[ksa fd os dc vkSj oSQls x.kra=k cusA

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

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yqbZ XVI dks U;k;ky; }kjk ns'kksg osQ vkjksi esa ekSr dh lkk lquk
nh xbZA 21 tuojh 1793 dks Iysl Mh ykW dkWUdkWMZ esa mls lkoZtfud
:i ls iQklh ns nh xbZA tYn gh jkuh esjh ,Urks,usr dk Hkh ogh gJ gqvkA

u, 'kCn
ns'knzkgs % vius ns'k ;k ljdkj ls fo'okl?kkr
djukA

3-1 vkrad jkt


lu~ 1793 ls 1794 rd osQ dky dks vkrad dk ;qx dgk tkrk gSA
jkscsLI;sj us fu;a=k.k ,oa naM dh l[r uhfr viukbZA mlosQ fglkc ls
x.kra=k osQ tks Hkh 'k=kq Fks & oqQyhu ,oa iknjh] vU; jktuhfrd nyksa osQ ksr ?k
lnL;] mldh dk;Z'kSyh ls vlgefr j[kus okys ikVhZ lnL; & mu lHkh
Lora=krk (fycVhZ) D;k gS \ nks ijLij fojkskh
dks fxj+rkj dj tsy esa Mky fn;k x;k vkSj ,d kafrdkjh U;k;ky; }kjk
fopkj %
mu ij eqdnek pyk;k x;kA ;fn U;k;ky; mUgsa ^nks"kh* ikrk rks fxyksfVu
kafrdkjh i=kdkj oSQfey MsLekWfyUl us lu~ 1793
ij p<+kdj mudk flj dye dj fn;k tkrk FkkA fxyksfVu nks [kaHkksa osQ
esa ;g fy[kkA blosQ oqQN gh fnuksa ckn vkrad jkt
chp yVdrs vkjs okyh e'khu Fkk ftl ij j[k dj vijkkh dk flj kM+
osQ nkSjku mls iQklh ns nh xb
ls vyx dj fn;k tkrk FkkA bl e'khu dk uke blosQ vkfo"dkjd
^oqQN yksxksa dk ekuuk gS fd Lora=krk ,d f'k'kq osQ
MkW- fxyksfVu osQ uke ij iM+kA
leku gS ftls ifjiDo gksus rd vuq'kklu dh
jkscsLI;sj ljdkj us dkuwu cuk dj eknwjh ,oa dherksa dh vfkdre
voLFkk ls xqkjuk vko';d gSA ij lR; oqQN vkSj
lhek r; dj nhA xks'r ,oa ikojksVh dh jk'kfuax dj nh xbZA fdlkuksa dks
gSA Lora=krk lq[k&'kkafr gS] foosd gS] lekurk ,oa
viuk vukt 'kgjksa esa ys tkdj ljdkj }kjk r; dher ij cspus osQ fy,
U;k; gS] ;g vfkdkjksa dk ?kks"k.kki=k gS---A vki
ck; fd;k x;kA vis{kkr egxs lI+ksQn vkVs osQ bLrseky ij jksd yxk
'kk;n vius lHkh nq'euksa dk flj dkV nsuk pkgrs
nh xbZA lHkh ukxfjdksa osQ fy, lkcqr xsgw ls cuh vkSj cjkcjh dk izrhd
gSaA D;k blls cM+h ew[kZrk gks ldrh gS\ D;k fdlh
,d O;fDr dks] mlosQ nfl;ksa lxs&lacafk;ksa dks
ekuh tkus okyh] ^lerk jksVh* [kkuk vfuok;Z dj fn;k x;kA cksypky vkSj
nq'eu cuk;s fcuk iQklh osQ
lacksku esa Hkh cjkcjh dk vkpkj&O;ogkj ykxw djus dh dksf'k'k dh xbZA
r[rs rd ykuk laHko gS\
ijaijkxr ekWUL;wj (egk'k;) ,oa enke (egksn;k) osQ LFkku ij vc lHkh
7 I+kQjojh 1794 dks jkscLs I;sj
I+kzQkalhlh iq#"kksa ,oa efgykvksa dks flrks;su (ukxfjd) ,oa flrks;hu
us dUosa'ku esa Hkk"k.k fn;k
(ukxfjdk) uke ls lacksfkr fd;k tkus yxkA ppks dks can dj fn;k x;k
tks y eksuhrsj ;wfuolsZy
vkSj muosQ Hkouksa dks cSjd ;k n+rj cuk fn;k x;kA
v[kckj esa NikA mlh Hkk"k.k
jkscsLI;sj us viuh uhfr;ksa dks bruh l[rh ls ykxw fd;k fd mlosQ
dk ,d va'k % ^yksdra=k dks
leFkZd Hkh =kkfg&=kkfg djus yxsA varr% tqykbZ 1794 esa U;k;ky; }kjk
LFkkfir vkSj lqn`<+ djus osQ fy,] lafokku lEer
mls nks"kh Bgjk;k x;k vkSj fxj+ rkj djosQ vxys gh fnu mls fxyksfVu
'kkafriw.kZ 'kklu osQ fy, gesa lcls igys vR;kpkjh
ij p<+k fn;k x;kA
fujaoqQ'krk osQ fo# Lora=krk dh yM+kbZ dks vafre

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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f;kdyki

MsLekWfyUl vkSj jkscsLI;sj osQ fopkjksa dh rqyuk djsaA jkT;&'kfDr osQ iz;ksx ls nksuksa
dk D;k rkRi;Z gS\ ^fujaoqQ'krk osQ fo# Lora=krk dh yM+kbZ* ls jkscsLI;sj dk D;k
eryc gS\ MsLekWfyUl Lora=krk dks oSQls ns[krk gS\ ,d ckj fiQj ksr x ns[ksaA
O;fDrxr vfkdkjksa osQ ckjs esa lafokku esa dkSu&ls izkokku Fks\ bl fo"k; ij viuh
d{kk esa ppkZ djsaA

16

ifj.kfr rd igqpkuk gksxk--- x.kra=k osQ ?kjsyw ,oa


ckgjh nq'euksa dk fouk'k djuk vko';d gS vU;Fkk
ge [kqn u"V gks tk,xAs kafr osQ nkSj esa yksdrkaf=kd
ljdkj vkrad dk lgkjk ys ldrh gSA vkrad cl
dBksj] rqjark vkSj vuE; U;k; gS--- ftldk iz;ksx
fir`Hkwfe dh vR;ko';d k:jrksa dks iwjk djus osQ
fy, fd;k gh tk,xkA vkrad osQ kfj, Lora=krk osQ
nq'euksa ij vaoqQ'k yxkuk x.kra=k osQ laLFkkid dk
vfkdkj gSA*

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3-2 fMjsDVh 'kkflr i+zQkal

tSdksfcu ljdkj osQ iru osQ ckn e; oxZ osQ laiUu rcosQ osQ ikl lkk
vk xbZA u, lafokku osQ rgr lEifkghu rcosQ dks erkfkdkj ls oafpr
dj fn;k x;kA bl lafokku esa nks pquh xbZ fokku ifj"knksa dk izkokku FkkA
bu ifj"knksa us ikp lnL;ksa okyh ,d dk;Zikfydk & fMjsDVh & dks fu;qDr
fd;kA bl izkokku osQ kfj, tSdksfcuksa osQ 'kkludky okyh ,d O;fDr&osQa fnzr
dk;Zikfydk ls cpus dh dksf'k'k dh xbZA ysfdu] fMjsDVjksa dk >xM+k
vdlj fokku ifj"kn~ksa ls gksrk vkSj rc ifj"kn~ mUgsa c[kkZLr djus dh
ps"Vk djrhA fMjsDVh dh jktuhfrd vfLFkjrk us lSfud rkuk'kkg & usiksfy;u
cksukikVZ & osQ mn; dk ekxZ iz'kLr dj fn;kA
ljdkj osQ Lo:i esa bu lHkh ifjorZuksa osQ nkSjku Lora=krk] fofklEer
lekurk vkSj cakqRo izsjd vkn'kZ cus jgsA bu ewY;ksa us vkxkeh lnh
esa u flI+kZQ i+zQkal cfYd ckdh ;wjksi osQ jktuhfrd vkanksyuksa dks Hkh
izsfjr fd;kA

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I+kzQkalhlh kafr

+
fp=k 11 & kafrdkjh ljdkj us vusd izdkj ls turk dh oIkQknkjh
gkfly djuh pkgh & muesa ls ,d bl izdkj osQ mRloksa dk vk;kstu FkkA ,d xkSjoe; bfrgkl dh vkHkk dks
laizsf"kr djus osQ fy, izkphu ;wuku o jkse dh lH;rkvksa osQ izrhdksa dk bLrseky fd;k x;kA eap osQ chpksachp cus ik;ksa ij fVdk gqvk Dykfldh eaMi vLFkk;h lkexzh dk cuk Fkk
ftls tc pkgs rksM+k tk ldrk FkkA

f;kdyki
;gk fpf=kr tulewg] mudh os'kHkw"kk] Hkwfedk ,oa
f;kdyki dk o.kZu djsaA bl fp=k ls kafrdkjh
mRlo dh oSQlh Nfo curh gS\

17

D;k efgykvksa osQ fy, Hkh kafr gqbZ\

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 12 & olkZ; dh vksj owQp djrh isfjl dh vkSjrsa ;g fp=k 5 vDVwcj 1789 dh ?kVukvksa osQ dbZ fp=kksa esa ls ,d gSA ml fnu efgyk, isfjl ls olkZ; tkdj jktk dks vius lkFk ysdj ykSVh FkhaA

efgyk, 'kq: ls gh i+Qz klhlh lekt esa brus vge ifjorZu ykus okyh
xfrfofk;ksa esa lf; :i ls 'kkfey FkhaA mUgsa mEehn Fkh fd mudh
Hkkxhnkjh kafrdkjh ljdkj dks mudk thou lqkkjus gsrq Bksl dne mBkus
osQ fy, izfs jr djsxhA rhljs ,LVsV dh vfkdka'k efgyk, thfodk fuokZg osQ
fy, dke djrh FkhaA os flykbZ&cqukbZ] diM+kas dh kqykbZ djrh Fkha] ckkkjksa
esa iQy&iwQy&lfCk;k csprh Fkha vFkok laiUu ?kjksa esa ?kjsyw dke djrh FkhaA
cgqr lkjh efgyk, os';ko`fk djrh FkhaA vfkdka'k efgykvksa osQ ikl
i<+kbZ&fy[kkbZ rFkk O;kolkf;d izf'k{k.k osQ ekSoQs ugha FksA osQoy oqQyhuksa dh
yM+fd;k vFkok rhljs ,LVsV osQ kuh ifjokjksa dh yM+fd;k gh dkWUosVa esa
i<+ ikrh Fkha] blosQ ckn mudh 'kknh dj nh tkrh FkhA dkedkth efgykvksa
dks vius ifjokj dk ikyu&iks"k.k Hkh djuk iM+rk Fkk&&tSls [kkuk idkuk]
ikuh ykuk] ykbu yxk dj ikojksVh ykuk vkSj cPpksa dh ns[k&js[k vkfn
djukA mudh eknwjh iq#"kksa dh rqyuk esa de FkhA
efgykvksa us vius fgrksa dh fgek;r djus vkSj mu ij ppkZ djus osQ
fy, [kqn osQ jktuhfrd Dyc 'kq: fd, vkSj v[kckj fudkysA I+ kzQkal osQ
fofHkUu uxjksa esa efgykvksa osQ yxHkx 60 Dyc vfLrRo esa vk,A muesa

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f;kdyki

fp=k 12 esa vafdr vkSjrksa] muoQh f;kvksa] muosQ


gko&Hkko ,oa muosQ gkFk dh oLrqvksa dk fooj.k nsaA
xkSj ls ns[ksa fd D;k os lHkh ,d gh lkekftd oxZ
dh yxrh gS\a fp=kdkj us bl vkfr esa fdu izrhdksa
dks 'kkfey fd;k gS\ bu izrhdksa osQ D;k ek;us gSa\
D;k efgykvksa dks ns[kdj yxrk gS fd os lkoZtfud
:i ls ogh dj jgh gSa ftldh muls mEehn dh
tkrh Fkh\ vki D;k lksprs gSa % fp=kdkj efgykvksa
osQ lkFk gS ;k muosQ fojksk esa [kM+k gS\ d{kk esa
viuh jk; ij fopkj&foe'kZ dhft,A

^n lkslkbVh vkWI+kQ jsoyw'kujh ,aM fjifCydu foesu* lcls e'kgwj Dyc


FkkA mudh ,d izeq[k ekx ;g Fkh fd efgykvksa dks iq#"kksa osQ leku
jktuhfrd vfkdkj izkIr gksus pkfg,A efgyk, bl ckr ls fujk'k gqb fd
1791 osQ lafokku esa mUgsa fuf"; ukxfjd dk ntkZ fn;k x;k FkkA
efgykvksa us erkfkdkj] vlsacyh osQ fy, pqus tkus rFkk jktuhfrd inksa
dh ekx j[khA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd rHkh ubZ ljdkj esa muosQ fgrksa dk
izfrfufkRo gks ik,xkA
izkja fHkd o"kks esa kafrdkjh ljdkj us efgykvksa osQ thou esa lqkkj
ykus okys oqQN dkuwu ykxw fd,A ljdkjh fo|ky;ksa dh LFkkiuk osQ lkFk
gh lHkh yM+fd;ksa osQ fy, LowQyh f'k{kk dks vfuok;Z cuk fn;k x;kA vc
firk mUgsa mudh ekhZ osQ f[kykI +kQ 'kknh osQ fy, ck; ugha dj ldrs FksA
'kknh dks LoSfPNd vuqcak ekuk x;k vkSj ukxfjd dkuwuksa osQ rgr mudk
iathdj.k fd;k tkus yxkA rykd dks dkuwuh :i ns fn;k x;k vkSj
enZ&vkSjr nksuksa dks gh bldh vkhZ nsus dk vfkdkj fn;k x;kA vc
efgyk, O;kolkf;d izf'k{k.k ys ldrh Fkha] dykdkj cu ldrh Fkha vkSj
NksVs&eksVs O;olk; pyk ldrh FkhaA
fiQj Hkh] jktuhfrd vfkdkjksa osQ fy, efgykvksa dk la?k"kZ tkjh jgkA
vkrad jkt osQ nkSjku ljdkj us efgyk Dycksa dks can djus vkSj mudh
jktuhfrd xfrfofk;ksa ij izfrcak yxkus okyk dkuwu ykxw fd;kA dbZ
tkuh&ekuh efgykvksa dks fxj+rkj dj fy;k x;k vkSj muesa ls oqQN dks
iQklh ij p<+k fn;k x;kA
erkfkdkj vkSj leku osru osQ fy, efgykvksa dk vkanksyu vxyh
lnh esa Hkh vusd ns'kksa esa pyrk jgkA erkfkdkj dk la?k"kZ mUuhloha lnh
osQ var ,oa chloha lnh osQ izkjaHk rd varjkZ"Vh; erkfkdkj vkanksyu osQ
kfj, tkjh jgkA kafrdkjh vkanksyu osQ nkSjku i+zQkalhlh efgykvksa dh
jktuhfrd ljxfeZ;ksa dks izsjd Le`fr osQ :i esa knk j[kk x;kA varr% lu~
1946 esa i+zQkal dh efgykvksa us erkfkdkj gkfly dj fy;kA

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kafrdkjh efgyk vksyEi ns xwk (1748&1793) dk thou

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

vksyEi ns xwk kafrdkyhu i+zQkal dh jktuhfrd :i ls lf; efgykvksa esa lcls egoiw.kZ
FkhaA mUgksaus lafokku rFkk ^iq#"k ,oa ukxfjd vfkdkj ?kks"k.kki=k* dk fojksk fd;k D;ksafd
mlesa efgykvksa dks ekuo ek=k osQ ewyHkwr vfkdkjksa ls oafpr j[kk x;k FkkA blfy, mUgksaus
lu~ 1791 esa ^efgyk ,oa ukxfjd vfkdkj ?kks"k.kki=k* rS;kj fd;k ftls egkjkuh vkSj
uS'kuy vlsacyh osQ lnL;ksa osQ ikl ;g ekx djrs gq, Hkstk fd bl ij dkjZokbZ dh tk,A
lu~ 1793 esa vksyEi ns xwk us efgyk Dycksa dks kcnZLrh can dj nsus osQ fy, tSdksfcu
ljdkj dh vkykspuk dhA mu ij uS'kuy dUosa'ku }kjk ns'knzksg dk eqdnek pyk;k x;kA
blosQ rqjar ckn mUgsa iQklh ij yVdk fn;k x;kA

19

ksr N
vksyEi ns xwk osQ ?kks"k.kki=k esa mfYyf[kr oqQN ewyHkwr vfkdkj
1- vkSjr tUeuk Lora=k gS vkSj vfkdkjksa esa iq#"k osQ leku gSA
2- lHkh jktuhfrd laxBuksa dk y{; iq#"k ,oa efgyk osQ uSlfxZd vfkdkjksa dks
lajf{kr djuk gSA ;s vfkdkj gSa Lora=krk] laifk] lqj{kk vkSj lcls c<+dj
'kks"k.k osQ izfrjksk dk vfkdkjA
3- lexz laizHkqrk dk ksr jk"V esa fufgr gS tks iq#"kksa ,oa efgykvksa osQ la?k osQ
flok; oqQN ugha gSA
4- dkuwu lkekU; bPNk dh vfHkO;fDr gksuh pkfg,A lHkh efgyk ,oa iq#"k
ukxfjdksa dk ;k rks O;fDrxr :i ls ;k vius izfrfufk;ksa osQ ek;e ls
fofk&fuekZ.k esa n[ky gksuk pkfg,A ;g lHkh osQ fy, leku gksuk pkfg,A lHkh
efgyk ,oa iq#"k ukxfjd viuh ;ksX;rk ,oa izfrHkk osQ cy ij leku :i ls
,oa fcuk fdlh HksnHkko osQ gj rjg osQ lEeku o lkoZtfud in osQ gdnkj gSaA
5- dksbZ Hkh efgyk viokn ugha gSA og fofklEer izf;k }kjk vijkkh Bgjk;h
tk ldrh gS] fxj+rkj vkSj ukjcan dh tk ldrh gSA iq#"kksa dh rjg efgyk,
Hkh bl dBksj dkuwu dk ikyu djsaA

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vksyEi ns xwk }kjk rS;kj fd, x, ?kks"k.kki=k (ksr N)


rFkk ^iq#"k ,oa ukxfjd vfkdkj ?kks"k.kki=k* (ksr x)
dh rqyuk djsaA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 13 & csdjh dh nqdku ij drkj esa efgyk, -

f;kdyki

dYiuk djsa fd vki fp=k 13 dh dksbZ efgyk gSa vkSj 'kksesr (ksr t) osQ rdks
dk tokc nsaA

20

lu~ 1793 esa tSdksfcu jktuhfrK 'kksesr us bu


vkkkjksa ij efgyk Dycksa dks can djus osQ fu.kZ; dks
mfpr Bgjk;k %
^D;k izfr us ?kjsyw dk;Z iq#"kksa dks lkSaik gS\
D;k izfr us cPpksa dks nwk fiykus osQ fy, gesa Lru
fn, gSa\
ughaA
izfr us iq#"k ls dgk %
iq#"k cuksA f'kdkj] f"k] jktuhfrd dkZO; --- ;g
rqEgkjk lkezkT; gSA
izfr us efgyk ls dgk %
L=kh cuks --- x`gLFkh osQ dke] ekr`Ro osQ lq[kn nkf;Ro
& ;gh rqEgkjs dk;Z gSaA
iq#"k cuus dh bPNk j[kus okyh efgyk, fuyZTt gSAa
D;k fkEesnkfj;ksa dk mfpr cVokjk gks ugha pqdk gS\*

nkl&izFkk dk mUewyu

I+kzQkalhlh mifuos'kksa esa nkl&izFkk dk mUewyu tSdksfcu 'kklu osQ kafrdkjh


lkekftd lqkkjksa esa ls ,d FkkA oSQfjfcvkbZ mifuos'k&&ekfVZfud] xkWMsyksi
vkSj lSu Mksfeaxksa&&rEckowQ] uhy] phuh ,oa dkWI +kQh tSlh oLrqvksa osQ
egoiw.kZ vkiwfrZdrkZ FksA vifjfpr ,oa nwj ns'k tkus vkSj dke djus osQ
izfr ;wjksfi;ksa dh vfuPNk dk eryc Fkk&&ckxkuksa esa Je dh dehA bl
deh dks ;wjksi] vi+Qz hdk ,oa vesfjdk osQ chp f=kdks.kh; nkl&O;kikj }kjk
iwjk fd;k x;kA nkl&O;kikj l=kgoha 'krkCnh esa 'kq: gqvkA I+kzQkalhlh
lkSnkxj cksnsZ ;k ukUrs cUnjxkg ls vi+zQhdk rV ij tgkk ys tkrs Fks] tgk
os LFkkuh; ljnkjksa ls nkl [kjhnrs FksA nklksa dks nkx dj ,oa gFkdfM+;k
Mky dj vVykafVd egklkxj osQ ikj oSQfjfcvkbZ ns'kksa rd rhu ekg dh
yach leqnzh&;k=kk osQ fy, tgkkksa esa Bwl fn;k tkrk FkkA ogk mUgsa
ckxku&ekfydksa dks csp fn;k tkrk FkkA nkl&Je osQ cy ij ;wjksih;
ckkkjksa esa phuh] dkWi+Qh ,oa uhy dh c<+rh ekx dks iwjk djuk laHko gqvkA
cksnsZ vkSj ukUrs tSls canjxkg iQyrs&iwQyrs nkl&O;kikj osQ dkj.k gh le`
uxj cu x,A
vBkjgoha lnh esa i+zQkal esa nkl&izFkk dh T;knk fuank ugha gqbZA uS'kuy
vlsacyh esa yach cgl gqbZ fd O;fDr osQ ewyHkwr vfkdkj mifuos'kksa esa
jgus okyh iztk lfgr leLr i+zQkalhlh iztk dks iznku fd, tk, ;k ughaA
ijUrq nkl&O;kikj ij fuHkZj O;kikfj;ksa osQ fojksk osQ Hk; ls uS'kuy
vlsacyh esa dksbZ dkuwu ikfjr ugha fd;k x;kA ysfdu varr% lu~ 1794
osQ dUosa'ku us i+zQkalhlh mifuos'kksa esa lHkh nklksa dh eqfDr dk dkuwu ikfjr
dj fn;kA ij ;g dkuwu ,d NksVh&lh vofk rd gh ykxw jgkA nl o"kZ
ckn usiksfy;u us nkl&izFkk iqu% 'kq: dj nhA ckxku&ekfydksa dks vius
vkfFkZd fgr lkkus osQ fy, vi+zQhdh uhxzks yksxksa dks xqyke cukus dh
Lora=krk fey x;hA i+zQkalhlh mifuos'kksa ls vafre :i ls nkl&izFkk dk
mUewyu 1848 esa fd;k x;kA

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fp=k 14 & nkleqfDr lu~ 1794 osQ bl fp=k esa nklksa dh eqfDr dk fooj.k gSA 'kh"kZ ij
frjaxs cSuj dk ukjk gS & ^euq"; osQ vfkdkj*A uhps vfHkys[k dgrk
gS & ^xqykeksa dh eqfDr*A ,d i+zQkalhlh efgyk vi+zQhdh ,oa
vesfjdh&bafM;u nklksa dks ;wjksih; diM+s nsdj mUgsa ^lH;* cukus dh
ps"Vk dj jgh gSA

u, 'kCn

uhxzks % vi+zQhdk esa lgkjk jsfxLrku osQ nf{k.k esa


jgus okys LFkkuh; yksxA ;g viekutud 'kCn
gS] ftldk vc izk;% bLrseky ugha fd;k
tkrkA

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

21

kafr vkSj jkskkuk dh fkanxh

D;k jktuhfr yksxksa dk igukok] mudh cksypky vFkok muosQ }kjk i<+h
tkusokyh iqLrdksa dks cny ldrh gS\ lu~ 1789 ls ckn osQ o"kks esa i+Qz kal
osQ iq#"kksa] efgykvksa ,oa cPpksa osQ thou esa ,sls vusd ifjorZu vk,A
kafrdkjh ljdkjksa us dkuwu cuk dj Lora=krk ,oa lekurk osQ vkn'kks dks
jkskkuk dh fkanxh esa mrkjus dk iz;kl fd;kA
ckLrhy osQ fooal osQ ckn lu~ 1789 dh xfeZ;ksa esa tks lcls
egoiw.kZ dkuwu vfLrRo esa vk;k] og Fkk & lsaljf'ki dh lekfIrA izkphu
jktra=k osQ varxZr reke fyf[kr lkexzh vkSj lkaLfrd xfrfofk;ksa&&fdrkc]
v[kckj] ukVd&&dks jktk osQ lsalj vfkdkfj;ksa }kjk ikl fd, tkus osQ
ckn gh izdkf'kr ;k eafpr fd;k tk ldrk FkkA ijarq vc vfkdkjksa osQ
?kks"k.kki=k us Hkk"k.k ,oa vfHkO;fDr dh Lora=krk dks uSlfxZd vfkdkj
?kksf"kr dj fn;kA ifj.kkeLo:i i+zQkal osQ 'kgjksa esa v[kckjksa] ipks] iqLrdksa
,oa Nih gqbZ rLohjksa dh ck<+ vk xbZ tgk ls og rskh ls xko&nsgkr rd
tk igqphA muesa i+zQkal esa ?kV jgh ?kVukvksa ,oa ifjorZuksa dk C;kSjk vkSj mu
ij fVIi.kh gksrh FkhA izsl dh Lora=krk dk eryc ;g Fkk fd fdlh Hkh
?kVuk ij ijLij fojkskh fopkj Hkh O;Dr fd, tk ldrs FksA fizaV ek;e
dk mi;ksx djosQ ,d i{k us nwljs i{k dks vius n`f"Vdks.k ls lger
djkus dh dksf'k'k dhA ukVd] laxhr vkSj mRloh tqywlksa esa vla[; yksx
tkus yxsA Lora=krk vkSj U;k; osQ ckjs esa jktuhfrKksa o nk'kZfudksa osQ
ikafMR;iw.kZ ys[ku dks le>us vkSj mlls tqM+us dk ;g yksdfiz; rjhdk
Fkk D;ksafd fdrkcksa dks i<+uk rks eqV~Bh Hkj f'kf{krksa osQ fy, gh laHko FkkA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 15 & ns'kHkDr dljrh nkc&e'khu] ftldk bLrseky eksVkik ?kVkus osQ fy, fd;k tk ldrk Fkk vKkr fp=kdkj }kjk cuk;k x;k 1790 dk ;g fp=k U;k; osQ fopkj dks O;ogkj esa cnyuk pkgrk gSA
22

f;kdyki

bl fp=k dk vius 'kCnksa esa o.kZu djsaA fp=kdkj us


yksHk] lekurk] U;k;] jkT; }kjk ppZ dh lEifk dk
vfkxzg.k vkfn fopkjksa dks laizsf"kr djus osQ fy,
fdu izrhdksa dk lgkjk fy;k gS\

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fp=k 16 & ejk turk dks lacksfkr djrs gq,A yqbZ fy;ksiksYM ckWbyh jfpr fp=k bl v;k; ls ejk osQ ckjs esa vkidks D;k ;kn gS\ mlosQ bnZ&fxnZ ekStwn n`'; dk o.kZu dhft, rFkk mldh yksdfiz;rk osQ ckjs esa le>kb,A fdlh lSykWu esa vkus okys fofHkUu
oxZ osQ yksxksa ij bl isafVax dh D;k izfrf;k gksrh gksxh\

lkjka'k

1804 esa usiksfy;u cksukikVZ us [kqn dks i+Qz kal dk lezkV ?kksf"kr dj fn;kA
mlus iM+ksl osQ ;wjksih; ns'kksa dh fot; ;k=kk 'kq: dhA iqjkus jktoa'kksa dks
gVk dj mlus u, lkezkT; cuk, vkSj mudh ckxMksj vius [kkunku osQ
yksxksa osQ gkFk esa ns nhA usiksfy;u [kqn dks ;wjksi osQ vkkqfudhdj.k dk
vxznwr ekurk FkkA mlus futh laifk dh lqj{kk osQ dkuwu cuk, vkSj
n'keyo ifr ij vkkkfjr uki&rkSy dh ,d leku iz.kkyh pyk;hA
'kq:&'kq: esa cgqr lkjs yksxksa dks usikfy;u eqfDrnkrk yxrk Fkk vkSj mlls
turk dks Lora=krk fnykus dh mEehn FkhA ij tYnh gh mldh lsukvksa dks
yksx geykoj ekuus yxsA vkf[kjdkj 1815 esa okWVjyw esa mldh gkj gqbZA
;wjksi osQ ckdh fgLlksa esa eqfDr vkSj vkkqfud dkuwuksa dks iSQykus
okys mlosQ kafrdkjh mik;ksa dk vlj mldh e`R;q osQ dkI+kQh le; ckn
lkeus vk;kA

I+kzQkalhlh kafr

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fp=k 17 & vkYIl ikj djrk usiksfy;uA MsfoM }kjk cuk;k


x;k fp=k 23

ckWDl 2
jktk jkeeksgu jkW; ml le; ;wjksi esa iSQy jgs u,
fopkjksa ls izHkkfor gksus okyksa esa ls ,d FksA i+zQ kalhlh
kafr vkSj ckn esa tqykbZ kafr us mudh dYiuk dks
ubZ kkj nhA
^I+kzQkal esa 1830 esa gqbZ tqykbZ kafr osQ ckjs esa tkuus osQ
ckn og vkSj fdlh phk osQ ckjs esa ckr gh ugha djrs
FksA gkykfd ,d nq?kZVuk osQ dkj.k os mu fnuksa yaxM+k
dj pyrs Fks ysfdu baXySMa tkrs gq, osQiVkmQu esa og
fkn djus yxs fd mUgsa kafrdkjh frjaxs >aMs okys
;qiksr fn[kk, tk,A*
lq'kksHku ljdkj] uksV~l vkWu n caxky jsuslk] 1946 A

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f;kdyki

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1- bl v;k; esa vkius ftu kafrdkjh O;fDr;ksa osQ ckjs esa i<+k gS muesa ls fdlh ,d osQ ckjs esa vkSj
tkudkfj;k bdV~Bk djsaA ml O;fDr dh laf{kIr thouh fy[ksaA
2- i+zQkalhlh kafr osQ nkSjku ,sls v[kckjksa dk tUe gqvk ftuesa gj fnu vkSj gj g+rs dh ?kVukvksa dk
C;kSjk fn;k tkrk FkkA fdlh ,d ?kVuk osQ ckjs esa tkudkfj;k vkSj rLohjsa bdV~Bk djsa rFkk v[kckj osQ
fy, ,d ys[k fy[ksaA vki pkgsa rks fejkC;ks] vksyEi ns xwk ;k jkscsLI;sj osQ lkFk dkYifud lk{kkRdkj
Hkh dj ldrs gSaA nks ;k rhu dk lewg cuk ysaA gj lewg I+kzQkalhlh kafr ij ,d nhokj if=kdk cuk
dj cksMZ ij yVdk,A

iz'u

1- i+ zQkal esa kafr dh 'kq#vkr fdu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa gqbZ\

2- i+Qz kalhlh lekt osQ fdu rcdksa dks kafr dk I+kQk;nk feyk\ dkSu&ls lewg lkk NksM+us osQ fy, etcwj
gks x,\ kafr osQ urhtksa ls lekt osQ fdu lewgksa dks fujk'kk gqbZ gksxh\

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

3- mUuhloha vkSj chloha lnh dh nqfu;k osQ fy, i+zQ kalhlh kafr dkSu&lh fojklr NksM+ xbZ\

4- mu tuoknh vfkdkjksa dh lwph cuk, tks vkt gesa feys gq, gSa vkSj ftudk mn~xe i+zQ kalhlh kafr
esa gSA
5- D;k vki bl roZQ ls lger gSa fd lkoZHkkSfed vfkdkjksa osQ lans'k esa ukuk varfoZjksk Fks\
6- usiksfy;u osQ mn; dks oSQls le>k tk ldrk gS\

24

f;kdyki

Lora=krk vkSj tuoknh vfkdkjksa osQ fopkj i+zQkalhlh kafr dh lcls


egoiw.kZ fojklr FksA ;s fopkj mUuhloha lnh esa i+zQkal ls fudy dj
ckdh ;wjksi esa iSQys vkSj buosQ dkj.k ogk lkearh O;oLFkk dk uk'k gqvkA
vkSifuosf'kd lektksa us laizHkq jk"V&jkT; dh LFkkiuk osQ vius vkanksyuksa esa
nklrk ls eqfDr osQ fopkj dks u;h ifjHkk"kk nhA Vhiw lqYrku vkSj jktk
jkeeksgu jkW; kafrdkjh i+zQkal esa mits fopkjksa ls izsj.kk ysus okys nks Bksl
mnkgj.k FksA

v;k; 2

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr


1

lkekftd ifjorZu dk ;qx

fiNys v;k; esa vkius i+zQkalhlh kafr osQ ckn ;wjksi esa iSQyrs tk jgs
Lora=krk vkSj lekurk osQ 'kfDr'kkyh fopkjksa osQ ckjs esa i<+kA i+zQkalhlh kafr
us lkekftd lajpuk osQ {ks=k esa vkewy ifjorZu dh laHkkoukvksa dk lw=kikr
dj fn;k FkkA tSlk fd vki i<+ pqoQs gS]a vBkjgoha lnh ls igys i+zQkal dk
lekt eksVs rkSj ij ,LVsVl
~ vkSj Jsf.k;ksa esa cVk gqvk FkkA lekt dh vkfFkZd
vkSj lkekftd lkk ij oqQyhu oxZ vkSj ppZ dk fu;a=k.k FkkA ysfdu kafr
osQ ckn bl lajpuk dks cnyuk laHko fn[kkbZ nsus yxkA ;wjksi vkSj ,f'k;k
lfgr nqfu;k osQ cgqr lkjs fgLlksa esa O;fDrxr vfkdkjksa osQ Lo:i vkSj
lkekftd lkk ij fdldk fu;a=k.k gks & bl ij ppkZ fNM+ xbZA Hkkjr esa Hkh
jktk jkeeksgu jkW; vkSj Msjksfk;ks us i+zQkalhlh kafr osQ ego dk mYys[k
fd;kA vkSj Hkh cgqr lkjs yksx kafr i'pkr ;wjksi dh fLFkfr;ksa osQ ckjs esa py
jgh cgl esa dwn iM+As vkxs pydj mifuos'kksa esa ?kVh ?kVukvksa us Hkh bu
fopkjksa dks ,d u;k :i iznku djus esa ;ksxnku fn;kA
exj ;wjksi esa Hkh lHkh yksx vkewy lekt ifjorZu osQ i{k esa ugha FksA
bl loky ij lcdh vyx&vyx jk; FkhA cgqr lkjs yksx cnyko osQ
fy, rks rS;kj Fks ysfdu og pkgrs Fks fd ;g cnyko khjs&khjs gksA ,d
[ksek ekurk Fkk fd lekt dk vkewy iquxZBu k:jh gSA oqQN ^#f<+oknh*
(Conservatives) Fks rks oqQN ^mnkjoknh* (Liberals) ;k ^vkewy
ifjorZuoknh* (Radical, jSfMdy ) lekkkuksa osQ i{k esa FksA ml le; osQ
lanHkZ esa bu 'kCnksa dk D;k eryc Fkk\ jktuhfr dh bu kkjkvksa esa D;k
I+kQoZQ Fks vkSj dkSu&dkSu lh ckrsa Fkha tks leku Fkha\ ;gk gesa ;ku j[kuk
pkfg, fd bu 'kCnksa dk vFkZ gj dky vkSj ifjos'k esa ,d gh ugha gksrkA
bl v;k; esa ge mUuhloha 'krkCnh dh oqQN egoiw.kZ jktuhfrd
ijaijkvksa dk v;;u djsaxs vkSj ns[ksaxs fd mUgksaus ifjorZu osQ lanHkZ esa
D;k vlj MkykA blosQ ckn ge ,d ,slh ,sfrgkfld ?kVuk ij viuk
;ku osaQfr djsaxs ftlesa lekt osQ jSfMdy iquxZBu dk ,d xaHkhj iz;kl
fd;k x;kA :l esa gqbZ kafr osQ iQyLo:i lektokn chloha lnh dk
Lo:i r; djus okys lcls egoiw.kZ vkSj 'kfDr'kkyh fopkjksa dh k`a[kyk
dk fgLlk cu x;kA

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;wjksi
esa lektokn
,oa :lh kafr
;wjksi esa lektokn
,oa :lh kafr

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1-1 mnkjoknh] jSfMdy vkSj #f<+oknh


lekt ifjorZu osQ leFkZdksa esa ,d lewg mnkjokfn;ksa dk FkkA mnkjoknh ,slk
jk"V pkgrs Fks ftlesa lHkh keks dks cjkcj dk lEeku vkSj txg feysA 'kk;n
25

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

vki tkurs gksxa s fd ml le; ;wjksi osQ ns'kksa esa izk;% fdlh ,d keZ dks gh
;knk egRo fn;k tkrk Fkk (fczVus dh ljdkj ppZ vkWI +kQ baXySMa dk leFkZu
djrh Fkh] vkWfLV;k vkSj Lisu] oSQFkfyd ppZ osQ leFkZd Fks)A mnkjoknh lewg
oa'k&vkkkfjr 'kkldksa dh vfu;af=kr lkk osQ Hkh fojkskh FksA os ljdkj osQ
le{k O;fDr ek=k osQ vfkdkjksa dh j{kk osQ i{kkj FksA mudk dguk Fkk fd
ljdkj dks fdlh osQ vfkdkjksa dk guu djus ;k mUgsa Nhuus dk vfkdkj
ugha fn;k tkuk pkfg,A ;g lewg izfrfufkRo ij vkkkfjr ,d ,slh fuokZfpr
ljdkj osQ i{k esa Fkk tks 'kkldksa vkSj vI+kQljksa osQ izHkko ls eqDr vkSj
lqifz 'kf{kr U;k;ikfydk }kjk LFkkfir fd, x, dkuwuksa osQ vuqlkj 'kklu&dk;Z
pyk,A ij ;g lewg ^yksdra=koknh* (Democrat) ugha FkkA ;s yksx lkoZHkkSfed
o;Ld erkfkdkj ;kuh lHkh ukxfjdksa dks oksV dk vfkdkj nsus osQ i{k esa
ugha FksA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd oksV dk vf/dkj osQoy laifkkkfj;ksa dks gh
feyuk pkfg,A
blosQ foijhr jSfMdy lewg osQ yksx ,slh ljdkj osQ i{k esa Fks tks ns'k
dh vkcknh osQ cgqer osQ leFkZu ij vkkkfjr gksA buesa ls cgqr lkjs yksx
efgyk erkfkdkj vkanksyu osQ Hkh leFkZd FksA mnkjokfn;ksa osQ foijhr ;s
yksx cM+s kehankjksa vkSj laiUu m|ksxifr;ksa dks izkIr fdlh Hkh rjg osQ
fo'ks"kkfkdkjksa osQ f[kykIk+ Q FksA os futh laifk osQ fojkskh ugha Fks ysfdu osQoy
oqQN yksxksa osQ ikl laifk osQ laoQas .k dk fojksk k:j djrs FksA
#f<+oknh rcdk jSfMdy vkSj mnkjoknh] nksuksa osQ f[kykI+kQ FkkA exj
i+zQkalhlh kafr osQ ckn rks #f<+oknh Hkh cnyko dh k:jr dks Lohdkj djus
yxs FksA iqjkus le; es]a ;kuh vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa #f<+oknh vkerkSj ij
ifjorZu osQ fopkjksa dk fojksk djrs FksA ysfdu mUuhloha lnh rd vkrs&vkrs
os Hkh ekuus yxs Fks fd oqQN ifjorZu vko';d gks x;k gS ijarq og pkgrs
Fks fd vrhr dk lEeku fd;k tk, vFkkZr~ vrhr dks iwjh rjg Bqdjk;k u
tk, vkSj cnyko dh izf;k kheh gksA
i+zQkalhlh kafr osQ ckn iSnk gqbZ jktuhfrd mFky&iqFky osQ nkSjku
lkekftd ifjorZu ij osaQfr bu fofok fopkjksa osQ chp dkI +kQh Vdjko gq,A
mUuhloha lnh esa kafr vkSj jk"Vh; dk;karj.k dh fofHkUu dksf'k'kksa us bu
lHkh jktuhfrd kkjkvksa dh lhekvksa vkSj laHkkoukvksa dks Li"V dj fn;kA

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1-2 vkS|ksfxd lekt vkSj lkekftd ifjorZu

;s jktuhfrd #>ku ,d u, ;qx dk |ksrd FksA ;g nkSj xgu lkekftd


,oa vkfFkZd cnykoksa dk FkkA ;g ,slk le; Fkk tc u, 'kgj cl jgs Fks]
u,&u, vkS|ksfxd {ks=k fodflr gks jgs Fks] jsyos dk dkiQh foLrkj gks pqdk
Fkk vkSj vkS|ksfxd kafr laiUu gks pqdh FkhA
vkS|ksxhdj.k us vkSjrksa&vknfe;ksa vkSj cPpksa] lcdks dkj[kkuksa esa yk
fn;kA dke osQ ?kaVs ;kuh ikyh cgqr yach gksrh Fkh vkSj eknwjh cgqr de
FkhA csjkskxkjh vke leL;k FkhA vkS|ksfxd oLrqvksa dh ekx esa fxjkoV vk
26

u, 'kCn
erkfkdkj vkanksyu % oksV Mkyus dk vfkdkj
ikus osQ fy, pyk;k x;k vkanksyuA

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fp=k 1 & mUuhloha 'krkCnh osQ e; esa yanu osQ xjhcksa dh n'kk mlh le; osQ ,d O;fDr
dh n`f"V ls ksr % gsujh esg~;w] yanu yscj ,sUM yanu iqvj] 1861

tkus ij rks csjkskxkjh vkSj c<+ tkrh FkhA 'kgj rskh ls clrs vkSj iQSyrs
tk jgs Fks blfy, vkokl vkSj lkI+kQ&lI+kQkbZ dk dke Hkh eqf'dy gksrk tk
jgk FkkA mnkjoknh vkSj jSfMdy] nksuksa gh bu leL;kvksa dk gy [kkstus dh
dksf'k'k dj jgs FksA
yxHkx lHkh m|ksx O;fDrxr LokfeRo esa FksA cgqr lkjs jSfMdy vkSj
mnkjokfn;ksa osQ ikl Hkh dkiQh laifk Fkh vkSj muosQ ;gk cgqr lkjs yksx
ukSdjh djrs FksA mUgksaus O;kikj ;k vkS|ksfxd O;olk;ksa osQ kfj, ku&nkSyr
bdV~Bk dh Fkh blfy, og pkgrs Fks fd bl rjg osQ iz;klksa dks ;knk
ls ;knk c<+kok fn;k tk,A mUgsa yxrk Fkk fd vxj eknwj LoLFk gksa vkSj
ukxfjd i<+s&fy[ks gksa] rks bl O;oLFkk dk Hkjiwj ykHk fy;k tk ldrk gSA
;s yksx tUetkr feyus okys fo'ks"kkfkdkjksa osQ fo# FksA O;fDrxr iz;kl]
Je vkSj m|e'khyrk esa mudk xgjk fo'okl FkkA mudh ekU;rk Fkh fd
;fn gjsd dks O;fDrxr Lora=krk nh tk,] xjhcksa dks jkskxkj feys] vkSj
ftuosQ ikl iwth gS mUgsa fcuk jksd&Vksd dke djus dk ekSdk fn;k tk,
rks lekt rjDdh dj ldrk gSA blh dkj.k mUuhloha lnh osQ 'qk#vkrh
n'kdksa esa lekt ifjorZu osQ bPNqd cgqr lkjs dkedkth L=kh&iq#"k
mnkjoknh vkSj jSfMdy lewgksa o ikfVZ;ksa osQ bnZ&fxnZ xksycan gks x, FksA

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

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;wjksi esa 1815 esa ftl rjg dh ljdkjsa cuha muls NqVdkjk ikus osQ
fy, oqQN jk"Voknh] mnkjoknh vkSj jSfMdy vkanksyudkjh ka fr osQ i{k esa
FksA i+zQkal] bVyh] teZuh vkSj :l esa ,sls yksx kafrdkjh gks x, vkSj
jktkvksa osQ r[rkiyV dk iz;kl djus yxsA jk"Voknh dk;ZdrkZ kafr osQ
kfj, ,sls ^jk"Vksa* dh LFkkiuk djuk pkgrs Fks ftuesa lHkh ukxfjdksa dks
leku vfkdkj izkIr gksaA 1815 osQ ckn bVyh osQ jk"Voknh fxlsIis esfkuh
us ;gh y{; izkIr djus osQ fy, vius leFkZdksa osQ lkFk feydj jktk osQ
f[kykI+kQ lkfk'k jph FkhA Hkkjr lfgr nqfu;k Hkj osQ jk"Voknh mldh
jpukvksa dks i<+rs FksA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

1-3 ;wjksi esa lektokn dk vkuk


lekt osQ iquxZBu dh laHkor% lcls nwjxkeh n`f"V iznku djus okyh
fopkjkkjk lektokn gh FkhA mUuhloha lnh osQ e; rd ;wjksi esa
lektokn ,d tkuk&igpkuk fopkj FkkA mldh rjI+kQ cgqr lkjs yksxksa dk
;ku vkdf"kZr gks jgk FkkA
lektoknh futh laifk osQ fojkskh FksA ;kuh] os laifk ij futh
LokfeRo dks lgh ugha ekurs FksA mudk dguk Fkk fd laifk osQ futh
LokfeRo dh O;oLFkk gh lkjh leL;kvksa dh tM+ gSA os ,slk D;ksa ekurs Fks\
mudk roZQ Fkk fd cgqr lkjs yksxksa osQ ikl laifk rks gS ftlls nwljksa dks
jkskxkj Hkh feyrk gS ysfdu leL;k ;g gS fd laifkkkjh O;fDr dks flI+kZQ
vius I+kQk;ns ls gh eryc jgrk gS_ og muosQ ckjs esa ugha lksprk tks
mldh laifk dks mRiknu'khy cukrs gSaA blfy,] vxj laifk ij fdlh
,d O;fDr osQ ctk; iwjs lekt dk fu;a=k.k gks rks lk>k lkekftd fgrksa
ij ;knk vPNh rjg ;ku fn;k tk ldrk gSA lektoknh bl rjg
dk cnyko pkgrs Fks vkSj blosQ fy, mUgksaus cM+s iSekus ij vfHk;ku
pyk;kA
dksbZ lekt laifk osQ fcuk oSQls py ldrk gS\ lektoknh lekt dk
vkkkj D;k gksxk\
lektokfn;ksa osQ ikl Hkfo"; dh ,d fcYoqQy fHkUu n`f"V FkhA oqQN
lektokfn;ksa dks dksvkWijsfVo ;kuh lkewfgd m|e osQ fopkj esa fnypLih
FkhA baXySaM osQ tkus&ekus m|ksxifr jkWcVZ vksosu (1771&1858) us bafM;kuk
(vesfjdk) esa u;k leUo; (New Harmony) osQ uke ls ,d u;s rjg
osQ leqnk; dh jpuk dk iz;kl fd;kA oqQN lektoknh ekurs Fks fd osQoy
O;fDrxr igydneh ls cgqr cM+s lkewfgd [ksr ugha cuk, tk ldrsA og
pkgrs Fks fd ljdkj viuh rjI+kQ ls lkewfgd [ksrh dks c<+kok nsA mnkgj.k
osQ fy,] i+ zQkal esa yqbZ Cykad (1813&1882) pkgrs Fks fd ljdkj
iwthoknh m|eksa dh txg lkewfgd m|eksa dks c<+kok nsA dksvkWijsfVo ,sls
yksxksa osQ lewg Fks tks fey dj phksa cukrs Fks vkSj equkI+kQs dks izR;sd lnL;
}kjk fd, x, dke osQ fglkc ls vkil esa ckV ysrs FksA

f;kdyki
eku yhft, fd futh laifk dks [kRe djus vkSj
mldh txg lkewfgd LokfeRo dh O;oLFkk ykxw
djus osQ loky ij vkiosQ bykosQ esa ,d cSBd cqykbZ
xbZ gSA fuEufyf[kr O;fDr;ksa osQ :i esa ml cSBd esa
vki tks Hkk"k.k nsaxs og fy[ksa %
,d xjhc [ksfrgj eknwj

,d ea>kSyk HkwLokeh
,d x`gLokeh

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28

f;kdyki
futh laifk osQ ckjs esa iwthoknh vkSj lektoknh
fopkjkkjk osQ chp nks varj crk,A

dkyZ ekDlZ (1818&1882) vkSj i+zQsMfjd ,axsYl (1820&1895) us


bl fn'kk esa dbZ u, roZQ is'k fd,A ekDlZ dk fopkj Fkk fd vkS|ksfxd
lekt ^iwthoknh* lekt gSA I+kQS fDV;ksa esa yxh iwth ij iwthifr;ksa dk
LokfeRo gS vkSj iwthifr;ksa dk equkI+kQk eknwjksa dh esgur ls iSnk gksrk gSA
ekDlZ dk fu"d"kZ Fkk fd tc rd futh iwthifr blh rjg equkI+ksQ dk
lap; djrs tk,xs rc rd eknwjksa dh fLFkfr esa lqkkj ugha gks ldrkA
viuh fLFkfr esa lqkkj ykus osQ fy, eknwjksa dks iwthokn o futh laifk
ij vk/kfjr 'kklu dks m[kkM+ iQsaduk gksxkA ekDlZ dk fo'okl Fkk fd [kqn
dks iwthoknh 'kks"k.k ls eqDr djkus osQ fy, eknwjksa dks ,d vR;ar fHkUu
fdLe dk lekt cukuk gksxk ftlesa lkjh laifk ij iwjs lekt dk ;kuh
lkekftd fu;a=k.k vkSj LokfeRo jgsxkA mUgksaus Hkfo"; osQ bl lekt dks
lkE;oknh (dE;qfuLV) lekt dk uke fn;kA ekDlZ dks fo'okl Fkk fd
iwthifr;ksa osQ lkFk gksus okys la?k"kZ esa thr varr% eknwjksa dh gh gksxhA
mudh jk; esa dE;qfuLV lekt gh Hkfo"; dk lekt gksxkA

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fp=k 2 & ;g isfjl dE;wu] 1871 dk ,d fp=k gSA bl fp=k esa


ekpZ vkSj ebZ 1871 osQ chp gq, tufonzksg dks n'kkZ;k x;k gSA ;g
,slk nkSj Fkk tc isfjl dh uxj ifj"kn~ (dE;wu) ij eknwjksa] vke
yksxks]a is'ksojks]a vkSj jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZvksa dks ysdj cukbZ xbZ ^tu
ljdkj* us dCkk dj fy;k FkkA ;g mFky&iqFky i+ zQklhlh ljdkj
dh uhfr;ksa osQ izfr c<+rs vlarks"k osQ dkj.k iSnk gqbZ FkhA ;|fi
^isfjl dE;wu* dks varr% ljdkjh VqdfM+;ksa us oqQpy Mkyk ysfdu
nqfu;k Hkj osQ lektokfn;ksa us lektoknh kafr dh iwoZihfBdk osQ
:i esa bldk tedj t'u euk;kA isfjl dE;wu dks nks vkSj phkksa
dh otg ls vkt Hkh ;kn j[kk tkrk gS % ,d] eknwjksa osQ yky >aMs
dk mn; blh ?kVuk ls gqvk Fkk & dE;qukMks (kafrdkfj;ks)a us vius
fy, ;gh >aMk pquk Fkk_ nks] ^eklsZ;sl* osQ fy,] tks bl ?kVuk osQ
ckn isfjl dE;wu vkSj eqfDr la?k"kZ dk izrhd cu x;kA mYys[kuh;
gS fd bl xhr dks ewyr% 1792 esa ;q xhr osQ :i esa fy[kk x;k
FkkA (lkStU;% yanu U;wk] 1871)

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1-4 lektokn osQ fy, leFkZu

1870 dk n'kd vkrs&vkrs lektoknh fopkj iwjs ;wjksi esa iSQy pqosQ FksA
vius iz;klksa esa leUo; ykus osQ fy, lektokfn;ksa us f}rh; baVjuS'kuy
osQ uke ls ,d varjkZ"Vh; laLFkk Hkh cuk yh FkhA
baXySaM vkSj teZuh osQ eknwjksa us viuh thou vkSj dk;ZfLFkfr;ksa esa
lqkkj ykus osQ fy, laxBu cukuk 'kq: dj fn;k FkkA ladV osQ le; vius
lnL;ksa dks enn igqpkus osQ fy, bu laxBuksa us dks"k LFkkfir fd, vkSj
dke osQ ?kaVksa esa deh rFkk erkfkdkj osQ fy, vkokk mBkuk 'kq: dj
fn;kA teZuh esa lks'ky MseksozSQfVd ikVhZ
(,lihMh) osQ lkFk bu laxBuksa osQ
dkiQh xgjs fj'rs Fks vkSj lalnh; pqukoksa
esa os ikVhZ dh enn Hkh djrs FksA
1905 rd fczVsu osQ lektokfn;ksa vkSj
VsM ;wfu;u vkanksyudkfj;ksa us yscj
ikVhZ osQ uke ls viuh ,d vyx
ikVhZ cuk yh FkhA i+zQkal esa Hkh lks'kfyLV
ikVhZ osQ uke ls ,slh gh ,d ikVhZ dk
xBu fd;k x;kA ysfdu 1914 rd
;wjksi esa lektoknh dgha Hkh ljdkj
cukus esa dke;kc ugha gks ik,A lalnh;
jktuhfr esas muosQ izfrfufk cM+h la[;k
esa thrrs jgs] mUgksaus dkuwu cuokus esa
Hkh vge Hkwfedk fuHkk;h] exj ljdkjksa
esa #f<+okfn;ks]a mnkjokfn;ksa vkSj jSfMdyksa
dk gh ncnck cuk jgkA

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

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:lh kafr

;wjksi osQ lcls fiNM+s vkS|ksfxd ns'kksa esa ls ,d] :l esa ;g lehdj.k
myV x;kA 1917 dh vDrwcj kafr osQ kfj, :l dh lkk ij
lektokfn;ksa us dCkk dj fy;kA iQjojh 1917 esa jkt'kkgh osQ iru vkSj
vDrwcj dh ?kVukvksa dks gh vDrwcj kafr dgk tkrk gSA
,slk oSQls gqvk\ kafr osQ le; :l osQ lkekftd vkSj jktuhfrd
gkykr oSQls Fks\ bu lokyksa dk tokc <w<+us osQ fy,] vkb,] kafr ls oqQN
lky igys dh fLFkfr;ksa ij ukj MkysaA

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2-1 :lh lkezkT;] 1914

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1914 esa :l vkSj mlosQ iwjs lkezkT; ij kkj fudksyl II dk 'kklu FkkA
ekLdks osQ vklikl iM+us okys Hkw{ks=k osQ vykok vkt dk fI+kQuySMa ]
ykrfo;k] fyFkqvkfu;k] ,Lrksfu;k rFkk iksySaM] ;wozsQu o csyk:l osQ oqQN
fgLls :lh lkezkT; osQ vax FksA ;g lkezkT; iz'kkar egklkxj rd iQSyk
gqvk Fkk vkSj vkt osQ e; ,f'k;kbZ jkT;ksa osQ lkFk&lkFk tkWftZ;k] vkesZfu;k
o vkjcSkku Hkh blh lkezkT; osQ varxZr vkrs FksA :l esa xzhd vkWFkksZMkWDl
ppZ ls mith 'kk[kk :lh vkWFkksZMkWDl ff'p;SfuVh dks ekuus okys cgqer

fp=k 3 & lsaV ihVlZcxZ fLFkr foaVj iSysl osQ


OgkbV gkWy esa kkj fudksyl II, 1900vusLZ V fyixkVZ (1847&1932) }kjk fpf=krA

ukoW Zs

mkjh lkxj

LohMu

MsuekoZQ

baXySaM

:lh lkezkT;

gkWySaM
csfYt;e

irq xZ ky

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

vVykafVd egklkxj

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i+zQkal

teZuh

vkWfLV;k&gaxjh

fLoV~kjySMa

:ekfu;k

bVyh

Lisu

cqYxkfj;k
ekWUVsuxs kz s
vYckfu;k

Hkwe; lkxj

osaQnzh; 'kfDr;k
fe=k 'kfDr;k
rVLFk jkT;
,sls rVLFk jkT; tks ckn esa osaQnzh; 'kfDr;ksa ls tk feys
,sls rVLFk jkT; tks ckn esa fe=k 'kfDr;ksa ls tk feys

fp=k 4 & 1914 dk ;wjksiekufp=k esa :lh lkezkT; vkSj igys egk;q esa 'kkfey ;wjksih; ns'kksa dks n'kkZ;k x;k gSA

30

dkyk lkxj

vkWVkseu lkezkT;
;wuku

esa FksA ysfdu bl lkezkT; osQ rgr jgus okyksa esa oSQFkfyd] izksVsLVsaV]
eqfLye vkSj ckS Hkh 'kkfey FksA

2-2 vFkZO;oLFkk vkSj lekt

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fp=k 5 & ;q ls igys lsaV ihVlZcxZ esa csjkskxkj fdlku cgqr lkjs yksx kekZFkZ yaxjksa esa [kkuk [kkrs Fks vkSj [kLrkgky edkuksa
esa jgrs FksA

fp=k 6 & kafr&iwoZ :l esa ,d MkWfeZVjh esa cus cadj esa


lksrs eknwj os ikfy;ksa esa ckjh&ckjh ls lksrs Fks vkSj ifjokj dks lkFk ugha j[k
ldrs FksA

31

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

chloha lnh dh 'kq#vkr esa :l dh vkcknh dk ,d cgqr cM+k fgLlk


[ksrh&ckM+h ls tqM+k gqvk FkkA :lh lkezkT; dh yxHkx 85 izfr'kr turk
vkthfodk osQ fy, [ksrh ij gh fuHkZj FkhA ;wjksi osQ fdlh Hkh ns'k esa [ksrh
ij vkfJr turk dk izfr'kr bruk ugha FkkA mnkgj.k osQ rkSj ij] i+Qz kal
vkSj teZuh esa [ksrh ij fuHkZj vkcknh 40&50 izfr'kr ls ;knk ugha FkhA
:lh lkezkT; osQ fdlku viuh k:jrksa osQ lkFk&lkFk ckkkj osQ fy, Hkh
iSnkokj djrs FksA :l vukt dk ,d cM+k fu;kZrd FkkA
m|ksx cgqr de FksA lsaV ihVlZcxZ vkSj ekLdks izeq[k vkS|ksfxd bykosQ
FksA gkyk fd ;knkrj mRiknu dkjhxj gh djrs Fks ysfdu dkjhxjksa dh
odZ'kkWiksa osQ lkFk&lkFk cM+s&cM+s dy&dkj[kkus Hkh ekStwn FksA cgqr lkjs
dkj[kkus 1890 osQ n'kd esa pkyw gq, Fks tc :l osQ jsy usVooZQ dks
iQSyk;k tk jgk FkkA mlh le; :lh m|ksxksa esa fons'kh fuos'k Hkh rsth ls
c<+k FkkA bu dkjdksa osQ pyrs oqQN gh lkyksa esa :l osQ dks;yk mRiknu
esa nksxquk vkSj LVhy mRiknu esa pkj xquk o`f gqbZ FkhA lu~ 1900 rd oqQN
bykdksa esa rks dkjhxjksa vkSj dkj[kkuk eknwjksa dh la[;k yxHkx cjkcj gks
pqdh FkhA
;knkrj dkj[kkus m|ksxifr;ksa dh futh laifk FksA eknwjksa dks U;wure
osru feyrk jgs vkSj dke dh ikyh osQ ?kaVs fuf'pr gksa & bl ckr dk
;ku j[kus osQ fy, ljdkjh foHkkx cM+h I+kSQfDV;ksa ij ukj j[krs FksA
ysfdu I+kSQDVh baLisDVj Hkh fu;eksa osQ mYya?ku dks jksd ikus esa ukdke;kc
FksA dkjhxjksa dh bdkb;ksa vkSj odZ'kkWiksa esa dke dh ikyh izk;% 15 ?kaVs rd
f[kap tkrh Fkh tcfd dkj[kkuksa esa eknwj vkerkSj ij 10&12 ?kaVs dh
ikfy;ksa esa dke djrs FksA eknwjksa osQ jgus osQ fy, Hkh dejksa ls ysdj
MkWfeZVjh rd rjg&rjg dh O;oLFkk ekStwn FkhA
lkekftd Lrj ij eknwj cVs gq, FksA oqQN eknwj vius ewy xkoksa osQ
lkFk vHkh Hkh xgjs lacak cuk, gq, FksA cgqr lkjs eknwj LFkk;h :i ls
'kgjksa esa gh cl pqosQ FksA muosQ chp ;ksX;rk vkSj n{krk osQ Lrj ij Hkh
dkiQh I+kQdZ FkkA lsaV ihVlZcxZ osQ ,d kkrq eknwj us dgk Fkk % ^kkrqdehZ
eknwjksa esa [kqn dks lkgc ekurs FksA muosQ dke esa ;knk izf'k{k.k vkSj
fuiq.krk dh k:jr tks jgrh Fkh---A* 1914 esa I+kQS DVh eknwjksa esa vkSjrksa dh
la[;k 31 izfr'kr Fkh ysfdu mUgsa iq#"k eknwjksa osQ eqdkcys de osru
feyrk Fkk (enks dh ru[okg osQ eqdkcys vkks ls rhu&pkSFkkbZ rd)A
eknwjksa osQ chp ekStwn I+kQklyk muosQ igukos vkSj O;ogkj esa Hkh lkI+kQ
fn[kkbZ nsrk FkkA ;|fi oqQN eknwjksa us csjkskxkjh ;k vkfFkZd ladV osQ le;
,d&nwljs dh enn djus osQ fy, laxBu cuk fy, Fks ysfdu ,sls laxBu
cgqr de FksA

bu foHksnksa osQ ckotwn] tc fdlh dks ukSdjh ls fudky fn;k tkrk Fkk ksr d
;k mUgsa ekfydksa ls dksbZ f'kdk;r gksrh Fkh rks eknwj ,dtqV gksdj gM+rky
ml le; osQ lektoknh dk;ZdrkZ vysDksaMj
Hkh dj nsrs FksA 1896&1897 osQ chp diM+k m|ksx esa vkSj 1902 esa kkrq
'Y;kfIudkso osQ oDrO; ls irk pyrk gS fd cSBosQa
m|ksx esa ,slh gM+rkysa dkI+kQh cM+h la[;k esa vk;ksftr dh xbA
oSQls vk;ksftr dh tkrh Fkha %
nsgkr dh ;knkrj kehu ij fdlku [ksrh djrs FksA ysfdu fo'kky
^,d&,d dkj[kkus vkSj nqdku esa tk&tkdj izpkj
fd;k tkrk FkkA v;;u p Hkh pyk, tkrs Fks---A
laifk;ksa ij lkearksa] jkt'kkgh vkSj vkWFkksZMkWDl ppZ dk dCkk FkkA eknwjksa
lacfa kr (vfkr eqksa osQ) ekeyksa ij dkuwuh cSBosQa
dh rjg fdlku Hkh cVs gq, FksA fdlku cgqr kkfeZd LoHkko osQ FksA
Hkh cqykbZ tkrh Fkha] ysfdu bl xfrfofk dks eknwj
bDdk&nqDdk vioknksa dks NksM+ fn;k tk, rks os lkearksa vkSj uokcksa dk
oxZ dh eqfDr osQ O;kid la?k"kZ esa cM+h fuiq.krk ls
fcYoqQy lEeku ugha djrs FksA uokcksa vkSj lkearksa dks tks lkk vkSj gSfl;r
fijks fn;k tkrk FkkA xSjdkuwuh cSBosaQ --- k:jr osQ
feyh gqbZ Fkh og yksdfiz;rk dh otg ls ugha cfYd kkj osQ izfr mudh
oDr I +kQkSju vk;ksftr dj yh tkrh Fkha ysfdu yap
fu"Bk vkSj lsokvksa osQ cnys esa feyh FkhA ;gk dh fLFkfr i+zQkal tSlh ugha
osQ nkSjku] 'kke dks] iQkVd osQ ckgj] ;kMZ esa ;k dbZ
eafkyk bekjrksa dh lhf<+;ksa esa O;ofLFkr <ax ls cSBosQa
FkhA felky osQ rkSj ij] i+zQkalhlh kafr osQ nkSjku fczVuh osQ fdlku u
vk;ksftr dh tkrh FkhaA lcls tkx:d eknwj njokks
osQoy uokcksa dk lEeku djrs Fks cfYd mUgksaus uokcksa dks cpkus osQ fy,
osQ ikl ^^Iyx** dk dke laHkkyrs Fks vkSj eqgkus ij
ckdk;nk yM+kb;k Hkh yM+haA blosQ foijhr] :l osQ fdlku pkgrs Fks fd
iwjh HkhM+ bdV~Bk gks tkrh FkhA ogk lcosQ lkeus ,d
uokcksa dh kehu Nhudj fdlkuksa osQ chp ckV nh tk,A cgqkk og yxku
vkanksyudkjh [kM+k gksrk FkkA ekfyd VsfyI+kQksu ij
Hkh ugha pqdkrs FksA dbZ txg rks kehankjksa dh gR;k Hkh dh tk pqdh FkhA
iqfyl dks bl ckjs esa tkudkjh nsrs Fks ysfdu tc
1902 esa nf{k.kh :l esa ,slh ?kVuk, cM+s iSekus ij ?kVhaA 1905 esa rks iwjs
rd iqfyl igqprh Fkh rc rd Hkk"k.k iwjs gks pqosQ
gksrs Fks vkSj k:jh I +kSQlys ys fy, tkrs Fks---A*
:l esa gh ,slh ?kVuk, ?kVus yxhaA
:lh fdlku ;wjksi osQ ckdh fdlkuksa osQ eqdkcys ,d vkSj fygkk ls
vysDksaMj 'Y;kfIudkso] vkWu fn bZo vkWiQ 1917Hkh fHkUu FksA ;gk osQ fdlku le;&le; ij lkjh kehu dks vius dE;wu
jsfefulsalsk i+zQkWe n jsoyw'kujh vaMjxzkmaMA
(ehj) dks lkSai nsrs Fks vkSj fiQj dE;wu gh izR;sd ifjokj dh k:jr osQ
fglkc ls fdlkuksa dks kehu ckVrk FkkA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

2-3 :l esa lektokn

1914 ls igys :l esa lHkh jktuhfrd ikfVZ;k XkSjdkuwuh FkhaA ekDlZ osQ
fopkjksa dks ekuus okys lektokfn;ksa us 1898 esa jf'k;u lks'ky MseksozSQfVd
odZlZ ikVhZ (:lh lkekftd yksdrkaf=kd Jfed ikVhZ) dk xBu fd;k FkkA
ljdkjh vkrad osQ dkj.k bl ikVhZ dks xSjdkuwuh laxBu osQ :i esa dke
djuk iM+rk FkkA bl ikVhZ dk ,d v[kckj fudyrk Fkk] mlus eknwjksa dks
laxfBr fd;k Fkk vkSj gM+rky vkfn dk;Ze vk;ksftr fd, FksA
oqQN :lh lektokfn;ksa dks yxrk Fkk fd :lh fdlku ftl rjg
le;&le; ij kehu ckVrs gSa mlls irk pyrk gS fd og LokHkkfod :i
ls lektoknh Hkkouk okys yksx gSaA blh vkkkj ij mudk ekuuk Fkk fd
:l esa eknwj ugha cfYd fdlku gh kafr dh eq[; 'kfDr cusaxsA os kafr
dk usr`Ro djsaxs vkSj :l ckdh ns'kksa osQ eqdkcys ;knk tYnh lektoknh
ns'k cu tk,xkA mUuhloha lnh osQ vkf[kj esa :l osQ xzkeh.k bykdksa esa
lektoknh dkiQh lf; FksA lu~ 1900 esa mUgksaus lks'kfyLV jsoyw'kujh
ikVhZ (lektoknh kafrdkjh ikVhZ) dk xBu dj fy;kA bl ikVhZ us
fdlkuksa osQ vfkdkjksa osQ fy, la?k"kZ fd;k vkSj ekx dh fd lkearksa osQ
dCks okyh kehu iQkSju fdlkuksa dks lkSaih tk,A fdlkuksa osQ loky ij

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lkekftd yksdra=koknh (Social Democrats) [ksek lektoknh kafrdkfj;ksa


ls lger ugha FkkA ysfuu dk ekuuk Fkk fd fdlkuksa esa ,dtqVrk ugha gS_
os cVs gq, gSaA oqQN fdlku xjhc Fks rks oqQN vehj] oqQN eknwjh djrs Fks
rks oqQN iwthifr Fks tks ukSdjksa ls [ksrh djokrs FksA bu vkilh ^foHksnksa* osQ
pyrs os lHkh lektoknh vkanksyu dk fgLlk ugha gks ldrs FksA
lkaxBfud j.kuhfr osQ loky ij ikVhZ esa xgjs erHksn FksA Oykfnehj
yssfuu (cksY'ksfod [kses osQ eqf[k;k) lksprs Fks fd kkj (jktk) 'kkflr :l
tSls neudkjh lekt esa ikVhZ vR;ar vuq'kkflr gksuh pkfg, vkSj vius
lnL;ksa dh la[;k o Lrj ij mldk iwjk fu;a=k.k gksuk pkfg,A nwljk [ksek
(esU'ksfod) ekurk Fkk fd ikVhZ esa lHkh dks lnL;rk nh tkuh pkfg,A

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2-4 mFky&iqFky dk le; % 1905 dh kafr

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f;kdyki

:l esa 1905 esa kafrdkjh mFky&iqFky D;ksa iSnk gqbZ


Fkh\ kafrdkfj;ksa dh D;k ekxsa Fkha\

u, 'kCn
fujaoQq 'k jkt'kkgh% jktk dk fcuk jksdVksd 'kkluA
tnhnh & :lh lkezkT; esa lf; eqfLye
lqkkjoknhA
okLrfod osru % ;g bl ckr dk iSekuk gS
fd fdlh O;fDr osQ osru ls okLro esa
fdruh phksa [kjhnh tk ldrh gSaA

33

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

:l ,d fujaoqQ'k jkt'kkgh FkkA vU; ;wjksih; 'kkldksa osQ foijhr chloha


lnh dh 'kq#vkr esa Hkh kkj jk"Vh; laln osQ vkhu ugha FkkA mnkjokfn;ksa
us bl fLFkfr dks [kRe djus osQ fy, cM+s iSekus ij eqfge pykbZA 1905
dh kafr osQ nkSjku mUgksaus lafokku dh jpuk osQ fy, lks'ky MseksozsQV vkSj
lektoknh kafrdkfj;ksa dks lkFk ysdj fdlkuksa vkSj eknwjksa osQ chp dkiQh
dke fd;kA :lh lkezkT; osQ rgr mUgsa jk"Vokfn;ksa (tSls iksySaM esa) vkSj
bLyke osQ vkkqfudhdj.k osQ leFkZd tnhfn;ksa (eqfLye&cgqy bykdksa
esa) dk Hkh leFkZu feykA
:lh eknwjksa osQ fy, 1904 dk lky cgqr cqjk jgkA k:jh phkksa dh
dhersa bruh rsth ls c<+ha fd okLrfod osru esa 20 izfr'kr rd dh
fxjkoV vk xbZA mlh le; eknwj laxBuksa dh lnL;rk esa Hkh rsth ls o`f
gqbZA tc 1904 esa gh xfBr dh xbZ vlsacyh vkWi+ Q jf'k;u odZlZ (:lh
Jfed lHkk) osQ pkj lnL;ksa dks I;qfrykso vk;ju oDlZ esa mudh ukSdjh
ls gVk fn;k x;k rks eknwjksa us vkanksyu NsM+us dk ,yku dj fn;kA vxys
oqQN fnuksa osQ Hkhrj lsaV ihVlZcxZ osQ 110] 000 ls ;knk eknwj dke osQ
?kaVs ?kVkdj vkB ?kaVs fd, tkus] osru esa o`f vkSj dk;ZfLFkfr;ksa esa lqkkj
dh ekx djrs gq, gM+rky ij pys x,A
blh nkSjku tc iknjh xSikWu osQ usr`Ro esa eknwjksa dk ,d tqywl foaVj
iSysl (kkj dk egy) osQ lkeus igqpk rks iqfyl vkSj dkslSDl us eknwjksa
ij geyk cksy fn;kA bl ?kVuk esa 100 ls ;knk eknwj ekjs x, vkSj
yxHkx 300 ?kk;y gq,A bfrgkl esa bl ?kVuk dks [kwuh jfookj osQ uke
ls ;kn fd;k tkrk gSA 1905 dh kafr dh 'kq#vkr blh ?kVuk ls gqbZ FkhA
lkjs ns'k esa gM+rkysa gksus yxhaA tc ukxfjd Lora=krk osQ vHkko dk fojksk
djrs gq, fo|kFkhZ viuh d{kkvksa dk cfg"dkj djus yxs rks fo'ofo|ky;
Hkh can dj fn, x,A odhyksa] MkWDVjksa] bathfu;jksa vkSj vU; e;oxhZ;
dkexkjksa us lafokku lHkk osQ xBu dh ekx djrs gq, ;wfu;u vkWi+Q ;wfu;al
dh LFkkiuk dj nhA

1905 dh kafr osQ nkSjku kkj us ,d fuokZfpr ijke'kZnkrk laln ;k


M~;wek osQ xBu ij viuh lgefr ns nhA kafr osQ le; oqQN fnu rd
I+kSQDVh eknwjksa dh cgqr lkjh VsM ;wfu;usa vkSj I+kQS DVh desfV;k Hkh vfLrRo
esa jghaA 1905 osQ ckn ,slh ;knkrj desfV;k vkSj ;wfu;usa vufkr :i
ls dke djus yxha D;ksafd mUgsa XkSjdkuwuh ?kksf"kr dj fn;k x;k FkkA
jktuhfrd xfrfofk;ksa ij Hkkjh ikcafn;k yxk nh xbA kkj us igyh M~;wek
dks ek=k 75 fnu osQ Hkhrj vkSj iqufuZokZfpr nwljh M~;wek dks 3 eghus osQ
Hkhrj c[kkZLr dj fn;kA og fdlh rjg dh tokcnsgh ;k viuh lkk ij
fdlh rjg dk vaoqQ'k ugha pkgrk FkkA mlus ernku dkuwuksa esa isQjcny
djosQ rhljh M~;wek esa #f<+oknh jktusrkvksa dks Hkj MkykA mnkjokfn;ksa vkSj
kafrdkfj;ksa dks ckgj j[kk x;kA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

2-5 igyk fo'o;q vkSj :lh lkezkT;

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1914 esa nks ;wjksih; xBcakuksa osQ chp ;q fNM+ x;kA ,d [kses esa teZuh]
vkWfLV;k vkSj rqdhZ (osaQnzh; 'kfDr;k) Fks rks nwljs [kses esa i+Qz kal] fczVsu o
:l (ckn esa bVyh vkSj :ekfu;k Hkh bl [kses esa 'kfey gks x,) FksA bu
lHkh ns'kksa osQ ikl fo'kky oSf'od lkezkT; Fks blfy, ;wjksi osQ lkFk&lkFk
;g ;q ;wjksi osQ ckgj Hkh iSQy x;k FkkA blh ;q dks igyk fo'o;q
dgk tkrk gSA
bl ;q dks 'kq:&'kq: esa :fl;ksa dk dkI+kQh leFkZu feykA turk us
kkj dk lkFk fn;kA ysfdu tSls&tSls ;q yack f[kaprk x;k] kkj us M~;wek
esa ekStwn eq[; ikfVZ;ksa ls lykg ysuk NksM+ fn;kA mlosQ izfr tuleFkZu
de gksus yxkA teZuh&fojkskh Hkkouk, fnuksfa nu cyorh gksus yxhaA teZuh&fojkskh
Hkkoukvksa osQ dkj.k gh yksxksa us lsaV ihVlZcxZ dk uke cny dj is=kksxzkn
j[k fn;k D;ksfa d lsVa ihVlZcxZ teZu uke FkkA kkjhuk (kkj dh iRuh&egkjkuh)
vysDlkak osQ teZu ewy dk gksus vkSj mlosQ ?kfV;k lykgdkjksa] [kkl rkSj
ls jkliqfru uked ,d laU;klh us jkt'kkgh dks vkSj vyksdfiz; cuk fn;kA
izFke fo'o;q osQ ^iwohZ ekspsZ* ij py jgh yM+kbZ ^if'peh ekspsZ* dh
yM+kbZ ls fHkUu FkhA if'pe esa lSfud iwohZ i+zQkal dh lhek ij cuh [kkb;ksa
ls yM+kbZ yM+ jgs Fks tcfd iwohZ ekspsZ ij lsuk us dkI+kQh cM+k I+kQklyk r;
dj fy;k FkkA bl ekspsZ ij cgqr lkjs lSfud ekSr osQ eqg easa tk pqosQ FksA
lsuk dh ijkt; us :fl;ksa dk eukscy rksM+ fn;kA 1914 ls 1916 osQ chp
teZuh vkSj vkWfLV;k esa :lh lsukvksa dks Hkkjh ijkt; >syuh iM+hA 1917
rd 70 yk[k yksx ekjs tk pqosQ FksA ihNs gVrh :lh lsukvksa us jkLrs esa
iM+us okyh I+kQlyksa vkSj bekjrksa dks Hkh u"V dj Mkyk rkfd nq'eu dh
lsuk ogk fVd gh u losQA I+kQlyksa vkSj bekjrksa osQ fouk'k ls :l esa 30
yk[k ls ;knk yksx 'kj.kkFkhZ gks x,A bu gkykr us ljdkj vkSj kkj] nksuksa
dks vyksdfiz; cuk fn;kA flikgh Hkh ;q ls rax vk pqosQ FksA vc os
yM+uk ugha pkgrs FksA

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fp=k 7 & igys fo'o;q osQ nkSjku :lh flikgh 'kkgh :lh lsuk dks ^:lh LVhejksyj* dgk tkrk FkkA
;g nqfu;k dh lcls cM+h l'kL=k lsuk FkhA tc bl
lsuk us viuh fu"Bk cny dj kafrdkfj;ksa dks leFkZu
nsuk 'kq: dj fn;k rks kkj dh lkk Hkh <g xbZA

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f;kdyki

1916 osQ fnu gSaA vki kkj dh lsuk esa


tujy gSa vkSj iwohZ ekspsZ ij rSukr gSaA vki
ekLdks ljdkj osQ fy, ,d fjiksVZ fy[k jgs
gSAa viuh fjiksVZ esa lq>ko nhft, fd fLFkfr
dks lqkkjus osQ fy, vkidh jk; esa D;k
fd;k tkuk pkfg,A

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

;q ls m|ksxksa ij Hkh cqjk vlj iM+kA :l osQ vius m|ksx rks oSls Hkh cgqr
de Fks] vc rks ckgj ls feyus okyh vkiwfrZ Hkh can gks xbZ D;ksfa d ckfYVd leq
esa ftl jkLrs ls fons'kh vkS|ksfxd lkeku vkrs Fks ml ij teZuh dk dCkk gks
pqdk FkkA ;wjksi osQ ckdh ns'kksa osQ eqdkcys :l osQ vkS|ksfxd midj.k ;knk rsth
ls csdkj gksus yxsA 1916 rd jsyos ykbusa VwVus yxhaA vPNh lsgr okys enks dks
;q esa >ksd
a fn;k x;kA ns'k Hkj esa eknwjksa dh deh iM+us yxh vkSj k:jh lkeku
cukus okyh NksVh&NksVh odZ'kkWIl BIi gksus yxhaA ;knkrj vukt lSfudksa dk isV
Hkjus osQ fy, ekspZs ij Hkstk tkus yxkA 'kgjksa esa jgus okyksa osQ fy, jksVh vkSj vkVs
dh fdYyr iSnk gks xbZA 1916 dh lfnZ;ksa esa jksVh dh nqdkuksa ij vdlj naxs
gksus yxsA

35

is=kksxzkn esa iQjojh kafr

lu~ 1917 dh lfnZ;ksa esa jktkkuh is=kksxzkn dh gkyr cgqr [kjkc FkhA ,slk
u, 'kCn
yxrk Fkk ekuks turk esa ekStwn fHkUurkvksa dks ;ku esa j[kdj gh 'kgj dh
cukoV r; dh xbZ FkhA eknwjksa osQ DokVZj vkSj dkj[kkus usok unh osQ nk, rkykcanh% I+kSQDVh dks LFkk;h :i ls can djus
rV ij FksA ck, fdukjs ij iSQ'kuscy bykosQ] foaVj iSysl vkSj ljdkjh osQ fy, ekfydksa }kjk eq[; iQkVd ij rkyk
bekjrsa FkhaA ftl egy esa M~;wek dh cSBd gksrh Fkh og Hkh blh rjI+kQ FkkA Mky nsukA
iQjojh esa eknwjksa osQ bykosQ esa [kk| inkFkks dh Hkkjh deh iSnk gks xbZA ml
lky BaM Hkh oqQN ;knk iM+h FkhA Hkh"k.k dksgjk vkSj cI+kQZ ckjh gqbZ FkhA
f;kdyki
lalnh; izfrfufk pkgrs Fks fd fuokZfpr ljdkj cph jgs blfy, og
ckWDl 2 ns[ksa vkSj orZeku oSQysaMj osQ fglkc ls
kkj }kjk M~;wek dks Hkax djus osQ fy, dh tk jgh dksf'k'kksa dk fojksk dj
varjkZ"Vh; efgyk fnol dh frfFk dk irk yxk,A
jgs FksA
22 iQjojh dks nk, rV ij fLFkr ,d I+kSQDVh esa
rkykcanh ?kksf"kr dj nh xbZA vxys fnu bl I+kSQDVh
osQ eknwjksa osQ leFkZu esa ipkl I+kSQfDV;ksa osQ eknwjksa us
Hkh gM+rky dk ,yku dj fn;kA cgqr lkjs dkj[kkuksa esa
gM+rky dk usr`Ro vkSjrsa dj jgh FkhaA blh fnu dks
ckn esa varjkZ"Vh; efgyk fnol dk uke fn;k x;kA
vkanksyudkjh turk cLrh ikj djosQ jktkkuh osQ
chpksachp&usOLdh izksLisDV&rd vk xbZA bl le; rd
dksbZ jktuhfrd ikVhZ vkanksyu dks lf; :i ls
laxfBr vkSj lapkfyr ugha dj jgh FkhA tc I+kQS 'kuscy
fjgk;'kh bykdksa vkSj ljdkjh bekjrksa dks eknwjksa us
?ksj fy;k rks ljdkj us d+;wZ yxk fn;kA 'kke rd
izn'kZudkjh frrj&fcrj gks x, ysfdu 24 vkSj 25
rkjh[k dks og fiQj bdV~Bk gksus yxsA ljdkj us mu
ij ukj j[kus osQ fy, ?kqM+lokj lSfudksa vkSj iqfyl
dks rSukr dj fn;kA
jfookj] 25 iQjojh dks ljdkj us M~;wek dks
c[kkZLr dj fn;kA ljdkj osQ bl I+kSQlys osQ f[kykI+kQ
jktuhfrK c;ku nsus yxsA 26 rkjh[k dks izn'kZudkjh
cgqr cM+h la[;k esa ck, rV osQ bykosQ esa bdV~Bk gks
x,A 27 dks mUgksaus iqfyl eq[;ky;ksa ij geyk djosQ
mUgsa rgl&ugl dj fn;kA jksVh] ru[okg] dke osQ
?kaVksa esa deh vkSj yksdrkaf=kd vfkdkjksa osQ i{k esa ukjs
yxkrs vla[; yksx lM+dksa ij tek gks x,A ljdkj us
fLFkfr ij fu;a=k.k dk;e djus osQ fy, ,d ckj fiQj
?kqM+lokj lSfudksa dks rSukr dj fn;kA ysfdu ?kqM+lokj
lSfudksa dh VqdfM+;ksa us izn'kZudkfj;ksa ij xksyh pykus fp=k 8 & M~;wek esa is=kksxzkn lksfo;r dh cSBd] iQjojh 1917 -

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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36

ls budkj dj fn;kA xqLlk, flikfg;ksa us ,d jsthesaV dh cSjd esa vius


gh ,d vI+kQlj ij xksyh pyk nhA rhu nwljh jskhesaVksa us Hkh cxkor dj
nh vkSj gM+rkyh eknwjkssa osQ lkFk vk feysA ml 'kke dks flikgh vkSj
eknwj ,d lksfo;r ;k ^ifj"kn~* dk xBu djus osQ fy, mlh bekjr esa
tek gq, tgk vc rd M~;wek dh cSBd gqvk djrh FkhA ;gha ls is=kksxkz n
lksfo;r dk tUe gqvkA
vxys fnu ,d izfrfufkeaMy kkj ls feyus x;kA lSfud dekaMjksa us
mls lykg nh fd og jktxh NksM+ nsA mlus dekaMjksa dh ckr eku yh
vkSj 2 ekpZ dks xh NksM+ nhA lksfo;r vkSj M~;wek osQ usrkvksa us ns'k dk
'kklu pykus osQ fy, ,d varfje ljdkj cuk yhA r; fd;k x;k fd
:l osQ Hkfo"; osQ ckjs esa I+kSQlyk ysus dh fkEesnkjh lafokku lHkk dks lkSai
nh tk, vkSj mldk pquko lkoZHkkSfed o;Ld erkfkdkj osQ vkkkj ij
fd;k tk,A iQjojh 1917 esa jkt'kkgh dks xh ls gVkus okyh kafr dk
>aMk is=kksxzkn dh turk osQ gkFkksa esa FkkA

u, 'kCn
lksfo;r% :l osQ LFkkuh; Lo'kklh laxBuA

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ckWDl 1

iQjojh kafr esa efgyk,


^efgyk dkexkj] vdlj --- vius iq#"k lgdfeZ;ksa dks izsfjr djrh jgrh Fkha ---A ykWjsak Vsyhi+Q ksu I+kSQDVh esa] --- ekI+kQkZ
oklhysok us yxHkx vosQys gh ,d liQy gM+rky dks vatke fn;k FkkA mlh fnu lqcg dks efgyk fnol lekjksg osQ
ekSosQ ij efgyk dkexkjksa us iq#"k dkexkjksa dks yky ifV~V;k ckkh FkhaA --- blosQ ckn] fefyax e'khu vkWijsVj dk dke
djus okyh ekI+kQkZ oklhysok us dke jksd fn;k vkSj vkuu&iQkuu gM+rky dk vkg~oku dj MkykA dke ij ekStnw eknwj
mlosQ leFkZu dks igys gh rS;kj FksA --- I+kQksjeSu us bl ckjs esa izcakdksa dks lwfpr dj fn;k vkSj mlosQ fy, ikojksVh
fHktok;hA mlus ikojksVh rks ys yh ysfdu dke ij ykSVus ls budkj dj fn;kA tc iz'kkld us mlls iwNk fd og
dke D;ksa ugha djuk pkgrh rks mlus iyV dj tokc fn;k fd ^^tc ckdh lkjs Hkw[ks gksa rks eSa vosQys isV Hkjus dh
ugha lksp ldrhA** ekI+kQkZ osQ leFkZu esa I+kSQDVh osQ nwljs foHkkx esa dke djus okyh efgyk, Hkh bdV~Bh gks xb vkSj
khjs&khjs ckdh lkjh vkSjrksa us Hkh dke jksd fn;kA tYnh gh iq#"kksa us Hkh vkSkkj kehu ij Mky fn, vkSj iwjk gqtwe
lM+d ij fudy vk;kA*

3-1 iQjojh osQ ckn

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varfje ljdkj esa lSfud vfkdkjh] HkwLokeh vkSj m|ksxifr izHkko'kkyh FksA
muesa mnkjoknh vkSj lektoknh tYnh ls tYnh fuokZfpr ljdkj dk xBu
pkgrs FksA tu lHkk djus vkSj laxBu cukus ij yxh ikcanh gVk yh xbZA
gkykfd fuokZpu dk rjhdk lc txg ,d tSlk ugha Fkk ysfdu is=kksxkz n
lksfo;r dh rkZ ij lc txg ^lksfo;rsa* cuk yh xbA
vizSy 1917 esa cksY'ksfodksa osQ fuokZflr usrk Oykfnehj ysfuu :l
ykSV vk,A ysfuu osQ usr`Ro esas cksY'ksfod 1914 ls gh ;q dk fojksk dj
jgs FksA mudk dguk Fkk fd vc lksfo;rksa dks lkk vius gkFkksa esa ys ysuh
pkfg,A ysfuu us c;ku fn;k fd ;q lekIr fd;k tk,] lkjh kehu
fdlkukas osQ gokys dh tk, vkSj cSadksa dk jk"Vh;dj.k fd;k tk,A bu

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

ksr% pkWbZ pSVthZ] lsfyczsfVax foesu (2002)A

f;kdyki

ksr d vkSj ckWDl 1 dks ,d ckj fiQj ns[ksaA


eknwjksa dh euksn'kk esa vk, ikp ifjorZu
crk,A
[kqn dks bu nksuksa ifjfLFkfr;ksa dh izR;{kn'khZ
efgyk osQ :i esa nsf[k, vkSj fyf[k, fd igys
okyh fLFkfr ls nwljh fLFkfr osQ chp D;k cnyko
vk;k gSA
37

rhu ekxksa dks ysfuu dh ^vizSy Fkhfll* osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA mUgksaus
;s Hkh lq>ko fn;k fd vc viuss jSfMdy ms';ksa dks Li"V djus osQ fy,
cksY'ksfod ikVhZ dk uke dE;qfuLV ikVhZ j[k fn;k tk,A cksY'ksfod ikVhZ
osQ ;knkrj yksxksa dks vizy
S Fkhfll osQ ckjs esa lqudj dkI+kQh gSjkuh gqbAZ
mUgsa yxrk Fkk fd vHkh lektoknh kafr osQ fy, lgh oDr ugha vk;k
gS blfy, fI+kQygky varfje ljdkj dks gh leFkZu fn;k tkuk pkfg,A
ysfdu vxys oqQN eghuksa dh ?kVukvksa us mudh lksp cny nhA
xfeZ;ksa esa eknwj vkanksyu vkSj iQSy x;kA vkS|ksfxd bykdksa esa I +kSQDVh
desfV;k cukbZ xbA bu desfV;ksa osQ ek;e ls eknwj I+kQS DVh pykus osQ
ekfydksa osQ rkSj&rjhdksa ij loky [kM+k djus yxsA VsM ;wfu;uksa dh rknkn
c<+us yxhA lsuk esa flikfg;ksa dh lfefr;k cuus yxhaA twu esa yxHkx 500
lksfo;rksa us vf[ky :lh lksfo;r dkaxzsl esa vius izfrfufk HkstsA tSls&tSls
varfje ljdkj dh rkdr dekksj gksus yxh vkSj cksY'ksfodksa dk izHkko
c<+us yxk] ljdkj vlarks"k dks nckus osQ fy, l[r dne mBkus yxhA
ljdkj us I+kQS fDV;k pykus dh eknwjksa }kjk dh tk jgh dksf'k'kksa dks jksduk
vkSj eknwjksa osQ usrkvksa dks fxj+rkj djuk 'kq: dj fn;kA tqykbZ 1917 esa
cksY'ksfodksa }kjk vk;ksftr fd, x, fo'kky izn'kZuksa dk Hkkjh neu fd;k
x;kA cgqr lkjs cksY'ksfod usrkvksa dks fNiuk ;k Hkkxuk iM+kA
xkaoksa esa fdlku vkSj muosQ lektoknh kafrdkjh usrk Hkwfe iqufoZrj.k
osQ fy, ncko Mkyus yxs FksA bl dke osQ fy, Hkwfe lfefr;k cuk nh xbZ
FkhaA lkekftd kafrdkfj;ksa ls izsj.kk vkSj izksRlkgu ysrs gq, tqykbZ ls
flracj osQ chp fdlkuksa us cgqr lkjh kehu ij dCkk dj fy;kA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 10 & tqykbZ osQ fnu 17 tqykbZ 1917 dks cksY'ksfod leFkZd izn'kZudkfj;ksa ij lsuk }kjk xksyhckjh dk n`';A

38

fp=k 9 & vizSy 1917 esa eknwjksa dks lacksfkr djrs ysfuu
dh ,d cksY'ksfod Nfo -

3-2 vDrwcj 1917 dh kafr


tSls&tSls varfje ljdkj vkSj cksY'ksfodksa osQ chp Vdjko c<+rk x;k]
ysfuu dks varfje ljdkj }kjk rkuk'kkgh Fkksi nsus dh vk'kadk fn[kkbZ nsus
yxhA flracj esa mUgksaus ljdkj osQ f[kykiQ foksg osQ ckjs esa ppkZ 'kq: dj
nhA lsuk vkSj I+kSQDVh lksfo;rksa esa ekStwn cksY'ksfodksa dks bdV~Bk fd;k x;kA
16 vDrwcj 1917 dks ysfuu us is=kksxzkn lksfo;r vkSj cksY'ksfod ikVhZ
dks lkk ij dCkk djus osQ fy, jkth dj fy;kA lkk ij dCks osQ fy,
fy;kWu VkWV~Ldh osQ usr`Ro esa lksfo;r dh vksj ls ,d lSfud kafrdkjh
lfefr dk xBu fd;k x;kA bl ckr dk [kqyklk ugha fd;k x;k fd
;kstuk dks fdl fnu ykxw fd;k tk,xkA
24 vDrwcj dks foksg 'kq: gks x;kA ladV dh vk'kadk dks ns[krs gq,
izkkuea=kh osQjsaLdh lSfud VqdfM+;ksa dks bdV~Bk djus 'kgj ls ckgj pys
x,A rM+osQ gh ljdkj osQ oI+kQknkj lSfudksa us nks cksY'ksfod v[kckjksa osQ
n+rjksa ij ?ksjk Mky fn;kA VsyhI+kQksu vkSj VsyhxzkI+kQ n+rjksa ij fu;a=k.k izkIr
djus vkSj foaVj iSysl dh j{kk djus osQ fy, ljdkj leFkZd lSfudksa dks
jokuk dj fn;k x;kA iyd >idrs kafrdkjh lfefr us Hkh vius leFkZdksa
dks vkns'k ns fn;k fd ljdkjh dk;kZy;ksa ij dCkk dj ysa vkSj eaf=k;ksa dks
fxj+rkj dj ysaA mlh fnu vkWjksjk uked ;qiksr us foaVj iSysl ij
ceckjh 'kq: dj nhA vU; ;qiksrksa us usok osQ jkLrs ls vkxs c<+rs gq,
fofHkUu lSfud fBdkuksa dks vius fu;a=k.k esa ys fy;kA 'kke <yrs&<yrs
iwjk 'kgj kafrdkjh lfefr osQ fu;a=k.k esa vk pqdk Fkk vkSj eaf=k;ksa us
vkReleiZ.k dj fn;k FkkA is=kksxzkn esa vf[ky :lh lksfo;r dkaxzsl dh
cSBd gqbZ ftlesa cgqer us cksY'ksfodksa dh dkjZokbZ dk leFkZu fd;kA vU;
'kgjksa esa Hkh cxkorsa gksus yxhaA nksuksa rjI+kQ ls tedj xksyhckjh gqbZ] [kkl
rkSj ls ekLdks esa] ysfdu fnlacj rd ekLdks&is=kksxzkn bykosQ ij cksY'ksfodksa
dk fu;a=k.k LFkkfir gks pqdk FkkA

ckWDl 2
:lh kafr dh rkjh[k
:l esa 1 iQjojh 1918 rd twfy;u oSQysaMj dk
vuqlj.k fd;k tkrk FkkA blosQ ckn :lh ljdkj us
xzxs ksfj;u oSQysMa j viuk fy;k ftldk vc lc txg
bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA xzsxksfj;u oSQysaMj twfy;u
oSQysaMj ls 13 fnu vkxs pyrk gSA bldk eryc gS
fd gekjs oSQysaMj osQ fglkc ls ^iQjojh* kafr 12
ekpZ dks vkSj ^vDrwcj kafr* 7 uoacj dks laiUu
gqbZ FkhA

oqQN egoiw.kZ frfFk;k

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1850&1880
:l esa lektokn ij cgl

1898
jf'k;u lks'ky MseksozSQfVd ooZQlZ ikVhZ dh LFkkiukA
1905
[kwuh jfookj vkSj 1905 dh kafrA

1917
2 ekpZ & kkj }kjk inR;kxA
24 vDrwcj & is=kksxzkn esa cksY'ksfod foksgA
1918&20
x`g;qA

1919
dkWfeUVuZ dk xBuA

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u, 'kCn

dkWfeUVuZ % dE;qfuLV ikfVZ;ksa dh varjkZ"Vh;


laLFkkA ;g 'kCn] ^dE;qfuLV baVjuS'kuy*
(Communist International) dk laf{kIr
:i gSA
fp=k 11 & is=kksxzkn esa ysfuu (ck,) vkSj VkWV~Ldh (nk,)
eknwjksa osQ lkFk 39

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

1929
lkewfgdhdj.k dh 'kq#vkrA

vDrwcj osQ ckn D;k cnyk\

cksY'ksfod futh laifk dh O;oLFkk osQ iwjh rjg f[kykiQ FksA ;knkrj m|ksxksa
vkSj cSd
a ksa dk uoacj 1917 esa gh jk"Vh;dj.k fd;k tk pqdk FkkA mudk
LokfeRo vkSj izca ku ljdkj osQ fu;a=k.k esa vk pqdk FkkA kehu dks lkekftd
laifk ?kksf"kr dj fn;k x;kA fdlkuksa dks lkearksa dh kehuksa ij dCkk djus
dh [kqyh NwV ns nh xbZA 'kgjksa esa cksY'ksfodksa us edku&ekfydksa osQ fy,
i;kZIr fgLlk NksM+dj muosQ cM+s edkuksa osQ NksV&s NksVs fgLls dj fn, rkfd
cs?kjckj ;k k:jrean yksxksa dks Hkh jgus dh txg nh tk losQA mUgksua s
vfHktkR; oxZ }kjk iqjkuh info;ksa osQ bLrseky ij jksd yxk nhA ifjorZu dks
Li"V :i ls lkeus ykus osQ fy, lsuk vkSj ljdkjh vI+kQljksa dh ofnZ;k cny
nh xbA blosQ fy, 1918 esa ,d ifjkku izfr;ksfxrk vk;ksftr dh xbZ ftlesa
lksfo;r Vksih (cqfn;ksuksOdk) dk pquko fd;k x;kA
cksY'ksfod ikVhZ dk uke cny dj :lh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ (cksY'ksfod)
j[k fn;k x;kA uoacj 1917 esa cksY'ksfodksa us lafokku lHkk osQ fy, pquko
djk, ysfdu bu pqukoksa esa mUgsa cgqer ugha fey ik;kA tuojh 1918 esa
vlsacyh us cksY'ksfodksa osQ izLrkoksa dks [kkfjt dj fn;k vkSj ysfuu us fp=k 12 & lksfo;r Vksih (cqfn;ksuksOdk) igus ,d flikgh vlsacyh c[kkZLr dj nhA mudk er Fkk fd vfuf'pr ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa pquh
xbZ vlsacyh osQ eqdkcys vf[ky :lh lksfo;r dkaxzsl dgha ;knk
yksdrkaf=kd laLFkk gSA ekpZ 1918 esa vU; jktuhfrd lg;ksfx;ksa dh
vlgefr osQ ckotwn cksY'ksfodksa us czsLV fyVksOLd esa teZuh ls lafk dj
yhA vkus okys lkyksa esa cksY'ksfod ikVhZ vf[ky
:lh lksfo;r dkaxzsl osQ fy, gksus okys pqukoksa esa
fgLlk ysus okyh ,dek=k ikVhZ jg xbZA vf[ky
:lh lksfo;r dkaxzsl dks vc ns'k dh laln dk
ntkZ ns fn;k x;k FkkA :l ,d&nyh; jktuhfrd
O;oLFkk okyk ns'k cu x;kA VsM ;wfu;uksa ij ikVhZ
dk fu;a=k.k jgrk FkkA xqIrpj iqfyl (ftls igys
psdk vkSj ckn esa vksthih;w rFkk ,uosQohMh dk
uke fn;k x;k) cksY'ksfodksa dh vkykspuk djus
okyksa dks nafMr djrh FkhA cgqr lkjs ;qok ys[kd
vkSj dykdkj Hkh ikVhZ dh rjI+kQ vkdf"kZr gq,
D;ksafd og lektokn vkSj ifjorZu osQ izfr lefiZr
FkhA vDrwcj 1917 osQ ckn ,sls dykdkjksa vkSj
ys[kdksa us dyk vkSj okLrqf'kYi osQ {ks=k esa u,
iz;ksx 'kq: fd,A ysfdu ikVhZ }kjk Fkksih xbZ
lsaljf'ki osQ dkj.k cgqr lkjs yksxksa dk ikVhZ ls
fp=k 13 & ekLdks esa ebZ fnol dk izn'kZu] 1918 eksg Hkax Hkh gksus yxk FkkA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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40

ckWDl 3
vDrwcj kafr vkSj :lh xzkeh.k bykosQ % nks n`f"Vdks.k
^25 vDrwcj 1905 dks gqbZ kafrdkjh mFky&iqFky dh [kcj vxys gh fnu xko esa igqp xbZA yksxksa us [kwc [kqf'k;k euk;haA
fdlkuksa osQ fy, bldk eryc Fkk eq+r kehu vkSj ;q dk [kkRekA --- ftl fnu [kcj feyh mlh fnu tehankj dh gosyh
ywV yh xbZ] mlosQ [ksr dCks esa ys fy, x, vkSj mlosQ fo'kkydk; ckx osQ isM+ dkV dj lkjh ydM+h fdlkuksa osQ chp
ckV nh xbZA mldh lkjh bekjrssa rksM+ nh xb vkSj mldh kehu fdlkuksa osQ chp ckV nh xbZ tks ,d ubZ lksfo;r fkanxh
thus dks rS;kj FksA*
I+ksQnksj csykso] n fgLVh vkWiQ , lksfo;r dysfDVo I+kQkeZA
,d kehankj ifjokj osQ lnL; us vius fj'rsnkj dks Hksts [kr esa fy[kk fd mlosQ ifjokj dh tkxhj osQ lkFk D;k gqvk%
^r[rkiyV] fcuk fdlh ijs'kkuh osQ] [kkeks'kh ls vkSj 'kkafriwoZd iwjk gks x;k---A 'kq#vkrh fnu cnkZ'r osQ ckgj Fks--- fe[kkby
fe[kkbyksfop (tkxhj dk ekfyd) 'kkar Fkk---A yM+fd;k Hkh---A blesa dksbZ 'kd ugha fd ps;jeSu dk O;ogkj lgh gS] cfYd
og cM+h fouezrk ls ckr djrk gSA gekjs ikl nks xk; vkSj nks ?kksM+s NksM+ fn, x,A ukSdj ckj&ckj mUgsa ;gh dgrs gSa fd
gekjh fI+kQ u djsaA ^^mUgsa thus nksA mudh lqj{kk vkSj laifk dk fkEek gekjs mQij gSA ge muls ekuork Hkjk O;ogkj
gh djsxa -s --A**
---viQokg gS fd dbZ xkoksa esa yksx desfV;ksa dks ckgj fudky dj iwjh tkxhj nksckjk fe[kkby fe[kkbyksfop dks lkSaiuk
pkgrs gSaA irk ugha ,slk gksxk ;k ugha] ;k ;g gekjs fy, vPNk Hkh jgsxk ;k ughaA ij gesa bl ckr dk larks"k gS fd gekjs
yksxksa esa psruk gS---A*

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ltZ 'eseku] ,dksk vkWiQ , usfVo ySaMA Vw lsapqjhk vkWiQ , jf'k;u foyst (1997)A

4-1 x`g ;q

f;kdyki

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xzkeh.k bykdksa esa gqbZ kafr osQ ckjs esa nksuksa n`f"Vdks.kksa
dks if<+,A dYiuk dhft, fd vki bu ?kVukvksa osQ
lk{kh gSaA fuEufyf[kr dh ukj ls bu ?kVukvksa dk
C;kSjk fyf[k, %
,LVsV ekfyd
NksVk fdlku
i=kdkj

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

tc cksY'ksfodksa us kehu osQ iqufoZrj.k dk vkns'k fn;k rks :lh lsuk VwVus
yxhA ;knkrj flikgh fdlku FksA os Hkwfe iqufoZrj.k osQ fy, ?kj ykSVuk
pkgrs Fks blfy, lsuk NksM+dj tkus yxsA xSj&cksY'ksfod lektokfn;ksa]
mnkjokfn;ksa vkSj jkt'kkgh osQ leFkZdksa us cksY'ksfod foksg dh fuank dhA
muosQ usrk nf{k.kh :l esa bdV~Bk gksdj cksY'ksfodksa (^jsM~l*) ls yM+us osQ
fy, VqdfM+;k laxfBr djus yxsA 1918 vkSj 1919 esa :lh lkezkT; osQ
;knkrj fgLlksa ij lkekftd kafrdkfj;ksa (^xzhUl*) vkSj kkj&leFkZdksa
(^OgkbV~l*) dk gh fu;a=k.k jgkA mUgsa i+Qz kalhlh] vesfjdh] fczfV'k vkSj
tkikuh VqdfM+;ksa dk Hkh leFkZu fey jgk FkkA ;s lHkh 'kfDr;k :l esa
lektokn dks iQyrs&iwQyrs ugha ns[kuk pkgrh FkhaA bu VqdfM+;ksa vkSj
cksY'ksfodksa osQ chp pys x`g ;q osQ nkSjku ywVekj] MoSQrh vkSj Hkq[kejh
tSlh leL;k, cM+s iSekus ij iSQy xbA
^OgkbV~l* esa tks futh laifk osQ fgek;rh Fks mUgksaus kehu ij dCkk
djus okys fdlkuksa osQ f[kykI+kQ dkI+kQh l[r joS;k viuk;kA mudh bu

f;kdyki
ksr [k dks ns[ksa vkSj crk, fd :lh kafr ij e;
,f'k;k osQ yksxksa dh izfrf;k bruh vyx&vyx
D;ksa Fkh\

41

gjdrksa osQ dkj.k rks XkSj&cksY'ksfodksa osQ izfr tuleFkZu vkSj Hkh rsth ls ksr [k
?kVus yxkA tuojh 1920 rd HkwriwoZ :lh lkezkT; osQ ;knkrj fgLlksa ij
vDrwcj kafr osQ le; e; ,f'k;k % nks
cksY'ksfodksa dk fu;a=k.k dk;e gks pqdk FkkA mUgsa XkSj&:lh jk"Vokfn;ksa vkSj
n`f"Vdks.k
eqfLye tnhfn;ksa dh enn ls ;g dke;kch feyh FkhA tgk :lh
,e- ,u- jkW; Hkkjrh; kafrdkjh] eSfDldu dE;qfuLV
mifuos'koknh gh cksY'ksfod fopkjkkjk osQ vuq;k;h cu x, Fks] ogk ;g
ikVhZ osQ laLFkkid vkSj Hkkjr] phu o ;wjksi esa
enn dke ugha vk ldhA e; ,f'k;k fLFkr [khok esa cksY'ksfod
dkWfeUVuZ osQ ,d izeq[k usrk FksA 1920 osQ n'kd esa
mifuos'kdksa us lektokn dh j{kk osQ uke ij LFkkuh; jk"Vokfn;ksa dk cM+s
tc :l esa x`g ;q py jgk Fkk ml le; os e;
iSekus ij dRysvke fd;kA ,sls gkykr esa cgqr lkjs yksxksa dks ;g le>
,f'k;k esa FksA mUgksaus fy[kk %
^eqf[k;k ,d Hkyk&lk cqkqxZ Fkk---A mldk lgk;d esa ugha vk jgk Fkk fd cksY'ksfod ljdkj D;k pkgrh gSA
-- ,d ukStoku --- tks :lh Hkk"kk cksyrk FkkA --- mlss
vkaf'kd :i ls blh leL;k ls fuiVus osQ fy, ;knkrj XkSSj&:lh
kafr osQ ckjs esa irk Fkk ftlesa kkj dks jktxh ls
jk"Vh;rkvksa dks lksfo;r la?k (;w,l,lvkj)&fnlacj 1922 esa :lh
gVk fn;k x;k Fkk vkSj mu tujyksa dks Hkh [knsM+ fn;k
lkezkT; esa ls cksY'ksfodksa }kjk LFkkfir fd;k x;k jkT;&osQ varxZr
Fkk ftUgksua s fdfxZkksa dh ekr`Hkwfe ij dCkk fd;k FkkA
jktuhfrd Lok;krk ns nh xbZA ysfdu] D;ksafd cksY'ksfodksa us LFkkuh;
bl izdkj kafr dk eryc Fkk fd vc fdxhZk
ljdkjksa ij dbZ vyksdfiz; vkSj l[r uhfr;k & tSl]s ?kqearwokn dh
(fdfxZLrku) yksx ,d ckj fiQj viuh ekr`Hkwfe osQ
jksdFkke dh dM+h dksf'k'ksa & Fkksi nh Fkha blfy, fofHkUu jk"Vh;rkvksa dk
Lokeh cu x, FksA tUetkr cksY'ksfod ls yxus okys
fo'okl thrus osQ iz;kl vkaf'kd :i ls gh liQy gks ik,A
;qod us gqadkj yxkbZ ^^badykc ftankckn**A iwjk

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dchyk mlosQ lkFk ukjs yxkus yxkA*

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

4-2 lektoknh lekt dk fuekZ.k

x`g ;q osQ nkSjku cksY'ksfodksa us m|ksxksa vkSj cSadksa osQ jk"Vh;dj.k dks tkjh
j[kkA mUgksaus fdlkukas dks ml kehu ij [ksrh dh NwV ns nh ftldk
lekthdj.k fd;k tk pqdk FkkA kCr fd, x, [ksrksa dk bLrseky
cksY'ksfod ;g fn[kkus osQ fy, djrs Fks fd lkewfgdrk D;k gksrh gSA
'kklu osQ fy, osQahr fu;kstu dh O;oLFkk ykxw dh xbZA vI+kQlj
bl ckr dk fglkc yxkrs Fks fd vFkZO;oLFkk fdl rjg dke dj ldrh
gSA bl vkkkj ij os ikp lky osQ fy, y{; r; dj nsrs FksA blh vkkkj
ij mUgksaus iapo"khZ; ;kstuk, cukuh 'kq: dhaA igyh nks ^;kstukvksa*
(1927&1932 vkSj 1933&1938) osQ nkSjku vkS|ksfxd fodkl dks c<+kok
nsus osQ fy, ljdkj us lHkh rjg dh dhersa fLFkj dj nhaA osQahr
fu;kstu ls vkfFkZd fodkl dks dkiQh xfr feyhA vkS|ksfxd mRiknu c<+us
yxk (1929 ls 1933 osQ chp rsy] dks;ys vkSj LVhy osQ mRiknu esa
100 izfr'kr o`f gqb)Z A u,&u, vkS|ksfxd 'kgj vfLrRo esa vk,A
exj] rst fuekZ.k dk;ks osQ ncko esa dk;ZfLFkfr;k [kjkc gksus yxhaA
eSXuhVksxksLoZQ 'kgj esa ,d LVhy la;a=k dk fuekZ.k dk;Z rhu lky osQ Hkhrj
iwjk dj fy;k x;kA bl nkSjku eknwjksa dks cM+h l[r fkanxh xqkkjuh iM+h
ftldk urhtk ;s gqvk fd igys gh lky esa 550 ckj dke #dkA fjgk;'kh
DokVZjksa esa ^tkM+ksa esa 'kkSpky; tkus osQ fy, 40 fMxzh de rkieku ij yksx
pkSFkh eafky ls mrj dj lM+d osQ ikj nkSM+dj tkrs FksA*
,d foLrkfjr f'k{kk O;oLFkk fodflr dh xbZ vkSj I+kQS DVh dkexkjksa ,oa
fdlkuksa dks fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa nkf[kyk fnykus osQ fy, [kkl bartke fd,

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,e- ,u- jkW;] esekW;lZ (1964)A


^fdxhZk yksx igyh kafr (;kuh iQjojh kafr) ij
[kq'kh ls >we mBs vkSj nwljh kafr dh [kcj ls os
vpaHks vkSj ng'kr esa Mwc x,A --- igyh kafr us mUgsa
kkj osQ neudkjh 'kklu ls vkkkn djk;k Fkk vkSj
;s mEehn txk;h Fkh fd --- mUgsa Lok;krk fey
tk,xhA nwljh kafr (vDrwcj kafr) fgalk] ywVikV]
djksa osQ cks> vkSj rkuk'kkgh lkk dh LFkkiuk osQ lkFk
vk;hA --- igys ,d ckj kkj osQ ukSdj'kkgksa osQ NksVs
ls xqV us fdfxZkksa dk neu fd;k FkkA vc ogh yksx
--- mlh O;oLFkk dks vkxs c<+k jgs gSa---A*
,d dkkd usrk (1919)] vysDksaMj csfuxlu ,oa
pkarky osQyosQts] ys ekWoesRa l us'kUkkW 'ksk ys eqly
q ekUl
ns :lh] (1960) esa m`rA

u, 'kCn
Lok;krk% viuk 'kklu Lo;a pykus dk vfkdkjA
?kqearw% ,sls yksx tks fdlh ,d txg Bgj dj
ugha jgrs cfYd viuh vkthfodk dh [kkst esa
,d txg ls nwljh txg vkrs&tkrs jgrs gSaA
dk;ZfLFkfr;k % dke osQ gkykrA

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fp=k 15 & rhl osQ n'kd esa lksfo;r :l osQ ,d LowQy esa i<+rs cPps cPps lksfo;r vFkZO;oLFkk dk v;;u dj jgs gSaA

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fp=k 16 & igyh iapo"khZ; ;kstuk osQ


nkSjku eSXuhVksxksLdZ dk ,d cPpk ;g cPpk lksfo;r :l osQ fy, dke dj
jgk gSA

ckWDl 4

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

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fp=k 14 & dkj[kkuksa dks lektokn osQ izrhd dh


rjg ekuk tkrk Fkk iksLVj esa fy[kk gS % ^fpefu;ksa ls fudyrk kqv k gh
lksfo;r :l dh lkl gSA*

fp=k 17 & rhl osQ n'kd esa ,d dkj[kkus dk Hkkstu d{k -

;wsu osQ ,d xkao esa lektoknh [ksrh


^nks (dCkk fd, x,) [ksrksa dks ysdj ,d dE;wu cuk;k x;kA dE;wu esa oqQy rsjg ifjokj vkSj lkj yksx FksA --- [ksrksa ls gkfly fd, x,
f"k midj.kksa dks --- dE;wu osQ gokys dj fn;k x;kA --- lHkh lnL; lkewfgd Hkkstuky; esa [kkuk [kkrs FksA ^^lgdkjh lkE;okn** osQ flkar
osQ vkkkj ij vkenuh dks lcosQ chp ckV fy;k tkrk FkkA lnL;ksa osQ Je ls gksus okyh lkjh vk; vkSj dE;wu osQ ikl ekStwn lkjs fjgk;'kh
edkuksa vkSj lqfokkvksa dk dE;wu osQ lnL; feydj bLrseky djrs FksA*
I+ksQnksj csykso] n fgLVh vkWiQ , lksfo;r dysfDVo I+kQkeZ (1955)A
43

x,A efgyk dkexkjksa osQ cPpksa osQ fy, Ik+ SQfDV;ksa esa ckyokfM+;k [kksy nh
xbA lLrh LokLF; lsok miyCk djk;h xbZA eknwjksa osQ fy, vkn'kZ
fjgk;'kh edku cuk, x,A ysfdu bu lkjh dksf'k'kksa osQ urhts lHkh txg
,d tSls ugha jgs D;ksafd ljdkjh lalkku lhfer FksA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

4-3 Lrkfyuokn vkSj lkewfgdhdj.k


fu;ksftr vFkZO;oLFkk dk 'kq#vkrh nkSj [ksrh osQ
lkewfgdhdj.k ls iSnk gqbZ rckgh ls tqM+k gqvk FkkA
1927&1928 osQ vklikl :l osQ 'kgjksa esa vukt dk
Hkkjh ladV iSnk gks x;k FkkA ljdkj us vukt dh
dher r; dj nh FkhA mlls ;knk dher ij dksbZ
vukt ugha csp ldrk FkkA ysfdu fdlku ml dher
ij ljdkj dks vukt cspus osQ fy, rS;kj ugha FksA
ysfuu osQ ckn ikVhZ dh deku laHkky jgs Lrkfyu us fLFkfr ls fuiVus
osQ fy, dM+s dne mBk,A mUgsa yxrk Fkk fd vehj fdlku vkSj O;kikjh
dher c<+us dh mEehn esa vukt ugha csp jgs gSaA fLFkfr ij dkcw ikus osQ
fy, lV~Vsckkh ij vadq'k yxkuk vkSj O;kikfj;ksa osQ ikl tek vukt dks
tCr djuk k:jh FkkA 1928 esa ikVhZ osQ lnL;ksa us vukt mRiknd bykdksa
dk nkSjk fd;kA mUgksaus fdlkuksa ls tcju vukt [kjhnk vkSj ^oqQydksa* osQ
fBdkuksa ij Nkis ekjsA :l esa laiUu fdlkuksa dks dqyd dgk tkrk FkkA tc
blosQ ckn Hkh vukt dh deh cuh jgh rks [ksrksa osQ lkewfgdhdj.k dk
I+kSQlyk fy;k x;kA bl iQSlys osQ i{k esa ,d roZQ ;g fn;k x;k fd vukt
dh deh blfy, gS D;ksafd [ksr cgqr NkVs&NksVs gSaA 1917 osQ ckn kehu
fdlkuksa dks lkSai nh xbZ FkhA iQyLo:i ;knkrj fdlkuksa osQ ikl NksVs [ksr
Fks ftudk vkkqfudhdj.k ugha fd;k tk ldrk FkkA vkkqfud [ksr fodflr
djus vkSj mu ij e'khuksa dh lgk;rk ls vkS|ksfxd [ksrh djus osQ fy,
^dqydksa dk lI+kQk;k* djuk] fdlkuksa ls kehu Nhuuk vkSj jkT; fu;af=kr
;kuh ljdkjh fu;a=k.k okys fo'kkydk; [ksr cukuk k:jh ekuk x;kA
blh osQ ckn Lrkfyu dk lkewfgdhdj.k dk;Ze 'kq: gqvkA 1929 ls
ikVhZ us lHkh fdlkuksa dks lkewfgd [ksrksa (dksy[kkst) esa dke djus dk
vkns'k tkjh dj fn;kA ;knkrj kehu vkSj lkkks&lkeku lkewfgd [ksrksa osQ
LokfeRo esa lkSai fn, x,A lHkh fdlku lkewfgd [ksrksa ij dke djrs Fks
vkSj dksy[kksk osQ equkI+ksQ dks lHkh fdlkuksa osQ chp ckV fn;k tkrk FkkA bl
I+kSQlys ls xqLlk, fdlkuksa us ljdkj dk fojksk fd;k vkSj os vius tkuojksa
dks [kRe djus yxsA 1929 ls 1931 osQ chp eosf'k;ksa dh la[;k esa
,d&frgkbZ deh vk xbZA lkewfgdhdj.k dk fojksk djus okyksa dks l[r
lkk nh tkrh FkhA cgqr lkjs yksxksa dks fuokZlu ;k ns'k&fudkyk ns fn;k
x;kA lkewfgdhdj.k dk fojksk djus okys fdlkuksa dk dguk Fkk fd os u
rks vehj gSa vkSj u gh lektokn osQ fojkskh gSaA os cl fofHkUu dkj.kksa ls

ksr x
1933 esa lksfo;r cpiu osQ LoIu vkSj ;FkkFkZ
fiz; nknkth dkyhfuu --esjk ifjokj cM+k gS] pkj cPps gSaA gekjs firk vc
ugha gS]a os eknwjksa osQ fy, yM+rs gq, ekjs x, Fks --vkSj esjh ek --- chekj gSaA --- eSa cgqr i<+uk pkgrk
gw] ij LowQy ugha tk ldrkA esjs ikl iqjkus twrs Fks
ij vc og brus iQV pqosQ gSa fd dksbZ mudh
ejEer ugha dj ldrkA esjh ek chekj gSa] gekjs
ikl u rks iSlk gS vkSj u gh jksVh_ ij eSa i<+uk cgqr
pkgrk gwA ---gekjs lkeus i<+us] i<+us vkSj cl i<+us
dh ftEesnkjh gSA Oykfnehj byhp ysfuu us ;gh
dgk gSA ij eq>s LowQy tkuk NksM+uk iM+sxkA gekjk
dksbZ fj'rsnkj ugha gS] dksbZ Hkh gekjh enn ugha dj
ldrk] blfy, eq>s I+kSQDVh esa dke djuk iM+sxk
rkfd esjk ifjokj Hkw[kksa ejus ls cp tk,A fiz;
nknkth] eSa 13 lky dk gw] i<+kbZ esa vOoy vkrk
gw vkSj esjh dksbZ [kjkc fjiksVZ ugha gSA eSa ikpoha
d{kk esa i<+rk gw---A

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lksfo;r jk"Vifr dkfyfuu osQ uke 13 o"khZ; ,d


eknwj ckyd }kjk 1933 esa fy[kk x;k i=kA
oh- lksdksykso (la-)] vkWC'kpsLRoks I OykLr] oh
1930&;s xksnh (ekLdks] 1997)A

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fp=k 18 & lkewfgdhdj.k osQ nkSj dk ,d iksLVjblesa fy[kk gS % ^ge [ksrh esa deh ykus okys oqQyd ij okj
djsaxsA*

lkewfgd [ksrksa ij dke ugha djuk pkgrs FksA Lrkfyu ljdkj us lhfer Lrj
ij Lora=k fdlkuh dh O;oLFkk Hkh tkjh jgus nh ysfdu ,sls fdlkuksa dks
dksbZ [kkl enn ugha nh tkrh FkhA
lkewfgdhdj.k osQ ckotwn mRiknu esa ukVdh; o`f ugha gqbAZ cfYd
1930&1933 dh [kjkc I+kQly osQ ckn rks lksfo;r bfrgkl dk lcls cM+k
vdky iM+k ftlesa 40 yk[k ls ;knk yksx ekjs x,A
ikVhZ esa Hkh cgqr lkjs yksx fu;ksftr vFkZO;oLFkk osQ varxZr vkS|ksfxd
mRiknu esa iSnk gks jgs Hkze vkSj lkewfgdhdj.k osQ ifj.kkeksa dh vkykspuk
djus yxs FksA Lrkfyu vkSj muosQ lg;ksfx;ksa us ,sls vkykspdksa ij
lektokn osQ f[kykI+kQ lkft'k jpus dk vkjksi yxk;kA ns'k Hkj esa cgqr lkjs
yksxksa ij blh rjg osQ vkjksi yxk, x, vkSj 1939 rd vkrs&vkrs 20
yk[k ls ;knk yksxksa dks ;k rks tsyksa esa ;k Je f'kfojksa esa Hkst fn;k x;k
FkkA ;knkrj yksxksa us ,slk dksbZ vijkk ugha fd;k Fkk ysfdu mudh lquus
okyk dksbZ ugha FkkA cgqr lkjs yksxksa dks ;kruk, ns&nsdj muls bl vk'k;
osQ c;ku fy[kok fy, x, fd mUgksaus lektokn osQ fo# lkfk'k esa
fgLlk fy;k gS vkSj blh vkkkj ij mUgsa ekj fn;k x;kA buesa dbZ
izfrHkkoku is'ksoj yksx FksA

ksr p
;g ,d ,sls fdlku }kjk fy[kk x;k i=k gS tks
lkewfgd [ksr esa dke ugha djuk pkgrkA
mlus fLr;kULdk;k xt+sVk ("kd lekpkji=k)
dks ;g [kr fy[kk FkkA
^ --- eSa LokHkkfod :i ls [ksrh djus okyk fdlku
gwA esjk tUe 1879 esa gqvk Fkk --- esjs ifjokj esa 6
lnL; gSaA esjh iRuh dh iSnkb'k 1871 dh gSA esjk
csVk 16 lky dk vkSj nks csfV;k 19 lky dh gSAa rhuksa
cPps LowQy tkrs gS]a esjh cgu 71 lky dh gSA 1932
ls esjs mQij brus Hkkjh dj Fkksi fn, x, gSa fd mUgsa
pqdkuk vlaHko gSA 1935 esa rks LFkkuh; vI+kQljksa us
dj vkSj Hkh c<+k fn, --- eSa bruk dj ugha pqdk
ik;k vkSj esjh lkjh laifk oqQoZQ dj yh xbZ % esjk
?kksM+k] xk;] cNM+k] HksM+] eseus] lkjs vkSt+kj] I+kQuhZpj
vkSj ?kj dh ejEer osQ fy, j[kh ydM+h] lc oqQN
oqQoZQ djosQ csp MkykA 1936 esa mUgksaus esjh nks
bekjrsa csp nha --- dksy[kksk us gh mUgsa [kjhn fy;kA
1937 esa esjh nksuksa >ksifM+;ksa esa ls Hkh ,d csp nh xbZ
vkSj nwljh dks t+Cr dj fy;k x;k ---A*

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oh- lksdksykso (la-)] vkWC'kpsLRoks I OykLr] oh


1930&;s xksnhA

ksr ?k

lkewfgdhdj.k osQ fojksk vkSj ljdkj dh izfrf;k dk


ljdkjh fooj.k
^bl lky iQjojh osQ nwljs i[kokM+s ls ;woszQu osQ fofHkUu {ks=kksa esa
--- fdlkuksa us cM+s iSekus ij foksg fd, gSAa ;g fLFkfr lkewfgdhdj.k
osQ f;kUo;u osQ nkSjku ikVhZ osQ fupys dk;ZdrkZvksa }kjk ikVhZ
ykbu dks Bhd ls ykxw u fd, tkus vkSj xfeZ;ksa esa gksus okyh
dVkbZ dh rS;kfj;ksa dk ifj.kke gSA
cgqr FkksM+s ls le; esa mijksDr {ks=kksa esa py jgh xfrfofk;k
vklikl osQ bykdksa esa Hkh iSQy xbZ gSaA lcls vkked foksg
lhekorhZ bykdksa esa gq, gSaA
foksgh fdlkuksa dk ;knk kksj bl ckr ij gS fd lkewfgdhdj.k
osQ dkj.k muls Nhu fy;k x;k vukt] eos'kh vkSj vkSkkj --mUgsa ykSVk fn, tk,A
1 iQjojh ls 15 ekpZ osQ chp 25] 000 fxj+ rkfj;k gks pqdh gSa
--- 656 dks e`R;qnaM fn;k x;k gS] 3] 673 dks Je f'kfojksa esa can
dj fn;k x;k gS vkSj 5] 580 dks ns'k fudkyk fn;k x;k gS ---A*

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

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;wsu jkT; iqfyl iz'kklu osQ ize[q k osQ- ,e- dkyZlu }kjk dE;qfuLV
ikVhZ dh osQa h; lfefr dks Hksth xbZ fjiksV]Z 19 ekpZ 1930oh- lksdksykso (la-)] vkWC'kpsLRoks I OykLr] oh 1930&;s xksnhA

fp=k 19 & fo'kky lkewfgd I+kQkeks esa dke djus osQ fy,
tqVh fdlku vkSjrsa 45

:lh kafr vkSj lksfo;r la?k dk


oSf'od izHkko

cksY'ksfodksa us ftl rjg lkk ij dCkk fd;k Fkk vkSj ftl rjg mUgksaus 'kklu
pyk;k mlosQ ckjs esa ;wjksi dh lektoknh ikfVZ;k cgqr lger ugha FkhaA
ysfdu esgurd'kksa osQ jkT; dh LFkkiuk dh laHkkouk us nqfu;k Hkj osQ yksxksa
esa ,d ubZ mEehn txk nh FkhA cgqr lkjs ns'kksa esa dE;qfuLV ikfVZ;ksa dk xBu
fd;k x;k & tSls] baXySaM esa dE;qfuLV ikVhZ vkWiQ xzsV fczVsu dh LFkkiuk dh
xbZA cksY'ksfodksa us mifuos'kksa dh turk dks Hkh muosQ jkLrs dk vuqlj.k djus
osQ fy, izksRlkfgr fd;kA lksfo;r la?k osQ vykok Hkh cgqr lkjs ns'kksa osQ
izfrfuf/;ksa us dkWUi+zQsl vkWI+kQ n ihiqy vkWI+kQ fn bZLV (1920) vkSj cksY'ksfodksa
}kjk cuk, x, dkWfeUVuZ (cksY'ksfod leFkZd lektoknh ikfVZ;ksa dk varjkZ"Vh;
egkla?k) esa fgLlk fy;k FkkA oqQN fonsf'k;ksa dks lksfo;r la?k dh dE;qfuLV
;qfuoflZVh vkWI+kQ n odZlZ vkWI+kQ fn bZLV esa f'k{kk nh xbZA tc nwljk fo'o;q
'kq: gqvk rc rd lksfo;r la?k dh otg ls lektokn dks ,d oSf'od
igpku vkSj gSfl;r fey pqdh FkhA ysfdu ipkl osQ n'kd rd ns'k osQ
Hkhrj Hkhs yksx ;g le>us yxs Fks fd lksfo;r la?k dh 'kklu 'kSyh :lh
kafr osQ vkn'kks osQ vuq:i ugha gSA fo'o lektoknh vkanksyu esa Hkh bl
ckr dks eku fy;k x;k Fkk fd lksfo;r la?k esa lc dqN Bhd&Bkd ugha py
jgk gSA ,d fiNM+k gqvk ns'k egk'kfDr cu pqdk FkkA mlosQ m|ksx vkSj [ksrh
fodflr gks pqosQ Fks vkSj xjhcksa dks Hkkstu fey jgk FkkA ysfdu ogk osQ
ukxfjdksa dks dbZ rjg dh vko';d Lora=krk ugha nh tk jgh Fkh vkSj fodkl
ifj;kstukvksa dks neudkjh uhfr;ksa osQ cy ij ykxw fd;k x;k FkkA chloha
lnh osQ var rd ,d lektoknh ns'k osQ :i esa varjkZ"Vh; Lrj ij lksfo;r
la?k dh izfr"Bk dkiQh de jg xbZ Fkh gkykfd ogk osQ yksx vHkh Hkh
lektokn osQ vkn'kks dk lEeku djrs FksA ysfdu lHkh ns'kksa esa lektokn osQ
ckjs esa fofok izdkj ls O;kid iqufoZpkj fd;k x;kA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

ckWDl 5

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fp=k 20 & baMks&lksfo;r tuZy dk ysfuu fo'ks"kkad nwljs fo'o;q osQ nkSjku Hkkjrh; dE;qfuLVksa us lksfo;r la?k
osQ fy, tuer fuekZ.k fd;kA

:lh kafr ls izsfjr gksus okyksa esa cgqr lkjs Hkkjrh; Hkh FksA muesa ls dbZ us dE;qfuLV fo'ofo|ky; esa f'k{kk izkIr dhA 1920 osQ n'kd esa Hkkjr
esa Hkh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk xBu dj fy;k x;kA bl ikVhZ osQ lnL; lksfo;r dE;qfuLV ikVhZ osQ laidZ esa jgrs FksA dbZ egoiw.kZ Hkkjrh; jktuhfrd
,oa lkaLfrd O;fDr;ksa us lksfo;r iz;ksx esa fnypLih yh vkSj ogk dk nkSjk fd;kA :l tkus okys Hkkjrh;ksa esa tokgj yky usg: vkSj
jchUukFk VSxksj Hkh Fks ftUgksaus lksfo;r lektokn osQ ckjs esa fy[kk HkhA Hkkjrh; ys[ku esa lksfo;r :l dh vyx&vyx Nfo;k fn[kkbZ nsrh FkhaA
fganh esa vkj-,l- voLFkh us 1920&21 esa jf'k;u jsoY;w'ku] ysfuu] fgk ykbI+kQ ,sUM fgk FkkWV~l vkSj n jsM jsoY;w'ku uked fdrkcsa fy[khaA muosQ
vykok ,l- Mh- fo|kyadkj us n jhcFkZ vkWiQ jf'k;k rFkk n lksfo;r LVsV vkWiQ jf'k;k uked iqLrosQa fy[khaA bu fo"k;ksa ij caxkyh] ejkBh] ey;kye]
rfey vkSj rsyqxq esa Hkh cgqr oqQN fy[kk x;kA

46

ksr N
lksfo;r :l esa ,d Hkkjrh;] 1920
^viuh ftanxh esa igyh ckj ge yksx ;wjksfi;ksa dks ,f'k;kb;ksa osQ lkFk eqDr Hkko
ls feyrs&cfr;krs ns[k jgs FksA tc geus :fl;ksa dks ns'k osQ ckdh yksxksa osQ lkFk
lgt Hkko ls ?kqyrs&feyrs ns[kk rks gesa ;dhu gks x;k fd ge lPph lekurk
dh nqfu;k esa vk igqps gSaA
gesa Lora=krk lgh ek;uksa esa lkdkj gksrh fn[kk;h ns jgh FkhA izfrkafrdkfj;ksa
vkSj lkezkT;okfn;ksa dh gjdrksa ls iSnk gqbZ xjhch osQ ckotwn yksx&ckx igys ls
;knk [kq'k vkSj lar"q V fn[kk;h ns jgs FksA kafr us muesa vkRefo'okl vkSj fuMjrk
Hkj nh gSA ipkl vyx&vyx jk"Vh;rkvksa osQ yksxksa osQ chp ekuork dk vlyh
HkkbZpkjk ;gha lkdkj gksus okyk gSA tkfr ;k keZ dh dksbZ lhek mUgsa ,d&nwljs
osQ lkFk ?kqyus&feyus ls ugha jksd jgh FkhA gj tho dks ,d dq'ky oDrk cuk
fn;k x;k gSA vki ogk eknwjksa] fdlkuksa vkSj flikfg;ksa] lHkh dks is'ksoj oDrk
dh rjg cgl djrs ns[k ldrs gSaA*
'kkSdr mLekuh] fgLVkWfjd fVIl vkWIk+ Q , jsoY;w'kujhA

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:l ls jchUukFk VSxksj] 1930

^ekLdks ckdh ;wjksih; jktkkfu;ksa osQ eqdkcys de lkI +kQ&lqFkjk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
lM+d ij Hkkxe&Hkkx esa yxk dksbZ O;fDr cgqr LekVZ ugha yxrkA lkjh txg
eknwjksa dh gSA --- ;gk vke turk jbZlksa osQ lk, esa fdlh rjg ncrh fn[kkbZ
ugha nsrhA tks yksx lfn;ksa ls usiF; esa fNis gq, Fks vkt lkeus vk [kM+s gq,
gSaA --- eSa vius ns'k osQ fdlkuksa vkSj eknwjksa osQ ckjs esa lkspus yxkA esjs lkeus
tks oqQN Fkk mls ns[kdj yxrk Fkk fd ;g vjsfc;u ukbV~l osQ fdlh ftUu dh
djkekr gSA (;gk) egk ,d n'kd igys ;s Hkh gekjs yksxksa ftrus gh vui<+]
ykpkj vkSj Hkw[ks FksA --- ;s ns[k dj esjs tSls vHkkxs fganqLrkuh ls ;knk vpaHkk
vkSj Hkyk fdldks gksxk fd bu yksxksa us brus FkksM+s ls lkyksa esa vKkurk vkSj
cslgkjsiu osQ igkM+ dks mrkj isaQdk gSA*

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u, 'kCn

izfrkafrdkjh% akfr&fojks/hA

f;kdyki

'kkSdr mLekuh vkSj jchUukFk VSxksj }kjk fy[ks x,


mj.kksa dh rqyuk dhft,A mUgsa ksr x] ?k vkSj p
osQ lkFk feyk dj if<+, vkSj crkb, fd &

Hkkjrh;ksa dks lksfo;r la?k esa lcls izHkko'kkyh


ckr D;k fn[kk;h nh\

;s ys[kd fdl phk dks ugha ns[k ik,\

;wjksi esa lektokn ,oa :lh kafr

ksr t

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47

f;kdyki
1- dYiuk dhft, fd ,d eknwj osQ rkSj ij vkius 1905 dh gM+rky esa fgLlk fy;k gS vkSj mlosQ
fy, vnkyr esa vki ij eqdnek pyk;k tk jgk gSA eqdnes osQ nkSjku vius cpko esa vki D;k dgsxa \s
viuk oDrO; rS;kj dhft, vkSj d{kk esa ogh Hkk"k.k nhft,A
2- fuEufyf[kr v[kckjksa osQ fy, 24 vDrwcj 1917 osQ foksg osQ ckjs esa 'kh"kZd lfgr ,d NksVh&lh [kcj
rS;kj dhft, %
i+zQkal osQ ,d :f<+oknh v[kckj osQ fy,

fczVsu osQ ,d jSfMdy v[kckj osQ fy,

:l osQ ,d cksY'ksfod v[kckj osQ fy,

3- eku yhft, fd lkewfgdhdj.k gks pqdk gS vkSj vki :l osQ ,d e>ksys xsgw mRiknd fdlku gSaA
vki lkewfgdhdj.k osQ ckjs esa viuh vkifk;k O;Dr djrs gq, Lrkfyu dks ,d i=k fy[kuk pkgrs
gSaA viuh thou ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ ckjs esa vki D;k fy[ksaxs\ vkidh jk; esa ,sls fdlku dk i=k ikdj
Lrkfyu dh D;k izfrf;k gksrh\

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iz'u

1- :l osQ lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkSj jktuhfrd gkykr 1905 ls igys dSls Fks\

2- 1917 ls igys :l dh dkedkth vkcknh ;wjksi osQ ckdh ns'kksa osQ eqdkcys fdu&fdu Lrjksa ij
fHkUu Fkh\
3- 1917 esa kkj dk 'kklu D;ksa [kRe gks x;k\

4- nks lwfp;k cukb, % ,d lwph esa iQjojh kafr dh eq[; ?kVukvksa vkSj izHkkoksa dks fyf[k, vkSj nwljh
lwph esa vDrwcj kafr dh izeq[k ?kVukvksa vkSj izHkkoksa dks ntZ dhft,A

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5- cksY'ksfodksa us vDrwcj kafr osQ I+kQkSju ckn dkSu&dkSu&ls izeq[k ifjorZu fd,\
Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

6- fuEufyf[kr osQ ckjs esa la{ksi esa fyf[k, %

48

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f;kdyki

dqyd

M~;wek

1900 ls 1930 osQ chp efgyk dkexkj

mnkjoknh

Lrkfyu dk lkewfgdhdj.k dk;Ze

1945 osQ olar esa gsyeqV uked 11 o"khZ; teZu yM+dk fcLrj esa ysVs
oqQN lksp jgk FkkA rHkh mls vius ekrk&firk dh nch&nch lh vkokksa
lqukbZ nhaA gsyeqV dku yxk dj mudh ckrphr lquus dh dksf'k'k djus
yxkA os xaHkhj Loj esa fdlh eqs ij cgl dj jgs FksA gsyeqV osQ firk ,d
tkus&ekus fpfdRld FksA ml oDr os viuh iRuh ls bl ckjs esa ckr dj
jgs Fks fd D;k mUgsa iwjs ifjokj dks [kRe dj nsuk pkfg, ;k vosQys
vkRegR;k dj ysuh pkfg,A mUgsa viuk Hkfo"; lqjf{kr fn[kkbZ ugha ns jgk
FkkA os ?kcjkgV Hkjs Loj esa dg jgs Fks] vc fe=k jk"V Hkh gekjs lkFk oSlk
gh crkZo djsaxs tSlk geus vikfgtksa vkSj ;gwfn;ksa osQ lkFk fd;k FkkA
vxys fnu os gsyeqV dks ysdj ckx esa ?kweus x,A ;g vkf[kjh ekSdk Fkk
tc gsyeqV vius firk osQ lkFk ckx esa x;kA nksuksa us cPpksa osQ iqjkus xhr
xk, vkSj [kwc lkjk oDr [ksyrs&owQnrs fcrk;kA oqQN le; ckn gsyeqV osQ
+ esa [kqn dks xksyh ekj yhA gsyeqV dh ;knksa esa og {k.k
firk us vius nrj
vHkh Hkh fkank gS tc mlosQ firk dh [kwu esa luh onhZ dks ?kj osQ vyko
esa gh tyk fn;k x;k FkkA gsyeqV us tks oqQN lquk Fkk vkSj tks oqQN gqvk]
mlls mlosQ fnyksfnekx ij bruk xgjk lnek igqpk fd vxys ukS lky
rd og ?kj esa ,d dkSj Hkh ugha [kk ik;kA mls ;gh Mj lrkrk jgk fd
dgha mldh ek mls Hkh kgj u ns nsA
gsyeqV dks 'kk;n le> esa u vk;k gks ysfdu gdhdr ;g gS fd mlosQ
firk ^ukRlh* FksA os ,MkWYi+Q fgVyj osQ d^j leFkZd FksA vki esa ls dbZ cPps
ukfRl;ksa vkSj muosQ usrk fgVyj osQ ckjs esa tkurs gksxa As vkidks 'kk;n irk gksxk
fd fgVyj teZuh dks nqfu;k dk lcls rkdroj ns'k cukus dks dfVc FkkA
og iwjs ;wjksi dks thr ysuk pkgrk FkkA vkius ;g Hkh lquk gksxk fd mlus
;gwfn;ksa dks ejok;k FkkA ysfdu ukRlhokn fli+QZ bu bDdk&nqDdk ?kVukvksa dk
uke ugha gSA ;g nqfu;k vkSj jktuhfr osQ ckjs esa ,d lai.w kZ O;oLFkk] fopkjksa dh
,d iwjh lajpuk dk uke gSA vkb,] le>us dh dksf'k'k djsa fd ukRlhokn dk
eryc D;k FkkA bl flyflys esa lcls igys ge ;g ns[ksxa s fd gsyeqV osQ
firk us vkRegR;k D;ksa dh Fkh_ os fdl phk ls Mjs gq, FksA
ebZ 1945 esa teZuh us fe=k jk"Vksa osQ lkeus leiZ.k dj fn;kA fgVyj
dks vankkk gks pqdk Fkk fd vc mldh yM+kbZ dk D;k gJ gksus okyk gSA
blfy,] fgVyj vkSj mlosQ izpkj ea=kh X;kscYl us cfyZu osQ ,d cadj
esa iwjs ifjokj osQ lkFk vizSy esa gh vkRegR;k dj yh FkhA ;q [kRe gksus
osQ ckn U;wjsEcxZ esa ,d varjkZ"Vh; lSfud vnkyr LFkkfir dh xbZA bl
vnkyr dks 'kkafr osQ fo# fd, x, vijkkksa] ekuork osQ f[kyki+Q fd,
x, vijkkksa vkSj ;q vijkkksa osQ fy, ukRlh ;qcafn;ksa ij eqdnek pykus

v;k; 3

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

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ukRlhokn
j fgVyj dk mn;
ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyjvkS
dk mn;

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fp=k 1 & fgVyj (e;) vkSj X;kscYl (ck,)


ljdkjh cSBd osQ ckn ckgj fudyrs gq,] 1932-

u, 'kCn
fe=k jk"V % fe=k jk"Vksa dk usr`Ro 'kq: esa
fczVsu vkSj i+zQakl osQ gkFkksa esa FkkA 1941
esa lksfo;r la?k vkSj vesfjdk Hkh bl
xBcaku esa 'kkfey gks x,A mUgksaus kqjh
'kfDr;ksa ;kuh teZuh] bVyh vkSj tkiku
dk fey dj lkeuk fd;kA

49

dk fkEek lkSaik x;k FkkA ;q osQ nkSjku teZuh osQ O;ogkj] [kklrkSj ls
balkfu;r osQ f[kyki+Q fd, x, mlosQ vijkkksa dh otg ls dbZ xaHkhj
uSfrd loky [kM+s gq, vkSj mlosQ R;ksa dh nqfu;k Hkj esa fuank dh xbZA
;s R; D;k Fks\
nwljs fo'o;q osQ lk, esa teZuh us tulagkj 'kq: dj fn;k ftlosQ
rgr ;wjksi esa jgus okys oqQN [kkl uLy osQ yksxksa dks lkewfgd :i ls ekjk
tkus yxkA bl ;q esa ekjs x, yksxksa esa 60 yk[k ;gwnh] 2 yk[k ftIlh
vkSj 10 yk[k iksySaM osQ ukxfjd FksA lkFk gh ekufld o 'kkjhfjd :i ls
viax ?kksf"kr fd, x, 70]000 teZu ukxfjd Hkh ekj Mkys x,A buosQ
vykok u tkus fdrus gh jktuhfrd fojksfk;ksa dks Hkh ekSr dh uhan lqyk
fn;k x;kA bruh cM+h rknkn esa yksxksa dks ekjus osQ fy, vkS"kfoRl tSls
dRy[kkus cuk, x, tgk kgjhyh xSl ls gkkjksa yksxksa dks ,d lkFk ekSr
osQ ?kkV mrkj fn;k tkrk FkkA U;wjsEcxZ vnkyr us osQoy 11 eq[; ukfRl;ksa
dks gh ekSr dh lkk nhA ckdh vkjksfi;ksa esa ls cgqrksa dks mez dSn dh lkk
lqukbZ xbZA lkk rks feyh ysfdu ukfRl;ksa dks tks lkk nh xbZ og mudh
ccZjrk vkSj muosQ kqYeksa osQ eqdkcys cgqr NksVh FkhA vly esa] fe=k jk"V
ijkftr teZuh ij bl ckj oSlk dBksj naM ugha Fkksiuk pkgrs Fks ftl rjg
dk naM igys fo'o;q osQ ckn teZuh ij Fkksik x;k FkkA
cgqr lkjs yksxksa dk ekuuk Fkk fd igys fo'o;q osQ vkf[kj esa teZuh
osQ yksx ftl rjg osQ vuqHko ls xqkjs mlus Hkh ukRlh teZuh osQ mn; esa
;ksxnku fn;k FkkA
;g vuqHko D;k Fkk\

ukRlh 'kCn teZ u Hkk"kk osQ 'kCn


^ukfRl;ks.kky* osQ izkjafHkd v{kjksa dks
ysdj cuk;k x;k gSA ^ukfRl;ks.kky* 'kCn
fgVyj dh ikVhZ osQ uke dk igyk 'kCn
Fkk blfy, bl ikVhZ osQ yksxksa dks ukRlh
dgk tkrk FkkA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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50

okbej x.kjkT; dk tUe

chloha 'krkCnh osQ 'kq#vkrh lkyksa esa teZuh ,d rkdroj lkezkT; FkkA
mlus vkWfLV;kbZ lkezkT; osQ lkFk feydj fe=k jk"Vksa (baXySaM] iz+ Qkal vkSj
:l) osQ f[kyki+Q igyk fo'o;q (1914&1918) yM+k FkkA nqfu;k dh
lHkh cM+h 'kfDr;k ;g lksp dj bl ;q esa owQn iM+h Fkha fd mUgsa tYnh
gh fot; fey tk,xhA lHkh dks fdlh&u&fdlh i+Qk;ns dh mEehn FkhA
mUgsa vankkk ugha Fkk fd ;g ;q bruk yack f[kap tk,xk vkSj iwjs ;wjksi
dks vkfFkZd n`f"V ls fupksM+ dj j[k nsxkA iz+ Qkal vkSj csfYt;e ij o+ QCkk
djosQ teZuh us 'kq#vkr esa liQyrk, gkfly dha ysfdu 1917 esa tc
vesfjdk Hkh fe=k jk"Vksa esa 'kkfey gks x;k rks bl [+kses dks dki+Qh rkdr
feyh vkSj vkf[kjdkj] uoacj 1918 esa mUgksaus osaQnzh; 'kfDr;ksa dks gjkus
osQ ckn teZuh dks Hkh ?kqVus Vsdus ij etcwj dj fn;kA
lkezkT;oknh teZuh dh ijkt; vkSj lezkV osQ inR;kx us ogk dh
lalnh; ikfVZ;ksa dks teZu jktuhfrd O;oLFkk dks ,d u, lkps esa <kyus
dk vPNk ekSdk miyCk djk;kA blh flyflys esa okbej esa ,d jk"Vh;
lHkk dh cSBd cqykbZ xbZ vkSj la?kh; vk/kj ij ,d yksdrkaf=kd lafokku
ikfjr fd;k x;kA ubZ O;oLFkk esa teZu laln ;kuh jkb[+kLVkx osQ fy,
tuizfrfufk;ksa dk pquko fd;k tkus yxkA izfrfufk;ksa osQ fuokZpu osQ fy,
vkSjrksa lfgr lHkh o;Ld ukxfjdksa dks leku vkSj lkoZHkkSfed erkfkdkj
iznku fd;k x;kA
ysfdu ;g u;k x.kjkT; [kqn teZuh osQ gh cgqr lkjs yksxksa dks jkl
ugha vk jgk FkkA bldh ,d otg rks ;gh Fkh fd igys fo'o;q esa teZuh

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mkjh
'yslfox

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k
fu;
kvq k
fyF

MsuekoZQ

csfYt;e

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MSfUkx

iwohZ iz'kk
(teZuh dk Hkkx)

if'peh iz'kk

teZuh

ikslus

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

iksyMaS

vij flysfl;k

ySaM
jkbZu

iz+ Qkal
lkjySMa

yksjuS
,Ylsl

teZuh 1914
teZuh ls ys yh xbZ kehu
yhx vkWiQ us'kal osQ fu;a=k.k okyh kehu
folSU;ho`Qr {ks=k

fp=k 2 & olkZ; dh lafk osQ ckn teZuhbl uD'ks esa vki mu bykdksa dks ns[k ldrs
gSa tks lafk osQ ckn teZuh osQ gkFk ls fudy
x, FksA

51

dh ijkt; osQ ckn fot;h ns'kksa us ml ij cgqr dBksj 'krs Fkksi nh FkhaA
fe=k jk"Vksa osQ lkFk olkZ; (Versailles) esa gqbZ 'kkafr&lafk teZuh dh turk
osQ fy, cgqr dBksj vkSj viekutud FkhA bl lafk dh otg ls teZuh
dks vius lkjs mifuos'k] rdjhcu 10 izfr'kr vkcknh] 13 izfr'kr HkwHkkx]
75 izfr'kr ykSg HkaMkj vkSj 26 izfr'kr dks;yk HkaMkj iz+ Qkal] iksyaSM]
MsuekoZQ vkSj fyFkqvkfu;k osQ gokys djus iM+sA teZuh dh jgh&lgh rkdr
[kRe djus osQ fy, fe=k jk"Vksa us mldh lsuk Hkh Hkax dj nhA ;q
vijkkcksk vuqPNsn (War Guilt Clause) osQ rgr ;q osQ dkj.k gqbZ
lkjh rckgh osQ fy, teZuh dks fkEesnkj Bgjk;k x;kA blosQ ,ok esa ml
ij N% vjc ikSaM dk tqekZuk yxk;k x;kA [kfut lalkkuksa okys jkbZuySaM
ij Hkh chl osQ n'kd esa ;knkrj fe=k jk"Vksa dk gh o+ QCkk jgkA cgqr lkjs
teZuksa us u osQoy bl gkj osQ fy, cfYd olkZ; esa gq, bl vieku osQ
fy, Hkh okbej x.kjkT; dks gh fkEesnkj Bgjk;kA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

1-1 ;q dk vlj

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bl ;q us iwjs egk}hi dks euksoKS kfud vkSj vkfFkZd] nksuksa gh Lrjksa ij


rksM+ dj j[k fn;kA ;wjksi dy rd dkZ nsus okyksa dk egk}hi dgykrk
Fkk tks ;q [kRe gksrs&gksrs dkZnkjksa dk egk}hi cu x;kA foMacuk ;g Fkh
fd iqjkus lkezkT; }kjk fd, x, vijkkksa dk gtkZuk uotkr okbej
x.kjkT; ls olwy fd;k tk jgk FkkA bl x.kjkT; dks ;q esa ijkt; osQ
vijkkcksk vkSj jk"Vh; vieku dk cks> rks <ksuk gh iM+k] gtkZuk pqdkus
dh otg ls vkfFkZd Lrj ij Hkh og viax gks pqdk FkkA okbej x.kjkT;
osQ fgek;fr;ksa esa eq[; :i ls lektoknh] oSQFkfyd vkSj MseksoQSz V [kses osQ
yksx FksA :f<+oknh@iqjkruiaFkh jk"Voknh feFkdksa dh vkM+ esa mUgsa rjg&rjg
osQ geyksa dk fu'kkuk cuk;k tkus yxkA ^uoacj osQ vijkkh* dgdj mudk
[kqysvke ekkd mM+k;k x;kA bl euksn'kk dk rhl osQ n'kd osQ 'kq#vkrh
jktuhfrd ?kVuke ij xgjk vlj iM+kA
igys egk;q us ;wjksih; lekt vkSj jktuhfrd O;oLFkk ij viuh
xgjh Nki NksM+ nh FkhA flikfg;ksa dks vke ukxfjdksa osQ eqdkcys T+;knk
lEeku fn;k tkus yxkA jktusrk vkSj izpkjd bl ckr ij kksj nsus yxs fd
iq#"kksa dks vkked] rkdroj vkSj enkZuk xq.kksa okyk gksuk pkfg,A ehfM;k
esa [kandksa dh fkanxh dk efgekeaMu fd;k tk jgk FkkA ysfdu lPpkbZ ;g
Fkh fd flikgh bu [kandksa esa cM+h n;uh; fkanxh th jgs FksA os yk'kksa dks
[kkus okys pwgksa ls f?kjs jgrsA os kgjhyh xSl vkSj nq'euksa dh xksykckjh dk
cgknqjh ls lkeuk djrs gq, Hkh vius lkfFk;ksa dks iy&iy ejrs ns[krs FksA
lkoZtfud thou esa vkked i+QkSth izpkj vkSj jk"Vh; lEeku o izfr"Bk
dh pkg osQ lkeus ckdh lkjh phksa xkS.k gks xb tcfd gky gh esa lkk
esa vk, :f<+oknh rkuk'kkgksa dks O;kid tuleFkZu feyus yxkA ml oDr
yksdra=k ,d u;k vkSj cgqr ukkqd fopkj Fkk tks nksuksa egk;qksa osQ chp
iwjs ;wjksi esa iQSyh vfLFkjrk dk lkeuk ugha dj ldrk FkkA

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1-2 jktuhfrd jSfMdyokn (vkewy ifjorZuokn) vkSj vkfFkZd ladV

gtkZuk % fdlh xyrh osQ cnys n.M osQ :i


esa uqdlku dh HkjikbZ djukA

ftl le; okbej x.kjkT; dh LFkkiuk gqbZ mlh le; :l esa gqbZ
cksY'ksfod kafr dh rkZ ij teZuh esa Hkh LikVZfdLV yhx vius kafrdkjh

[kand % ;q osQ ekspsZ ij lSfudksa osQ fNius


osQ fy, [kksns x, xbsA

52

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foksg dh ;kstukvksa dks vatke nsus yxhA cgqr lkjs 'kgjksa esa eknwjksa vkSj
ukfodksa dh lksfo;rsa cukbZ xbA cfyZu osQ jktuhfrd ekgkSy esa lksfo;r
fdLe dh 'kklu O;oLFkk dh fgek;r osQ ukjs xwt jgs FksA blhfy,
lektokfn;ks]a MseksozSQV~l vkSj oSQFkfyd xqVksa us okbej esa bd_k gksdj bl
izdkj dh 'kklu O;oLFkk osQ fojksk esa ,d yksdrkaf=kd x.kjkT; dh LFkkiuk
dk i+QS lyk fy;kA vkSj vkf[kjdkj okbej x.kjkT; us iqjkus lSfudksa osQ iz+ Qh
dksj uked laxBu dh enn ls bl foksg dks oqQpy fn;kA bl iwjs ?kVuke
osQ ckn LikVZfdLVksa us teZuh esa dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dh uhao MkyhA blosQ ckn
dE;qfuLV (lkE;oknh) vkSj lektoknh ,d&nwljs osQ d^j nq'eu gks x,
vkSj fgVyj osQ f[kyki+Q dHkh Hkh lk>k ekspkZ ugha [kksy losQA kafrdkjh vkSj
mxz jk"Voknh] nksuksa gh [kses jSfMdy lekkkuksa osQ fy, vkokksa mBkus yxsA

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jktuhfrd jSfMdyoknh fopkjksa dks 1923 osQ vkfFkZd ladV ls vkSj


cy feykA teZuh us igyk fo'o;q eksVs rkSj ij dkZ ysdj yM+k FkkA vkSj
;q osQ ckn rks mls Lo.kZ eqnzk esa gtkZuk Hkh Hkjuk iM+kA bl nksgjs cks> ls
teZuh osQ Lo.kZ HkaMkj yxHkx lekIr gksus dh fLFkfr esa igqp x, FksA
vkf[kjdkj 1923 esa teZuh us dkZ vkSj gtkZuk pqdkus ls budkj dj fn;kA
blosQ tokc esa iz+ Qkalhfl;ksa us teZuh osQ eq[; vkS|ksfxd bykosQ :j ij
dCkk dj fy;kA ;g teZuh osQ fo'kky dks;yk HkaMkjksa okyk bykdk FkkA
teZuh us iz+ Qkal osQ fo# fuf"ozQ; izfrjks/ osQ :i esa cM+s iSekus ij dkxkh

fp=k 4 & osru Hkqxrku osQ fy, cfyZu esa Vksdfj;ksa vkSj Bsyksa esa
dkxk osQ uksV ykns tk jgs gSa] 1923- teZu ekoZQ dh dher bruh
de jg xbZ Fkh fd ekewyh Hkqxrku osQ fy, Hkh cgqr lkjs uksVksa dh
k:jr iM+rh FkhA
53

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

fp=k 3 & LikVZfdLV yhx uked jSfMdy laxBu }kjk vk;ksftr dh xbZ jSyh dk n`';izf'k;u psca j vkWi+Q MsI;wVhk] cfyZu osQ lkeus vk;ksftr jSyhA 1918&1919 osQ tkM+kas esa cfyZu dh lM+dksa ij vke yksxksa dk gh dCkk FkkA jktuhfrd izn'kZu jkskkuk dh ?kVuk
cu x;k FkkA

eqk Nkiuk 'kq: dj fn;kA teZu ljdkj us brus cM+s iSekus ij eqk Nki
nh fd mldh eqk ekoZQ dk ewY; rskh ls fxjus yxkA vizy
S esa ,d
vesfjdh MkWyj dh dher 24,000 ekoZQ osQ cjkcj Fkh tks tqykbZ esa
3]53]000 ekoZQ] vxLr esa 46]21]000 ekoZQ rFkk fnlacj esa 9]88]60]000
ekoZQ gks xbZA bl rjg ,d MkWyj esa [kjcksa ekoZQ feyus yxsA tSl&s tSls ekoZQ
dh dher fxjrh xbZ] k:jh phkksa dh dhersa vkleku Nwus yxhaA js[kkfp=kksa esa
teZu ukxfjdksa dks ikojksVh [kjhnus osQ fy, cSyxkM+h esa uksV Hkjdj ys tkrs gq,
fn[kk;k tkus yxkA teZu lekt nqfu;k Hkj esa gennhZ dk ik=k cu dj jg x;kA
bl ladV dks ckn esa vfr&eqkLiQhfr dk uke fn;k x;kA tc dhersa csfglkc
c<+ tkrh gSa rks ml fLFkfr dks vfr&eqkLiQhfr dk uke fn;k tkrk gSA
teZuh dks bl ladV ls fudkyus osQ fy, vesfjdh ljdkj us gLr{ksi
fd;kA blosQ fy, vesfjdk us MkWOl ;kstuk cukbZA bl ;kstuk esa teZuh osQ
vkfFkZd ladV dks nwj djus osQ fy, gtkZus dh 'krks dks nksckjk r; fd;k x;kA

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1-3 eanh osQ lky

lu~ 1924 ls 1928 rd teZuh esa oqQN fLFkjrk jghA ysfdu ;g fLFkjrk
ekuks jsr osQ <sj ij [kM+h FkhA teZu fuos'k vkSj vkS|ksfxd xfrfofk;ksa esa
lqkkj eq[;r% vesfjdk ls fy, x, vYidkfyd dtks ij vkfJr FkkA tc
1929 esa okWy LVhV ,Dlpsat ('ks;j ckkkj) kjk'kk;h gks x;k rks teZuh
dks fey jgh ;g enn Hkh jkrksa&jkr can gks xbZA dherksa esa fxjkoV dh
vk'kadk dks ns[krs gq, yksx /M+k/M+ vius 'ks;j cspus yxsA 24 vDrwcj
dks osQoy ,d fnu esa 1-3 djksM+ 'ks;j csp fn, x,A ;g vkfFkZd egkeanh
dh 'kq#vkr FkhA 1929 ls 1932 rd osQ vxys rhu lkyksa esa vesfjdk dh
jk"Vh; vk; osQoy vkkh jg xbZA i+QS fDV;k can gks xbZ Fkha] fu;kZr fxjrk
tk jgk Fkk] fdlkuksa dh gkyr [kjkc Fkh vkSj l^sckt ckkkj ls iSlk [khaprs
tk jgs FksA vesfjdh vFkZO;oLFkk esa vkbZ bl eanh dk vlj nqfu;k Hkj esa
eglwl fd;k x;kA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 5 & jkr dks lksus osQ fy, drkj esa [kM+s cs?kj yksx] 1923-

bl eanh dk lcls cqjk izHkko teZu vFkZO;oLFkk ij iM+kA 1932 esa


teZuh dk vkS|ksfxd mRiknu 1929 osQ eqdkcys osQoy 40 izfr'kr jg
x;k FkkA eknwj ;k rks csjkskxkj gksrs tk jgs Fks ;k muosQ osru dki+Qh fxj
pqosQ FksA csjkskxkjksa dh la[;k 60 yk[k rd tk igqphA teZuh dh lM+dksa
ij ,sls yksx cM+h rknkn esa fn[kkbZ nsus yxs tks & ^eSa dksbZ Hkh dke djus dks
rS;kj gw* &fy[kh r[rh xys esa yVdk;s [kM+s jgrs FksA csjkskxkj ukStoku ;k
rks rk'k [ksyrs ik, tkrs Fks] uqDdM+ksa ij >qaM yxk, jgrs Fks ;k fiQj jkskxkj
n+rjksa osQ ckgj yach&yach drkj esa [kM+s ik, tkrs FksA tSls&tSls jkskxkj

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u, 'kCn
okWy LVhV ,Dlpst
a % vesfjdk esa fLFkr nqfu;k dk lcls cM+k 'ks;j
ckkkjA
54

fp=k 6 & ykbu ij lksrs yksxA egkeanh osQ fnuksa esa csjkskxkjksa dks u
rks osru dh mEehn jgrh Fkh u gh BkSj&fBdkus dhA tkM+ksa esa tc
mUgsa flj fNikus dh txg pkfg, gksrh Fkh rks blosQ fy, Hkh mUgsa
iSlk nsuk iM+rk FkkA

[kRe gks jgs Fks] ;qok oxZ vkijkfkd xfrfofk;ksa esa fyIr gksrk tk jgk FkkA
pkjksa rji+Q xgjh grk'kk dk ekgkSy FkkA
vkfFkZd ladV us yksxksa esa xgjh cspuS h vkSj Mj iSnk dj fn;k FkkA
tSl&s tSls eqk dk voewY;u gksrk tk jgk Fkk_ e;oxZ] [kklrkSj ls osruHkksxh
deZpkjh vkSj is'a kukkfj;ksa dh cpr Hkh floqQM+rh tk jgh FkhA dkjksckj BIi
gks tkus ls NksV&s eksVs O;olk;h] Lojkskxkj esa yxs yksx vkSj [kqnjk O;kikfj;ksa
dh gkyr Hkh [kjkc gksrh tk jgh FkhA lekt osQ bu rcdksa dks loZgkjkdj.k
dk Hk; lrk jgk FkkA mUgsa Mj Fkk fd vxj ;gh <jkZ jgk rks os Hkh ,d fnu
eknwj cudj jg tk,xs ;k gks ldrk gS fd muosQ ikl dksbZ jkskxkj gh u
jg tk,A vc fli+QZ laxfBr eknwj gh Fks ftudh fgEer VwVh ugha FkhA ysfdu
csjkskxkjksa dh c<+rh i+QkSt mudh eksy&Hkko {kerk dks Hkh pksV igqpk jgh FkhA
cM+s O;olk; ladV esa FksA fdlkuksa dk ,d cgqr cM+k oxZ o`Qf"k mRiknksa dh
dherksa esa csfglkc fxjkoV dh otg ls ijs'kku FkkA ;qokvksa dks viuk Hkfo";
vakdkje; fn[kkbZ ns jgk FkkA vius cPpksa dk isV Hkj ikus esa vliQy vkSjrksa
osQ fny Hkh Mwc jgs FksA

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jktuhfrd Lrj ij okbej x.kjkT; ,d ukkqd nkSj ls xqkj jgk FkkA


okbej lafokku esa oqQN ,slh dfe;k Fkha ftudh otg ls x.kjkT; dHkh Hkh
vfLFkjrk vkSj rkuk'kkgh dk f'kdkj cu ldrk FkkA buesa ls ,d deh
vkuqikfrd izfrfufkRo ls lacafkr FkhA bl izkokku dh otg ls fdlh ,d
ikVhZ dks cgqer feyuk yxHkx ukeqefdu cu x;k FkkA gj ckj xBcaku
ljdkj lkk esa vk jgh FkhA nwljh leL;k vuqPNsn 48 dh otg ls Fkh
ftlesa jk"Vifr dks vkikrdky ykxw djus] ukxfjd vfkdkj j djus vkSj
v;kns'kksa osQ kfj, 'kklu pykus dk vfkdkj fn;k x;k FkkA vius NksVs
ls thou dky esa okbej x.kjkT; dk 'kklu 20 eaf=keaMyksa osQ gkFkksa esa jgk
vkSj mudh vkSlr vofk 239 fnu ls T+;knk ugha jghA bl nkSjku vuqPNsn
48 dk Hkh tedj bLrseky fd;k x;kA ij bu lkjs uqL[kksa osQ ckotwn
ladV nwj ugha gks ik;kA yksdrkaf=kd lalnh; O;oLFkk esa yksxksa dk fo'okl
[kRe gksus yxk D;ksafd og muosQ fy, dksbZ lekkku ugha [kkst ik jgh FkhA

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

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loZgkjkdj.k % xjhc gksrs&gksrs eknwj oxZ dh vkfFZkd fLFkfr esa igqp


tkukA

55

fgVyj dk mn;

vFkZO;oLFkk] jktuhfr vkSj lekt esa xgjkrs tk jgs bl ladV us fgVyj osQ
lkk esa igqpus dk jkLrk lki+Q dj fn;kA 1889 esa vkWfLV;k esa tUes fgVyj
dh ;qokoLFkk csgn xjhch esa xqkjh FkhA jkskh&jksVh dk dksbZ kfj;k u gksus osQ
dkj.k igys fo'o;q dh 'kq#vkr esa mlus Hkh viuk uke i+QkSth HkrhZ osQ
fy, fy[kok fn;k FkkA HkrhZ osQ ckn mlus vfxze ekspZs ij lan's kokgd dk
dke fd;k] dkWiksjZ y cuk vkSj cgknqjh osQ fy, mlus oqQN rexs Hkh gkfly
fd,A teZu lsuk dh ijkt; us rks mls fgyk fn;k Fkk] ysfdu olkZ; dh lafk
us rks mls vkx&ccwyk gh dj fn;kA 1919 esa mlus teZu odZlZ ikVhZ uked
,d NksV&s ls lewg dh lnL;rk ys yhA khjs&khjs mlus bl laxBu ij viuk
fu;a=k.k dk;e dj fy;k vkSj mls uS'kuy lks'kfyLV ikVhZ dk u;k uke
fn;kA blh ikVhZ dks ckn esa ukRlh ikVhZ osQ uke ls tkuk x;kA
1923 esa gh fgVyj us cosfj;k ij dCkk djus] cfyZu ij p<+kbZ djus
vkSj lkk ij dCkk djus dh ;kstuk cuk yh FkhA bu nqLlkgfld ;kstukvksa
esa og vliQy jgkA mls fxj+rkj dj fy;k x;kA ml ij ns'kksg dk
eqdnek Hkh pyk ysfdu oqQN le; ckn mls fjgk dj fn;k x;kA ukRlh
jktuhfrd [ksek 1930 osQ n'kd osQ 'kq#vkrh lkyksa rd turk dks cM+s
iSekus ij viuh rji+Q vkdf"kZr ugha dj ik;kA ysfdu egkeanh osQ nkSjku
ukRlhokn us ,d tu vkanksyu dk :i xzg.k dj fy;kA tSlk fd ge igys
ns[k pqosQ gSa] 1929 osQ ckn cSad fnokfy;k gks pqosQ Fks] dke&kaks can gksrs
tk jgs Fks] eknwj csjkskxkj gks jgs Fks vkSj e;oxZ dks ykpkjh vkSj Hkq[kejh
dk Mj lrk jgk FkkA ukRlh izkis xs M
Sa k esa yksxksa dks ,d csgrj Hkfo"; dh
mEehn fn[kkbZ nsrh FkhA 1929 esa ukRlh ikVhZ dks teZu lalnjkb[+kLVkx osQ

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 7 & U;wjsEcxZ ikVhZ dkaxzsl esa fgVyj dk Lokxr] 1938 56

u, 'kCn
izksisxaSMk % tuer dks izHkkfor djus osQ
fy, fd;k tkus okyk ,d [kkl rjg dk
izpkj (iksLVjksa] fi+QYeksa vkSj Hkk"k.kksa vkfn
osQ ek;e ls)A

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fy, gq, pqukoksa esa egk 2-6 i+Qhlnh oksV feys FksA 1932 rd vkrs&vkrs
;g ns'k dh lcls cM+h ikVhZ cu pqdh Fkh vkSj mls 37 i+Qhlnh oksV feysA
fgVyj kcnZLr oDrk FkkA mldk tks'k vkSj mlosQ 'kCn yksxksa dks
fgykdj j[k nsrs FksA og vius Hkk"k.kksa esa ,d 'kfDr'kkyh jk"V dh LFkkiuk]
olkZ; lafk esa gqbZ ukbalki+Qh osQ izfr'kksk vkSj teZu lekt dks [kksbZ gqbZ
izfr"Bk okil fnykus dk vk'oklu nsrk FkkA mldk oknk Fkk fd og
csjkskxkjksa dks jkskxkj vkSj ukStokuksa dks ,d lqjf{kr Hkfo"; nsxkA mlus
vk'oklu fn;k fd og ns'k dks fons'kh izHkko ls eqDr djk,xk vkSj reke
fons'kh ^lkfk'kksa* dk eqgrksM+ tokc nsxkA

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n

fp=k 9 & fgVyj }kjk ,l, vkSj ,l,l drkjksa osQ lkeus Hkk"k.k;gk yach vkSj lh/h drkjksa dks nsf[k,A bl rjg osQ fp=kksa osQ
ek;e ls ukRlh lkk dh HkO;rk vkSj rkdr dks n'kkZus dh dksf'k'k
dh tkrh FkhA

fgVyj us jktuhfr dh ,d ubZ 'kSyh jph FkhA og yksxksa dks xksycan


djus osQ fy, vkMacj vkSj izn'kZu dh vgfe;r le>rk FkkA fgVyj osQ
izfr Hkkjh leFkZu n'kkZus vkSj yksxksa esa ijLij ,drk dk Hkko iSnk djus osQ
fy, ukfRl;ksa us cM+h&cM+h jSfy;k vkSj tulHkk, vk;ksftr dhaA LofLrd
57

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

fp=k 8 & U;wjsEcxZ jSyh] 1936bl rjg dh jSfy;k gj lky vk;ksftr dh tkrh FkhaA ukRlh lkk
dk izn'kZu bu jSfy;ksa dk ,d egoiw.kZ vk;ke gksrk FkkA fofHkUu
laxBu fgVyj osQ lkeus ls ijsM djrs gq, fudyrs Fks] mlosQ
izfr fu"Bk dh 'kiFk ysrs Fks vkSj mlosQ Hkk"k.k lqurs FksA

Nis yky >aMs] ukRlh lSY;wV vkSj Hkk"k.kksa osQ ckn [kkl vankk esa rkfy;ksa
dh xM+xM+kgV;s lkjh phksa 'kfDr izn'kZu dk fgLlk FkhaA
ukfRl;ksa us vius kwvkkkj izpkj osQ kfj, fgVyj dks ,d elhgk] ,d
j{kd] ,d ,sls O;fDr osQ :i esa is'k fd;k] ftlus ekuks turk dks rckgh
ls mckjus osQ fy, gh vorkj fy;k FkkA ,d ,sls lekt dks ;g Nfo csgn
vkd"kZd fn[kkbZ nsrh Fkh ftldh izfr"Bk vkSj xoZ dk vglkl pdukpwj gks
pqdk Fkk vkSj tks ,d Hkh"k.k vkfFkZd ,oa jktuhfrd ladV ls xqkj jgk FkkA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

2-1 yksdra=k dk oal


30 tuojh 1933 dks jk"Vifr fgaMucxZ us fgVyj dks pkalyj dk in&Hkkj
laHkkyus dk U;kSrk fn;kA ;g eaf=keaMy esa lcls 'kfDr'kkyh in FkkA rc rd
ukRlh ikVhZ :f<+okfn;ksa dks Hkh vius ms';ksa ls tksM+ pqdh FkhA lkk gkfly
djus osQ ckn fgVyj us yksdrkaf=kd 'kklu dh lajpuk vkSj laLFkkuksa dks Hkax
djuk 'kq: dj fn;kA iQjojh ekg esa teZu laln Hkou esa gq, jgL;e;
vfXudkaM ls mldk jkLrk vkSj vklku gks x;kA 28 iQjojh 1933 dks tkjh
fd, x, vfXu v;kns'k (i+Qk;j fMh) osQ kfj, vfHkO;fDr] izl
s ,oa lHkk
djus dh vkkknh tSls ukxfjd vfkdkjksa dks vfuf'prdky osQ fy,
fuyafcr dj fn;k x;kA okbej lafokku esa bu vfkdkjksa dks dki+Qh egoiw.kZ
LFkku izkIr FkkA blosQ ckn fgVyj us vius d^j 'k=kq & dE;qfuLVksa& ij fu'kkuk
lkkkA ;knkrj dE;qfuLVksa dks jkrks&a jkr dalUVs' ku dSia ksa esa can dj fn;k
x;kA dE;qfuLVksa dk ccZj neu fd;k x;kA yxHkx ikp yk[k dh vkcknh
okys M~;qLlyMkWi+QZ 'kgj esa fxj+rkj fd, x, yksxksa dh cph&[kqph 6] 808
i+Qkbyksa esa ls 1]440 fli+QZ dE;qfuLVksa dh FkhaA ukfRl;ksa us fli+QZ dE;qfuLVksa dk
gh li+Qk;k ugha fd;kA ukRlh 'kklu us oqQy 52 fdLe osQ yksxksa dks vius
neu dk fu'kkuk cuk;k FkkA
3 ekpZ 1933 dks izfl fo'ks"kkfkdkj vfkfu;e (buscfyax ,sDV)
ikfjr fd;k x;kA bl dkuwu osQ kfj, teZuh esa ckdk;nk rkuk'kkgh LFkkfir
dj nh xbZA bl dkuwu us fgVyj dks laln dks gkf'k, ij kosQyus vkSj
osQoy v;kns'kksa osQ kfj, 'kklu pykus dk fujaoqQ'k vfkdkj iznku dj
fn;kA ukRlh ikVhZ vkSj mlls tqM+s laxBuksa osQ vykok lHkh jktuhfrd
ikfVZ;ksa vkSj VsM ;wfu;uksa ij ikcanh yxk nh xbZA vFkZO;oLFkk] ehfM;k] lsuk
vkSj U;k;ikfydk ij jkT; dk iwjk fu;a=k.k LFkkfir gks x;kA
iwjs lekt dks ukfRl;ksa osQ fglkc ls fu;af=kr vkSj O;ofLFkr djus osQ
fy, fo'ks"k fuxjkuh vkSj lqj{kk nLrs xfBr fd, x,A igys ls ekStwn gjh
onhZkkjh iqfyl vkSj LVkWeZ VilZ (,l,) osQ vykok xsLrkiks (xqIrpj jkT;
iqfyl)] ,l,l (vijkk fu;a=k.k iqfyl) vkSj lqj{kk lsok (,lMh) dk
Hkh xBu fd;k x;kA bu uoxfBr nLrksa dks csfglkc vlaoSkkfud vfkdkj
fn, x, vkSj bUgha dh otg ls ukRlh jkT; dks ,d [kwa[kkj vkijkfkd
jkT; dh Nfo izkIr gqbZA xsLrkiks osQ ;a=k.kk x`gksa esa fdlh dks Hkh can fd;k

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58

u, 'kCn
dalUVs' ku oSaQi % ,sls LFkku tgk fcuk fdlh
dkuwuh izf;k osQ yksxksa dks dSn j[kk tkrk
FkkA ;s dalUVs'ku oSaQi fctyh dk djaV
nkSM+rs dVhys rkjksa ls f?kjs jgrs FksA

tk ldrk FkkA ;s u, nLrs fdlh dks Hkh ;kruk x`gksa esa Hkst ldrs Fks] fdlh
dks Hkh fcuk dkuwuh dkjZokbZ osQ ns'k fudkyk fn;k tk ldrk Fkk ;k
fxj+rkj fd;k tk ldrk FkkA naM dh vk'kadk ls eqDr iqfyl cyksa us
fujaoqQ'k vkSj fujis{k 'kklu dk vfkdkj izkIr dj fy;k FkkA

2-2 iqufuZekZ.k
fgVyj us vFkZO;oLFkk dks iVjh ij ykus dh fkEesnkjh vFkZ'kkL=kh kyekj
'kk[+r dks lkSia hA 'kk[+r us lcls igys ljdkjh iSls ls pyk, tkus okys
jkskxkj laokZu dk;Ze osQ kfj, lkS i+Qhlnh mRiknu vkSj lkS i+Qhlnh jkskxkj
miyCk djkus dk y{; r; fd;kA e'kgwj teZu lqij gkbos vkSj turk dh
dkj&i+QkWDloSxu&bl ifj;kstuk dh nsu FkhA
fons'k uhfr osQ ekspZs ij Hkh fgVyj dks i+QkSju dke;kfc;k feyhaA 1933
esa mlus ^yhx vkWi+Q us'kal* ls iYyk >kM+ fy;kA 1936 esa jkbZuySMa ij
nksckjk o+QCkk fd;k vkSj ,d tu] ,d lkezkT;] ,d usrk osQ ukjs dh vkM+
esa 1938 esa vkWfLV;k dks teZuh esa feyk fy;kA blosQ ckn mlus psdksLyksokfd;k
osQ o+QCks okys teZuHkk"kh lqMVas uySMa izkra ij dCkk fd;k vkSj fiQj iwjs
psdksLyksokfd;k dks gM+i fy;kA bl nkSjku mls baXySMa dk Hkh [kkeks'k
leFkZu fey jgk Fkk D;ksfa d baXySMa dh ukj esa olkZ; dh lafk osQ uke ij
teZuh osQ lkFk cM+h ukbalki+Qh gqbZ FkhA ?kjsyw vkSj fons'kh ekspZs ij tYnh&tYnh
feyh bu dke;kfc;ksa ls ,slk yxk fd ns'k dh fu;fr vc iyVus okyh gSA

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+ Dlokxu*fp=k 10 & iksLVj ls ?kks"k.kk % ^vkidh IkQkW


bu iksLVjksa osQ kfj, ;g ,glkl djkus dh dksf'k'k dh tkrh Fkh
fd vc vke eknwj Hkh dkj [kjhn ldrk gSA

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ukoW
Zs

vVykafVd lkxj

Loh
Mu

o`gkj teZuh
/qjh 'kfDr;ksa dks enn nsus okys ns'k
teZu dCks okys bykosQ
bVyh vkSj mldk bykdk
rVLFk ns'k

fi+QuySaM

lksfo;r la?k

,LVksfu;k

MsuekoZQ

fczVus

uhnjySaM~l
csfYt;e

irq xZ ky

j
dkyk lkx

vYthfj;k

lkx

eksjDdks

;u

Hkwe
;l
kxj

;woQsz u

Li

Lyksokfd;k
fLoV~kjySMa vkWfLV;k gaxjh
jksekfu;k
bVyh
;wxksLykfo;k
cqYxkfj;k
vYckfu;k

iz+ Qkal

Lisu

iksyMaS

oSQf

o
n

teZuh

fyFkqvkfu;k

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

vk;jySaM

rqdhZ
i+Qkjl

xzhl
lhfj;k

V~;wuhf'k;k

bZjkd

fp=k 11 & ukRlh lkk dk foLrkj % ;wjksi 194259

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

ysfdu fgVyj ;gha ugha #dkA 'kk[+r us fgVyj dks lykg nh Fkh fd
lsuk vkSj gfFk;kjksa ij T+;knk iSlk [kpZ u fd;k tk, D;ksfa d ljdkjh ctV
vHkh Hkh ?kkVs esa gh py jgk FkkA ysfdu ukRlh teZuh esa ,gfr;kr ilan yksxksa
osQ fy, dksbZ txg ugha FkhA 'kk[+r dks muosQ in ls gVk fn;k x;kA fgVyj
us vkfFkZd ladV ls fudyus osQ fy, ;q dk fodYi pqukA og jk"Vh;
lhekvksa dk foLrkj djrs gq, T+;knk ls T;+ knk lalkku bd_k djuk pkgrk FkkA
blh y{; dks ;ku esa j[krs gq, flracj 1939 esa mlus iksyMaS ij geyk
dj fn;kA bldh otg ls iz+ Qkal vkSj baXySMa osQ lkFk Hkh mldk ;q 'kq:
gks x;kA flracj 1940 esa teZuh us bVyh vkSj tkiku osQ lkFk ,d f=ki{kh;
lafk ij gLrk{kj fd,A bl lafk ls varjkZ"Vh; leqnk; esa fgVyj dk nkok
vkSj ekcwr gks x;kA ;wjksi osQ T+;knkrj ns'kksa esa ukRlh teZuh dk leFkZu djus
okyh dBiqryh ljdkjsa fcBk nh xbA 1940 osQ var esa fgVyj viuh rkdr
osQ f'k[kj ij FkkA
vc fgVyj us viuk lkjk ;ku iwohZ ;wjksi dks thrus osQ nh?kZdkfyd lius
ij osQfa r dj fn;kA og teZu turk osQ fy, lalk/u vkSj jgus dh txg
(Living Space) dk barkke djuk pkgrk FkkA twu 1941 esa mlus lksfo;r la?k
ij geyk fd;kA ;g fgVyj dh ,d ,sfrgkfld csoowQi+Qh FkhA bl vke.k
ls teZu if'peh ekspkZ fczfV'k ok;qlfS udksa osQ ceckjh dh pisV esa vk x;k
tcfd iwohZ ekspZs ij lksfo;r lsuk, teZuksa dks ukdksa pus pcok jgh FkhaA lksfo;r
yky lsuk us Lrkfyuxzkn esa teZu lsuk dks ?kqVus Vsdus ij etcwj dj fn;kA
lksfo;r yky lSfudksa us ihNs gVrs teZu flikfg;ksa dk vkf[kj rd ihNk fd;k
vkSj var esa os cfyZu osQ chpksca hp tk igqpAs bl ?kVuke us vxyh vkkh lnh
osQ fy, lewps iwohZ ;wjksi ij lksfo;r opZLo LFkkfir dj fn;kA
vesfjdk bl ;q esa iQlus ls yxkrkj cprk jgkA vesfjdk igys
fo'o;q dh otg ls iSnk gqbZ vkfFkZd leL;kvksa dks nksckjk ugha >syuk
pkgrk FkkA ysfdu og yacs le; rd ;q ls nwj Hkh ugha jg ldrk FkkA
iwjc esa tkiku dh rkdr iQSyrh tk jgh FkhA mlus izQa+s p&baMks&pkbuk ij
dCkk dj fy;k Fkk vkSj iz'kkar egklkxj esa vesfjdh ukSlfS ud fBdkuksa ij
geys dh iwjh ;kstuk cuk yh FkhA tc tkiku us fgVyj dks leFkZu fn;k
vkSj iyZ gkcZj ij vesfjdh fBdkuksa dks ceckjh dk fu'kkuk cuk;k rks
vesfjdk Hkh nwljs fo'o;q esa owQn iM+kA ;g ;q ebZ 1945 esa
fgVyj dh ijkt; vkSj tkiku osQ fgjksf'kek 'kgj ij
vesfjdh ijek.kq ce fxjkus osQ lkFk [kRe gqvkA
nwljs fo'o;q osQ bl laf{kIr C;kSjs osQ ckn vc
ge ,d ckj fiQj gsyeqV vkSj mlosQ firk dh dgkuh ij
okil ykSVrs gSAa ;g ;q osQ nkSjku ukRlh kqYeksa dh
dgkuh gSA

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fp=k 12 & Hkkjrh; lekpkji=kksa esa teZuh osQ gkykr ij ukj-

60

ukfRl;ksa dk fo'o n`f"Vdks.k

ukfRl;ksa us tks vijkk fd, os [kkl rjg dh ewY;&ekU;rkvka]s ,d [kkl ksr d


rjg osQ O;ogkj ls lacfa kr FksA
^;g i`Foh u rks fdlh dks fgLls esa feyh gS vkSj u
ukRlh fopkjkkjk fgVyj osQ fo'o n`f"Vdks.k dk i;kZ;okph FkhA bl
rksgI+ksQ esaA fu;fr us ;g mUgsa lkSaih gSa ftuosQ n; esa
fo'o n`f"Vdks.k esa lHkh lektksa dks cjkcjh dk gd ugha Fkk] os uLyh vkkkj
bldks thr ysus dk] bldks cpk, j[kus dk lkgl
ij ;k rks csgrj Fks ;k derj FksA bl ukfj;s esa CykWUM] uhyh vk[kksa okys]
gS vkSj ftuosQ ikl bl ij gy pykus dh m|e'khyrk
gS---A bl nqfu;k dk lcls cqfu;knh vfkdkj gS thou
ukWMd teZu vk;Z lcls ijh vkSj ;gwnh lcls fupyh ik;nku ij vkrs
dk vfkdkj c'krsZ fdlh osQ ikl mls gkfly djus
FksA ;gwfn;ksa dks uLy fojkskh] ;kuh vk;ks dk d^j 'k=kq ekuk tkrk FkkA ckdh
dh rkdr gksA bl vfkdkj osQ vkkkj ij ,d
reke lektksa dks muosQ ckgjh jax&:i osQ fglkc ls teZu vk;ks vkSj ;gwfn;ksa
mQtkZoku jk"V vius HkwHkkx dks viuh tula[;k osQ
osQ chp esa j[kk x;k FkkA fgVyj dh uLyh lksp pkYlZ MkfoZu vkSj gcZVZ
fglkc ls iSQykus osQ jkLrs <w<+ ysxkA*
Lisl
a j tSls fopkjdksa osQ flkarksa ij vkkkfjr FkhA MkfoZu izfr foKkuh Fks
fgVyj] lhozsQV cqd] la-] Vsyi+Q ksMZ VsyjA
ftUgksua s fodkl vkSj izkfrd p;u dh vokkj.kk osQ kfj, ikSkksa vkSj i'kqvksa
dh mRifk dh O;k[;k dk iz;kl fd;k FkkA ckn esa gcZVZ Lisl
a j us ^vfr
+
+
thfork dk flkar* (ljokboy vkWiQ n fiQVsLV) &tks lcls ;ksX; gS ] ogh
fkank cpsxk;g fopkj fn;kA bl fopkj dk eryc ;g Fkk fd tks iztkfr;k
cnyrh gqbZ okrkoj.kh; ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ vuqlkj [kqn dks <ky ldrh gSa ogh
i`Foh ij fkank jgrh gSAa ;gk gesa bl ckr dk ;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd MkfoZu
us p;u osQ flkar dks ,d fo'kq izkfrd izf;k dgk Fkk vkSj mlesa
balkuh gLr{ksi dh odkyr dHkh ugha dhA ysfdu uLyoknh fopkjdksa vkSj
jktusrkvksa us ijkftr lektksa ij vius lkezkT;oknh 'kklu dks lgh Bgjkus osQ
fy, MkfoZu osQ fopkjksa dk lgkjk fy;kA ukfRl;ksa dh nyhy cgqr ljy Fkh %
tks uLy lcls rkdroj gS og fkank jgsxh_ dekksj uLysa [kRe gks tk,xhA
vk;Z uLy loZJ"s B gSA mls viuh 'kqrk cuk, j[kuh gS] rkdr gkfly
f;kdyki
djuh gS vkSj nqfu;k ij opZLo dk;e djuk gSA
fgVyj dh fopkjkkjk dk nwljk igyw yscUs kme ;k thou&ifjfk dh ksr d vkSj [k dks i<+sa &
Hkw&jktuhfrd vokkj.kk ls lacfa kr FkkA og ekurk Fkk fd vius yksxksa dks buls fgVyj osQ lkezkT;oknh ealwcksa osQ ckjs esa
clkus osQ fy, ;knk ls ;knk bykdksa ij dCkk djuk k:jh gSA blls ekr`
vkidks D;k irk pyrk gS\
ns'k dk {ks=kiQy Hkh c<+xs k vkSj u, bykdksa esa tkdj clus okyksa dks vius vkidh jk; esa bu fopkjksa ij egkRek xkakh
tUeLFkku osQ lkFk xgjs laca k cuk, j[kus esa eqf'dy Hkh is'k ugha vk,xhA
fgVyj ls D;k dgrs\
fgVyj dh ukj esa bl rjg teZu jk"V osQ fy, lalkku vkSj csfglkc 'kfDr
bdV~Bk dh tk ldrh FkhA
iwjc esa fgVyj teZu lhekvksa dks vkSj iQSykuk pkgrk Fkk rkfd lkjs
u, 'kCn
teZuksa dks HkkSxksfyd n`f"V ls ,d gh txg bd_k fd;k tk losQA iksyaMS
ukWMd teZu vk;Z % vk;Z crk, tkus okyksa
bl kkj.kk dh igyh iz;ksx'kkyk cukA
dh ,d 'kk[kkA ;s yksx mkjh ;wjksih; ns'kksa
esa jgrs Fks vkSj teZu ;k feyrs&tqyrs ewy
3-1 uLyoknh jkT; dh LFkkiuk
osQ yksx FksA
lkk esa igqprs gh ukfRl;ksa us ^'kq* teZuksa osQ fof'k"V uLyh leqnk; dh LFkkiuk
CykWUM% uhyh vk[kksa vkSj lqugjs ckyksa okysA
osQ lius dks ykxw djuk 'kq: dj fn;kA lcls igys mUgksua s foLrkfjr teZu

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ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

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lkezkT; esa ekStwn mu lektksa ;k uLyksa dks [kRe djuk 'kq: fd;k ftUgsa os
^vokafNr* ekurs FksA ukRlh ^'kq vkSj LoLFk ukWMd vk;ks* dk lekt
cukuk pkgrs FksA mudh ukj esa osQoy ,sls yksx gh ^okafNr* FksA osQoy ;s
gh yksx Fks ftUgsa rjDdh vkSj oa'k&foLrkj osQ ;ksX; ekuk tk ldrk FkkA
ckdh lc ^vokafNr* FksA bldk eryc ;g fudyk fd ,sls teZuksa dks Hkh
fkank jgus dk dksbZ gd ugha gS ftUgsa ukRlh v'kq ;k vlkekU; ekurs FksA
;wFkusfk;k (n;k e`R;q) dk;Ze osQ rgr ckdh ukRlh vi+Qljksa osQ
lkFk&lkFk gsyeqV osQ firk us Hkh vla[; ,sls teZuksa dks ekSr osQ ?kkV mrkjk
fp=k 13 & iqfyl osQ igjs esa vkS"kfoRl Hksts tk jgs ftIlh]
Fkk ftUgsa og ekufld ;k 'kkjhfjd :i ls v;ksX; ekurs FksA
1943&1944 sosQoy ;gwnh gh ugha Fks ftUgsa ^vokafNrks*a dh Js.kh esa j[kk x;k FkkA buosQ
vykok Hkh dbZ uLysa Fkha tks blh fu;fr osQ fy, vfHk'kIr FkhaA teZuh esa jgus
okys ftfIl;ksa vkSj v'osrksa dh igys rks teZu ukxfjdrk Nhu yh xbZ vkSj
ckn esa mUgsa ekj fn;k x;kA :lh vkSj iksfy'k ewy osQ yksxksa dks Hkh euq";
ls derj ekuk x;kA tc teZuh us iksyMaS vkSj :l osQ oqQN fgLlksa ij dCkk
dj fy;k rks LFkkuh; yksxksa dks Hk;kud ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa xqykeksa dh rjg dke
ij >ksd
a fn;k x;kA mUgsa balkuh crkZo osQ yk;d ugha ekuk tkrk FkkA muesa ksr [k
ls cgqr lkjs csfglkc dke osQ cks> vkSj Hkw[k ls gh ej x,A
^i`Foh dks yxkrkj jkT;ksa osQ chp ckVk tk jgk gS
ukRlh teZuh esa lcls cqjk gky ;gwfn;ksa dk gqvkA ;gwfn;ksa osQ izfr ukfRl;ksa
vkSj muesa ls dbZ rks egk}hi ftrus cM+s gSaA ,sls ;qx
dh nq'euh dk ,d vkkkj ;gwfn;ksa osQ izfr bZlkbZ keZ esa ekStnw ijaijkxr ?k`.kk
esa ge fdlh ,slh fo'o 'kfDr dh ckr ugha
Hkh FkhA bZlkb;ksa dk vkjksi Fkk fd bZlk elhg dks ;gwfn;ksa us gh ekjk FkkA bZlkb;ksa
lksp ldrs ftldk jktuhfrd ekr`&ns'k osQoy
ikp lkS oxZ fdyksehVj tSls okfg;kr ls {ks=kiQy esa
dh ukj esa ;gwnh vknru gR;kjs vkSj lwn[kksj FksA e;dky rd ;gwfn;ksa dks
fleVk gqvk gksA*
kehu dk ekfyd cuus dh eukgh FkhA ;s yksx eq[; :i ls O;kikj vkSj ku
fgVyj] esu dkEi+Q] i`- 644 A
mkkj nsus dk kakk djosQ viuk xqkkjk pykrs FksA os ckdh lekt ls vyx
cfLr;ksa esa jgrs Fks ftUgsa ?ksVks (Ghettoes) ;kuh nM+ck dgk tkrk FkkA
uLy&lagkj osQ kfj, bZlkbZ ckj&ckj mudk li+Qk;k djrs jgrs FksA muosQ
f[kyki+Q tc&rc laxfBr fgalk dh tkrh Fkh vkSj mUgsa mudh cfLr;ksa ls [knsM+
fn;k tkrk FkkA ysfdu bZlkb;r us mUgsa cpus dk ,d jkLrk fiQj Hkh fn;k gqvk
FkkA ;g keZ ifjorZu dk jkLrk FkkA vkkqfud dky esa cgqr lkjs ;gwfn;ksa us bZlkbZ
keZ viuk fy;k vkSj tkurs&cw>rs gq, teZu laLfr esa <y x,A ysfdu
u, 'kCn
;gwfn;ksa osQ izfr fgVyj dh ?k`.kk rks uLy osQ Nn~e oSKkfud flkarksa ij
ftIlh % ^ftIlh* osQ uke ls Js.khc fd,
vkkkfjr FkhA bl ui+Qjr esa ^;gwnh leL;k* dk gy kekrj.k ls ugha fudy
x, lewgksa dh viuh lkeqnkf;d igpku
ldrk FkkA fgVyj dh ^n`f"V* esa bl leL;k dk fli+QZ ,d gh gy Fkk
FkhA flUrh vkSj jksek ,sls gh nks leqnk; FksA
;gwfn;ksa dks iwjh rjg [kRe dj fn;k tk,A
lwn[kksj % cgqr ;knk C;kt olwy djus
lu~ 1933 ls 1938 rd ukfRl;ksa us ;gwfn;ksa dks rjg&rjg ls vkrafdr
okys egktu_ bl 'kCn dk izk;% xkyh osQ
fd;k] mUgsa nfj dj vkthfodk osQ lkkuksa ls ghu dj fn;k vkSj mUgsa 'ks"k
:i iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
lekt ls vyx&Fkyx dj MkykA ;gwnh ns'k NksMd
+ j tkus yxsA 1939&45 osQ
?ksVks% fdlh leqnk; dks vkSjksa ls vyx&Fkyx
nwljs nkSj esa ;gwfn;ksa dks oqQN [kkl bykdksa esa bdV~Bk djus vkSj varr% iksyMaS
djosQ j[kukA
esa cuk, x, xSl psca jksa esa ys tkdj ekj nsus dh j.kuhfr viukbZ xbZA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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62

3-2 uLyh dYiukyksd (;wVksfi;k)


;q osQ lk, esa ukRlh vius dkfrykuk] uLyoknh dYiukyksd ;k vkn'kZ
fo'o osQ fuekZ.k esa yx x,A tulagkj vkSj ;q ,d gh flDosQ osQ nks
igyw cu x,A ijkftr iksyaSM dks iwjh rjg rgl&ugl dj fn;k x;kA
mkj&if'peh iksySaM dk T+;knkrj fgLlk teZuh esa feyk fy;k x;kA iksySaM
osQ yksxksa dks vius ?kj vkSj eky&vlckc NksM+dj Hkkxus osQ fy, etcwj
fd;k x;k rkfd teZuh osQ dCks okys ;wjksi esa jgus okys teZuksa dks ogk
ykdj clk;k tk losQA blosQ ckn iksySaMokfl;ksa dks eosf'k;ksa dh rjg
[knsM+ dj tujy xouZesaV uked nwljs fgLls esa igqpk fn;k x;kA teZu
lkezkT; esa ekStwn reke vokafNr roksa dks tujy xouZesaV uked blh
bykosQ esa ykdj j[kk tkrk FkkA iksySaM osQ cqfthfo;ksa dks cM+s iSekus ij
ekSr osQ ?kkV mrkjk x;kA ;g iwjs iksySaM osQ lekt dks ckSfd vkSj
vk;kfRed Lrj ij xqyke cuk ysus dh pky FkhA vk;Z tSls yxus okys
iksySaM osQ cPpksa dks muosQ ek&cki ls Nhu dj tkp osQ fy, ^uLy
fo'ks"kKksa* osQ ikl igqpk fn;k x;kA vxj os uLyh tkp esa dke;kc gks tkrs
rks mUgsa teZu ifjokjksa esa ikyk tkrk vkSj vxj ,slk ugha gksrk rks mUgsa
vukFkkJeksa esa Mky fn;k tkrk tgk muesa ls ;knkrj ej tkrs FksA tujy
xouZesaV esa oqQN fo'kkyre ?ksVks vkSj xSl psacj Hkh Fks blfy, ;gk ;gwfn;ksa
dks cM+s iSekus ij ekjk tkrk FkkA

f;kdyki
vxys nks iUuksa dks nsf[k, vkSj buosQ ckjs esa la{ksi
esa fyf[k, %
vkiosQ fy, ukxfjdrk dk D;k eryc gS\
v;k; 1 ,oa 3 dks ns[ksa vkSj 200 'kCnksa esa
crk, fd i+ Qz kalhlh kafr vkSj ukRlhokn us
ukxfjdrk dks fdl rjg ifjHkkf"kr fd;k\
ukRlh teZuh esa ^vokafNrksa* osQ fy, U;wjsEcxZ
dkuwuksa dk D;k eryc Fkk\ mUgsa bl ckr dk
vglkl djkus osQ fy, fd og ^vokafNr* gSa
vU; dkSu&dkSu ls dkuwuh dne mBk, x,\

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ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

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fp=k 14 & ;gwfn;ksa dks xSl psacjksa rd ys tkus okyh ,d ekyokgd xkM+h -

63

ekSr dk flyflyk
igyk pj.k %

cfg"dkj % 1933&39

gekjs chp rqEgsa ukxfjdksa dh rjg jgus dk dksbZ gd ughaA


U;wjsEcxZ ukxfjdrk vfkdkj] flracj 1935 %
1- teZu ;k mlls lacafkr jDr okys O;fDr gh teZu ukxfjd gksaxs vkSj mUgsa teZu
lkezkT; dk laj{k.k feysxkA
2- ;gwfn;ksa vkSj teZuksa osQ chp fookg ij ikcanhA
3- ;gwfn;ksa vkSj teZuksa osQ chp fookgsrj lacakksa dks vijkk ?kksf"kr dj fn;k x;kA
4- ;gwfn;ksa }kjk jk"Vh; ot iQgjkus ij ikcanh yxk nh xbZA
vU; dkuwuh mik; %
;gwnh O;olk;ksa dk cfg"dkjA
ljdkjh lsokvksa ls fudkyk tkukA
;gwfn;ksa dh laifk dh kCrh vkSj fchA

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blosQ vykok uoacj 1938 osQ ,d tulagkj esa ;gwfn;ksa dh laifk;ksa dks
rgl&ugl fd;k x;k] ywVk x;k] muosQ ?kjksa ij geys gq,] ;gwnh izkFkZuk?kj
(Synagogues) tyk fn, x, vkSj mUgsa fxj+rkj fd;k x;kA bl ?kVuk dks ^ukbV
vkWi+Q czksdu Xykl* osQ uke ls ;kn fd;k tkrk gSA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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nM+ckcanh

fp=k 15 & bl laosQri^ esa ,yku fd;k tk


jgk gS fd mkjh leqnz Luku {ks=k ;gwfn;ksa ls
eqDr gS-

(Ghettoisation)%1940&44
rqEgsa gekjs chp jgus dk dksbZ gd ughaA

nwljk pj.k %

fp=k 16 & ikoZQ esa j[kh csap % osQoy vk;ks osQ fy, -

fp=k 17 & esjs ikl cspus osQ fy, cl ;gh gS?ksVks osQ yksxksa osQ ikl thus dk dksbZ jkLrk ugha cpk FkkA

flracj 1941 ls lHkh ;gwfn;ksa dks gqDe fn;k x;k fd og MsfoM dk ihyk flrkjk viuh Nkrh ij yxk dj j[ksxa As muosQ ikliksV]Z reke dkuwuh nLrkostksa
vkSj ?kjksa osQ ckgj Hkh ;g igpku fp Nki fn;k x;kA teZuh esa mUgsa ;gwnh edkuksa esa vkSj iwohZ {ks=k osQ yksn~k ,oa okWjlk tSlh ?ksVks cfLr;ksa esa d"Viw.kZ
vkSj nfjrk dh fLFkfr esa j[kk tkrk FkkA ;s csgn fiNM+s vkSj fukZu bykosQ FksA ?ksVks esa nkf[ky gksus ls igys ;gwfn;ksa dks viuh lkjh laifk NksM+ nsus
osQ fy, etcwj fd;k x;kA oqQN gh le; esa ?ksVks cfLr;ksa esa oapuk] Hkq[kejh] xanxh vkSj chekfj;ksa dk lkezkT; O;kIr gks x;kA

64

rhljk pj.k %

loZuk'k % 1941 osQ ckn

rqEgsa thus dk vfkdkj ughaA

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fp=k 18 & Hkkxus dh dksf'k'k esa ekSrA ;kruk x`g osQ pkjksa rjiQ yxh
rkjksa esa djaV nkSM+rk jgrk Fkk-

fp=k 19 & xSl psacj osQ ckgj diM+ksa osQ <sj -

lewps ;wjksi osQ ;gwnh edkuksa] ;kruk x`gksa vkSj ?ksVks cfLr;ksa esa jgus okys ;gwfn;ksa dks ekyxkfM+;ksa esa Hkj&Hkj dj ekSr osQ dkj[kkuksa esa yk;k tkus yxkA
iksySaM rFkk vU; iwohZ bykdksa esa] eq[; :i ls csyksd] vkS"kfoRl] lkschcksj] =kscfyadk] psYEuks] rFkk ek;nkusd esa mUgsa xSl psacjksa esa >ksad fn;k x;kA
vkS|ksfxd vkSj oSKkfud rduhdksa osQ lgkjs cgqr lkjs yksxksa dks iyd >idrs ekSr osQ ?kkV mrkj fn;k x;kA

fp=k 21 & ,d ;kruk x`gA oSQejk ekSr osQ


eSnkuksa dks Hkh [kwclwjr cuk ldrk gS-

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

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fp=k 20 & ,d ;kruk x`g -

fp=k 22 & ^vafre lekkku* ls igys oSQ fn;ksa ls Nhus x, twrs-

65

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

ukRlh teZuh esa ;qokvksa dh fLFkfr

;qokvksa esa fgVyj dh fnypLih tquwu dh gn rd igqp pqdh FkhA mldk


ekuuk Fkk fd ,d 'kfDr'kkyh ukRlh lekt dh LFkkiuk osQ fy, cPpksa dks
ukRlh fopkjkkjk dh ?kq^h fiykuk cgqr k:jh gSA blosQ fy, LowQy osQ
Hkhrj vkSj ckgj] nksuksa txg cPpksa ij iwjk fu;a=k.k vko';d FkkA
ukRlhokn osQ nkSjku LowQyksa esa D;k gks jgk Fkk\ reke LowQyksa esa lI+kQk,
vkSj 'kqhdj.k dh eqfge pykbZ xbZA ;gwnh ;k ^jktuhfrd :i ls
vfo'oluh;* fn[kkbZ nsus okys f'k{kdksa dks igys ukSdjh ls gVk;k x;k vkSj
ckn esa ekSr osQ ?kkV mrkj fn;k x;kA cPpksa dks vyx&vyx fcBk;k tkus
yxkA teZu vkSj ;gwnh cPps ,d lkFk u rks cSB ldrs Fks vkSj u
[ksy&owQn ldrs FksA ckn esa ^vokafNr cPpksa* dks ;kuh ;gwfn;ksa] ftfIl;ksa
osQ cPpksa vkSj fodykax cPpksa dks LowQyksa ls fudky fn;k x;kA pkyhl osQ
n'kd esa rks mUgsa Hkh xSl psacjksa esa >ksad fn;k x;kA
^vPNs teZu* cPpksa dks ukRlh f'k{kk izf;k ls xqkjuk iM+rk FkkA ;g
fopkjkkjkRed izf'k{k.k dh ,d yach izf;k FkhA LowQyh ikB~;iqLrdksa dks
u, fljs ls fy[kk x;kA uLy osQ ckjs esa izpkfjr ukRlh fopkjksa dks lgh
Bgjkus osQ fy, uLy foKku osQ uke ls ,d u;k fo"k; ikB~;e esa
'kkfey fd;k x;kA vkSj rks vkSj] xf.kr dh d{kkvksa esa Hkh ;gwfn;ksa dh ,d
[kkl Nfo x<+us dh dksf'k'k dh tkrh FkhA cPpksa dks fl[kk;k x;k fd os
oi+Qknkj o vkKkdkjh cusa] ;gwfn;ksa ls ui+Qjr vkSj fgVyj dh iwtk djsaA
[ksy&owQn osQ kfj, Hkh cPpksa esa fgalk vkSj vkkedrk dh Hkkouk iSnk dh
tkrh FkhA fgVyj dk ekuuk Fkk fd eqDosQckkh dk izf'k{k.k cPpksa dks
i+QkSyknh fny okyk] rkdroj vkSj enkZuk cuk ldrk gSA
teZu cPpksa vkSj ;qokvksa dks ^jk"Vh; lektokn dh Hkkouk* ls ySl
djus dh fkEesnkjh ;qok laxBuksa dks lkSaih xbZA 10 lky dh mez osQ cPpksa
dks ;qaxi+Qksd esa nkf[ky djk fn;k tkrk FkkA 14 lky dh mez esa lHkh
yM+dksa dks ukfRl;ksa osQ ;qok laxBu&fgVyj ;wFk&dh lnL;rk ysuh iM+rh
FkhA bl laxBu esa os ;q dh mikluk] vkkedrk o fgalk] yksdra=k dh
fuank vkSj ;gwfn;ksa] dE;qfuLVksa] ftfIl;ksa o vU; ^vokafNrksa* ls ?k`.kk dk
lcd lh[krs FksA xgu fopkjkkjkRed vkSj 'kkjhfjd izf'k{k.k osQ ckn
yxHkx 18 lky dh mez esa os yscj lfoZl (Je lsok) esa 'kkfey gks tkrs
FksA blosQ ckn mUgsa lsuk esa dke djuk iM+rk Fkk vkSj fdlh ukRlh laxBu
dh lnL;rk ysuh iM+rh FkhA

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fp=k 23 & ;gwnh&fojkskh fo"k;ksa dh i<+kbZ dks n'kkZrk d{kk


dk fp=kvULZV ghej (U;wjsEcxZ % Msvj 'VqeZj] 1938) }kjk jfpr Msvj
fx+VfiYk (fo"kSyk e'k:e) ls] i`"B 7- fp=k dk 'kh"kZd bl izdkj
gS % ^;gwnh ukd fljs ij eqM+h gqbZ gSA ;g vaxzskh osQ vad 6 tSlh
fn[krh gSA*

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u, 'kCn
;axq i+Qksd % 14 lky ls de mez okys cPpksa osQ fy, ukRlh ;qok
laxBuA
66

fp=k 24 & ckdh cPpksa dh glh&fBBksyh osQ chp ;gwnh


f'k{kd vkSj ;gwnh fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks LowQy ls fudkyk tk
jgk gS,Yohjk ckmQvj (U;wjsEcxZ % Msvj 'VqejZ ] 1936) jfpr VkmQ dhuse
tqM vkmQi+Q xzquj ghn % bZu fcYnjcq'k i+ qQj xzkWl man fd;kse (xzhu
ghFk esa fdlh ;gwnh ij ;dhu u djks % NksVs&cM+ksa osQ fy, ,d
fp=k iqLrd) lsA

f;kdyki
vxj vki ,slh fdlh d{kk esa gksrs rks ;gwfn;ksa osQ
izfr vki dk joS;k dSlk gksrk\
D;k vkius dHkh lkspk gS fd vkiosQ tku&igpku
okys vU; leqnk;ksa osQ ckjs esa D;k lksprs gSa\ mUgksaus
bl rjg dh Nfo;k dgk ls gkfly dh gSa\

ksr x
Ng ls nl lky rd dh mez osQ lHkh yM+dksa dks ukRlh fopkjkkjk dk 'kq#vkrh
izf'k{k.k fn;k tkrk FkkA izf'k{k.k iwjk gksus ij mUgsa fgVyj osQ izfr fu"Bk dh ;g 'kiFk
ysuh iM+rh Fkh %
^gekjs +;wg~ jj dk izfrfufkRo djus okys bl jDrot dh mifLFkfr esa eSa 'kiFk ysrk
gw fd esjh lkjh tkZ vkSj esjh lkjh 'kfDr gekjs ns'k osQ j{kd ,MkWYi+Q fgVyj dks lefiZr
gSA eSa muosQ fy, viuk thou nsus dks bPNqd vkSj rS;kj gwA bZ'oj esjh enn djsA*
MCY;w- 'kkbjj] n jkbk ,aM i+QkWy vkWi+Q n FkMZ jkb[k ls m`rA

ksr ?k

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teZu yscj ia+ Qz V osQ izeq[k jkWcVZ ys us dgk Fkk %


ge rHkh ls dke 'kq: dj nsrs gSa tc cPpk rhu lky dk gksrk gSA tSls gh og
kjk&lk Hkh lkspus yxrk gS mls ygjkus osQ fy, ,d NksVk&lk >aMk Fkek fn;k tkrk
gSA blosQ ckn LowQy] fgVyj ;wFk vkSj lSfud lsok dk uacj vkrk gSA ysfdu ;g lc
oqQN iwjk gks tkus osQ ckn Hkh ge fdlh dks NksMr+ s ugha gSAa yscj iz+ QaV mUgsa viuh fxj+r
esa ys ysrk gSA pkgs mUgsa vPNk yxs ;k cqjk] dcz rd ;g mudk ihNk ugha NksM+rkA*

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fp=k 27 & ekSr osQ dkj[kkus esa vkrs ;gwnh cPps ftUgsa xSl ls ekj
fn;k tk,xk -

f;kdyki

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fp=k 26 & dCks okys ;wjksi ls vfkr


iksySaM esa clkus osQ fy, Hkstk tk jgk ,d
f'k'kq viuh ek osQ lkFk -

ukRlh ;wFk yhx dk xBu 1922 esa gqvk FkkA pkj lky ckn mls
fgVyj ;wFk dk u;k uke fn;k x;kA 1933 rd vkrs&vkrs bl laxBu esa
12-5 yk[k ls T+;knk cPps FksA ;qok vkanksyu dks ukRlhokn osQ rgr ,dtqV
djus osQ fy, ckdh lHkh ;qok laxBuksa dks igys Hkax dj fn;k x;k vkSj
ckn esa mu ij izfrcak yxk fn;k x;kA

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

fp=k 25 & ^okafNr* cPps ftudh la[;k


fgVyj c<+kuk pkgrk Fkk-

fp=k 23] 24 vkSj 27 dks nsf[k,A dYiuk dhft, fd


vki ukRlh teZuh esa jgus okys ;gwnh ;k iksfy'k ewy
osQ O;fDr gSaA vki flracj 1941 esa th jgs gSa vkSj
vHkh&vHkh dkuwu cuk;k x;k gS fd ;gwfn;ksa dks
MsfoM dk rexk igudj jguk gksxkA ,slh ifjfLFkfr
esa vius thou osQ ,d fnu dk C;kSjk fyf[k,A

4-1 ekr`Ro dh ukRlh lksp


ukRlh teZuh esa izR;sd cPps dks ckj&ckj ;g crk;k tkrk Fkk fd vkSjrsa
cqfu;knh rkSj ij enks ls fHkUu gksrh gSaA mUgsa le>k;k tkrk Fkk fd
67

vkSjr&enZ osQ fy, leku vfkdkjksa dk la?k"kZ xyr gSA ;g lekt dks u"V
dj nsxkA blh vkkkj ij yM+dksa dks vkked] enkZuk vkSj iRFkjfny gksuk
fl[kk;k tkrk Fkk tcfd yM+fd;ksa dks ;g dgk tkrk Fkk fd mudk i+QkZ
,d vPNh ek cuuk vkSj 'kq vk;Z jDr okys cPpksa dks tUe nsuk vkSj
mudk ikyu&iks"k.k djuk gSA uLy dh 'kqrk cuk, j[kus] ;gwfn;ksa ls nwj
jgus] ?kj laHkkyus vkSj cPpksa dks ukRlh ewY;&ekU;rkvksa dh f'k{kk nsus dk
nkf;Ro mUgsa gh lkSaik x;k FkkA vk;Z laLfr vkSj uLy dh otokgd
ogh FkhaA
1933 esa fgVyj us dgk Fkk % ^esjs jkT; dh lcls egoiw.kZ ukxfjd
ek gSA* ysfdu ukRlh teZuh esa lkjh ekrkvksa osQ lkFk Hkh ,d tSlk crkZo
ugha gksrk FkkA tks vkSjrsa uLyh rkSj ij vokafNr cPpksa dks tUe nsrh Fkha
mUgsa nafMr fd;k tkrk Fkk tcfd uLyh rkSj ij okafNr fn[kus okys cPpksa
dks tUe nsus okyh ekrkvksa dks buke fn, tkrs FksA ,slh ekrkvksa dks
vLirky esa fo'ks"k lqfokk, nh tkrh Fkha] nqdkuksa esa mUgsa T+;knk NwV feyrh
Fkh vkSj fFk;sVj o jsyxkM+h osQ fVdV mUgsa lLrs esa feyrs FksA fgVyj us
[kwc lkjs cPpksa dks tUe nsus okyh ekrkvksa osQ fy, oSls gh rexs nsus dk
barkke fd;k Fkk ftl rjg osQ rexs flikfg;ksa dks fn, tkrs FksA pkj cPps
iSnk djus okyh ek dks dkls dk] N% cPps iSnk djus okyh ek dks pknh
dk vkSj vkB ;k mlls T+;knk cPps iSnk djus okyh ek dks lksus dk rexk
fn;k tkrk FkkA
fukkZfjr vkpkj lafgrk dk mYya?ku djus okyh ^vk;Z* vkSjrksa dh
lkoZtfud :i ls fuank dh tkrh Fkh vkSj mUgsa dM+k naM fn;k tkrk FkkA cgqr
lkjh vkSjrksa dks xatk djosQ] eqg ij dkfy[k iksr dj vkSj muosQ xys esa r[rh
yVdk dj iwjs 'kgj esa ?kqek;k tkrk FkkA muosQ xys esa yVdh r[rh ij fy[kk
gksrk Fkk ^eSua s jk"V osQ lEeku dks efyu fd;k gSA* bl vkijkfkd o`QR; osQ
fy, cgqr lkjh vkSjrksa dks u osQoy tsy dh lkk nh xbZ cfYd muls reke
ukxfjd lEeku vkSj muosQ ifr o ifjokj Hkh Nhu fy, x,A

ksr p
U;wjsEcxZ ikVhZ jSyh esa vkSjrksa dks lacksfkr djrs gq,
8 flracj 1934 dks fgVyj us dgk Fkk %
ge bl ckr dks vPNk ugha ekurs fd vkSjrsa enZ dh
nqfu;k esa] mlosQ eq[; nk;js esa n[ky nsaA gekjh ukj esa
;g oqQnjrh ckr gS fd ;s nksuksa nqfu;k ,d&nwljs ls
vyx&vyx gSa---A ftl rjg enZ vius lkgl osQ :i
esa ;q osQ ekspsZ ij viuk loZLo U;kSNkoj dj nsrk gS
mlh rjg vkSjrsa vius vuar vkRecfynku] vuar ihM+k
vkSj nnZ osQ :i esa viuk ;ksxnku nsrh gSaA gj cPpk tks
vkSjr lalkj esa ykrh gS og mlosQ fy, ,d ;q gh gS]
vius lekt dks fkank j[kus osQ fy, vkSjr }kjk NsM+k
x;k ;qA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

4-2 izpkj dh dyk

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n

ukRlh 'kklu us Hkk"kk vkSj ehfM;k dk cM+h gksf'k;kjh ls bLrseky fd;k


vkSj mldk kcnZLr i+Qk;nk mBk;kA mUgksaus vius rkSj&rjhdksa dks c;ku
djus osQ fy, tks 'kCn bZtkn fd, Fks os u osQoy Hkzked cfYd fny
ngyk nsus okys 'kCn FksA ukfRl;ksa us vius vfkr nLrkoskksa esa ^gR;k* ;k
^ekSr* tSls 'kCnksa dk dHkh bLrseky ugha fd;kA lkewfgd gR;kvksa dks fo'ks"k
O;ogkj] vafre lekkku (;gwfn;ksa osQ lanHkZ esa)] ;wFkusfk;k (fodykaxksa osQ
fy,)] p;u vkSj lae.k&eqfDr vkfn 'kCnksa ls O;Dr fd;k tkrk FkkA
^boSD;q,'ku* ([kkyh djkuk) dk vk'k; Fkk yksxksa dks xSl psacjksa esa ys
tkukA D;k vkidks ekywe gS fd xSl psacjksa dks D;k dgk tkrk Fkk\ mUgsa
^lae.k eqfDr&{ks=k* dgk tkrk FkkA xSl psacj Luku?kj tSls fn[kkbZ nsrs Fks
vkSj muesa udyh i+QOokjs Hkh yxs gksrs FksA
68

ksr N

U;wjsEcxZ ikVhZ jSyh esa 8 flracj 1934 dks gh


fgVyj us ;g Hkh dgk Fkk %
^vkSjr fdlh leqnk; osQ laj{k.k esa lcls fLFkj
ro gS---A mls bl ckr dk lcls vPNh rjg irk
gksrk gS fd viuh uLy dks [kRe gksus ls cpkus
osQ fy, D;k&D;k phksa egoiw.kZ gksrh gSa D;ksafd
mlh osQ cPps gSa tks bl lkjh ihM+k ls lcls igys
izHkkfor gksaxs---A blhfy, geus uLyh leqnk; osQ
la?k"kZ esa vkSjr dks Hkh ogh txg nh gS tks izfr
vkSj fu;fr osQ vuqlkj gSA*

'kklu osQ fy, leFkZu gkfly djus vkSj ukRlh fo'o n`f"Vdks.k dks
iSQykus osQ fy, ehfM;k dk cgqr lksp&le> dj bLrseky fd;k x;kA
ukRlh fopkjksa dks iSQykus osQ fy, rLohjksa] fi+QYeksa] jsfM;ks] iksLVjksa] vkd"kZd
ukjksa vkSj b'rgkjh ipks dk [kwc lgkjk fy;k tkrk FkkA iksLVjksa esa teZuksa osQ
^nq'euksa* dh jVh&jVkbZ Nfo;k fn[kkbZ tkrh Fkha] mudk ekkd mM+k;k tkrk
Fkk] mUgsa viekfur fd;k tkrk Fkk] mUgsa 'kSrku osQ :i esa is'k fd;k tkrk
FkkA lektokfn;ksa vkSj mnkjokfn;ksa dks dekksj vkSj iFkHkz"V roksa osQ :i
esa izLrqr fd;k tkrk FkkA mUgsa fons'kh ,tsaV dgdj cnuke fd;k tkrk FkkA
izpkj fi+QYeksa esa ;gwfn;ksa osQ izfr ui+Qjr iQSykus ij kksj fn;k tkrk FkkA ^n
,VuZy T;w* (v{k; ;gwnh) bl lwph dh lcls oqQ[;kr fi+QYe FkhA
ijaijkfiz; ;gwfn;ksa dks [kkl rjg dh Nfo;ksa esa is'k fd;k tkrk FkkA mUgsa
nk<+h c<+k, vkSj dk+rku (pksxk) igus fn[kk;k tkrk Fkk] tcfd okLro esa
teZu ;gwfn;ksa vkSj ckdh teZuksa osQ chp dksbZ i+QoZQ djuk vlaHko Fkk
D;ksafd nksuksa leqnk; ,d&nwljs esa dki+Qh ?kqys&feys gq, FksA mUgsa osQapqvk]
pwgk vkSj dhM+k tSls 'kCnksa ls lacksf/r fd;k tkrk FkkA mudh pky&<ky
dh rqyuk oqQrjus okys NNqanjh thoksa ls dh tkrh FkhA ukRlhokn us yksxksa
osQ fnyksfnekx ij xgjk vlj Mkyk] mudh Hkkoukvksa dks HkM+dk dj
muosQ xqLls vkSj ui+Qjr dks ^vokafNrksa* ij oasQfr dj fn;kA blh vfHk;ku
ls ukRlhokn dk lkekftd vkkkj iSnk gqvkA
ukfRl;ksa us vkcknh osQ lHkh fgLlksa dks vkdf"kZr djus osQ fy, iz;kl
fd,A iwjs lekt dks viuh rji+Q vkdf"kZr djus osQ fy, mUgksaus yksxksa dks
bl ckr dk vglkl djk;k fd mudh leL;kvksa dks fli+ZQ ukRlh gh gy
dj ldrs gSaA

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f;kdyki

vxj vki
;gwnh vkSjr ;k
xSj&;gwnh teZu vkSjr
gksrha rks fgVyj osQ fopkjksa ij fdl rjg dh izfrf;k
nsrha\

fp=k 28 & ;gwfn;ksa ij geyk djrk ,d ukRlh iksLVjfp=k osQ uhps nh xbZ iafDr;k % ^iSlk gh ;gwnh dk Hkxoku gSA iSls osQ fy, og Hk;kud vijkk djrk
gSA og rc rd pSu ls ugha cSBrk tc rd fd uksVksa ls Hkjs cksjs ij u cSB tk,] tc rd fd og iSls
dk jktk u gks tk,A*

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

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f;kdyki
vkiosQ fopkj ls bl iksLVj esa D;k fn[kkus dh dksf'k'k
dh tk jgh gS\
69

teZu fdlku
rqe fli+QZ fgVyj osQ gks!
D;ks\a
vkt
teZu fdlku nks Hk;kud ikVksa osQ chp fil jgk gS %
,d [krjk vesfjdh vFkZO;oLFkk
;kuh cM+s iwthokn dk gS
nwljk [krjk cksy'ksfoT+e dh ekDlZoknh vFkZO;oLFkk dk gS
cM+k iwthokn vkSj cksy'ksfoT+e] nksuksa gkFk feyk dj dke djrs gSa %
;s nksuksa gh ;gwnh fopkjksa ls tUes gSa
vkSj fo'o ;gwnhokn dh egk;kstuk dks ykxw dj jgs gSaA
fdlku dks bu [krjksa ls dkSu cpk ldrk gS\
osQoy

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jk"Vh; lektokn

1932 esa Nis ,d ukRlh ipsZ lsA

fp=k 29 & ;g iksLVj n'kkZrk gS fd fdlkuksa dks ukRlh fdl rjg vkdf"kZr djrs Fks-

f;kdyki

fp=k 29&30 dks ns[ksa vkSj fuEufyf[kr dk mkj nsa %

buls ukRlh izpkj osQ ckjs esa gesa D;k irk pyrk gS\ vkcknh osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa dks
xksycan djus osQ fy, ukRlh D;k iz;kl dj jgs gSa\

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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70

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fp=k 30 & chl osQ n'kd dk ,d ukRlh ikVhZ iksLVjblesa fgVyj] dks vfxze ekspsZ ij ;qjr flikgh crkdj mls oksV
nsus dk vkku fd;k tk jgk gSA

oqQN egoiw.kZ frfFk;k


1 vxLr 1914
igyk fo'o;q 'kq:
9 uoacj 1918
teZuh us ?kqVus Vsd fn,] ;q lekIr
9 uoacj 1918
okbej x.kjkT; dh LFkkiuk dk ,yku
28 twu 1919
olkZ; dh lafk
30 tuojh 1933
fgVyj teZuh dk pkalyj curk gS
1 flracj 1939
teZuh dk iksySaM esa ?kqlukA nwljs fo'o;q dh 'kq#vkrA
22 twu 1941
teZu lsuk, lksfo;r la?k esa ?kqlrh gSaA
23 twu 1941
;gwfn;ksa dk dRysvke 'kq:
8 fnlacj 1941
vesfjdk Hkh nwljs fo'o;q esa owQn iM+kA
27 tuojh 1945
lksfo;r iQkStsa vkS"kfoRl dks eqDr djkrh gSaA
8 ebZ 1945
;wjksi esa fe=k jk"Vksa dh fot;A

vke turk vkSj ekuork osQ f[kykI+kQ vijkk

ukRlhokn ij vke yksxksa dh izfrf;k D;k jgh\


cgqr lkjs yksx ukRlh 'kCnkMa cj vkSj kqvkkkj izpkj dk f'kdkj gks x,A os
nqfu;k dks ukRlh ukjksa ls ns[kus yxs vkSj viuh Hkkoukvksa dks ukRlh
'kCnkoyh esa gh O;Dr djus yxsA fdlh ;gwnh ls vkeuk&lkeuk gks tkus ij
mUgsa vius Hkhrj xgjh ui+Qjr vkSj xqLls dk vglkl gksrk FkkA mUgksua s u
osQoy ;gwfn;ksa osQ ?kjksa osQ ckgj fu'kku yxk fn, cfYd ftu iM+kfs l;ksa ij
'kd Fkk muosQ ckjs esa iqfyl dks Hkh lwfpr dj fn;kA mUgsa iDdk fo'okl
Fkk fd ukRlhokn gh ns'k dks rjDdh osQ jkLrs ij ysdj tk,xk_ ;gh O;oLFkk
lcdk dY;k.k djsxhA

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ysfdu teZuh dk gj O;fDr ukRlh ugha FkkA cgqr lkjs yksxksa us iqfyl
neu vkSj ekSr dh vk'kadk osQ ckotwn ukRlhokn dk tedj fojks/ fd;kA
ysfdu teZu vkcknh dk ,d cgqr cM+k fgLlk bl iwjs ?kVuke dk ewd
n'kZd vkSj mnklhu lk{kh cuk gqvk FkkA yksx dksbZ fojks/h dne mBkus] viuk
erHksn O;Dr djus] ukRlhokn dk fojksk djus ls Mjrs FksA os vius fny dh
ckr dgus dh ctk; vk[k isQj dj py nsuk T+;knk csgrj ekurs FksA iknjh
uhE;ksyj us ukfRl;ksa dk yxkrkj fojksk fd;kA mUgksua s ik;k fd ukRlh lkezkT;
esa yksxksa ij ftl rjg osQ fueZe vkSj laxfBr kqYe fd, tk jgs gSa muoQk
teZuh dh vke turk fojksk ugha dj ikrh FkhA turk ,d vthc&lh [kkeks'kh
esa Mwch gqbZ FkhA xsLrkiks dh ng'krukd dk;Z'kSyh vkSj oqQo`QR;ksa ij fu'kkuk
lk/rs gq, bl [kkeks'kh osQ ckjs esa mUgksua s cM+s eeZLi'khZ <ax ls fy[kk gS %

^igys os dE;qfuLVksa dks <w< r+ s vk,]


eSa dE;qfuLV ugha Fkk
blfy, eSaus oqQN ugha dgkA
fiQj os lks'ky MseksoQSz V~l dks <w< r+ s vk,]
eSa lks'ky MseksoQSz V ugha Fkk
blfy, pqi jgkA
blosQ ckn os VMs ;wfu;u okyksa dks <w<+rs vk,]
ij eSa VMs ;wfu;u esa ugha FkkA
vkSj fiQj os ;gwfn;ksa dks <w< r+ s vk,]
ysfdu eSa ;gwnh ugha Fkkblfy, eSua s oqQN ugha fd;kA
fiQj] var esa tc og esjs fy, vk,
rks ogk dksbZ ugha cpk Fkk tks esjs lkFk [kM+k gks losQA*

ckWDl 1

D;k ukfRl;ksa }kjk lrk, x, yksxksa osQ izfr gennhZ dk


vHkko osQoy ng'kr dh otg ls Fkk\ ykWjsal jhl dk
dguk gS fd ;g ekuuk xyr gksxkA ykWjsal jhl us gky
gh esa vius o`kfp=k ^n ukRlhk % , okfux i+zQkWe fgLVh*
osQ fy, rjg&rjg osQ yksxksa ls ckrphr dh FkhA

blh flyflys esa mUgksaus ,ukZ kRl ls Hkh ckr dh tks


1930 osQ n'kd esa fd'kksjh Fkha vkSj vc nknh cu pqdh
gSaA ,ukZ us jhl ls dgk %
rhl osQ n'kd esa ,d mEehn lh fn[kkbZ nsrh FkhA ;g
csjkskxkjksa osQ fy, gh ugha cfYd gj fdlh osQ fy,
mEehn dk nkSj Fkk D;ksafd ge lHkh nck&oqQpyk eglwl
djrs FksA vius vuqHko osQ vkkkj ij eSa dg ldrh gw
fd mu fnuksa ru[okgsa c<+h Fkha vkSj teZuh dks ekuks
viuk ms'; nksckjk fey x;k FkkA de ls de eq>s
rks ;gh yxrk Fkk fd og vPNk nkSj FkkA eq>s vPNk
yxrk FkkA

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

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f;kdyki
,ukZ kRl us ;s D;ksa dgk ^de ls de eq>s rks ;gh
yxrk Fkk*\ vki mudh jk; dks fdl rjg ns[krs gSa\

71

ukRlh teZuh esa ;gwnh D;k eglwl djrs Fks ;g ,d fcYoqQy vyx dgkuh
gSA 'kkyZV csjkV us viuh Mk;jh esa yksxksa osQ liuksa dks pksjh&fNis ntZ fd;k FkkA
ckn esa mUgksua s viuh bl Mk;jh dks iqLrd osQ :i esa izdkf'kr fd;kA i<+us
okyksa dks >d>ksj dj j[k nsus okyh bl fdrkc dk uke gS FkMZ jkb[+k vkWi+Q
MhElA 'kkyZVs us bl fdrkc esa crk;k gS fd ,d le; osQ ckn fdl rjg [kqn
;gwnh Hkh vius ckjs esa ukfRl;ksa }kjk iQSykbZ tk jgh :<+ Nfo;ksa ij ;dhu djus
yxs FksA vius liuksa esa mUgsa Hkh viuh ukd vkxs ls eqMh+ gqb]Z cky o vk[ksa
dkyh vkSj ;gwfn;ksa tSlh 'kDy&lwjr o pky&<ky fn[kus yxh FkhA ukRlh izl
s
esa ;gwfn;ksa dh tks Nfo;k vkSj rLohjsa Nirh Fkha] os fnu&jkr ;gwfn;ksa dk ihNk
dj jgh FkhaA ;s Nfo;k liuksa esa Hkh mudk ihNk ugha NksMr+ h FkhaA cgqr lkjs ;gwnh
xSl psca j esa igqpus ls igys gh ne rksM+ x,A

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

5-1 egkoal (gksyksdkWLV) osQ ckjs esa tkudkfj;k

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ukRlh rkSj&rjhdksa dh tkudkjh ukRlh 'kklu osQ vkf[kjh lkyksa esa fjl&fjl
dj teZuh ls ckgj tkus yxh FkhA ysfdu] ogk fdruk Hkh"k.k jDrikr vkSj
ccZj neu gqvk Fkk] bldk vlyh vankkk rks nqfu;k dks ;q [kRe gksus
vkSj teZuh osQ gkj tkus osQ ckn gh yx ik;kA teZu lekt rks eycs esa
ncs ,d ijkftr jk"V osQ :i esa viuh nqnZ'kk ls nq[kh Fkk gh] ysfdu ;gwnh
Hkh pkgrs Fks fd nqfu;k mu Hkh"k.k vR;kpkjksa vkSj ihM+kvksa dks ;kn j[ks tks
mUgksaus ukRlh dRysvke esa >syh FkhaA bUgha dRysvkeksa dks egkoal
(gksyksdkWLV) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA tc neup vius f'k[kj ij Fkk mUgha
fnuksa ,d ;gwnh Vksys esa jgus okys ,d vkneh us vius lkFkh ls dgk Fkk
fd og ;q osQ ckn fli+ZQ vkkk ?kaVk vkSj thuk pkgrk gSA 'kk;n og
nqfu;k dks ;g crk dj tkuk pkgrk Fkk fd ukRlh teZuh esa D;k&D;k gks
jgk FkkA tks oqQN gqvk mldh xokgh nsus vkSj tks Hkh nLrkosk gkFk vk,
mUgsa cpk, j[kus dh ;g vnE; pkg ?ksVks vkSj oSaQiksa esa ukjdh; thou
Hkksxus okyksa esa cgqr xgjs rkSj ij ns[kh tk ldrh gSA muesa ls cgqrksa us
Mk;fj;k fy[kha] uksVcqd fy[kha vkSj nLrkoskksa osQ laxzg cuk,A ysfdu]
blosQ foijhr] tc ;g fn[kkbZ nsus yxk fd vc ;q esa ukfRl;ksa dh
ijkt; r; gh gS rks ukRlh usr`Ro us n+rjksa esa ekStwn reke lcwrksa dks u"V
djus osQ fy, vius deZpkfj;ksa dks isVksy ckVuk 'kq: dj fn;kA
nqfu;k osQ cgqr lkjs fgLlksa esa Le`fr ys[kksa] lkfgR;] o`kfp=kksa] 'kk;jh]
Lekjdksa vkSj laxzgky;ksa esa bl egkoal dk bfrgkl vkSj Le`fr vkt Hkh
fkank gSA ;s lkjh phksa mu yksxksa osQ fy, ,d Jkatfy gSa ftUgksaus mu
L;kg fnuksa esa Hkh izfrjksk dk lkgl fn[kk;kA mu yksxksa osQ fy, Hkh ;s lkjh
ckrsa 'keZukd ;knxkj gSa ftUgksaus ;s kqYe <k, vkSj muosQ fy, psrkouh dh
vkokksa gSa tks [kkeks'kh ls lc oqQN ns[krs jgsA

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fp=k 31 & okWjlk ?ksVks osQ fuokfl;ksa us nLrkosk bd_k fd, vkSj
mUgsa nwk osQ rhu fVuksa esa j[k fn;kA tc ;g r; fn[kkbZ nsus yxk fd
vc lc oqQN rckg gks tk,xk rks mUgksaus 1943 esa rhuksa duLrjksa dks
viuh dky dksBfj;ksa osQ rg[kkus esa nck fn;kA ;s duLrj 1950 esa
yksxksa osQ gkFk yxs-

fp=k 32 & MsuekoZQ us vius ;gwfn;ksa dks pksjh&fNis teZuh ls


fudky fy;k FkkA bl dke osQ fy, bLrseky dh xbZ ukSdkvksa esa ls
,d-

ckWDl 2

xka/h th us fgVyj dks fy[kk


fgVyj dks xkakhth dk i=k
okkZ] e; izkUr] Hkkjr
23 tqykbZ 1939
fiz; fe=k]
fe=kksa dk ;g vkxzg jgk gS fd ekuork dh [kkfrj eSa vkidks oqQN fy[kwA ysfdu eSa muosQ
vuqjksk dks vLohdkj djrk jgk gw] D;ksafd eSa ;g eglwl djrk gw fd esjk vkidks i=k
fy[kuk k`"Vrk gksxhA ysfdu eq>s oqQN ,slk yxrk gS fd bl ekeys esa eq>s fglkc&fdrkc
djosQ ugha pyuk pkfg, vkSj eq>s vkils vihy djuh gh pkfg,] pkgs og ftl
yk;d gksA
;g ckr fcYoqQy Li"V gS fd vkt lalkj esa vki gh ,d ,sls O;fDr gSa tks ml ;q dks
jksd ldrs gSa] tks ekuo&tkfr dks ccZj voLFkk esa igqpk ldrk gSA D;k vkidks fdlh
ms'; osQ fy, bruk cM+k ewY; pqdkuk pkfg,] fiQj pkgs og ms'; vkidh n`f"V esa
fdruk gh egku D;ksa u gks\ D;k vki ,d ,sls O;fDr dh vihy ij ;ku nsaxs ftlus
lksp&fopkj dj ;q osQ rjhosQ dk R;kx dj fn;k gS vkSj blesa mls dkiQh liQyrk Hkh
feyh gS\ tks Hkh gks] eSa ;g eku ysrk gw fd ;fn eSaus vkidks i=k fy[k dj dksbZ Hkwy
dh gS rks mlosQ fy, vki eq>s {kek dj nsaxs\
eSa gw]

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vkidk lPpk fe=k]


eks- d- xkakh

lEiw.kZ xkakh ok~e; [k.M 70] izdk'ku foHkkx] lwpuk ,oa izlkj.k
ea=kky;] Hkkjr ljdkj

fgVyj dks xkakhth dk i=k


okkZ
gesa vfgalk osQ :i esa ,d ,slh 'kfDr izkIr gks xbZ gS ftls ;fn laxfBr dj fy;k tk, rks
24 fnlacj 1940
og lalkj Hkj dh lHkh izcyre fgalkRed 'kfDr;ksa osQ xBtksM+ dk eqdkcyk dj ldrh gSA
tSlk fd eSaus dgk] vfgalkRed rjhosQ esa ijkt; uke dh dksbZ pht gS gh ughaA ;g rjhdk
rks fcuk ekjs ;k pksV igqpk, ^^djus ;k ejus** dk rjhdk gSA bldk bLrseky djus esa ku
dh yxHkx dksbZ k:jr ugha gS vkSj ml fouk'k'kkL=k dh rks ugha gh ftls vkius iw.kZrk osQ
pjefcanq ij igqpk fn;k gSA eq>s ;g ns[kdj vk'p;Z gksrk gS fd vki ;g Hkh ugha ns[k ikrs
fd fouk'kdkjh ;a=kksa ij fdlh dk ,dkfkdkj ugha gSA vxj fczfV'k yksx ugha rks dksbZ vkSj
ns'k fu'p; gh vkiosQ rjhdksa ls ;knk csgrj rjhdk bZtkn dj ysxk vkSj vkiosQ gh rjhdksa
ls vkidks uhpk fn[kk,xkA vki vius ns'kokfl;ksa osQ fy, dksbZ ,slh fojklr ugha NksM+ jgs
gSa ftl ij mUgsa xoZ gksxkA os ,d wj deZ dh ppkZ djus esa xoZ dk vuqHko ugha djsaxs fiQj
Hkys gh og R; fdruh gh fuiq.krkiwoZd fu;ksftr D;ksa u fd;k x;k gksA vr% eSa ekuork
osQ uke ij vkils ;q jksd nsus dh vihy djrk gwA
n; ls vkidk fe=k]
eks- d- xkakh

ukRlhokn vkSj fgVyj dk mn;

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lEiw.kZ xkakh ok~e; [k.M 73] izdk'ku foHkkx] lwpuk ,oa izlkj.k
ea=kky;] Hkkjr ljdkj

73

1- ,d iUus esa teZuh dk bfrgkl fy[ksa %


ukRlh teZuh osQ ,d LowQyh cPps dh ukj lsA
;kruk x`g ls fkank cp fudys ,d ;gwnh dh ukj lsA
ukRlh 'kklu osQ jktuhfrd fojkskh dh ukj lsA
2- dYiuk dhft, fd vki gsyeqV gSaA LowQy esa vkiosQ cgqr lkjs ;gwnh nksLr gSaA vkidk ekuuk gS fd ;gwnh [kjkc
ugha gksrsA ,sls esa vki vius firk ls D;k dgsaxs] bl ckjs esa ,d iSjkxzkI+kQ fy[ksaA

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iz'u

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1234-

okbej x.kjkT; osQ lkeus D;k leL;k, Fkha\


bl ckjs esa ppkZ dhft, fd 1930 rd vkrs&vkrs teZuh esa ukRlhokn dks yksdfiz;rk D;ksa feyus yxh\
ukRlh lksp osQ [kkl igyw dkSu&ls Fks\
ukfRl;ksa dk izksisxaSMk ;gwfn;ksa osQ f[kyki+Q ui+Qjr iSnk djus esa bruk vljnkj dSls jgk\
5- ukRlh lekt esa vkSjrksa dh D;k Hkwfedk Fkh\ iz+ Qkalhlh kafr osQ ckjs esa tkuus osQ fy, v;k; 1 ns[ksa
iz+ Qkalhlh kafr vkSj ukRlh 'kklu esa vkSjrksa dh Hkwfedk osQ chp D;k i+QoZQ Fkk\ ,d iSjkxzki+Q esa crk,A
6- ukfRl;ksa us turk ij iwjk fu;a=k.k gkfly djus osQ fy, dkSu&dkSu ls rjhosQ viuk,\

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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f;kdyki

f;kdyki

[k.M

II

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thfodk] vFkZO;oLFkk ,oa lekt

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vk/qfud fo'o dk mn; oSQls gqvk gS] bl ckr ij fopkj djrs gq, ge vdlj dkj[kkuksa vkSj 'kgjksa
ij vkSj ckkkj dks vkiwfrZ djus okys vkS|ksfxd vkSj f"k {ks=kksa ij gh ;ku nsrs gSaA ge ;g Hkwy tkrs
gSa fd bu {ks=kksa osQ ckgj nwljh vFkZO;oLFkk, Hkh gSa] nwljs yksx Hkh gSa tks jk"V osQ fy, ego j[krs gSaA
vk/qfud n`f"V ls ns[kus ij ,slk yxrk gS fd pjokgksa vkSj ouokfl;ksa] ?kqearw fdlkuksa vkSj [kkus dh phksa
chu dj xqkj djus okyksa dh fkanxh vrhr esa gh dgha vVd dj jg xbZ gSA ledkyhu fo'o osQ mn;
dk v;;u djrs gq, muosQ izfr gekjk joS;k oqQN ,slk jgrk gS ekuks mudh fkanxh dk dksbZ ego gh
u gksA [k.M II osQ v;k;ksa esa bl ckr dks js[kkafdr fd;k x;k gS fd gesa mudh fkanxh osQ ckjs eas tkuuk
pkfg,_ gesa ns[kuk pkfg, fd os viuh nqfu;k dks oSQls O;ofLFkr djrs gSa vkSj oSQls viuh jkskh&jksVh
pykrs gSaA ;s yksx Hkh iwjh rjg mlh nqfu;k dk fgLlk gSa ftlesa ge vkt jg jgs gSaA os xqkjs gq, kekus
osQ cps&[kqps yksx ugha gSaA

v;k; 4 esa vki taxyksa dh lSj djsxa As ;gk vki ns[ksxa s fd taxyksa esa jgus okys fofo/ leqnk; taxyksa dk
fdl&fdl rjg bLrseky djrs jgs gSAa ;gk vkidks irk pysxk fd mUuhloha lnh esa m|ksx vkSj 'kgjks]a
tgkkjkuh vkSj jsyos osQ mn; o foLrkj ls ydM+h vkSj vU; ou mRiknksa osQ fy, taxyksa ij ncko fdruk
c<+ x;k FkkA bu ubZ k:jrksa vkSj ekxksa osQ pyrs taxyksa osQ iz;ksx ls lacfa /r dk;ns&dkuwu cnys x, vkSj
taxyksa osQ j[kj[kko dh ,d ubZ ifr lkeus vkbZA ;gk bl ckr ij Hkh izdk'k Mkyk x;k gS fd taxyksa
ij vkSifuosf'kd fu;a=k.k oSQls dk;e gqvk] oSQls ou {ks=kksa dks ekik x;k] isMk+ as dk oxhZdj.k fd;k x;k vkSj
ckxku fodflr fd, x,A bu lkjs ifjorZuksa ls ou lalk/uksa dk bLrseky djus okys LFkkuh; leqnk;ksa dh
ftan+ xh ij Hkh vlj iM+kA mUgsa ubZ O;oLFkk esa dke djus vkSj vius thou dks u, fljs ls laxfBr djus
osQ fy, foo'k fd;k x;kA ysfdu cgq/k mUgksua s bu fu;eksa vkSj dkuwuksa osQ f[kykI+kQ cxkor Hkh dh vkSj
ljdkjksa dks viuh uhfr;k cnyus osQ fy, ck; fd;kA bl v;k; esa vkidks bl ckr dk vankkk feysxk
fd Hkkjr vkSj baMksufs 'k;k esa bu ifjorZuksa dk bfrgkl D;k jgk gSA
v;k; 5 esa Hkkjr vkSj vIk+ zQhdk osQ igkM+ksa vkSj jsfxLrkuksa] eSnkuksa vkSj iBkjksa esa pjokgksa osQ infpksa dks
<w<+us dh dksf'k'k dh xbZ gSA bu nksuksa {ks=kksa esa pjokgk leqnk; vkcknh dk ,d egoiw.kZ fgLlk gSA fiQj
Hkh ge fojys gh dHkh muosQ thou dk v;;u djrs gSaA muoQk bfrgkl ikB~;iqLrdksa osQ iUuksa esa

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oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

thfodk] vFkZO;oLFkk ,oa lekt

[k.M II esa ge thfodk vkSj vFkZO;oLFkkvksa osQ ckjs esa v;;u djsaxsA ;gk ge bl ckr ij fopkj djsaxs
fd vk/qfud fo'o esa ouokfl;ksa] pjokgk leqnk;ksa vkSj fdlkuksa dh fkanxh esa fdl rjg osQ cnyko
vk, vkSj bu cnykoksa dks r; djus esa mUgksaus fdl rjg dk ;ksxnku fn;kA

75

'kkfey ugha gks ikrkA v;k; 5 esa vkidks irk pysxk fd taxyksa ij LFkkfir gksrs tk jgs fu;a=k.k] f"k
foLrkj vkSj pjkxkgksa osQ fleVrs tkus ls muosQ thou ij fdl rjg osQ vlj iM+sA bl fgLls esa vkidks
muosQ vkokxeu] vius leqnk; osQ lkFk muosQ laca/ksa vkSj cnyrs ifjos'k osQ vuq:i og [kqn dks oSQls
<kyrs gSa] blosQ ckjs esa tkuus dk ekSdk feysxkA
v;k; 6 esa ge fdlkuksa vkSj dk'rdkjksa dh ftanxh esa vk, ifjorZuksa osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA bl v;k; esa
ge Hkkjr] baXySaM vkSj vesfjdk dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk v;;u djsaxsA fiNyh nks 'krkfCn;ksa osQ nkSjku [ksrh
dks laxfBr djus osQ rjhosQ esa xgjs cnyko vk, gSaA ubZ rduhd vkSj ubZ ekxksa] u;s fu;eksa vkSj dkuwuksa]
laifk dh u;h vo/kj.kkvksa us xzkeh.k nqfu;k dh 'kDy&lwjr iwjh rjg cny Mkyh gSA iwthokn vkSj
mifuos'kokn us xzkeh.kksa osQ thou dks fljs ls cny Mkyk gSA v;k; 6 vkidks bu cnykoksa ls ifjfpr
djk,xk vkSj bl v;;u ls vkidks vglkl gksxk fd lekt osQ fofHkUu rcdks
a vehj&xjhc]
enZ&vkSjr] cPpksa vkSj o;Ldksa ij fdl rjg osQ vyx&vyx vlj iM+sA

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tc rd ge fofHkUu leqnk;ksa vkSj lektksa osQ thou esa vk jgs ifjorZuksa dks ns[kUkk&cw>uk 'kq: ugha djsaxs
rc rd bl ckr dks vPNh rjg ugha le> ik,xs fd vkt dh nqfu;k oSQls cuh gSA lkFk gh
vkkqfudhdj.k dh leL;kvksa dks Hkh ge rc rd iwjh rjg ugha le> ik,xs tc rd fd ge mlls
i;kZoj.k ij iM+ jgs izHkkoksa ij fopkj ugha djsaxsA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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v;k; 4

oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn


vius LowQy vkSj ?kj esa pkjksa vksj ukj nkSM+kdj mu lHkh oLrqvksa dks
igpkusa tks taxy dh gSa & bl fdrkc dk dkxk] esk&oqQfLZ k ;k]
njokks&f[kM+fd;k] os jax ftuls vkiosQ diM+s jaxs tkrs gSa] elkys] vkidh
VkWI+kQh osQ lsyksI+ksQu jSij] chfM+;ksa osQ rsanw iks] xksan] 'kgn] dkWI+kQh] pk; vkSj
jcM+A lkFk gh pkWdysV esa bLrseky gksus okyk rsy tks lky osQ chtksa ls
fudyrk gS] [kky ls peM+k cukus esa bLrseky gksus okyk peZ'kkskd
(VSfuu) ;k nokvksa osQ :i esa bLrseky gksus okyh tM+h&cwfV;kbu lcdks
Hkh gesa ugha Hkwyuk pkfg,A vkSj gk] ckl] tykou dh ydM+h] ?kkl]
dPpk dks;yk] iSfoaQx esa mi;ksx gksus okyh oLrq,] iQy&iwQy] i'kq&i{kh
,oa <sjksa nwljh phksa Hkh rks taxyksa ls gh vkrh gSaA ,seskkWu ;k if'peh ?kkV
osQ taxyksa osQ ,d gh VqdM+s esa ikS/ksa dh 500 vyx&vyx iztkfr;k fey
tkrh gSaA
;g fofo/rk rskh ls yqIr gksrh tk jgh gSA vkS|ksxhdj.k osQ nkSj esa
lu~ 1700 ls 1995 osQ chp 139 yk[k oxZ fdyksehVj taxy ;kuh nqfu;k
osQ oqQy {ks=kiQy dk 9-3 izfr'kr Hkkx vkS|ksfxd bLrseky] [ksrh&ckM+h]
pjkxkgksa o bku dh ydM+h osQ fy, lkI +kQ dj fn;k x;kA

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oU;&lekt
oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn vkSj mifuos'kokn

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fp=k 1 & ;g Nkhlx<+ dk ,d lky ou gS?kuk gksus osQ dkj.k taxy dh lrg rd lwjt dh jks'kuh ;gk de gh igqp
ikrh gSA bl
fp=k esa vki isM&+ ikS/ksa osQ fofHkUu vkdkj vkSj iztkfr;k ns[k ldrs gSAa

77

ouksa dk fouk'k D;ksa\

ouksa osQ yqIr gksus dks lkekU;r% ou&fouk'k dgrs gSaA ou&fouk'k dksbZ
u;h leL;k ugha gSA oSls rks ;g izf;k dbZ lfn;ksa ls pyh vk jgh Fkh
ysfdu vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ nkSjku blus dgha vf/d O;ofLFkr vkSj
O;kid :i xzg.k dj fy;kA vkb,] Hkkjr esa ou&fouk'k osQ oqQN dkj.kksa
ij xkSj djsaA

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1-1 kehu dh csgrjh


lu~ 1600 esa fganqLrku osQ oqQy Hkw&Hkkx osQ yxHkx NBs fgLls ij [ksrh
gksrh FkhA vkt ;g vkdM+k c<+ dj vkks rd igqp x;k gSA bu lfn;ksa
osQ nkSjku tSls&tSls vkcknh c<+rh x;h vkSj [kk| inkFkks dh ekx esa Hkh
o`f gqbZ] oSls&oSls fdlku Hkh taxyksa dks lkI+kQ djosQ [ksrh dh lhekvksa
dks foLrkj nsrs x,A vkSifuosf'kd dky esa [ksrh esa rskh ls iSQyko vk;kA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 2 & su n oSyhk oj iqQy (tc ?kkfV;k Hkjh iM+h Fkha)A tkWu MkWlu dh isafVax ykdksrk tSls ns'kt vesfjdh vkfnoklh lewg] tks bu fo'kky mkj&vesfjdh eSnkuksa esa jgrs Fks] dk vFkZr=a k vR;ar oSfo;iw.kZ FkkA os eDdk mxkrs] chlu dk f'kdkj djrs vkSj taxyh
ikS/ksa dh [kkst esa jgrs FksA vaxszk vkckndkjksa us chluksa osQ fy, fo'kky Hkw&Hkkx dks [kqyk NksM+uk csdkj le>kA 1860 osQ ckn chluksa dh cgqr cM+h la[;k esa gR;k dh xbZA

78

bldh dbZ otgsa FkhaA igyh] vaxzskksa us O;kolkf;d I +kQlyksa tSls iVlu] ksr d
xUuk] xsgw o dikl osQ mRiknu dks te dj izksRlkfgr fd;kA mUuhloha
ijrh kehu ij dCkk djosQ mls [ksrh osQ ;ksX; cuk;k
lnh osQ ;wjksi esa c<+rh 'kgjh vkcknh dk isV Hkjus osQ fy, [kk|kUu vkSj
tk,] ;g fopkj lkjh nqfu;k osQ mifuos'kdksa osQ chp
vkS|ksfxd mRiknu osQ fy, dPps eky dh k:jr FkhA fygkkk bu I +kQlyksa
ckWDl 1
fdlh LFkku ij [ksrh u gksus dk eryc ml txg dk xSj&vkckn gksuk ugha gSA tc
xksjs vkckndkj vkWLVsfy;k igqps rks mUgksaus nkok fd;k fd ;g egk}hi [kkyh FkkA
okLro esa] ;s vkfnoklh iFk&izn'kZdksa osQ usr`Ro esa] iqjkru jkLrksa ls bl Hkw&Hkkx esa
izfo"V gq, FksA vkWLVsfy;k osQ fofHkUu vkfnoklh leqnk;ksa osQ vius Li"V foHkkftr
bykosQ FksA vkWLVsfy;k osQ uxkfjZUnksfj;ksa (Ngarrindjeri) dh viuh kehu dh
vkfr buosQ igys iwoZt] uxq:unsjh (Ngurunderi) osQ izrhdkRed 'kjhj tSlh
FkhA ;g kehu ikp vyx&vyx izkfrd izns'kksa % [kkjs ikuh] >hyksa] >kfM+;ksa]
jsfxLrkuh eSnkuksa] unhrVh; eSnkuksa dks vius esa lesVs gq, Fkh] tks vyx&vyx
lkekftd&vkfFkZd k:jrksa dks iwjk fd;k djrs FksA

'kq: ls gh yksdfiz; jgk gSA ;gh og fopkj Fkk ftlus


fot; dks U;k;ksfpr Bgjk;kA
vesfjdh ys[kd fjpMZ gkfMx 1896 esa e;&vesfjdk
osQ gkWUMwjkl osQ ckjs esa fy[krs gaS%
^vkt blls c<+dj jkspd loky oqQN vkSj ugha gks
ldrk fd nqfu;k dh xSj&fodflr iM+h kehu dk
D;k fd;k tk,_ D;k bls ml egku 'kfDr osQ gkFkksa
esa tkuk pkfg, tks blosQ ifjorZu dh bPNk j[krh gS
;k fd bls blosQ okLrfod Lokeh osQ gkFkksa esa gh jgus
nsuk pkfg,] tks blosQ ewY; dks ugha le> ldrkA ;s
e;&vesfjdh ,d lqlfTtr ?kj esa v/Z&ccZjksa osQ
fxjksg tSls gSa tks u rks bl ?kj dk mi;ksx gh dj
ldrs gSa vkSj u gh blesa vkjkeA*
rhu lky ckn vesfjdh&vkf/iR; esa ;wukbVsM
iwzQV oaQiuh dk xBu gqvk ftlus O;kid iSekus ij
e;&vesfjdk esa osQys mxkuk izkjaHk fd;kA bl daiuh
us bu eqYdksa dh ljdkjksa ij bl gn rd viuk
opZLo LFkkfir dj fy;k Fkk fd bUgsa ^cukuk fjifCyd*
osQ uke ls tkuk x;kA

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1-2 iVjh ij Lyhij

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MsfoM Lij] ^n jsVfjd vkWI+kQ ,Eik;j* (1993) esa


m`rA

oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

dh ekx esa btkIk+ Qk gqvkA nwljh otg ;g Fkh fd mUuhloha lnh dh


'kq#vkr esa vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj us taxyksa dks vuqRiknd le>kA muosQ
fglkc ls bl O;FkZ osQ fc;kcku ij [ksrh djosQ mlls jktLo vkSj f"k
mRiknksa dks iSnk fd;k tk loQrk Fkk vkSj bl rjg jkT; dh vk; esa
c<+ksrjh dh tk ldrh FkhA ;gh otg Fkh fd 1880 ls 1920 osQ chp
[ksrh ;ksX; kehu osQ {ks=kiQy esa 67 yk[k gsDVs;j dh c<+r gqbZA
[ksrh osQ foLrkj dks ge fodkl oQk lwpd ekurs gSaA ysfdu gesa ;g
ugha Hkwyuk pkfg, fd kehu dks tksrus osQ igys taxyksa dh dVkbZ djuh
iM+rh gSA

u, 'kCn
Lyhij% jsy dh iVjh osQ vkj&ikj yxs
ydM+h osQ r[rs tks iVfj;ksa dks mudh txg
ij jksosQ j[krs gSaA

fp=k 3 & flagHkwe osQ taxyksa esa lky osQ ruksa ls ^Lyhijksa* dk fuekZ.k] NksVk ukxiqj] ebZ 1897jsy dh iVjh gsrq Lyhij cukus osQ fy, ou&foHkkx isM+ksa dks dkVus vkSj buls iVjs cukus osQ fy, rks vkfnokfl;ksa dks fu;qDr fd;k djrk Fkk ysfdu mudks vius ?kj cukus osQ fy,
bu isM+ksa dks dkVus dh vuqefr u FkhA
79

mUuhloha lnh dh 'kq#vkr rd baXySaM esa cywr (vksd) osQ taxy yqIr
gksus yxs FksA bldh otg ls 'kkgh ukSlsuk osQ fy, ydM+h dh vkiwfrZ esa
eqf'dy vk [kM+h gqbZA ekcwr vkSj fVdk ydM+h dh fu;fer vkiwfrZ
osQ fcuk vaxszkh tgkk Hkyk oSQls cu ldrs Fks\ vkSj tgkkksa osQ fcuk 'kkgh
lkk oSQls cpkbZ vkSj cuk, j[kh tk ldrh Fkh\ 1820 osQ n'kd esa [kksth
nLrs fganqLrku dh ou&laink dk vUos"k.k djus osQ fy, Hksts x,A ,d
n'kd osQ Hkhrj cM+s iSekus ij isM+ dkVs tkus yxs vkSj Hkkjh ek=kk esa
ydM+h dk fganqLrku ls fu;kZr gksus yxkA
1850 osQ n'kd esa jsy ykbuksa osQ izlkj us ydM+h osQ fy, ,d ubZ
rjg dh ekx iSnk dj nhA 'kkgh lsuk osQ vkokxeu vkSj vkSifuosf'kd
O;kikj osQ fy, jsy ykbusa vfuok;Z FkhaA batuksa dks pykus osQ fy, b/u
osQ rkSj ij vkSj jsy dh iVfj;ksa dks tksM+s j[kus osQ fy, ^Lyhijksa* osQ :i
esa ydM+h dh Hkkjh k:jr FkhA ,d ehy yach jsy dh iVjh osQ fy,
1760&2000 Lyhijksa dh vko';drk iM+rh FkhA
Hkkjr esa jsy&ykbuksa dk tky 1860 osQ n'kd ls rskh ls iQSykA 1890
rd yxHkx 25] 500 fd-eh- yach ykbusa fcNk;h tk pqdh FkhaA 1946 esa
bu ykbuksa dh yackbZ 7] 65]000 fd-eh- rd c<+ pqdh FkhA jsy ykbuksa osQ
izlkj osQ lkFk&lkFk cM+h rknkn esa isM+ Hkh dkVs x,A vosQys enzkl
izslhMsalh esa 1850 osQ n'kd esa izfro"kZ 35] 000 isM+ Lyhijksa osQ fy, dkVs
x,A ljdkj us vko';d ek=kk dh vkiwfrZ osQ fy, futh BsosQ fn,A bu
BsosQnkjksa us fcuk lksps&le>s isM+ dkVuk 'kq: dj fn;kA jsy ykbuksa osQ
bnZ&fxnZ taxy rskh ls xk;c gksus yxsA

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fp=k 4 & ckl osQ csM+s dklkykx unh esa cg dj tkrs gq,]
fp^xkx ioZrh; i^h-

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 5 & jaxwu osQ ,d ydM+h xksnke esa ydM+h osQ 'kgrhj lgstrk gqvk gkFkh vkSifuosf'kd nkSj esa vdlj gkfFk;ksa dk bLrseky taxyksa vkSj ydM+h osQ xksnkeksa esa Hkkjh&Hkjde ydM+h dks mBkus osQ fy,
fd;k tkrk FkkA
80

ksr [k

bZ-ih-LVsfcaax] n I+kQkW jsLV~l vkWI+kQ bafM;k] Hkkx

(1923)A

f;kdyki
,d ehy yach jsy dh iVjh osQ fy, 1]760 ls 2] 000
rd Lyhij dh k:jr FkhA ;fn 3 ehVj yach cM+h
ykbu dh iVjh fcNkus osQ fy, ,d vkSlr dn osQ
isM+ ls 3&5 Lyhij cu ldrs gSa rks fglkc yxk dj
ns[ksa fd ,d ehy yach iVjh fcNkus osQ fy, fdrus
isM+ dkVus gksaxs\

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II

fp=k 6 & b/u dh ydM+h bd_k dj ?kj dks ykSVrh vkSjrsa fp=k 7 & y_s ys tkrk gqvk VdyV~Bs dkVus osQ fy, fdlh {ks=k dk pquko djus osQ ckn ou foHkkx
lcls igys pkSM+h lM+dksa dk fuekZ.k djrk gS ftlls Vdksa dk izos'k
laHko gks losQA taxy osQ mu jkLrksa ls bldh rqyuk djsa ftuls gksdj
yksx b/u dh ydM+h ;k nwljs y?kq ou&mRikn bd_k djus osQ fy,
tk;k djrs FksA ,sls vusd Vd ydM+h ls Hkjs gq, taxyksa ls cM+s
'kgjksa dks tkrs FksA

81

oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

^eqYrku vkSj lqDdwj osQ chp baMl oSyh jsyos uke ls yxHkx 300 ehy yach
,d ubZ ykbu cuk;h tkuh FkhA 2000 Lyhij izfr ehy dh nj ls] blosQ fy,
10 I+kQq V 10 bap 5 bap (;k 3-5 ?ku I+kqQV izfr bdkbZ) osQ 600] 000 Lyhij dh
k:jr gksxh ;k fd 2] 00] 000 D;wfcd I+kQhV ls ij ydM+h dhA bu batuksa dks
b/u osQ fy, ydM+h pkfg,A nksuksa rjI+kQ izfrfnu ,d Vus o ,d eu izfr Vus &ehy
osQ fglkc ls lkykuk 2] 19] 000 eu dh k:jr gksxhA blosQ vykok bVksa osQ fy,
Hkh Hkkjh ek=kk esa b/u dh k:jr gksxhA Lyhij eq[; :i ls fla/ osQ taxyksa ls
vk;k djsaxsA ;g b/u] fla/ vkSj iatkc osQ >k (Tamarisk) vkSj
>kaM (Jhand) osQ taxyksa ls yk;k tkuk FkkA nwljh u;h ykbu ukWnZuZ LVsV jsyos]
ykgkSj ls eqYrku rd FkhA vkdM+ksa osQ fglkc ls blosQ fuekZ.k osQ fy, 22] 00] 000
Lyhij dh k:jr gksxhA*

1-3 ckxku
;wjksi esa pk;] dkWI+ kQh vkSj jcM+ dh c<+rh ekx dks iwjk djus osQ fy, bu
oLrqvksa osQ ckxku cus vkSj buosQ fy, Hkh izkfrd ouksa dk ,d Hkkjh
fgLlk lkI +kQ fd;k x;kA vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj us taaxyksa dks vius dCks esa
ysdj muosQ fo'kky fgLlksa dks cgqr lLrh njksa ij ;wjksih; ckxku ekfydksa
dks lkSai fn;kA bu bykdksa dh ckM+kcanh djosQ taxyksa dks lkI +kQ dj fn;k
x;k vkSj pk;&dkWI+kQh dh [ksrh dh tkus yxhA

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fp=k 8 & Iyskj czkM pk;

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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O;kolkf;d okfudh dh 'kq#vkr

fiNys [kaM esa geus ns[kk fd tgkk vkSj jsy dh iVfj;k fcNkus osQ fy,
vaxzskksa dks taxyksa dh k:jr FkhA vaxzskksa dks bl ckr dh fpark Fkh fd
LFkkuh; yksxksa }kjk taxyksa dk mi;ksx o O;kikfj;ksa }kjk isM+ksa dh va/k/qa/
dVkbZ ls taxy u"V gks tk,xsA blfy, mUgksaus Mk;fVp cSzafMl ukeoQ
teZu fo'ks"kK dks bl fo"k; ij e'kfojs osQ fy, cqyk;k vkSj mls ns'k dk
igyk ou egkfuns'kd fu;qDr fd;k x;kA
cSzafMl us eglwl fd;k fd yksxksa dks laj{k.k foKku esa izf'kf{kr djuk
vkSj taxyksa osQ izcaku osQ fy, ,d O;ofLFkr ra=k fodflr djuk gksxkA
blosQ fy, dkuwuh eakwjh dh k:jr iM+sxhA ou laink osQ mi;ksx lacakh
fu;e r; djus iM+saxsA isM+ksa dh dVkbZ vkSj i'kqvksa dks pjkus tSlh
xfrfofk;ksa ij ikcanh yxk dj gh taxyksa dks ydM+h mRiknu osQ fy,
vkjf{kr fd;k tk losQxkA bl ra=k dh voekuuk djosQ isM+ dkVus okys

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f;kdyki

;fn 1862 esa Hkkjr ljdkj dh ckxMksj vkiosQ gkFk


esa gksrh vkSj vki ij brus O;kid iSekus ij jsyksa osQ
fy, Lyhij vkSj bku vkiwfrZ dh fkEesokjh gksrh rks
vki blosQ fy, dkSu&dkSu ls dne mBkrs\

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fp=k 9 & bVyh fLFkr VLduh esa iksiyj osQ taxy dk ,d


O;ofLFkr xfy;kjkiksiyj osQ taxy eq[;r% ydM+h osQ fy, ego j[krs gSAa ikks]a iQyksa
;k nwljs mRiknksa osQ fy, ;s mi;ksxh ugha gSaA ,d leku yackbZ okys
vkSj lh/ esa yxs bu isM+ksa dks ns[ksaA ;gh og ekWMy gS ftls
^oSKkfud* okfudh us izkRs lkfgr fd;kA

83

oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 10 & dkxM+k dk ,d nsonkj ckxku] 1933bafM;u I+kQkjsLV fjdkWMZl~] Hkkx XV ls A

fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks lkk dk Hkkxh cuuk gksxkA bl rjg cSzafMl us 1864
esa Hkkjrh; ou lsok dh LFkkiuk dh vkSj 1865 osQ Hkkjrh; ou vfkfu;e
dks lw=kc djus esa lg;ksx fn;kA bEihfj;y I +kQkWjsLV fjlpZ baLVhV~;wV dh
LFkkiuk 1906 esa nsgjknwu esa gqbZA ;gk ftl ifr dh f'k{kk nh tkrh Fkh
mls ^oSKkfud okfudh* (lkbafVfI +kQd I +kQkWjsLVh) dgk x;kA ysfdu vkt
ikfjfLFkfrdh fo'ks"kKksa lfgr ;knkrj yksx ekurs gSa fd ;g ifr drbZ
oSKkfud ugha gSA
oSKkfud okfudh osQ uke ij fofo/ iztkfr okys izkfrd ouksa dks
dkV Mkyk x;kA budh txg lh/h iafDr esa ,d gh fdLe osQ isM+ yxk
fn, x,A bls ckxku dgk tkrk gSA ou foHkkx osQ vf/dkfj;ksa us taxyksa
dk losZ{k.k fd;k] fofHkUu fdLe osQ isM+ksa okys {ks=k dh uki&tks[k dh
vkSj ou&izca/u osQ fy, ;kstuk, cuk;haA mUgksasus ;g Hkh r; fd;k fd
ckxku dk fdruk {ks=k izfro"kZ dkVk tk,xkA dVkbZ osQ ckn [kkyh kehu
ij iqu% isM+ yxk, tkus Fks rkfd oqQN gh o"kks esa ;g {ks=k iqu% dVkbZ osQ
fy, rS;kj gks tk,A
1865 esa ou vf/fu;e osQ ykxw gksus osQ ckn blesa nks ckj la'kksku
fd, x, & igys 1878 esa vkSj fiQj 1927 esaA 1878 okys vf/fu;e esa
taxyksa dks rhu Jsf.k;ksa esa ckVk x;k % vkjf{kr] lqjf{kr o xzkeh.kA lcls
vPNs taxyksa dks ^vkjf{kr ou* dgk x;kA xko okys bu taxyksa ls vius
mi;ksx osQ fy, oqQN Hkh ugha ys ldrs FksA os ?kj cukus ;k bZa/u osQ fy,
osQoy lqjf{kr ;k xzkeh.k ouksa ls gh ydM+h ys ldrs FksA

fp=k 11 & fn bEihfj;y I +kQkWjsLV LowQy nsgjknwu] HkkjrfczfV'k lkezkT; esa [kqyk igyk okfudh LowQyA
ksr% bafM;u I+kQkWjsLVj] [k.M XXXI -

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2-1 yksxksa dk thou dSls izHkkfor gqvk\


,d vPNk taxy oSQlk gksuk pkfg, blosQ ckjs esa ouikyksa vkSj xzkeh.kksa osQ
fopkj cgqr vyx FksA tgk ,d rjiQ xzkeh.k viuh vyx&vyx k:jrksa]
84

oSKkfud okfudh % ou foHkkx }kjk isM+ksa dh


dVkbZ ftlesa iqjkus isM+ dkV dj mudh
txg u, isM+ yxk, tkrs gSaA

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tSls b/u] pkjs o ikksa dh iwfrZ osQ fy, ou esa fofHkUu iztkfr;ksa dk esy
pkgrs Fks] ogha ou&foHkkx dks ,sls isM+ksa dh k:jr Fkh tks tgkkksa vkSj
jsyos osQ fy, bekjrh ydM+h eqgS;k djk losaQ] ,slh ydfM+;k tks l[r]
yach vkSj lh/h gksaA blfy, lkxkSu vkSj lky tSlh iztkfr;ksa dks izksRlkfgr
fd;k x;k vkSj nwljh fdLesa dkV Mkyh xbA
oU; bykdksa esa yksx dan&ewy&iQy] iks vkfn ou&mRiknksa dk fofHkUu
k:jrksa osQ fy, mi;ksx djrs gSAa iQy vkSj dan vR;ar iks"kd [kk| gS]a
fo'ks"kdj ekWulwu osQ nkSjku tc Ik+ Qly dV dj ?kj u vk;h gksA nokvksa osQ
fy, tM+h&cwfV;ksa dk bLrseky gksrk gS] ydM+h dk iz;ksx gy tSls [ksrh osQ
vkSkkj cukus esa fd;k tkrk gS] ckl ls csgrjhu ckM+as cuk;h tk ldrh gSa
vkSj bldk mi;ksx Nrjh rFkk Vksdjh cukus osQ fy, Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA
lw[ks gq, oqQEgM+s osQ [kksy dk iz;ksx ikuh dh cksry osQ :i esa fd;k tk
ldrk gSA taxyksa esa yxHkx lc oqQN miyC/ gS & ikksa dks tksM&+ tksM+ dj
^[kkvks&iQsd
a ks* fdLe osQ iky vkSj nksus cuk, tk ldrs gS]a fl;knh
(Bauhiria vahili)dh yrkvksa ls jLlh cuk;h tk ldrh gS] lsejw (lwrh
js'ke) dh dkVns kj Nky ij lfCk;k Nhyh tk ldrh gS]a egq, osQ isM+ ls
[kkuk idkus vkSj jks'kuh osQ fy, rsy fudkyk tk ldrk gSA

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fp=k 13 & lw[krs gq, rsanw&ikstaxyksa esa jgus okys cgqr lkjs yksxksa osQ fy, rsanw osQ ikksa dh fch
vk; dk ,d ize[q k lk/u gSA izR;sd caMy esa yxHkx 50 iks gksrs gSAa
,d O;fDr dfBu ifjJe djosQ ,d fnu esa ;knk ls ;knk 100
caMy bdV~Bk dj ldrk gSA cPps] efgyk, vkSj o` gh eq[;r%
iks bd_s djrs gSaA

85

oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

fp=k 12 & taxyksa ls egqvk (Madhuca Indica) chuukxko okys mtkyk gksus osQ igys gh mBdj tehu ij fxjs gq, egqvk osQ iwQyksa dks chuus osQ fy, taxy pys tkrsA egqvk osQ isM+ cs'kdherh gSaA egqvk osQ iwQy [kk, Hkh tk ldrs
gSa vkSj budk bLrseky 'kjkc cukus osQ fy, Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA blosQ chtksa ls rsy Hkh cuk;k tkrk gSA

fp=k 14 & [kfygkuksa ls vukt ykrs gq, [kfygkuksa ls iq#"k Vksdfj;ksa esa vukt yk jgs gSaA iq#"k vius oaQkksa
osQ vkj&ikj ,d NM+h esa ca/h Vksdfj;ksa dks ykrs gSa tcfd vkSjras
bu Vksdfj;ksa dks vius flj ij j[k dj ykrh gSaA

ou vf/fu;e osQ pyrs ns'k Hkj esa xko okyksa dh eqf'dysa c<+ xbA
bl dkuwu osQ ckn ?kj osQ fy, ydM+h dkVuk] i'kqvksa dks pjkuk]
dan&ewy&iQy bdV~Bk djuk vkfn jkskejkZ dh xfrfof/;k xSjdkuwuh cu
xbA vc muosQ ikl taxyksa ls ydM+h pqjkus osQ vykok dksbZ pkjk ugha
cpk vkSj idM+s tkus dh fLFkfr esa os ou&j{kdksa dh n;k ij gksrs tks muls
?kwl ,saBrs FksA tykouh ydM+h ,d=k djus okyh vkSjrsa fo'ks"k rkSj ls
ijs'kku jgus yxhaA eq+r [kkus&ihus oQh ekax djosQ yksxksa dks rax djuk
iqfyl vkSj taxy osQ pkSdhnkjksa osQ fy, lkekU; ckr FkhA

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f;kdyki

ou&izns'kksa esa jgus okys cPps isM+&ikS/ksa dh lSdM+ksa


iztkfr;ksa osQ uke crk ldrs gSaA vki isM+&ikS/ksa dh
fdruh iztkfr;ksa osQ uke tkurs gSa\

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

2-2 ouksa ds fu;eu ls [ksrh dSls izHkkfor gqbZ\

;wjksih; mifuos'kokn dk lcls xgjk izHkko >we ;k ?kqera w [ksrh dh izFkk ij


fn[kk;h iM+rk gSA ,f'k;k] vIzk+ Qhdk o nf{k.k vesfjdk osQ vusd Hkkxksa esa ;g
[ksrh dk ,d ijaijkxr rjhdk gSA blosQ dbZ LFkkuh; uke gSa tSls &
nf{k.k&iwoZ ,f'k;k esa ykfnax] e; vesfjdk esa feyik] vIzk+ Qhdk esa fpresu
;k rkoh o Jhyadk esa psukA fganLq rku esa ?kqera w [ksrh osQ fy, k;k] isna k] csoj]
usoM+] >we] iksM+]w [kankn vkSj oqQejh ,sls gh oqQN LFkkuh; uke gSAa
?kqera w f"k osQ fy, taxy osQ oqQN Hkkxksa dks ckjh&ckjh ls dkVk vkSj
tyk;k tkrk gSA ekWulwu dh igyh ckfj'k osQ ckn bl jk[k esa cht cks fn,
tkrs gSa vkSj vDrwcj&uoacj esa I +kQly dkVh tkrh gSA bu [ksrksa ij nks&,d
lky [ksrh djus osQ ckn bUgsa 12 ls 18 lky rd osQ fy, ijrh NksM+ fn;k
tkrk gS ftlls ogk fiQj ls taxy iui tk,A bu Hkw[kaMksa esa fefJr I+kQlysa
mxk;h tkrh gSa tSls e; Hkkjr vkSj vizQ+ hdk esa Tokj&cktjk] czkkhy esa
dlkok vkSj ySfVu vesfjdk osQ vU; Hkkxksa esa eDdk o iQfy;kA
;wjksih; ou j{kdksa dh ukj esa ;g rjhdk taxyksa osQ fy, uqdlkunsg
FkkA mUgksaus eglwl fd;k fd tgk oqQNsd lkyksa osQ varj ij [ksrh dh tk
jgh gks ,slh kehu ij jsyos osQ fy, bekjrh ydM+h okys isM+ ugha mxk,

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fp=k 15 & VkSaX;k [ksrh ,d ,slh O;oLFkk Fkh tgk fdlkuksa dks oqQN
le; osQ fy, ckxkuksa esa gh [ksrh djus dh vkkknh FkhA 1921 eas
cekZ osQ FkjkZokM+h fMohku ls fy, x, bl fp=k esa fdlku /ku cks
jgs gSaA yksgs osQ Nksj okys yacs cklksa dh lgk;rk ls iq#"k kjrh esa
Nsn cukrs FksA vkSjrsa izR;sd Nsn esa /ku cksrh FkhaA

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fp=k 16 & taxy osQ isank ;k iksnw fgLlksa dks tykuk?kqearw [ksrh esa taxyksa dks lkI+kQ fd;k tkrk gSA lkekU;r% p^kuksa dh <ykuksa ij isM+ksa dks dkVus osQ ckn jk[k osQ fy, bUgsa tyk
fn;k tkrk gSA blosQ ckn bl {ks=k esa fiQj cht fc[ksj fn, tkrs gSa vkSj o"kkZ ls flapkbZ osQ fy, bUgsa NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA

tk ldrsA lkFk gh] taxy tykrs le; ckdh cs'kdherh isM+ksa osQ Hkh
iSQyrh yiVksa dh pisV esa vk tkus dk [krjk cuk jgrk gSA ?kqearw [ksrh osQ
dkj.k ljdkj osQ fy, yxku dk fglkc j[kuk Hkh eqf'dy FkkA blfy,
ljdkj us ?kqearw [ksrh ij jksd yxkus dk iSQlyk fd;kA blosQ ifj.kkeLo:i
vusd leqnk;ksa dks taxyksa esa muosQ ?kjksa ls tcju foLFkkfir dj fn;k
x;kA oqQN dks viuk is'kk cnyuk iM+k rks oqQN us NksVs&cM+s fonzksgksa osQ
kfj, izfrjks/ fd;kA

taxy laca/h u, dkuwuksa us ouokfl;ksa osQ thou dks ,d vkSj rjg ls


izHkkfor fd;kA ou dkuwuksa osQ igys taxyksa esa ;k muosQ vklikl jgus
okys cgqr lkjs yksx fgju] rhrj tSls NksVs&eksVs f'kdkj djosQ thou;kiu
djrs FksA ;g ikjaifjd izFkk vc xSj&dkuwuh gks x;hA f'kdkj djrs gq,
idM+s tkus okyksa dks voS/ f'kdkj osQ fy, nafMr fd;k tkus yxkA
tgk ,d rjI+kQ ou dkuwuksa us yksxksa dks f'kdkj osQ ijaijkxr vf/dkj
ls oafpr fd;k] ogha cM+s tkuojksa dk vk[ksV ,d [ksy cu x;kA fganqLrku
esa ck?kksa vkSj nwljs tkuojksa dk f'kdkj djuk lfn;ksa ls njckjh vkSj uokch
laLfr dk fgLlk jgk FkkA vusd eqxy dykfr;ksa esa 'kgkknksa vkSj
lezkVksa dks f'kdkj dk ekk ysrs gq, fn[kk;k x;k gSA fdarq vkSifuosf'kd
'kklu osQ nkSjku f'kdkj dk pyu bl iSekus rd c<+k fd dbZ iztkfr;k

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n

fp=k 17 & eNyh ekjus okyk yM+dkcPps vius ek&cki osQ lkFk taxy tkrs gSa vkSj cgqr tYn gh os
eNyh idM+uk] ou&mRiknksa dks bdV~Bk djuk o [ksrh djuk lh[k
ysrs gSaA ckl osQ VSi dks] ftls ;g yM+dk vius ck, gkFk esa idM+s
gS] cgko osQ eqgkus ij j[kus ij eNyh blesa pyh vkrh gSA
87

oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

2-3 f'kdkj dh vkkknh fdls Fkh\

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 18 & usiky esa f'kdkj osQ ckn ykWMZ jhfMax I +kQksVks esa e`r ck?kksa dh fxurh djsaA fczfV'k vkSifuosf'kd vI+kQlj vkSj jktk tc f'kdkj osQ fy, tkrs rc muosQ lkFk ukSdjksa dh ,d iwjh I+kQkSt gksrh FkhA xko osQ oqQ'ky f'kdkjh
gkdk yxkrs Fks vkSj lkgc dks cl xksyh Hkj pykuk gksrk Fkk A

yxHkx iwjh rjg yqIr gks xbA vxzs kksa dh ukj esa cM+s tkuoj taxyh] ccZj ksr x
vkSj vkfn lekt osQ izrhd&fp FksA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd [krjukd tkuojksa
cSxk e; Hkkjr dk ,d ou leqnk; gSA 1892 esa tc
dks ekj dj os fgUnqLrku dks lH; cuk,xAs ck?k] HksfM+;s vkSj nwljs cM+s
mudh ?kqearw [ksrh ij jksd yxk nh x;h rc mUgksaus
tkuojksa osQ f'kdkj ij ;g dg dj buke fn, x, fd buls fdlkuksa dks
ljdkj dks ;g ;kfpdk nh%
[krjk gSA 1875 ls 1925 osQ chp buke osQ ykyp esa 80] 000 ls ;knk
^gj jksk ge I+kQkdk djrs gSa] D;ksafd gekjs ikl [kkus
ck?k] 1] 50] 000 rsanq, vkSj 2] 00]000 HksfM+;s ekj fxjk, x,A khjs&/hjs
dk vukt ugha gSA gekjs ikl flI+kZQ ,d gh nkSyr gS
ck?k osQ f'kdkj dks ,d [ksy dh VkWI+kQh osQ :i esa ns[kk tkus yxkA vosQys
vkSj og gS gekjh oqQYgkM+hA gekjs ikl vius ru
+
<dus dks diM+s ugha gSaA vkx rki dj ge BaMh jkrsa
tkWtZ ;wy uked vaxzsk vI kQlj us 400 ck?kksa dks ekjk FkkA izkjaHk esa taxy
xqkkjrs gSAa ge vc [kkus osQ fy, ej jgs gSAa ge dgha
osQ oqQN bykosQ f'kdkj osQ fy, gh vkjf{kr FksA dkI+kQh le; ckn
tk Hkh ugha ldrs gSAa geus ,slh D;k xyrh dh gS fd
i;kZoj.kfonksa vkSj laj{k.kokfn;ksas us vkokk mBkbZ fd tkuojksa dh bu lkjh
ljdkj gekjh ijokg ugha djrh\ oSQfn;ksa dks tsyksa esa
iztkfr;ksa dh lqj{kk gksuh pkfg, u fd budks ekjk tkuk pkfg,A

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2-4 u, O;kikj] u, jkskxkj vkSj ubZ lsok,


taxyksa ij ou foHkkx dk fu;a=k.k LFkkfir gks tkus ls yksxksa dks dbZ rjg
osQ uqdlku gq,] ysfdu oqQN yksxksa dks O;kikj osQ u, voljksa dk ykHk
Hkh feykA dbZ leqnk; vius ijaijkxr is'ks NksM+ dj ou&mRiknksa dk
O;kikj djus yxsA egk fganqLrku gh ugha cfYd nqfu;k Hkj esa oqQN ,slk
88

i;kZIr Hkkstu fn;k tkrk gSA ?kkl mxkus okyksa dks Hkh
mudh kehu ls csn[ky ugha fd;k tkrk gS] ysfdu
ge tks ;gk dbZ ihf<+;ksa ls jgrs vk, gSa] gesa ljdkj
gekjk vf/dkj ugha nsrhA*
osfj;j ,fYou (1939)_ ek/o xkMfxy o jkepUnz
xqgk] ^fnl fI+kQ'kMZ ySaM% ,u bdksykWftdy fgLVh
vkWI+kQ bafM;k* esa m`rA

gh ukkjk fn[krk gSA mnkgj.k osQ fy,] mUuhloha lnh osQ e; esa ph ksr ?k
txgksa ij jg dj eSfu;ksd mxkus okys czkkhyh ,seskkWu osQ equnq#oqQ
iqrqek;ks esa jcM+ dh fudklh
leqnk; osQ yksxksa us O;kikfj;ksa dks jcM+ dh vkiwfrZ osQ fy, taxyh jcM+
nqfu;k Hkj esa] ckxkuksa esa dke dh fLFkfr;k Hk;kog
osQ o`{kksa ls ^ysVsDl* ,d=k djuk izkjaHk dj fn;kA dkykarj esa os O;kikj
FkhaA ,seskkWu osQ iqVqek;ks {ks=k esa ^is:fo;u jcM+
pkSfd;ksa dh vksj uhps mrj vk, vkSj iwjh rjg O;kikfj;ksa ij fuHkZj
daiuh* (fczfV'k o is:fo;u lk>s esa) }kjk jcM+ dh
gks x,A
fudklh gqbrZ ksrksl dgs tkus okys LFkkuh; bafM;uksa dh
fganqLrku esa ou&mRiknksa dk O;kikj dksbZ vuks[kh ckr ugha FkhA
csxkj ij fuHkZj FkhA 1900&1912 osQ chp iqVqek;ks esa
e;dky ls gh vkfnoklh leqnk;ksa }kjk catkjk vkfn ?kqearw leqnk;ksa osQ
4] 000 Vu jcM+ dk mRiknu gqvk vkSj blh nkSjku
ek;e ls gkfFk;ksa vkSj nwljs lkeku tSls [kky] lhax] js'ke osQ dks;s]
bafM;u vkcknh esa ;a=k.kk] jksxksa vkSj iyk;u osQ pyrs
gkFkh&nkr] ckl] elkys] js'ks] ?kkl] xksan vkSj jky osQ O;kikj osQ lcwr
30] 000 dh fxjkoV vk;hA jcM+ oaQiuh osQ ,d
osruHkksxh us o.kZu fd;k gS fd jcM+ dk laxzg oSQls
feyrs gSaA
fd;k tkrk FkkA eSustj us lSdM+ksa bafM;uksa dks LVs'ku
ysfdu vaxzskksa osQ vkus osQ ckn O;kikj iwjh rjg ljdkjh fu;a=k.k esa
ij mifLFkr gksus dk funsZ'k fn;k%
pyk x;kA fczfV'k ljdkj us dbZ cM+h ;wjksih; O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa dks
mlus viuh dkckZbu vkSj Nqjk idM+k vkSj bu cscl
fo'ks"k bykdksa esa ou&mRiknksa osQ O;kikj dh btkjsnkjh lkSai nhA LFkkuh;
bafM;uksa dk dRysvke 'kq: dj fn;kA FkksM+h gh nsj esa
yksxksa }kjk f'kdkj djus vkSj i'kqvksa dks pjkus ij cafn'ksa yxk nh xbA bl
cPpksa] efgykvksa vkSj iq#"kksa dh 150 yk'kksa ls kehu
izf;k esa enzkl izslhMsalh osQ dksjkok] djkpk o ;s#oqQyk tSls vusd
<d x;hA [kwu ls ugk, gq,] n;k dh Hkh[k ekxrs
pjokgs vkSj ?kqearw leqnk; viuh thfodk ls gkFk /ks cSBsA buesa ls oqQN
fkank cps yksxksa dks eqnks osQ <sj osQ lkFk tyk fn;k
dks ^vijkkh dchys* dgk tkus yxk vkSj ;s ljdkj dh fuxjkuh esa
x;k vkSj eSustj fpYyk;k] ^^eSa mu lHkh bafM;uksa dks
I+kSQfDV;ksa] [knkuksa o ckxkuksa esa dke djus dks etcwj gks x,A
[kRe dj nsuk pkgrk gw tks jcM+ ykus osQ fy, fn,
dke osQ u, voljksa dk eryc ;g ugha Fkk fd mudh thou fLFkfr
x, esjs vkns'k dks ugha ekurs gSaA**
esa ges'kk lq/kj gh gqvk gksA vle osQ pk; ckxkuksa esa dke djus osQ fy,
fudksyl MDlZ (la-) dkWyksfu;fye ,sUM dYpj
>kj[kaM osQ laFkky vkSj mjko o Nkhlx<+ osQ xksaM tSls vkfnoklh enZ o
(1992) esa ekbosQy rkmflx] ^dYpj vkWI+kQ Vsjj&Lisl
vkSjrksa] nksuksa dh HkrhZ dh x;hA mudh eknwjh cgqr de Fkh vkSj
vkWI+kQ MSFk*A
ksr
dk;ZifjfLFkfr;k mruh gh [kjkcA mUgsa muosQ xkoksa ls mBk dj HkrhZ rks dj
fy;k x;k Fkk ysfdu mudh okilh vklku ugha FkhA

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u;k 'kCn

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btkjsnkjh% ,dkf/dkjA

oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

o
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89

ou&foksg
xkao
uan

cLrj
txnyiqj
dkxsj
lc

jh

nkrsokM+k

oqQdkukj

ry

kxsj
eky

zns'

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

rh

is:

kojh
xkns

chtkiqj

a/zi

90

mM+hlk

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s

banzko

vk

fp=k 19 & cLrj esa lsuk dk oSaQi 1910 cLrj esa lsuk osQ ,d oSaQi dk ;g fp=k 1910 esa fy;k x;kA lsuk racqvksa] ckofpZ;ksa vkSj flikfg;ksa osQ
lkFk pyrh FkhA ;gk ,d flikgh fonzksfg;ksa ls lqj{kk osQ fy, oSaQi dh igjsnkjh dj jgk gSA

dksaMkxko

vcw>ekn igkfM+;k

dksVa k

dksykc

jkt

dksV

jh

ukjk;.kiqj

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cLrj Nkhlx<+ osQ lcls nf{k.kh Nksj ij vka/z izns'k] mM+hlk o egkjk"V
dh lhekvksa ls yxk gqvk {ks=k gSA cLrj dk osaQnzh; Hkkx iBkjh gSA bl
iBkj osQ mkj esa Nkhlx<+ dk eSnku vkSj nf{k.k esa xksnkojh dk eSnku gSA
bUnzkorh unh cLrj osQ vkj&ikj iwjc ls if'pe dh rjI+kQ cgrh gSA cLrj
esa efj;k vkSj eqfj;k xksaM] kqjok] Hkrjk] gyck vkfn vusd vkfnoklh
leqnk; jgrs gSaA vyx&vyx kckusa cksyus osQ ckotwn buosQ jhfr&fjokt
vkSj fo'okl ,d tSls gSaA cLrj osQ yksx ekurs gSa fd gjsd xko dks
mldh kehu ^/jrh ek* ls feyh gS vkSj cnys esa os izR;sd [ksfrgj
R;ksgkj ij /jrh dks p<+kok p<+krs gSaA /jrh osQ vykok os unh] taxy o
igkM+ksa dh vkRek dks Hkh mruk gh ekurs gSaA pwfd gj xko dks viuh
pkSgh irk gksrh gS blfy, ;s yksx bu lhekvksa osQ Hkhrj leLr izkfrd
lainkvksa dh ns[kHkky djrs gSaA ;fn ,d xko osQ yksx nwljs xko osQ taxy

osQ'kdky

varkx<+

ik[katqj

HkksikyiVue

ujgjiqj
dkoQs j

kun

fdyksehVj

jk;iqj

Hkkuqizrki iqj

cSykMhyk igkfM+;k

3-1 cLrj osQ yksx

nqxZ
pjek

eg

fganqLrku vkSj nqfu;k Hkj esa oU; leqnk;ksa us vius ij Fkksis x, cnykoksa
osQ f[kykI+kQ cxkor dhA laFkky ijxuk esa lh/w vkSj dkuw] NksVk ukxiqj esa
fcjlk eqaMk vkSj vka/z izns'k esa vYywjh lhrkjke jktw dks yksdxhrksa vkSj
dFkkvksa esa vaxzskksa osQ f[kykI+kQ mHkjs vkanksyuksa osQ uk;d osQ :i esa vkt
Hkh ;kn fd;k tkrk gSA vc ge cLrj fj;klr esa 1910 esa gq, ,sls gh
,d fonzksg dk foLrkj ls v;;u djsaxsA

egkjk"V

ftyk rglhy
lhek, jkT;
eq[;ky; ftyk rglhy
unh
lM+d
jsyos ykbu
vkjf{kr ou
;g js[kkafdr ekufp=k iSekus osQ
vuqlkj ugha gSA

fp=k 20 & lu~ 2000 esa cLrj1947 esa cLrj fj;klr dks dkosQj fj;klr esa feyk fn;k x;k vkSj
;g iwjk {ks=k e; izns'k dk cLrj fkyk cukA 1998 esa bl fkys
dks ,d ckj fiQj dkosQj] cLrj vkSj nkarsokM+k ftyksa esa ckV fn;k
x;kA 2000 esa ;s ftys Nkhlx<+ dk fgLlk cu x,A 1990 dk
fonzksg dkosQj ou {ks=k (?ksjs eas) ls gh 'kq: gqvk Fkk vkSj tYnh
gh jkT; osQ vU; {ks=kksa esa iSQy x;kA

ls FkksM+h ydM+h ysuk pkgrs gSa rks blosQ cnys esa os ,d NksVk 'kqYd vnk
djrs gSa ftls nsolkjh] nkaM+ ;k eku dgk tkrk gSA oqQN xko vius taxyksa
dh fgi+Qkkr osQ fy, pkSdhnkj j[krs gSa ftUgsa osru osQ :i esa gj ?kj ls
FkksM+k&FkksM+k vukt fn;k tkrk gSA gj o"kZ ,d cM+h lHkk dk vk;kstu gksrk
gS tgk ,d ijxus (xkoksa dk lewg) osQ xkoksa osQ eqf[k;k tqVrs gSa vkSj
taxy lfgr reke nwljs vge eqksa ij ppkZ djrs gSaA

3-2 yksxksa osQ Hk;


vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj us 1905 esa tc taxy osQ nks&frgkbZ fgLls dks
vkjf{kr djus] ?kqearw [ksrh dks jksdus vkSj f'kdkj o oU;&mRiknksa osQ laxzg
ij ikcanh yxkus tSls izLrko j[ks rks cLrj osQ yksx cgqr ijs'kku gks x,A
oqQN xkoksa dks vkjf{kr ouksa esa bl 'krZ ij jgus fn;k x;k fd os
ou&foHkkx osQ fy, isM+ksa dh dVkbZ vkSj <qykbZ dk dke eqr djsaxs vkSj
taxy dks vkx ls cpk, j[ksaxsA ckn esa bUgha xkoksa dks ^ou xzke* dgk tkus
yxkA ckdh xkoksa osQ yksx cxSj fdlh lwpuk ;k eqvkoks osQ gVk fn, x,A
dkI+kQh le; ls xko okys kehu osQ c<+s gq, yxku rFkk vkSifuosf'kd
vI+kQljksa osQ gkFkksa csxkj vkSj phkksa dh fujarj ekx ls =kLr FksA blosQ ckn
Hk;kud vdky dk nkSj vk;k % igys 1899&1900 esa vkSj fiQj 1907&1908
esaA ou vkj{k.k us fpaxkjh dk dke fd;kA
yksxksa us ckkkjksa esa] R;ksgkjksa osQ ekSosQ ij vkSj tgk dgha Hkh dbZ xkoksa ksr p
osQ eqf[k;k vkSj iqtkjh bdV~Bk gksrs Fks ogk tek gksdj bu eqksa ij ppkZ
^Hkksfa M;k us 400 yksxksa dks bdV~Bk dj dbZ lkjs cdjksa
djuk izkjaHk dj fn;kA dkxsj ouksa osQ /qjok leqnk; osQ yksx bl eqfge
dh oqQckZuh nh vkSj nhoku] ftlosQ chtkiqj dh rjI+kQ
ls vkus dh laHkkouk Fkh] dks chp esa gh jksdus osQ fy,
esa lcls vkxs Fks D;ksafd vkj{k.k lcls igys ;gha ykxw gqvk FkkA gkykfd
py iM+kA 10 I+kQjojh dks pyh bl HkhM+ us iqfyl&pkSdh
dksbZ ,d O;fDr budk usrk ugha Fkk ysfdu cgqr lkjs yksx usFkkukj xko
rFkk ekjsaxk LowQy tyk fn;k] osQlyqj esa ykbZusa o
osQ xaqMk /wj dks bl vkanksyu dh ,d vge 'kf[l;r ekurs gSaA 1910
i'kq&vojks/'kkyk vkSj Vksdkiky (jktqj) esa Hkh ,d
esa vke dh Vgfu;k] fe^h osQ <sys] fepZ vkSj rhj xko&xko pDdj dkVus
LowQy dks tyk;k x;kA nhoku dks lqjf{kr okil ykus
yxsA ;g xkoksa esa vaxzskksa osQ f[kykI+kQ cxkor dk lans'k FkkA gjsd xko us
osQ fy, Hksts x, LVsV fjkoZ iqfyl osQ ,d gsM
bl cxkor osQ [kpssZ esa oqQN u oqQN enn nhA ckkkj ywVs x,] vI+kQljksa
dkaLVscy vkSj pkj dkaLVscyksa dks ca/d cuk fy;k
x;k vkSj ,d nLrk djath LowQy tykus osQ fy, NksM+
vkSj O;kikfj;ksa osQ ?kj] LowQy vkSj iqfyl Fkkuksa dks ywVk o tyk;k x;k
fn;k x;kA bl HkhM+ us xkMks osQ lkFk dksbZ cnlywdh
rFkk vukt dk iqufoZrj.k fd;k x;kA ftu ij geys gq, muesa ls ;knkrj
djus osQ ctk; muosQ gfFk;kj muls ys fy, vkSj mUgsa
yksx vkSifuosf'kd jkT; vkSj blosQ neudkjh dkuwuksa ls fdlh u fdlh
NksM+ fn;kA Hkksfa M;k ek>h osQ usrR` o esa ckfx;ksa osQ ,d
rjg tqM+s FksA bu ?kVukvksa osQ ,d p'enhn xokg] fe'kujh fofy;e okMZ
ny us dks;j unh dk jkLrk fy;k D;ksfa d nhoku eq[;
us fy[kk % ^iqfylokyksa] O;kikfj;ksa] taxy osQ vnZfy;ksa] Ldwy ekLVjksa vkSj
lM+d NksM+dj m/j ls vk ldrk FkkA ckdh yksx
izokfl;ksa dk gqtwe pkjksa rjI+kQ ls txnyiqj esa pyk vk jgk FkkA*
chtkiqj ls vkus okyh eq[; lM+d dks can djus osQ
fy, fnyfeYyh pys x,A cqw ek>h vkSj gjpan
va xszkksa us cxkor dks oqQpy nsus osQ fy, lSfud HkstsA vkfnoklh
ukbZd us eq[; ny dh deku lHkkyhA*
usrkvksa us ckrphr djuh pkgh ysfdu vaxzsk I+kQkSt us muosQ racqvksa dks ?ksj
MsczsV] iksfyfVdy ,tsUV] Nkhlx<+ +;wMsVjh LVsV~l]
dj mu ij xksfy;k pyk nhaA blosQ ckn cxkor esa 'kjhd yksxksa ij dksMs+
dk 23 twu] 1910 dks dfe'uj] Nkhlx<+ fMohku]
cjlkrs vkSj mUgsa lkk nsrs lSfud xko&xko ?kweus yxsA ;knkrj xko
osQ uke fy[kk i=kA
[kkyh gks x, D;ksafd yksx Hkkx dj taxyksa esa pys x, FksA va xzskksa dks fiQj

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oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

o
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91

ksr N
cLrj esa jgus okys cqkqxZ bl yM+kbZ osQ ckjs esa] ftls mUgksaus vius ekrk&firk ls lquk Fkk] crkrs gSa %
dudkiky osQ iksfn;keh xaxk dks muosQ firk iksfn;keh rksosQyh us crk;k fd%
^vaxzskkas us vkdj kehu ysuh 'kq: dj nhA jktk dks vklikl D;k gks jgk gS bldh ijokg u Fkh] blfy,
kehu yh tk jgh gS] ;g ns[k mlosQ leFkZdksa us yksxksa dks bdV~Bk fd;kA yM+kbZ 'kq: gqbAZ mlosQ dV~Vj leFkZd
ekjs x, vkSj ckfd;ksa ij dksM+ksa ls ekj iM+hA esjs firk] iksfn;keh rksosQyh dks Hkh dksM+ksa ls ihVk x;kA ysfdu
og Hkkxus esa dke;kc gq, vkSj cp fudysA ;g vkanksyu vaxzskksa ls NqVdkjk ikus osQ fy, FkkA vaxzsk mudks
?kksM+ksa ls ck/ dj ?klhVk djrs FksA gjsd xko ls nks&pkj yksx txnyiqj x, && fpniky osQ xkxhZ nsok vkSj
fe[kksyk] ekdh&fejkl osQ nksy vkSj vcjkcaqnh] ckysjkl dk oknkikanq] ikyse dk maxk vkSj nwljs <sj lkjs yksxA*

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

^yksxksa dh rjI +kQ iqjfu;k Fks && ikyse osQ feYys eqnky] uanjklk osQ lks;sdky kqokZ vkSj iaMok ek>hA gj ijxuk
ls yksx vyukj rjkbZ bdV~Bk gq,A ,d >VosQ esa iYkVu us lcdks ?ksj fy;kA xaqMk /wj mM+ ldrs Fks blfy,
mM+ fudysA ysfdu rhj&deku okys vc D;k djsa\ jkr esa yM+kbZ gksus yxhA yksx >kfM+;ksa esa fNi dj isV
osQ cy HkkxsA I+kQkSt dh iyVu Hkh HkkxhA tks yksx fkank cps fdlh rjg vius xko&?kj igqpsA*

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ls fu;a=k.k ikus esa rhu eghus (Ik+ Qjojh&ebZ) yx x,A fiQj Hkh os xa qMk kwj
dks dHkh ugha idM++ losQA fonzksfg;ksa dh lcls cM+ h thr ;g jgh fd
vkj{k.k dk dke oqQN le; osQ fy, LFkfxr dj fn;k x;k vkSj vkjf{kr
{ks=k dks Hkh 1910 ls igys dh ;kstuk ls yxHkx vk/k dj fn;k x;kA
cLrj osQ taxyksa vkSj yksxksa dh dgkuh ;gha [kRe ugha gksrhA vkkknh
osQ ckn Hkh yksxksa dks taxyksa ls ckgj j[kus vkSj taxyksa dks vkS|ksfxd
mi;ksx osQ fy, vkjf{kr j[kus dh uhfr dk;e jghA 1970 osQ n'kd esa]
fo'o cSaoQ us Lrko j[kk fd dkxk m|ksx dks yqxnh miyC/ djkus osQ
fy, 4] 600 gsDVs;j ko`Qfrd lky ouksa dh txg nsonkj osQ isM+ yxk,
tk,A ysfdu] LFkkuh; i;kZoj.kfonksa osQ fojks/ osQ iQyLo:i bl ifj;kstuk
dks jksd fn;k x;kA
vkb,] vc ,f'k;k osQ ,d vkSj fgLls & baMksusf'k;k & dh rjiQ pysaA
kjk ns[ksa fd blh oDr ogk D;k oqQN gks jgk FkkA

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92

ksr

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blh rjg ls uanjklk osQ ,d cqkqxZ pasnzw us dgk fd %

tkok ds taxyksa esa gq, cnyko

tkok dks vktdy baMksusf'k;k osQ pkoy&mRiknd }hi osQ :i esa tkuk
tkrk gSA ysfdu ,d kekus esas ;g {ks=k vf/dka'kr% oukPNkfnr FkkA
baMksusf'k;k ,d Mp mifuos'k Fkk vkSj tSlk fd ge ns[ksaxs] Hkkjr o
baMksusf'k;k osQ ou dkuwuksa esa dbZ lekurk, FkhaA baMksusf'k;k esa tkok gh og
{ks=k gS tgk Mpksa us ou&ca/u dh 'kq#vkr dh FkhA vaxzskksa dh rjg os
Hkh tgkk cukus osQ fy, tkok ls ydM+h gkfly djuk pkgrs FksA
lu~ 1600 esa tkok dh vuqekfur vkcknh 34 yk[k FkhA gkykfd mitk
eSnkuksa esa <sj lkjs xko Fks ysfdu igkM+ksa esa Hkh ?kqearw [ksrh djus okys vusd
leqnk; jgrs FksA

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4-1 tkok ds ydM+gkjs

tkok esa dykax leqnk; osQ yksx oqQ'ky ydM+gkjs vkSj ?kqearw fdlku FksA
mudk ego bl ckr ls vkdk tk ldrk gS fd 1755 esa tc tkok dh
ekrkjke fj;klr cVh rks ;gk osQ 6] 000 dykax ifjokjksa dks Hkh nksuksa jkT;ksa
eas cjkcj&cjkcj ckV fn;k x;kA muosQ dkS'ky osQ cxSj lkxkSu dh dVkbZ
dj jktkvksa osQ egy cukuk cgqr eqf'dy FkkA Mpksa us tc vBkjgoha lnh
esa ouksa ij fu;a=k.k LFkkfir djuk izkjaHk fd;k rc mUgksaus Hkh dksf'k'k dh
fd dykax muosQ fy, dke djsaA 1770 esa dykaxksa us ,d Mp fdys ij
geyk djosQ bldk izfrjks/ fd;k ysfdu bl fonzksg dks nck fn;k x;kA

4-2 Mp oSKkfud okfudh

mUuhloha lnh esa tc yksxksa osQ lkFk&lkFk bykdksa ij


Hkh fu;a=k.k LFkkfir djuk k:jh yxus yxk rks Mp
mifuos'kdksa us tkok esa ou&dkuwu ykxw dj xzkeh.kksa
dh taxy rd igqp ij cafn'ksa Fkksi nhaA blosQ ckn
uko ;k ?kj cukus tSls [kkl ms';ksa osQ fy,] flI+kZQ
pqus gq, taxyksa ls ydM+h dkVh tk ldrh Fkh vkSj
og Hkh dM+h fuxjkuh esaA xzkeh.kksa dks eos'kh pjkus]
fcuk ijfeV ydM+h <ksus ;k taxy ls xqkjus okyh
lM+d ij ?kksM+k&xkM+h vFkok tkuojksa ij p<+ dj
vkus&tkus osQ fy, nafMr fd;k tkus yxkA
Hkkjr dh gh rjg ;gk Hkh tgkk vkSj jsy&ykbuksa
osQ fuekZ.k us ou&izca/u vkSj ou&lsokvksa dks ykxw
djus dh vko';drk iSnk dj nhA 1882 esa vosQys
tkok ls gh 2] 80] 000 Lyhijksa dk fu;kZr fd;k x;kA
kkfgj gS fd isM+ dkVus] yV~Bksa dks <ksus vkSj Lyhij

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oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

fp=k 21 & taxy ls lkxkSu dh ydM+h ys tkrh ekyxkM+h] vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu dk vafre nkSj93

rS;kj djus osQ fy, Je dh vko';drk FkhA Mpksa us igys rks taxyksa esa ksr t
[ksrh dh kehuksa ij yxku yxk fn;k vkSj ckn esa oqQN xkoksa dks bl 'krZ
;wukbVsM bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh osQ ,d vI+kQlj MoZQ okWu
ij blls eqDr dj fn;k fd os lkewfgd :i ls isM+ dkVus vkSj ydM+h
gksksuMki us mifuos'k dkyhu tkok esa dgk Fkk%
<ksus osQ fy, HkSalsa miyC/ djkus dk dke eqr esa fd;k djsaxsA bl
^cVkfo;k osQ yksxks! pkSad iM+ksA vk'p;Z ls lquks] eq>s
tks rqEgsa crkuk gSA gekjs cssM+s u"V gks pqosQ gSa] gekjk
O;oLFkk dks CySUMkxfM,ULVsu osQ uke ls tkuk x;kA ckn esa ou&xzkeokfl;ksa
O;kikj eqj>k pqdk gS] gekjk ukSdk;u u"V gksus okyk
+
dks yxku&ekIkQh osQ ctk; FkksM+k&cgqr esgurkuk rks fn;k tkus yxk ysfdu
gS& mkjh rkdrksa ls ge csiukg nkSyr nsdj tgkkksa
ou&Hkwfe ij [ksrh djus osQ muosQ vf/dkj lhfer dj fn, x,A

4-3 lkfeu dh pqukSrh


lu~ 1890 osQ vklikl lkxkSu osQ taxyksa esa fLFkr jkUnqCykrqax xko osQ
fuoklh lqjksfUrdks lkfeu us taxyksa ij jktdh; ekfydkus ij loky [kM+k
djuk izkjaHk dj fn;kA mldk rdZ Fkk fd pwfd gok] ikuh] kehu vkSj
ydM+h jkT; dh cuk;h gqbZ ugha gSa blfy, mu ij mldk vf/dkj ugha
gks ldrkA tYnh gh ,d O;kid vkanksyu [kM+k gks x;kA bl vkanksyu dks
laxfBr djus okyksa esa lkfeu oQk nkekn Hkh lf; FkkA 1907 rd 3] 000
ifjokj mlosQ fopkjksa dks ekuus yxs FksA Mp tc kehu dk losZ{k.k djus
vk, rks oqQN lkfeuokfn;ksa us viuh kehu ij ysV dj bldk fojks/
fd;k tcfd nwljksa us yxku ;k tqekZuk Hkjus ;k csxkj djus ls budkj dj
fn;kA

dks cukus osQ fy, ydM+h vkSj nwljh lkexzh [kjhnrs


gSa vkSj tkok esa ge lkefjd o O;kikfjd laxfBr
nyksa dks] ftudh tMas+ bl /jrh esa /lh gS] NksMr+ s gSAa
gk] tkok osQ taxyksa esa ,d lEekutud ukSlsuk osQ
fuekZ.k dks cgqr gh de le; esa laHko djus osQ fy,
i;kZIr ydM+h gS] lkFk gh ftruh k:jr gks mrus
O;kikfjd tgkkksa dks cukus osQ fy, Hkh && blosQ
ckotwn tkok osQ taxy mruh gh rskh ls mxrs gSa
ftruh rskh ls mUgsa dkVk tkrk gSA mfpr izc/
a u vkSj
vPNh ns[k&js[k osQ lkFk ;s ksr dHkh Hkh [kRe ugha
gksaxsA*

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oqQvkykyEiqj

nf{k.kh phu
lkxj

eyk;k
jkT;

mRrjh
ckWfuZ;ks

fczfV'k vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu

lkjk

flaxkiqj

okd

lqe

k=kk

cksfuZ;ks

lsycs l
s

Mp

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

MoZQ okWu gksksuMkWiZ_ isywlks] fjp I +kQkWjsLV~l] iqvj


ihiqy] 1992 esa m`r A

Mp bZLV baMht
1930 esa ;wjksih; vkcknh% 2]40]000 (1 % ls de)_
phu 1930% 12 yk[k (2 %) jcM+ vkSj phuh osQ
bykosQ ;knkrj Mp LokfeRo esa FksA

cVkfo;k

tkok
jsyos ykbu

bLZ V
baMhk
iqrxZ kyh
freksj

fp=k 22 & baMksusf'k;k osQ ;knkrj taxy lqek=kk] dkfyekarku o if'pe bfj;ku esa fLFkr gSaA tkok gh og txg gS tgk Mpksa us viuh ^oSKkfud okfudh* dh 'kq#vkr dh FkhA
;g }hi tks vc pkoy mRiknu osQ fy, e'kgwj gS] dHkh lkxkSu osQ taxyksa ls <dk jgrk FkkA

94

4-4 ;q vkSj ou&fouk'k


igys vkSj nwljs fo'o;q dk taxyksa ij xgjk vlj iM+kA Hkkjr esa reke
pkyw dk;Z;kstukvksa dks LFkfxr djosQ ou foHkkx us vaxzskksa dh taxh
k:jrksa dks iwjk djus osQ fy, csrgk'kk isM+ dkVsA tkok ij tkikfu;ksa osQ
dCks ls Bhd igys Mpksa us ^HkLe&dj&Hkkxks uhfr* (Scorched Earth
Policy) viuk;h ftlosQ rgr vkjk&e'khuksa vkSj lkxkSu osQ fo'kky yV~Baksa
osQ <sj tyk fn, x, ftlls os tkikfu;ksa osQ gkFk u yx ik,A blosQ ckn
tkikfu;ksa us ouokfl;ksa dks taxy dkVus osQ fy, ck; djosQ vius ;q
m|ksx osQ fy, taxyksa dk fueZe nksgu fd;kA cgqr lkjs xko okyksa us bl
volj dk ykHk mBk dj taxy esa viuh [ksrh oQk foLrkj fd;kA tax osQ
ckn baMksusf'k;kbZ ou lsok osQ fy, bu kehuksa dks okil gkfly dj ikuk
dfBu FkkA fganqLrku dh gh rjg ;gk Hkh [ksrh ;ksX; Hkwfe osQ izfr yksxksa
dh pkg vkSj kehu dks fu;fU=kr djus rFkk yksxksa dks mlls ckgj j[kus
dh ou foHkkx dh fkn osQ chp Vdjko iSnk gqvkA

fp=k 23 & bafM;u E;wfu'kUl cksMZ] lwys iSxksM+k ij ,df=kr


tgkkksa esa yknus dks rS;kj okWj fVEcj Lyhij] 1917 igys vkSj nwljs fo'o;q esa fe=k jk"V 'kk;n bruk liQy ugha gksrs
;fn os vius mifuos'kksa dh lainkvksa vkSj O;fDr;ksa dk ,slk nksgu
djus esa l{ke u gksrsA nksuksa fo'o;qksa dk fganqLrku] baMksusf'k;k o
nwljh txgksa osQ ouksa ij fouk'kdkjh izHkko iM+kA dk;Z;ksstukvksa dks
LFkfxr dj fn;k x;k vkSj ou foHkkx us ;q dh k:jrksa dks iwjk
djus osQ fy, tedj o`{k dkVsA

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4-5 okfudh esa u, cnyko

vLlh osQ n'kd ls ,f'k;k vkSj vi+zQhdk dh ljdkjksa dks ;g le> esa vkus
yxk fd oSKkfud okfudh vkSj ou leqnk;ksa dks taxyksa ls ckgj j[kus dh
uhfr;ksa osQ pyrs ckj&ckj Vdjko iSnk gksrs gSAa ifj.kkeLo:i] ouksa ls bekjrh
ydM+h gkfly djus osQ ctk; taxyksa dk laj{k.k ;knk egoiw.kZ y{; cu
x;k gSA ljdkj us ;g Hkh eku fy;k gS fd bl y{; dks gkfly djus osQ
fy, ou izn's kksa esa jgus okyksa dh enn ysuh gksxhA fekksje ls ysdj osQjy
rd fganLq rku esa gj dgha ?kus taxy fliZQ blfy, cp ik, fd xzkeh.kksa us
ljuk] nsojkoqQMq] dku] jkbZ bR;kfn ukeksa ls ifo=k cxhpk le> dj budh
j{kk dhA oqQN xko rks ou&j{kdksa ij fuHkZj jgus osQ ctk; vius taxyksa dh
pkSdlh vki djrs jgs gSa & blesa gj ifjokj ckjh&ckjh ls viuk ;ksxnku nsrk
gSA LFkkuh; ou&leqnk; vkSj i;kZoj.kfon~ vc ou&izc/
a u osQ oSdfYid
rjhdksa osQ ckjs esa lkspus yxs gSAa

oU;&lekt vkSj mifuos'kokn

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fp=k 24 & Mp vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ v/hu jsecSax esa y_ksa


dk xksnke 95

f;kdyki
f;kdyki

1- tgk vki jgrs gSa D;k ogk osQ taxyh bykdksa esa dksbZ cnyko vk, gSa\ ;s cnyko D;k gSa vkSj D;ksa gq, gSa\
2- ,d vkSifuosf'kd ouiky vkSj ,d vfnoklh osQ chp taxy esa f'kdkj djus osQ elys ij gksus okyh ckrphr
osQ laokn fy[ksaA

iz'u

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1- vkSifuosf'kd dky osQ ou izca/u esa vk, ifjorZuksa us bu lewgksa dks oSQls izHkkfor fd;k %

>we [ksrh djus okyksa dks

?kqearw vkSj pjokgk leqnk;ksa dks

ydM+h vkSj ou&mRiknksa dk O;kikj djus okyh oaQifu;ksa dks

ckxku ekfydksa dks

f'kdkj [ksyus okys jktkvksa vkSj vaxzsk vi+Qljksa dks

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2- cLrj vkSj tkok osQ vkSifuosf'kd ou izca/u esa D;k lekurk, gSa\

3- lu~ 1880 ls 1920 osQ chp Hkkjrh; miegk}hi osQ oukPNkfnr {ks=k esa 97 yk[k gsDVs;j dh fxjkoV vk;hA
igys osQ 10-86 djksM+ gsDVs;j ls ?kVdj ;g {ks=k 9-89 djksM+ gsDVs;j jg x;k FkkA bl fxjkoV esa fuEufyf[kr
dkjdksa dh Hkwfedk crk, %

jsyos

tgkk fuekZ.k

f"k&foLrkj

O;kolkf;d [ksrh

pk;&dkWI+kQh osQ ckxku

vkfnoklh vkSj fdlku

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

4- ;qksa ls taxy D;ksa izHkkfor gksrs gSa\

96

v;k; 5

vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

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fo'o esa pjokgsfo'o esa pjokgs

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fp=k 1 & iwohZ x<+oky osQ cqX;ky esa pjrh HksM+s acqX;ky mQps igkM+ksa ij 12]000 iqQV ls Hkh ;knk mQpkbZ ij fLFkr fo'kky izkfrd pjkxkg gksrs gSaA tkM+ksa esa ;s cI +kZQ ls <osQ jgrs gSa vkSj vizSy osQ ckn gjs&Hkjs gks tkrs
gSaA bl le; igkfM+;ksa dh rygVh rjg&rjg dh ?kkl] tM+ksa vkSj tM+h&cwfV;ksa ls Hkjh jgrh gSA ekWulwu rd bu pjkxkgksa esa ?kuh gfj;kyh Nk tkrh gS vkSj pkjksa rjiQ iwQy
gh iwQy fn[kkbZ nsus yxrs gSaA

bl v;k; esa vki ?kqera w pjokgksa osQ ckjs esa i<+xas As ?kqera w ,sls yksx gksrs gSa tks fdlh
,d txg fVd dj ugha jgrs cfYd jkskh&jksVh osQ tqxkM+ esa ;gk ls ogk ?kwers jgrs
gSAa ns'k osQ dbZ fgLlksa esa ge ?kqera w pjokgksa dks vius tkuojksa osQ lkFk vkrs&tkrs ns[k
ldrs gSAa pjokgksa dh fdlh Vksyh osQ ikl HksM&+ cdfj;ksa dk jsoM+ ;k >qMa gksrk gS
rks fdlh osQ ikl V ;k vU; eos'kh jgrs gSAa D;k mUgsa ns[k dj vkius dHkh bl
ckjs esa lkspk gS fd os dgk ls vk, gSa vkSj dgk tk jgs gS\a D;k vkidks irk gS fd
os dSls jgrs gS]a mudh vkenuh osQ lk/u D;k gaS vkSj mudk vrhr D;k Fkk\
pjokgksa dks bfrgkl dh iqLrdksa esa fojys gh txg fey ikrh gSA tc Hkh vki
vFkZO;oLFkk osQ ckjs esa i<+rs gSa fiQj pkgs og bfrgkl dh d{kk gks ;k vFkZ'kkL=k
dh flI +kQZ f"k vkSj m|ksxksa osQ ckjs esa gh i<+rs gSaA dHkh&dHkkj bu d{kkvksa esa
dkjhxjksa osQ ckjs esa Hkh i<+us dks fey tkrk gSA ysfdu pjokgksa osQ ckjs esa
i<+us&fy[kus dks ;knk oqQN ugha feyrkA ekuks mudh fkanxh dk dksbZ eryc gh
u gksA vdlj eku fy;k tkrk gS fd os ,sls yksx gSa ftuosQ fy, vkt dh
vkkqfud nqfu;k esa dksbZ txg ugha gS_ tSls mudk nkSj chr pqdk gksA
bl v;k; esa vki ns[ksaxs fd Hkkjr vkSj vi+Qz hdk tSls lektksa esa pjokgh dk
fdruk ego gSA ;gk vki tkusaxs fd mifuos'kokn us mudh fkanxh ij fdruk
xgjk vlj Mkyk gS vkSj bu leqnk;ksa us vkkqfud lekt osQ nckoksa dk fdl rjg
lkeuk fd;k gSA bl Hkkx esa ge igys Hkkjr vkSj mlosQ ckn vi+zQhdk osQ pjokgksa
dh fkanxh dk v;;u djsxa As

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?kqearw pjokgs vkSj mudh vkoktkgh

1-1 igkM+kas esa

ksr d

tEew vkSj d'ehj osQ xqTtj cdjoky leqnk; osQ yksx HksM+&cdfj;ksa osQ
cM+s&cM+s jsoM+ j[krs gSaA bl leqnk; osQ vf/drj yksx vius eosf'k;ksa osQ
fy, pjkxkgksa dh ryk'k esa HkVdrs&HkVdrs mUuhloha lnh esa ;gk vk, FksA
tSls&tSls le; chrrk x;k os ;gha osQ gksdj jg x,_ ;gha cl x,A blosQ
ckn os lnhZ&xehZ osQ fglkc ls vyx&vyx pjkxkgksa esa tkus yxsA tkM+ksa
esa tc ph igkfM+;k cI+kZQ ls <d tkrha rks os f'kokfyd dh fupyh
igkfM+;ksa esa vkdj Msjk Mky ysrsA tkM+ksa esa fupys bykds esa feyus okyh
lw[kh >kfM+;k gh muosQ tkuojksa osQ fy, pkjk cu tkrhaA vizSy osQ var
rd os mkj fn'kk esa tkus yxrs xfeZ;ksa osQ pjkxkgksa osQ fy,A bl lI+kQj
esa dbZ ifjokj dkfI+k Qyk cuk dj lkFk&lkFk pyrs FksA os ihj iatky osQ njks
dks ikj djrs gq, d'ehj dh ?kkVh esa igqp tkrsA tSls gh xfeZ;k 'kq: gksrha]
teh gqbZ cI+kZQ dh eksVh pknj fi?kyus yxrh vkSj pkjksa rjI+kQ gfj;kyh Nk
tkrhA bu fnuksa esa ;gk mxus okyh rjg&rjg dh ?kkl ls eosf'k;ksa dk isV
Hkh Hkj tkrk Fkk vkSj mUgsa lsgrean [kqjkd Hkh fey tkrh FkhA flracj osQ
var esa cdjoky ,d ckj fiQj viuk cksfj;k&fcLrj lesVus yxrsA bl
ckj os okil vius tkM+ksa okys fBdkus dh rjI+kQ uhps dh vksj pys tkrsA
tc igkM+ksa dh pksfV;ksa ij cI+kZQ teus yxrh rks os fupyh igkfM+;ksa dh
'kj.k esa pys tkrsA
ikl osQ gh igkM+kas esa pjokgksa dk ,d vkSj leqnk; jgrk FkkA fgekpy
izn's k osQ bl leqnk; dks xh dgrs gSAa ;s yksx Hkh ekSleh mrkj&p<+ko dk
lkeuk djus osQ fy, blh rjg lnhZ&xehZ osQ fglkc ls viuh txg cnyrs
jgrs FksA os Hkh f'kokfyd dh fupyh igkfM+;ksa esa vius eosf'k;ksa dks >kfM+;ksa
esa pjkrs gq, tkM+k fcrkrs FksA vizy
S vkrs&vkrs os mkj dh rjI+kQ py iM+rs
vkSj iwjh xfeZ;k ykgkSy vkSj Lihfr esa fcrk nsrAs tc cI+kZQ fi?kyrh vkSj ps
njsZ [kqy tkrs rks muesa ls cgqr lkjs ijh igkM+kas esa fLFkr ?kkl osQ eSnkuksa esa
tk igqprs FksA flracj rd os nksckjk okil py iM+rAs okilh esa os ykgkSy

1850 osQ n'kd esa th- lh- ckUlZ us dkxM+k osQ


xqTtjksa dk o.kZu bl izdkj fd;k Fkk %
^igkfM+;ksa eas jgus okys xqTtj 'kq pjokgk dchys
osQ yksx gSaA os yxHkx u osQ cjkcj [ksrh djrs gSaA
xf;ksa osQ ikl HksM+&cdfj;k gksrh gSa rks xqTtj
xk;&HkSal ikyrs gSaA ;s yksx taxyksa osQ fdukjs jgrs
gSa vkSj nwk] ?kh vkSj eosf'k;ksa ls feyus okyh nwljh
phksa csp dj viuk isV ikyrs gSaA ?kj osQ enZ
+ a
eosf'k;ksa dks pjkus ys tkrs gSa vkSj dbZ ckj g rks
rd ?kj ugha ykSVrsA bl chp os taxy esa vius
jsoM+ osQ lkFk gh jgrs gSaA vkSjrsa flj ij Vksdfj;k
vkSj daks ij gkfM;k yVdk dj jkst ckkkj pyh
tkrh gSaA mudh gkfM;ksa esa nwk] eD[ku vkSj ?kh
vkfn gksrk gSA os flI+kZ Q bruh phksa gh ckkkj esa ys
tk ikrh gSa ftruh ?kj pykus osQ fy, dkI+kQh gksaA
xfeZ;ksa esa xqTtj vius jsoM+ksa dks ysdj izk;% ijh
bykdksa esa pys tkrs gSa tgk mudh HkSalksa dks u
osQoy cgqr lkjh gjh&Hkjh cjlkrh ?kkl fey tkrh
gS vkSj os 'khrks".k (u ;knk BaMk] u ;knk xje)
ekSle osQ fglkc ls [+knq dks <ky ysrh gSa cfYd mu
kgjhyh efD[k;ksa ls Hkh NqVdkjk fey tkrk gS tks
eSnkuksa esa mudk thuk eqgky fd, jgrs gSaA*

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

o
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98

th lh ckUlZ] lsVyesVa fjiksVZ vkWI+kQ dkxM+k] 1850&55-

fp=k 2 & e; x<+oky osQ mQps igkM+ksa esa ,d xqTtj eaMixqTtj xM+fj;s cqX;ky esa feyus okys fjaxy (,d rjg dk igkM+h
ckl) vkSj ?kkl ls cus eaMiksa esa jgrs gSaA bUgha eaMiksa dk bLrseky
dk;ZLFky osQ :i esa Hkh gksrk FkkA ;gk xqTtj ?kh fudkyrs Fks vkSj
mls csprs FksA gky osQ lkyksa esa os clksa vkSj Vdksa esa Hkj dj Hkh
nwk ys tkus yxs gSaA ;s eaMi 10]000 ls 11]000 i+qQV dh mQpkbZ
ij gksrs gSaA HkSalsa blls ;knk mQpkbZ ij ugha tk ldrhaA

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vkSj Lihfr osQ xkoksa esa ,d ckj fiQj oqQN le; osQ fy, #drsA bl chp
u, 'kCn
os xfeZ;ksa dh I +kQlysa dkVrs vkSj lfnZ;ksa dh I +kQlyksa dh cqokbZ djosQ vkxs
c<+ tkrsA ;gk ls os vius jsoM+ ysdj f'kokfyd dh igkfM+;ksa esa tkM+kas okys
Hkkcj % x<+oky vkSj oqQek osQ bykds esa
pjkxkgksa esa pys tkrs vkSj vxyh vizy
S esa HksM&+ cdfj;k ysdj os nksckjk
igkfM+;ksa osQ fupys fgLls osQ vklikl ik,
+
xfeZ;ksa osQ pjkxkgksa dh rjI kQ jokuk gks tkrsA
tkus okyk 'kq"d ;k lw[ks taxy dk bykdk A
vkb,] vc kjk vkSj iwoZ dh rjI +kQ pysAa x<+oky vkSj oqQek osQ xqTtj
cqX;ky % ps igkM+ksa esa fLFkr ?kkl osQ eSnkuA
pjokgs lfnZ;ksa esa Hkkcj osQ lw[ks taxyksa dh rjI+kQ vkSj xfeZ;ksa esa ijh ?kkl osQ
eSnkuksa & cqX;ky & dh rjI+kQ pys tkrs FksA buesa ls cgqr lkjs gjs&Hkjs pjkxkgksa
dh ryk'k esa mUuhloha lnh esa tEew ls mkj izn's k dh
igkfM+;kas esa vk, Fks vkSj ckn esa ;gha cl x,A
lnhZ&xehZ osQ fglkc ls gj lky pjkxkg cnyrs
jgus dk ;g pyu fgeky; osQ ioZrksa esa jgus okys
cgqr lkjs pjokgk leqnk;ksa esa fn[kk;h nsrk FkkA ;gk
osQ HkksfV;k] 'ksjik vkSj fdUukSjh leqnk; osQ yksx Hkh
blh rjg osQ pjokgs FksA ;s lHkh leqnk; ekSleh
cnykoksa osQ fglkc ls [+kqn dks <kyrs Fks vkSj
vyx&vyx bykdksa esa iM+us okys pjkxkgksa dk
csgrjhu bLrseky djrs FksA tc ,d pjkxkg dh
gfj;kyh [kRe gks tkrh Fkh ;k bLrseky osQ dkfcy
ugha jg tkrh Fkh rks os fdlh vkSj pjkxkg dh rjI+kQ
pys tkrs FksA bl vkoktkgh ls pjkxkg k:jr ls fp=k 4 & xh HksM+ksa dh mQu mrkj jgs gSa #d dj os viuh
;knk bLrseky ls Hkh cp tkrs Fks vkSj muesa nksckjk flracj rd xh mQps eSnkuksa (kkj) ls uhps vkus yxrs gSaA jkLrs esa oqQN le;
HksM+ksa dh mQu mrjokrs gSaA mQu dkVus ls igys HksM+ksa dks ugyk&kqyk dj lkI+kQ fd;k tkrk gSA
gfj;kyh o fkanxh Hkh ykSV vkrh FkhA

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99

vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

fp=k 3 & mQu mrjus dk barkkjA fgekpy izns'k fLFkr ikyeiqj osQ ikl mg~y ?kkVh-

1-2 iBkjks]a eSnkuksa vkSj jsfxLrkuksa esa

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

pjokgs flI+kZQ igkM+ksa esa gh ugha jgrs FksA os iBkjksa] eSnkuksa vkSj jsfxLrkuksa esa
Hkh cgqr cM+h la[;k esa ekStwn FksA
/axj egkjk"V dk ,d tkuk&ekuk pjokgk leqnk; gSA chloha lnh dh
'kq#vkr esa bl leqnk; dh vkcknh yxHkx 4] 67]000 FkhA muesa ls ;knkrj
xM+fj;s ;k pjokgs Fks gkykfd oqQN yksx oQEcy vkSj pknjsa Hkh cukrs Fks tcfd
oqQN HkSl
a ikyrs FksA /axj xM+fj;s cjlkr osQ fnuksa esa egkjk"V osQ e; iBkjksa
esa jgrs FksA ;g ,d vkZ&'kq"d bykdk Fkk tgk ckfj'k cgqr de gksrh Fkh vkSj
feV~Vh Hkh [kkl mitk ugha FkhA pkjksa rjI+kQ flI +kQZ daVhyh >kfM+;k gksrh FkhaA
cktjs tSlh lw[kh I +kQlyksa osQ vykok ;gk vkSj oqQN ugha mxrk FkkA ekWulwu esa
;g iV~Vh /axjksa osQ tkuojksa osQ fy, ,d fo'kky pjkxkg cu tkrh FkhA
vDrwcj osQ vklikl /axj cktjs dh dVkbZ djrs Fks vkSj pjkxkgksa dh ryk'k
esa if'pe dh rjI +kQ py iM+rs FksA djhc eghus Hkj iSny pyus osQ ckn os
vius jsoM+kas osQ lkFk dksd
a .k osQ bykds esa tkdj Msjk Mky nsrs FksA vPNh ckfj'k
vkSj mitk feV~Vh dh cnkSyr bl bykds esa [ksrh [kwc gksrh FkhA dksd
a .kh
fdlku Hkh bu pjokgksa dk fny [kksydj Lokxr djrs FksA ftl le; /axj
dksd
a .k igp
q rs Fks mlh le; dksd
a .k osQ fdlkuksa dks [kjhI+kQ dh I +kQly dkV
dj vius [ksrksa dks jch dh I+kQly osQ fy, nksckjk mitk cukuk gksrk FkkA

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/axjksa osQ eos'kh [kjhI +kQ dh dVkbZ osQ ckn [ksrksa esa cph jg xbZ BwBksa dks [kkrs
Fks vkSj muosQ xkscj ls [ksrksa dks [kkn fey tkrh FkhA dksd
a .kh fdlku /axjksa dks
pkoy Hkh nsrs Fks ftUgsa os okil vius iBkjh bykds esa ys tkrs Fks D;ksfa d ogk
bl rjg osQ vukt cgqr de gksrs FksA ekWulwu dh ckfj'k 'kq: gksrs gh /axj
dksd
a .k vkSj rVh; bykds NksMd
+ j lw[ks iBkjksa dh rjI+kQ ykSV tkrs Fks D;ksfa d
HksMas+ xhys ekWulwuh gkykr dks cnkZ'r ugha dj ikrhaA
dukZVd vkSj vkakz izns'k esa Hkh lw[ks e; iBkj ?kkl vkSj iRFkjksa ls vVs
iM+s FksA buesa eosf'k;ksa] HksM+&cdfj;ksa vkSj xM+fj;ksa dk gh clsjk jgrk FkkA

100

fp=k 5 & if'peh jktLFkku osQ Fkkj jsfxLrku


esa pjrs jkbdk leqnk; osQ mQV;gk ikbZ tkus okyh lw[kh vkSj dVhyh >kfM+;ksa
osQ lgkjs flI+kZQ mQV gh fkank jg ldrs gSa_
ysfdu i;kZIr Hkkstu ikus osQ fy, mUgsa cgqr
cM+s bykosQ esa pjuk iM+rk gSA

u, 'kCn
jch % tkM+ksa dh I +k Qlysa ftudh dVkbZ ekpZ
osQ ckn 'kq: gksrh gSA
[kjhI+kQ % flracj&vDrwcj esa dVus okyh
I+ kQlysaA
BwB % ikS/ksa dh dVkbZ osQ ckn kehu esa jg
tkus okyh mudh tM+A

;gk xksYyk leqnk; osQ yksx xk;&HkSal ikyrs Fks tcfd oqQ#ek vkSj oqQ#ck
leqnk; HksM+&cdfj;k ikyrs Fks vkSj gkFk osQ cqus dEcy csprs FksA ;s yksx
taxyksa vkSj NksVs&NksVs [ksrksa osQ vklikl jgrs FksA os vius tkuojksa dh
ns[kHkky osQ lkFk&lkFk dbZ nwljs dke&kaks Hkh djrs FksA igkM+h pjokgksa osQ
foijhr ;gk osQ pjokgksa dk ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku tkuk lnhZ&xehZ ls
r; ugha gksrk FkkA ;s yksx cjlkr vkSj lw[ks ekSle osQ fglkc ls viuh
txg cnyrs FksA lw[ks eghuksa esa os rVh; bykdksa dh rjI+k Q pys tkrs Fks
tcfd cjlkr 'kq: gksus ij okil py nsrs FksA ekWulwu osQ fnuksa esa rVh;
bykdksa esa ftl rjg osQ xhys nynyh gkykr iSnk gks tkrs Fks os flI+kZQ HkSalksa
dks gh jkl vk ldrs FksA ,ssls le; esa ckdh tkuojksa dks lw[ks iBkjh
bykdksa esa ys tkuk k:jh FkkA
pjokgksa esa ,d tkuk&igpkuk uke catkjksa dk Hkh gSA catkjs mkj izns'k]
iatkc] e; izns'k vkSj egkjk"V osQ dbZ bykdksa esa jgrs FksA ;s yksx cgqr
nwj&nwj rd pys tkrs Fks vkSj jkLrs esa vukt vkSj pkjs osQ cnys xko okyksa
dks [ksr tksrus okys tkuoj vkSj nwljh phksa csprs tkrs FksA os tgk Hkh tkrs
vius tkuojksa osQ fy, vPNs pjkxkgksa dh [kkst esa jgrsA
ksr [k

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cgqr lkjs eqlkfI+kQjksa osQ fooj.kksa esa gesa pjokgk leqnk;ksa dh fkanxh dh >yd feyrh
gSA felky osQ rkSj ij] mUuhloha lnh dh 'kq#vkr esa cqdkuu us eSlwj dh viuh
;k=kk osQ nkSjku xksYyk leqnk; dk nkSjk fd;k FkkA vius bl vuqHko osQ vkkkj ij
mUgksaus fy[kk %
^muosQ ifjokj taxyksa osQ fdukjs NksV&s NksVs xkoksa esa jgrs gSAa ;gk os FkksMh+ &lh kehu
ij [ksrh djrs gSa] FkksM+s&cgqr tkuoj j[krs gSa vkSj ikl osQ dLcksa esa tkdj nqXk
mRikn csprs gSAa muosQ ifjokj cgqr cM+s gksrs gSAa ,d&,d ?kj esa lkr&vkB ukStoku
vklkuh ls fey tk,xsA muesa ls nks&rhu yksx taxy esa tkuoj pjkrs gSa tcfd
ckdh vius [ksr laHkkyrs gSa vkSj dLcksa esa tykou dh ydM+h] NIij osQ fy,
iqvky vkfn igqpkrs gSaA*
i+Qz kafll gsfeYVu cqdkuu] , tuhZ iz+ QkWe ekl Fkzw fn daVhk vkWI+kQ eSljw ] dukjk ,.M
ekykckj (yanu] 1807)A

jktLFkku osQ jsfxLrkuksa esa jkbdk leqnk; jgrk FkkA bl bykds


esa ckfj'k dk dksbZ Hkjkslk ugha FkkA gksrh Hkh Fkh rks cgqr deA
blhfy, [ksrh dh mit gj lky ?kVrh&c<+rh jgrh FkhA cgqr lkjs
bykdksa esa rks nwj&nwj rd dksbZ I+k Qly gksrh gh ugha FkhA blosQ
pyrs jkbdk [ksrh osQ lkFk&lkFk pjokgh dk Hkh dke djrs FksA
cjlkr esa rks ckM+esj] tSlyesj] tkskiqj vkSj chdkusj osQ jkbdk
vius xkoksa esa gh jgrs Fks D;ksafd bl nkSjku mUgsa ogha pkjk fey
tkrk FkkA ij] vDrwcj vkrs&vkrs ;s pjkxkg lw[kus yxrs FksA
urhtru ;s yksx u, pjkxkgksa dh ryk'k esa nwljs bykdksa dh rjI+kQ
fudy tkrs Fks vkSj vxyh cjlkr esa gh okil ykSVrs FksA jkbdkvksa
dk ,d rcdk V ikyrk Fkk tcfd oqQN HksM+&cdfj;k ikyrs FksA
bl rjg ge ns[k ldrs gSa fd pjokgk leqnk;ksa dh fkanxh dbZ
phkksa osQ ckjs esa dkI +kQh lksp&fopkj djosQ vkxs c<+rh FkhA mUgsa bl

f;kdyki

ksr d vkSj [k dks if<+, %

bu ksrksa osQ vkkkj ij la{ksi esa crkb, fd pjokgk


ifjokjksa osQ vkSjr&enZ D;k&D;k dke djrs FksA

vkidh jk; esa pjokgs taxyksa osQ vklikl gh D;ksa


jgrs gSa\

vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

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fp=k 6 & vius mQV osQ lkFk ,d mQVikyd;g jktLFkku esa tSlyesj osQ fudV Fkkj dk jsfxLrku gSA bl bykds osQ mQV
ikydksa dks ek: (jsfxLrku) jkbdk vkSj mudh cLrh dks <aMh dgk tkrk gSA

101

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fp=k 7 & if'peh jktLFkku esa cyksrjk fLFkr mQV esykmQVikyd ;gk mQVksa dh [kjhn&I +kQjks[r osQ fy, vkrs gSAa esys esa ek: jkbdk mQVksa osQ izf'k{k.k esa viuh egkjr dk Hkh izn'kZu djrs gSAa bl esys esa xqtjkr ls ?kksMs+ Hkh yk, tkrs gSAa

ckr dk ges'kk [k;ky j[kuk iM+rk Fkk fd muosQ jsoM+ ,d bykosQ esa fdrus
fnu rd jg ldrs gSa vkSj mUgsa dgk ikuh vkSj pjkxkg fey ldrs gSAa mUgsa
u osQoy ,d bykosQ ls nwljs bykosQ esa tkus dk lgh le; pquuk iM+rk Fkk
cfYd ;g Hkh ns[kuk iM+rk Fkk fd mUgsa fdu bykdksa ls xqkjus dh NwV fey
ik,xh vkSj fdu bykdksa ls ughaA lI+kQj osQ nkSjku mUgsa jkLrs esa iM+us okys xkoksa
osQ fdlkuksa ls Hkh vPNs laca k cukus iM+rs Fks rkfd muosQ tkuoj fdlkuksa osQ
[ksrksa esa ?kkl pj los aQ vkSj mudks mitk cukrs pysAa viuh jksth&jksVh osQ
tqxkM+ esa mUgsa [ksrh] O;kikj vkSj pjokgh] ;s lkjs dke djus iM+rs FksA
vkb,] vc ns[ksa fd vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ nkSjku ;kuh vaxzskksa osQ
kekus esa pjokgksa dk thou fdl rjg cnyk\

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 8 & iq"dj dk mQV esyk102

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fp=k 9 & ek: jkbdkvksa dh oa'kkoyh crkus okykoa'kkoyh crkus okyk leqnk; dk bfrgkl crkrk gSA bl rjg dh ekSf[kd ijaijkvksa ls pjokgk leqnk;ksa dks viuh igpku dk Hkko feyrk gSA bu ijaijkvksa ls ge ;g irk yxk
ldrs gSa fd dksbZ lewg vius vrhr dks fdl rjg ns[krk gSA

vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

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fp=k 10 & pjkxkgksa dh ryk'k esa fudys ekykkjh pjokgsA muosQ xko dPN dh ju esa fLFkr gSa -

103

vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu vkSj pjokgksa dk thou

vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ nkSjku pjokgksa dh fkanxh esa xgjs cnyko vk,A ksr x
muosQ pjkxkg fleV x,] bkj&mkj vkus&tkus ij cafn'ksa yxus yxha vkSj
,p- ,l- fxClu] ou milaj{kd] nkftZfyax] us 1913
esa fy[kk Fkk %
muls tks yxku olwy fd;k tkrk Fkk mlesa Hkh o`f gqbZA [ksrh esa mudk
^--- pjokgh osQ fy, iz;ksx fd, tk jgs taxy dks
fgLlk ?kVus yxk vkSj muosQ is'ks vkSj gqujksa ij Hkh cgqr cqjk vlj iM+kA
fdlh vkSj dke osQ fy, iz;ksx ugha fd;k tk,xk vkSj
vkb, ns[ksa fd ;g lc dSls vkSj D;ksa gqvk\
ogk ls bekjrh ydM+h rFkk b/u bdV~Bk ugha fd;k
igyh ckr % vaxzsk ljdkj pjkxkgksa dks [ksrh dh kehu esa rCnhy
tk,xk tks eq[; ou mRikn gksrs gSa ---*
dj nsuk pkgrh FkhA kehu ls feyus okyk yxku mldh vkenuh dk ,d
cM+k ksr FkkA [ksrh dk {ks=kiQy c<+us ls ljdkj dh vk; esa vkSj c<+ksrjh
gks ldrh FkhA bruk gh ugha] blls twV (iVlu)] dikl] xsgw vkSj vU;
[ksfrgj phkksa osQ mRiknu esa Hkh btkI +kQk gks tkrk ftudh baXySaM esa cgqr
;knk k:jr jgrh FkhA vaxzsk vI+k Qljksa dks fcuk [ksrh dh kehu dk dksbZ
eryc le> esa ugha vkrk Fkk % mlls u rks yxku feyrk Fkk vkSj u gh
mitA vaxzsk ,slh kehu dks ^csdkj* ekurs FksA mls [ksrh osQ yk;d cukuk
k:jh FkkA blh ckr dks ;ku esa j[krs gq, mUuhloha 'krkCnh osQ e; ls
ns'k osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa ijrh Hkwfe fodkl osQ fy, fu;e cuk, tkus yxsA
bu dk;ns&dkuwuksa osQ kfj, ljdkj xSj&[ksfrgj kehu dks vius dCks esa
ysdj oqQN [kkl yksxksa dks lkSaius yxhA bu yksxksa dks dbZ rjg dh fj;k;rsa
nh xb vkSj bl kehu dks [ksrh osQ yk;d cukus vkSj ml ij [ksrh djus
osQ fy, te dj c<+kok fn;k x;kA ,sls oqQN yksxksa dks xko dk eqf[k;k cuk
fn;k x;kA bl rjg dCks esa yh xbZ ;knkrj kehu pjkxkgksa dh Fkh
ftudk pjokgs fu;fer :i ls bLrseky fd;k djrs FksA bl rjg [ksrh
osQ iQSyko ls pjkxkg fleVus yxs vkSj pjokgksa osQ fy, leL;k, iSnk f;kdyki
gksus yxhaA
eku yhft, fd taxyksa esa tkuojksa dks pjkus ij jksd
nwljh ckr % mUuhloha lnh osQ e; rd vkrs&vkrs ns'k osQ fofHkUu
yxk nh xbZ gSA bl ckr ij fuEufyf[kr dh n`f"V ls
izkarksa esa ou vfkfu;e Hkh ikfjr fd, tkus yxs FksA bu dkuwuksa dh vkM+
fVIi.kh dhft, %
,d ou vfkdkjh
esa ljdkj us ,sls dbZ taxyksa dks ^vkjf{kr* ou ?kksf"kr dj fn;k tgk
,d pjokgk
nsonkj ;k lky tSlh dherh ydM+h iSnk gksrh FkhA bu taxyksa esa pjokgksa
osQ ?kqlus ij ikcanh yxk nh xbZA dbZ taxyksa dks ^lajf{kr* ?kksf"kr dj fn;k
x;kA bu taxyksa esa pjokgksa dks pjokgh osQ oqQN ijaijkxr vfkdkj rks
ns fn, x, ysfdu mudh vkoktkgh ij fiQj Hkh cgqr lkjh cafn'ksa yxh
jghaA vkSifuosf'kd vfkdkfj;ksa dks yxrk Fkk fd i'kqvksa osQ pjus ls NksVs
taxyh ikSks vkSj isM+ksa dh ubZ dksiysa u"V gks tkrh gSaA mudh jk; esa]
pjokgksa osQ jsoM+ NksVs ikSkksa dks oqQpy nsrs gSa vkSj dksaiyksa dks [kk tkrs gSa
u, 'kCn
ftlls u, isM+ksa dh c<+r #d tkrh gSA
ijaijkxr vf/dkj% ijaijk vkSj jhfr&fjokt
ou vf/fu;eksa us pjokgksa dh fkanxh cny MkyhA vc mUgsa mu
osQ vk/kj ij feyus okys vf/dkjA
taxyksa esa tkus ls jksd fn;k x;k tks igys eosf'k;ksa osQ fy, cgqewY; pkjs

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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dk ksr FksA ftu {ks=kksa esa mUgsa izos'k dh NwV nh xbZ ogk Hkh mu ij dM+h ksr ?k
ukj j[kh tkrh Fkh taxyksa esa nkf[ky gksus osQ fy, mUgsa ijfeV ysuk iM+rk
1920 osQ n'kd esa jkW;y deh'ku vkWu ,xzhdYpj us
FkkA taxy esa muosQ izos'k vkSj okilh dh rkjh[k igys ls r; gksrh Fkh vkSj
viuh fjiksVZ esa fy[kk fd %
og taxy esa cgqr de gh fnu fcrk ldrs FksA vc pjokgs fdlh taxy
^c<+rh vkcknh] flapkbZ lqfokkvksa osQ foLrkj vkSj
esa ;knk le; rd ugha jg ldrs Fks Hkys gh ogk pkjk fdruk gh gks] ?kkl
j{kk] m|ksx ,oa f"k izk;ksfxd m|ksxksa osQ fy, ljdkj
fdruh Hkh D;ksa u gks] vkSj pkjksa rjiQ ?kuh gfj;kyh gksA mUgsa blfy,
}kjk pjkxkgksa osQ vfkxzg.k dh otg ls pjokgh osQ
fudyrk iM+rk Fkk D;ksafd vc mudh fkanxh ou foHkkx }kjk tkjh fd,
fy, miyCk bykdksa osQ {ks=kiQy esa cgqr Hkkjh
ijfeVksa osQ v/hu FkhA ijfeV esa igys gh fy[k fn;k tkrk Fkk fd og
fxjkoV vkbZ gSA [vc ] i'kqikydksa dks cM+s&cM+s jsoM+
dkuwuu dc rd taxy esa jgsaxsA vxj og le;&lhek dk mYya?ku djrs
j[kus esa eqf'dy iSnk gks jgh gSA bldh otg ls
Fks rks mu ij tqekZuk yxk fn;k tkrk FkkA
mudh vkenuh esa fxjkoV vkbZ gSA muosQ tkuojksa dh
+
rhljh ckr % vaxzsk vIk Qlj ?kqearw fdLe osQ yksxksa dks 'kd dh ukj
xq.kokk vkSj [kqjkd fxj xbZ gS vkSj dksZ c<+rs tk
ls ns[krs FksA os xko&xko tkdj viuh phksa cspus okys dkjhxjksa o
jgs gSaA*
O;kikfj;ksa vkSj vius jsoM+ osQ fy, gj lky u,&u, pjkxkgksa dh ryk'k
n fjiksVZ vkWI+kQ n jkW;y deh'ku vkWu ,xzhdYpj bu
esa jgus okys] gj ekSle esa viuh fjgkb'k cny ysus okys pjokgksa ij
bafM;k] 1928;dhu ugha dj ikrs FksA os pkgrs Fks fd xzkeh.k turk xkoksa esa jgs] mudh
fjgkb'k vkSj [ksrksa ij muosQ vfkdkj r; gksaA bl rjg dh vkcknh dh
igpku djuk vkSj mldks fu;af=kr djuk ;knk vklku Fkk tks ,d txg
fVd dj jgrh gksA ,sls yksxksa dks 'kkafrfiz; vkSj dkuwu dk ikyu djus
okyk ekuk tkrk Fkk_ ?kqearqvksa dks vijkkh ekuk tkrk FkkA 1871 esa
vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj us vijkkh tutkfr vfkfu;e (Criminal Tribes
Act) ikfjr fd;kA bl dkuwu osQ rgr nLrdkjksa] O;kikfj;ksa vkSj pjokgksa
osQ cgqr lkjs leqnk;ksa dks vijkkh leqnk;ksa dh lwph esa j[k fn;k x;kA
mUgsa oqQnjrh vkSj tUetkr vijkkh ?kksf"kr dj fn;k x;kA bl dkuwu osQ
ykxw gksrs gh ,sls lHkh leqnk;ksa dks oqQN [kkl vfklwfpr xkoksa@cfLr;ksa esa
cl tkus dk gqDe lquk fn;k x;kA mudh fcuk ijfeV vkoktkgh ij jksd
yxk nh xbZA xzkE; iqfyl mu ij lnk ukj j[kus yxhA
pkSFkh ckr % viuh vkenuh c<+kus osQ fy, vaxsz kksa us yxku olwyus
dk gj laHko jkLrk viuk;kA mUgksaus kehu] ugjksa osQ ikuh] ued]
[kjhn&I+kQjks[r dh phkksa vkSj ;gk rd fd eosf'k;ksa ij Hkh VSDl olwyus f;kdyki
dk ,yku dj fn;kA pjokgksa ls pjkxkgksa esa pjus okys ,d&,d tkuoj ij
dYiuk dhft, fd vki mUuhloha lnh osQ vkf[kjh
VSDl olwy fd;k tkus yxkA ns'k osQ ;knkrj pjokgh bykdksa esa mUuhloha
lkyksa ;kuh lu~ 1890 osQ vklikl jg jgs gSaA vki
lnh osQ e; ls gh pjokgh VSDl ykxw dj fn;k x;k FkkA izfr eos'kh VSDl
?kqera w pjokgksa ;k dkjhxjksa osQ ,d leqnk; ls rkYyqd
j[krs gSaA vkidks irk pyk gS fd ljdkj us vkiosQ
dh nj rskh ls c<+rh pyh xbZ vkSj VSDl olwyh dh O;oLFkk fnuksafnu
leqnk; dks vijkkh leqnk; ?kksf"kr dj fn;k gSA
ekcwr gksrh xbZA 1850 ls 1880 osQ n'kdksa osQ chp VSDl olwyh dk dke
la{ksi esa crkb, fd ;g tkudj vkidks dSlk
ckdk;nk cksyh yxk dj BsosQnkjksa dks lkSaik tkrk FkkA BsosQnkjh ikus osQ fy,
eglwl gksrk vkSj vki D;k djrsA
BsosQnkj ljdkj dks tks iSlk nsrs Fks mls olwy djus vkSj lky Hkj esa ;knk
LFkkuh; dysDVj dks fpV~Bh fy[kdj crkb, fd
ls ;knk equkI +kQk cukus osQ fy, os ftruk pkgs mruk dj olwy ldrs FksA
vkidh ukj esa ;g dkuwu fdl rjg vU;k;iw.kZ
1880 osQ n'kd rd vkrs&vkrs ljdkj us vius dkfjanksa osQ ek;e ls lhks
gS vkSj blls vkidh fkanxh ij D;k vlj
pjokgksa ls gh dj olwyuk 'kq: dj fn;kA gjsd pjokgs dks ,d ^ikl*
iM+saxsA
tkjh dj fn;k x;kA fdlh Hkh pjkxkg esa nkf[ky gksus osQ fy, pjokgksa dks

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105

vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

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ikl fn[kkdj igys VSDl vnk djuk iM+rk FkkA pjokgs osQ lkFk fdrus
tkuoj gSa vkSj mlus fdruk VSDl pqdk;k gS] bl ckr dks mlosQ ikl esa
ntZ dj fn;k tkrk FkkA

2-1 bu cnykoksa us pjokgksa dh ftanxh dks fdl rjg


izHkkfor fd;k\
bu phkksa dh otg ls pjkxkgksa dh xaHkhj deh iSnk gks xbZA tSls&tSls ;knk
ls ;knk pjkxkgksa dks ljdkjh dCks esa ysdj mUgsa [ksrksa esa cnyk tkus yxk]
oSls&oSls pjkxkgksa osQ fy, miyCk bykdk floqQM+us yxkA blh rjg] taxyksa
osQ vkj{k.k dk urhtk ;g gqvk fd xM+fj;s vkSj i'kqikyd vc vius
eosf'k;ksa dks taxyksa esa igys tSlh vkkknh ls ugha pjk ldrs FksA
tc pjkxkg [ksrksa esa cnyus yxs rks cps&[kqps pjkxkgksa esa pjus okys
tkuojksa dh rknkn c<+us yxhA bldk urhtk ;g gqvk fd pjkxkg lnk
tkuojksa ls Hkjs jgus yxsA vc rd rks ?kqearw pjokgs vius eosf'k;ksa dks
oqQN fnu rd gh ,d bykds esa pjkrs Fks vkSj mlosQ ckn fdlh vkSj
bykds esa pys tkrs FksA bl vnyk&cnyh dh otg ls fiNys pjkxkg Hkh
fiQj ls gjs&Hkjs gks tkrs FksA ysfdu pjokgksa dh vkoktkgh ij yxh cafn'kksa

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xqTtj cdjoky

ikfd
Lrk
u

xn~nh

HkksfV;k
xqTtj

uis ky

catkjs

jkbdk

ckaXykns'k

e#LFky {ks=k
ey/kjh

catkjs

o
n

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

vjc egklkxj

eksuik

HkwVku

/axj

caxky dh
[kkM+h

oqQ#ek
oqQ#ck
xksYyk

dksckj
vMa eku fu

y{k}hi

eki iSekus osQ vuq:i ugha gS

106

Jhyadk

fp=k 11 & Hkkjr esa pjokgk leqnk;bl uD'ks esa osQoy mu pjokgk leqnk;ksa osQ bykdksa dk mYys[k
fd;k x;k gS ftuosQ ckjs esa bl v;k; esa ckr dh xbZ gSA buosQ
vykok Hkh gekjs ns'k esa dbZ vkSj pjokgk leqnk; jgrs gSaA

vkSj pjkxkgksa osQ csfglkc bLrseky ls pjkxkgksa dk Lrj fxjus yxkA tkuojksa
osQ fy, pkjk de iM+us yxkA iQyLo:i tkuojksa dh lsgr vkSj rknkn Hkh
fxjus yxhA pkjs dh deh vkSj tc&rc iM+us okys vdky dh otg ls
dekksj vkSj Hkw[ks tkuoj cM+h la[;k esa ejus yxsA

2-2 pjokgksa us bu cnykoksa dk lkeuk dSls fd;k\


bu cnykoksa ij pjokgksa dh izfrf;k dbZ :iksa esa lkeus vkbZA oqQN
pjokgksa us rks vius tkuojksa dh la[;k gh de dj nhA vc cgqr lkjs
tkuojksa dks pjkus osQ fy, igys dh rjg cM+s&cM+s vkSj cgqr lkjs eSnku
ugha cps FksA tc iqjkus pjkxkgksa dk bLrseky djuk eqf'dy gks x;k rks oqQN
pjokgksa us u,&u, pjkxkg <w<+ fy,A felky osQ rkSj ij] V vkSj HksM+
ikyus okys jkbdk 1947 osQ ckn u rks flak esa nkf[ky gks ldrs Fks vkSj
u flakq unh osQ fdukjs vius tkuojksa dks pjk ldrs FksA Hkkjr vkSj
ikfdLrku osQ chp [khap nh xbZ ubZ lhekjs[kk us mUgsa ml rjI+kQ tkus ls
jksd fn;kA kkfgj gS vc mUgsa tkuojksa dks pjkus osQ fy, ubZ txg <w<+uh
FkhA vc os gfj;k.kk osQ [ksrksa esa tkus yxs gSa tgk dVkbZ osQ ckn [kkyh iM+s
[ksrksa esa os vius eosf'k;ksa dks pjk ldrs gSaA blh le; [ksrksa dks [kkn dh
Hkh k:jr jgrh gS tks mUgsa bu tkuojksa osQ ey&ew=k ls fey tkrh gSA
le; xqkjus osQ lkFk oqQN kuh pjokgs kehu [kjhn dj ,d txg
cl dj jgus yxsA muesa ls oqQN fu;fer :i ls [ksrh djus yxs tcfd
oqQN O;kikj djus yxsA ftu pjokgksa osQ ikl ;knk iSlk ugha Fkk os
lwn[kksjksa ls C;kt ij dkZ ysdj fnu dkVus yxsA bl pDdj esa cgqrksa osQ
eos'kh Hkh gkFk ls tkrs jgs vkSj os eknwj cu dj jg x,A os [ksrksa ;k
NksVs&eksVs dLcksa esa eknwjh djrs fn[kkbZ nsus yxsA
bl lcosQ ckotwn pjokgs u osQoy vkt Hkh fkank gSa cfYd gky osQ
n'kdksa esa dbZ txg rks mudh la[;k esa o`f Hkh gqbZ gSA tc Hkh fdlh
bykds osQ pjkxkgksa esa muosQ nkf[kys ij jksd yxk nh tkrh os viuh fn'kk
cny ysrs] jsoM+ NksVk dj ysrs vkSj ubZ nqfu;k osQ fekkt ls rkyesy
fcBkus osQ fy, nwljs dke&kaks Hkh djus yxrsA cgqr lkjs ikfjfLFkfr
foKkuh ekurs gSa fd lw[ks bykdksa vkSj igkM+ksa esa fkank jgus osQ fy, pjokgh
gh lcls O;kogkfjd jkLrk gSA
cgjgky] pjokgksa ij bl rjg osQ cnyko flI +kQZ gekjs ns'k esa gh ugha
Fkksis x, FksA nqfu;k osQ cgqr lkjs bykdksa esa u, dkuwuksa vkSj clkgV osQ u,
rkSj&rjhdksa us mUgsa vkkqfud nqfu;k esa vk jgs cnykoksa osQ eqrkfcd viuh
fkanxh dk <jkZ cnyus ij etcwj fd;k gSA vkkqfud fo'o esa vk, bu
cnykoksa ls fuiVus osQ fy, ckdh ns'kksa osQ pjokgksa us D;k jkLrs viuk,\

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vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

o
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107

vi+zQhdk esa pjokgk thou

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

vkb, vc kjk vi+Qz hdk dh rjI+kQ pysa tgk nqfu;k dh vkkh ls ;knk
pjokgk vkcknh jgrh gSA vkt Hkh viz+ Qhdk osQ yxHkx lok nks djksM+ yksx
jkskh&jksVh osQ fy, fdlh u fdlh rjg dh pjokgh xfrfofk;ksa ij gh
vkfJr gSaA buesa csnqbZUl] cjcslZ] eklkbZ] lksekyh] cksjku vkSj rqdkZuk tSls
tkus&ekus leqnk; Hkh 'kkfey gSaA buesa ls ;knkrj vc vkZ&'kq"d ?kkl osQ
eSnkuksa ;k lw[ks jsfxLrkuksa esa jgrs gSa tgk o"kkZ vkkkfjr [ksrh djuk cgqr
eqf'dy gSA ;gk osQ pjokgs xk;&cSy] V] cdjh] HksM+ o xks ikyrs gSa
vkSj nwk] ekl] i'kqvksa dh [kky o u vkfn csprs gSaA oqQN pjokgs O;kikj
vkSj ;krk;kr lacakh dke Hkh djrs gSaA oqQN pjokgh osQ lkFk&lkFk [ksrh
Hkh djrs gSaA oqQN yksx pjokgh ls gksus okyh ekewyh vk; ls xqtj ugha gks
ikus ij dksbZ Hkh kakk dj ysrs gSaA
fganLq rku dh rjg vi+zQhdh pjokgksa dh fkanxh esa Hkh vkSifuosf'kd
vkSj mkj&vkSifuosf'kd dky esa xgjs cnyko vk, gSaA vkf[kj D;k Fks ;s
cnyko\

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fp=k 12 & eklkbZ ySaM ftlosQ ihNs fdfyeatkjks igkM+ fn[kkbZ ns jgs gSa cnyrh ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ dkj.k eklkbZ eDdk] pkoy] vkyw] xksHkh tSls mu [kk| inkFkks ij fuHkZj gksrs tk jgs gSa tks muosQ bykosQ esa iSnk ugha gksrsA ijaijkxr :i ls os bu phkksa
dks ilan ugha djrs FksA eklkbZ ekurs gSa fd I+kQly mxkus osQ fy, kehu ij gy pykuk izo`Qfr osQ fo# gS_ ;fn vki kehu ij [ksrh djus yxrs gSa rks og pjokgh osQ yk;d
ugha jgrhA lkStU; % n eklkbZ ,lksfl,'kuA
108

cjcslZ

csnbq uZ

rkmjsx
oksnkcsiQq ykuh

ewlZ

dkCckfc'k

cstk
MkukfUdy
lksekyh

kk;js

d
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bZfFk;ksfi;k

lwMku
rqdkZuk

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cks j ku lksekyh

mxkaMk

lksekyh
dhfu;k

foDVksfj;k
>hy

eklkbZ
eklkbZ

ra kkfu;k

gsjsjks

rLokuk

eklkbZ

kqyw

fgan
egklkxj

ukek

fp=k 13 & vi+zQhdk osQ pjokgk leqnk;NksVh rLohj (bulsV) esa dhfu;k vkSj rakkfu;k esa eklkb;ksa dk bykdk n'kkZ;k x;k gSA

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3-1 pjkxkgksa dk D;k gqvk\


eklkb;ksa dh lcls cM+h leL;k ;g jgh gS fd muosQ pjkxkg fnuksafnu
fleVrs tk jgs gSaA vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu ls igys eklkbZyaSM dk bykdk
mkjh dhfu;k ls ysdj rakkfu;k osQ ?kkl osQ eSnkuksa (Lrsihk) rd iQSyk
gqvk FkkA mUuhloha lnh osQ vkf[kj esa ;wjksi dh lkezkT;oknh rkdrksa us
viz+ Qhdk esa dCks osQ fy, ekjdkV 'kq: dj nh vkSj cgqr lkjs bykdksa dks
NksVs&NksVs mifuos'kksa esa rCnhy djosQ vius&vius dCks esa ys fy;kA
1885 esa fczfV'k dhfu;k vkSj teZu rkaxkfU;dk osQ chp ,d varjkZ"Vh;

rkaxkfU;dk osQ ckjs esa


fczVus us igys fo'o;q osQ nkSjku ml bykds ij dCkk
dj fy;k ftls teZu bZLV vi+zQ hdk dgk tkrk FkkA
1919 esa rkaxkfU;dk fczfV'k fu;a=k.k esa vk x;kA 1961
esa mls vkkknh feyh vkSj 1964 esa kakhckj osQ foy;
osQ ckn mls rakkfu;k dk u;k uke fn;k x;kA
109

vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

bu ifjorZuksa dks ge pjokgksa osQ ,d [kkl leqnk; osQ ek;e ls


le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA pfy, blosQ fy, eklkbZ uke osQ leqnk; dks
pqu ysrs gSaA eklkbZ i'kqikyd eksVs rkSj ij iwohZ vi+zQhdk osQ fuoklh gSAa
buesa ls yxHkx 3] 00] 000 nf{k.kh dhfu;k esa vkSj djhc 1] 50] 000
rakkfu;k esa jgrs gSaA vHkh ge ns[ksaxs fd u, dkuwuksa vkSj cafn'kksa us fdl
rjg u osQoy mudh kehu muls Nhu yh cfYd mudh vkoktkgh ij Hkh
cgqr lkjh ikcafn;k Fkksi nh gSaA bu dkuwuksa osQ dkj.k lw[ks osQ fnuksa eas
mudh fkanxh xgjs rkSj ij cny xbZ gS vkSj muosQ lkekftd lacak Hkh
,d ubZ 'kDy esa <y x, gSaA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

lhek [khapdj eklkbZySaM osQ nks cjkcj&cjkcj VqdM+s dj fn, x,A ckn osQ
lkyksa esa ljdkj us xksjksa dks clkus osQ fy, csgrjhu pjkxkgksa dks vius
dCks esa ys fy;kA eklkb;ksa dks nf{k.kh dhfu;k vkSj mkjh rakkfu;k osQ
NksVs ls bykosQ esa lesV fn;k x;kA vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu ls igys eklkb;ksa
osQ ikl ftruh kehu Fkh mldk yxHkx 60 I+kQhlnh fgLlk muls Nhu
fy;k x;kA mUgsa ,sls lw[ks bykdksa esa oSQn dj fn;k x;k tgk u rks vPNh
ckfj'k gksrh Fkh vkSj u gh gjs&Hkjs pjkxkg FksA
mUuhloha lnh osQ vafre lkyksa ls fczfV'k vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj iwohZ
viz+ Qhdk esa Hkh LFkkuh; fdlkuksa dks viuh [ksrh osQ {ks=kiQy dks ;knk ls
;knk iQSykus osQ fy, izksRlkfgr djus yxhA tSls&tSls [ksrh dk izlkj gqvk
oSls&oSls pjkxkg [ksrksa esa rCnhy gksus yxsA vaxzskksa osQ vkus ls igys eklkbZ
vkfFkZd vkSj jktuhfrd] nksuksa Lrj ij vius fdlku iM+ksfl;ksa ij Hkkjh
iM+rs FksA vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ var rd vkrs&vkrs ;g lehdj.k
fcYoqQy myV pqdk FkkA
cgqr lkjs pjkxkgksa dks f'kdkjxkg cuk fn;k x;kA dhfu;k esa eklkbZ
ekjk o lkEcw: uS'kuy ikoZQ vkSj rakkfu;k esa lsjsUxsVh ikoZQ tSls f'kdkjxkg
blh rjg vfLrRo esa vk, FksA bu vkjf{kr taxyksa esa pjokgksa dk vkuk euk
FkkA bu bykdksa esa u rks os f'kdkj dj ldrs Fks vkSj u vius tkuojksa dks
pjk ldrs FksA ,sls cgqr lkjs vkjf{kr taxyksa esa vc rd eklkbZ vius
<ksj&Maxj pjk;k djrs FksA felky osQ rkSj ij lsjsUxsVh uS'kuy ikoZQ dk
14]760 oxZ fdyksehVj ls Hkh ;knk {ks=kiQy eklkb;ksa osQ pjkxkgksa ij
dCkk djosQ cuk;k x;k FkkA

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fp=k 14 & ?kkl osQ fcuk i'kq (eos'kh] cdfj;k vkSj HksM+sa) oqQiks"k.k dk f'kdkj gks tkrs gSa ftldk eryc gS fd pjokgksa osQ ifjokjksa vkSj cPpksa osQ fy, Hkkstu de iM+us yxrk
gSA lw[ks vkSj Hkkstu dh lokZfkd deh ls xzLr bykdk vEckslsyh uS'kuy ikdZ osQ vklikl iM+rk gS ftldh i;ZVu ls gksus okyh vk; fiNys lky yxHkx 24 djksM+ dhfu;u
f'kfyax (yxHkx 35 yk[k vesfjdh MkWyj) FkhA fdfyeatkjks ty ifj;kstuk Hkh blh bykds ls gksdj tkrh gS ysfdu ;gk jgus okys leqnk; u rks ihus osQ fy, vkSj u gh flapkbZ
osQ fy, bl ifj;kstuk osQ ikuh dk bLrseky dj ldrs gSaA lkStU; % n eklkbZ ,lksfl,'kuA
110

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fp=k 15 & eklkbZ uke ^ek* 'kCn ls fudyk gSA ek&lkbZ dk eryc gksrk gS ^esjs yksx*A ijaijkxr :i ls eklkbZ ?kqearw vkSj pjokgk leqnk;
osQ yksx gksrs gSa tks viuh vkthfodk osQ fy, nwk vkSj ekl ij vkfJr jgrs gSaA mQps rkieku vkSj de o"kkZ osQ dkj.k ;gk 'kq"d] kwy
Hkjs vkSj csgn xeZ gkykr jgrs gSaA bl vkZ&'kq"d fo"kqoro`kh; bykds esa lw[ks osQ gkykr lkekU; gSaA ,sls le; esa cgqr lkjs tkuoj ej
tkrs gSaA lkStU; % n eklkbZ ,lksfl,'kuA

ksr p

vIk+z Qhdk dh vU; txgksa ij Hkh pjokgksa dks blh rjg dh eqf'dyksa dk lkeuk djuk
iM+kA nf{k.k&if'pe vi+ zQhdk esa fLFkr ukehfc;k osQ dkvksdksySaM pjokgs ijaijkxr
:i ls dkvksdksySaM vkSj ikl gh esa fLFkr vksokEcksySaM osQ chp vkrs&tkrs jgrs FksA
;s yksx vklikl osQ ckkkjksa esa tkuojksa dh [kky] xks'r vkSj vU; oLrq, cspk djrs
FksA ubZ HkkSxksfyd lhekvksa us nwj&nwj osQ bykdksa esa muosQ vkus&tkus ij ikcanh yxk
nh ftlls mudk igys dh rjg nksuksa bykdksa esa vkuk&tkuk iwjh rjg can gks x;kA

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ukehfc;k fLFkr dkvksdksySaM osQ ?kqearw i'kqikydksa dh f'kdk;r Fkh %

vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

^ge cM+h eqf'dy esa gSaA ge cl jksrs jgrs gSaA gesa oSQn esa Mky fn;k x;k gSA gesa rks
irk Hkh ugha fd gesa can D;ksa fd;k x;k gSA ge tsy esa gSaA gekjs ikl jgus dh dksbZ
txg ugha gS---A ge nf{k.k ls xks'r ugha yk ldrs---A [kkyksa dks ckgj ugha Hkst ldrs--A vksokEcksySaM vc gekjs fy, can gks pqdk gSA ge yacs le; rd vksokEcksySaM esa
jgs gSaA ge vius tkuojksa dks] viuh HksM+ksa vkSj cdfj;ksa dks ogk ys tkuk pkgrs gSaA
ij lhek, can gSaA ;s lhek, gesa ekjs ns jgh gSaA thuk eqf'dy gSA*
ukehfc;k fLFkr dkvksdksySaM osQ pjokgksa dk c;ku] ukehfc;k] 1949ekbosQy ckWfyx] ^n dkWyksfu;y ,uosQIL;qy's ku vkWIk+ Q n ukWFkZ osLVuZ ukehfc;u ikLVksjy
bdkWukWeh*] vi+ zQhdk] 68 (4)] 1998 esa m`rA

111

ksr N
vkSifuosf'kd vi+ zQhdk osQ cgqr lkjs LFkkuksa ij iqfyl dks pjokgksa osQ vkus&tkus ij ukj j[kus vkSj mUgsa
xksjksa osQ bykdksa esa nkf[ky gksus ls jksdus dk cankscLr fd;k x;k FkkA ukehfc;k esa dkvksdksySaM osQ pjokgksa
osQ vkus&tkus ij ikcafn;k yxkus osQ fy, nf{k.k&if'peh viz+ Qhdk osQ ,d eftLVsV us iqfyl dks ,slk gh
,d funsZ'k fn;k Fkk %

^dkvksdksySaM ijfeV~l Vw ,aVj*] eftLVsV }kjk V~tks vkSj dkekUtkc osQ iqfyl LVs'ku dekaMjksa dks fy[kk
x;k i=k] 24 uoacj 1937-

ksr

^tc rd dksbZ cgqr [kkl gkykr iSnk u gks tk, rc rd bu ewy fuokfl;ksa dks bykds esa nkf[ky gksus osQ
fy, ikl tkjh u fd, tk, ---A bl vkns'k dk edln bykosQ esa nkf[ky gksus okys fuokfl;ksa dh la[;k ij vaoQq 'k
yxkuk vkSj mUgsa dkcw esa j[kuk gS blfy, mUgsa lkekU; ;k=kh ikl fdlh Hkh gkyr esa tkjh u fd, tk,A*

vPNs pjkxkgksa vkSj ty lalkkuksa osQ gkFk ls fudy tkus dh otg ls


ml NksVs ls bykosQ ij ncko cgqr ;knk c<+ x;k ftlesa eklkb;ksa dks
kosQy fn;k x;k FkkA ,d NksVs&ls bykosQ esa yxkrkj pjk;h dk urhtk ;g
gqvk fd pjkxkgksa dk Lrj fxjus yxkA pkjs dh ges'kk deh jgus yxhA
eosf'k;ksa dk isV Hkjuk ,d LFkk;h leL;k cu x;kA

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3-2 ljgnsa can gks xb

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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mUuhloha lnh esa pjokgs pjkxkgksa dh [kkst esa cgqr nwj&nwj rd pys tkrs FksA
tc ,d txg osQ pjkxkg lw[k tkrs Fks rks os vius jsoM+ ysdj fdlh vkSj txg
pys tkrs FksA ysfdu mUuhloha lnh osQ vkf[kjh n'kdksa ls vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj
mudh vkoktkgh ij rjg&rjg dh ikcafn;k yxkus yxhA
eklkb;ksa dh rjg vU; pjokgksa dks Hkh fo'ks"k vkjf{kr bykdksa dh
lhekvksa esa oSQn dj fn;k x;kA vc ;s leqnk; bu vkjf{kr bykdksa dh
lhekvksa osQ ikj vk&tk ugha ldrs FksA os fo'ks"k ijfeV fy, fcuk vius
tkuojksa dks ysdj ckgj ugha tk ldrs FksA ysfdu ijfeV gkfly djuk Hkh
dksbZ vklku dke ugha FkkA blosQ fy, mUgsa rjg&rjg dh ckkkvksa dk
lkeuk djuk iM+rk Fkk vkSj mUgsa rax fd;k tkrk FkkA vxj dksbZ fu;eksa dk
ikyu ugha djrk Fkk rks mls dM+h lkk nh tkrh FkhA
pjokgksa dks xksjksa osQ bykosQ esa iM+us okys ckkkjksa esa nkf[ky gksus ls Hkh
jksd fn;k x;kA cgqr lkjs bykdksa esa rks os dbZ rjg osQ O;kikj Hkh ugha
dj ldrs FksA ckgj ls vk, xksjs vkSj ;wjksih; vkSifuosf'kd vI+k Qlj mUgsa
[krjukd vkSj ccZj LoHkko okyk ekurs FksA mudh ukj esa ;s ,sls yksx Fks
ftuosQ lkFk de ls de lacak j[kuk gh mfpr FkkA ysfdu bu LFkkuh;
yksxksa ls fdlh Hkh rjg osQ lacak u j[kuk Hkh eqefdu ugha FkkA vkf[kj
[kkuksa ls eky fudkyus] lM+osaQ cukus vkSj 'kgj clkus osQ fy, xksjksa dks bUk
dkyksa osQ Je dk gh rks Hkjkslk FkkA
ubZ ljgnksa us pjokgksa dh fkanxh jkrksa&jkr cny MkyhA ubZ ikcafn;ksa
vkSj ckkkvksa dh vkM+ esa mUgsa izrkfM+r fd;k tkus yxk vkSj os NksVs&ls
bykosQ esa [kqn dks oSQn&lk eglwl djus yxsA blls mudh pjokgh vkSj
O;kikfjd] nksuksa rjg dh xfrfofk;ksa ij cgqr cqjk vlj iM+kA vc rd

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pjokgs u osQoy eos'kh pjkrs Fks cfYd rjg&rjg osQ O;olk; Hkh fd;k
djrs FksA vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ varxZr Fkksi nh xbZ cafn'kksa ls mudk
O;kikj can rks ugha gqvk ysfdu vc ml ij rjg&rjg osQ vaoqQ'k k:j
yx x,A

3-3 tc pjkxkg lw[k tkrs gSa


lw[kk nqfu;k Hkj osQ pjokgksa dh fkanxh ij vlj Mkyrk gSA ftl lky
ckfj'k ugha gksrh vkSj pjkxkg lw[k tkrs gSa vxj ml lky eosf'k;ksa dks
fdlh gjs&Hkjs bykds esa u ys tk;k tk, rks muosQ lkeus Hkq[kejh dk ladV
iSnk gks tkrk gSA blhfy, ijaijkxr rkSj ij pjokgs ?kqearw LoHkko osQ yksx
gksrs gSa] os ;gk ls ogk tkrs gh jgrs gSaA blh ?kqearwius dh otg ls os cqjs
oDr dk lkeuk dj ikrs gSa vkSj ladV ls cp fudyrs gSaA
ysfdu vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu dh LFkkiuk osQ ckn rks eklkb;ksa dks ,d
fuf'pr bykds esa oSQn dj fn;k x;k FkkA muosQ fy, ,d bykdk vkjf{kr
dj fn;k x;k vkSj pjkxkgksa dh [kkst esa ;gk&ogk HkVdus ij jksd yxk
nh xbZA mUgsa csgrjhu pjkxkgksa ls eg:e dj fn;k x;k vkSj ,d ,slh
vkZ&'kq"d iV~Vh esa jgus ij etcwj dj fn;k x;k tgk lw[ks dh vk'kadk
ges'kk cuh jgrh FkhA D;ksafd ;s yksx ladV osQ le; Hkh vius tkuojksa dks
ysdj ,slh txg ugha tk ldrs Fks tgk mUgsa vPNs pjkxkg fey ldrs FksA
blfy, lw[ks osQ lkyksa esa eklkb;ksa osQ cgqr lkjs eos'kh Hkw[k vkSj chekfj;ksa
dh otg ls ekjs tkrs FksA 1930 dh ,d tkp ls irk pyk fd dhfu;k
esa eklkb;ksa osQ ikl 7]20]000 eos'kh] 8]20]000 HksM+ vkSj 1]71]000
xks FksA 1933 vkSj 1934 esa iM+s osQoy nks lky osQ lw[ks osQ ckn buesa
ls vkks ls ;knk tkuoj ej pqosQ FksA
tSls&tSls pjus dh txg floqQM+rh xbZ] lw[ks osQ nq"ifj.kke Hk;kud
:i ysrs pys x,A ckj&ckj vkus okys cqjs lkyksa dh otg ls pjokgksa osQ
tkuojksa dh la[;k esa yxkrkj fxjkoV vkrh xbZA

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vkSifuosf'kd dky esa vi+Qz hdk osQ ckdh LFkkuksa dh rjg eklkbZySaM esa Hkh
vk, cnykoksa ls lkjs pjokgksa ij ,d tSlk vlj ugha iM+kA mifuos'k cuus
ls igys eklkbZ lekt nks lkekftd Jsf.k;ksa esa cVk gqvk Fkk ofj"B tu
(,sYMlZ) vkSj ;ksk (okWfj;lZ)A ofj"B tu 'kklu pykrs FksA leqnk; ls
tqM+s ekeyksa ij fopkj&foe'kZ djus vkSj vge I+kSQlys ysus osQ fy, os
le;&le; ij lHkk djrs FksA ;kskvksa esa ;knkrj ukStoku gksrs Fks ftUgsa
eq[; :i ls yM+kbZ yM+us vkSj dchys dh fgI+kQkkr djus osQ fy, rS;kj
fd;k tkrk FkkA os leqnk; dh j{kk djrs Fks vkSj nwljs dchyksa osQ eos'kh
Nhu dj ykrs FksA tgk tkuoj gh laifk gks ogk geyk djosQ nwljksa osQ
tkuoj Nhu ysuk ,d egoiw.kZ dke gksrk FkkA vyx&vyx pjokgk
leqnk;ksa dh rkdr bUgha geyksa ls r; gksrh FkhA ;qokvksa dks ;ksk oxZ dk
fgLlk rHkh ekuk tkrk Fkk tc os nwljs lewg osQ eosf'k;ksa dks Nhu dj vkSj

vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

3-4 lc ij ,d tSlk vlj ugha iM+k

fp=k 16 & ;ksk xgjs yky jax dh 'kqdk vkSj pednkj eksfr;ksa
osQ vkHkw"k.k igurs gSa rFkk LVhy dh uksd okyk ikp I+kqQV yack
Hkkyk j[krs gSaA ckjhdh ls lokjs x, muosQ cky xs: ls jaxs gksrs
gSaA mxrs lwjt dks lEeku nsus osQ fy, os iwoZ dh vksj eqg djosQ
[kM+s gksrs gSaA ;ksk vius leqnk; dh j{kk djrs gSa vkSj yM+osQ
i'kqvksa dks pjkrs gSaA lw[ks osQ ekSle esa ;ksk vkSj yM+osQ] nksuksa gh
i'kq pjkrs gSaA lkStU; % n eklkbZ ,lksfl,'kuA

113

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 17 & vkt Hkh ;ksk cuus osQ fy, ;qodksa dks O;kid
vuq"Bkuksa ls xqkjuk iM+rk gS gkykfd vc ;g izFkk igys tSlh
izpfyr ugha gSA blosQ fy, ;qodksa dks yxHkx pkj ekg rd vius
dchys osQ bykosQ dk nkSjk djuk iM+rk gSA bl ;k=kk osQ var esa os
Nkikekjksa dh rjg nkSM+dj vius vgkrs esa ?kqlrs gSaA bl lekjksg osQ
ekSosQ ij ;qod <hys diM+s igurs gSa vkSj iwjs fnu ukprs jgrs gSaA bl
vuq"Bku osQ lkFk gh os thou osQ ,d u, pj.k esa igqp tkrs gSaA
yM+fd;ksa dks bl rjg osQ vuq"Bkuksa ls ugha xqkjuk iM+rkA
lkStU; % n eklkbZ ,lksfl,'kuA

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;q esa cgknqjh dk izn'kZu djosQ viuh enkZuxh lkfcr dj nsrs FksA fiQj
Hkh os ofj"B tuksa osQ uhps jg dj gh dke djrs FksA
eklkb;ksa osQ ekeyksa dh ns[kHkky djus osQ fy, vaxzsk ljdkj us dbZ
,sls I+kSQlys fy, ftuls vkus okys lkyksa esa cgqr xgjs vlj iM+sA mUgksaus
dbZ eklkbZ milewgksa osQ eqf[k;k r; dj fn, vkSj vius&vius dchys osQ
lkjs ekeyksa dh fkEesnkjh mUgsa gh lkSai nhA blosQ ckn mUgksaus geyksa vkSj
yM+kb;ksa ij ikcanh yxk nhA bl rjg ofj"B tuksa vkSj ;kskvksa] nksuksa dh
ijaijkxr lkk cgqr dekksj gks xbZA
tSls&tSls le; chrk] vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj }kjk fu;qDr fd, x,
eqf[k;k eky bdk djus yxsA muosQ ikl fu;fer vkenuh Fkh ftlls os
tkuoj] lkkks&lkeku vkSj kehu [kjhn ldrs FksA os vius xjhc iM+ksfl;ksa
dks yxku pqdkus osQ fy, dkZ ij iSlk nsrs FksA muesa ls ;knkrj ckn esa
'kgjksa esa tkdj cl x, vkSj O;kikj djus yxsA muosQ choh&cPps xko esa
gh jgdj tkuojksa dh ns[kHkky djrs FksA mUgsa pjokgh vkSj xSj&pjokgh]
nksuksa rjg dh vkenuh gksrh FkhA vxj muosQ tkuoj fdlh otg ls ?kV
tk, rks os vkSj tkuoj [kjhn ldrs FksA
tks pjokgs flI+kZQ vius tkuojksa osQ lgkjs fkanxh clj djrs Fks mudh
gkyr vyx FkhA muosQ ikl cqjs oDr dk lkeuk djus osQ fy, vdlj
lkku ugha gksrs FksA ;q vkSj vdky osQ nkSjku mudk lc oqQN [kRe gks
tkrk FkkA rc mUgsa dke dh ryk'k esa vklikl osQ 'kgjksa dh 'kj.k ysuh
iM+rh FkhA dksbZ dPpk dks;yk tykus dk dke djus yxrk Fkk rks dksbZ
oqQN vkSj djrk FkkA ftudh rdnhj ;knk vPNh Fkh mUgsa lM+d ;k Hkou
fuekZ.k dk;ks esa dke fey tkrk FkkA
bl rjg eklkbZ lekt esa nks Lrjksa ij cnyko vk,A igyk] ofj"B tuksa
vkSj ;kskvksa osQ chp mez ij vkkkfjr ijaijkxr I+kQoZQ iwjh rjg [kRe Hkys
u gqvk gks ij cqjh rjg vLr&O;Lr k:j gks x;kA nwljk] vehj vkSj xjhc
pjokgksa osQ chp u;k HksnHkko iSnk gqvkA

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fu"d"kZ
bl rjg ge ns[krs gSa fd vkkqfud fo'o esa vk, cnykoksa ls nqfu;k osQ
vyx&vyx pjokgk leqnk;ksa ij vyx&vyx rjg osQ vlj iM+s gSaA u,
dkuwuksa vkSj lhekvksa us mudh vkoktkgh dk <jkZ cny fn;kA tSls&tSls
pjkxkg [kRe gksrs x,] tkuojksa dks pjkuk ,d eqf'dy dke gksrk pyk x;k
vkSj tks pjkxkg cps Fks os Hkh vR;fkd bLrseky dh otg ls csdkj gks
x,A lw[ks osQ le; mudh leL;k, igys ls Hkh ;knk c<+ xb D;ksafd rc
muosQ tkuoj cM+h rknkn esa ne rksM+us yxrs FksA vc muosQ vkus&tkus ij
cgqr lkjh cafn'ksa Fkksi nh xbZ Fkha blfy, os u, pjkxkgksa dh ryk'k Hkh ugha
dj ldrs FksA
fiQj Hkh pjokgs cnyrs oDr osQ fglkc ls [+kqn dks <kyrs gSaA os viuh
lkykuk vkoktkgh dk jkLrk cny ysrs gSa] tkuojksa dh la[;k de dj ysrs
gSa] u, bykdksa esa nkf[ky gksus osQ fy, gj laHko ysu&nsu djrs gSa vkSj
jkgr] fj;k;r o enn osQ fy, ljdkj ij jktuhfrd ncko Mkyrs gSaA os
mu bykdksa esa vius vfkdkjksa dks cpk, j[kus osQ fy, viuk la?k"kZ tkjh
j[krs gSa tgk ls mUgsa [knsM+us dh dksf'k'k dh tkrh gS vkSj taxyksa osQ
j[kj[kko vkSj izcaku esa viuk fgLlk ekxrs gSaA
pjokgs vrhr osQ vo'ks"k ugha gSaA os ,sls yksx ugha gSa ftuosQ fy,
vkt dh vkkqfud nqfu;k esa dksbZ txg ugha gSA i;kZoj.koknh vkSj
vFkZ'kkL=kh vc bl ckr dks dkI+kQh xaHkhjrk ls ekuus yxs gSa fd ?kqearw
pjokgksa dh thou'kSyh nqfu;k osQ cgqr lkjs igkM+h vkSj lw[ks bykdksa esa
thou;kiu osQ fy, lcls ;knk mi;qDr gSA

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vk/qfud fo'o esa pjokgs

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fp=k 18 & t;iqj jktekxZ ij jkbdk xM+fj;scM+h lM+dksa ij Hkkjh ;krk;kr us xM+fj;ksa osQ u, bykds esa tkus dh izf;k dks ,d u;k vuqHko cuk fn;k gSA
115

1- dYiuk dhft, fd ;g 1950 dk le; gS vkSj vki 60 o"khZ; jkbdk i'kqikyd gSaA vki viuh iksrh
dks crk jgs gSa fd vkkknh ds ckn ls vkids thou esa D;k cnyko vk, gSaA vki mls D;k crk,xs\
2- eku yhft, fd vkidks ,d izfl if=kdk us mifuos'kokn ls igys viz+ Q hdk esa eklkb;ksa dh fLFkfr ds
ckjs esa ,d ys[k fy[kus ds fy, dgk gSA og ys[k fyf[k, vkSj mls ,d laqnj 'kh"kZd nhft,A
3- fp=k 11 vkSj 13 esa fpfr pjokgk leqnk;ksa esa ls oqQN leqnk;ksa osQ ckjs esa vkSj tkudkfj;k bd_k dhft,A

iz'u

2- bl ckjs esa ppkZ dhft, fd vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj us fuEufyf[kr dkuwu D;ksa cuk,\ ;g Hkh crkb, fd
bu dkuwuksa ls pjokgksa ds thou ij D;k vlj iM+k %

ijrh Hkwfe fu;ekoyh

ou vfkfu;e

vijkkh tutkfr vfkfu;e

pjkbZ dj

3- eklkbZ leqnk; ds pjkxkg mlls D;ksa fNu x,\ dkj.k crk,A

4- vkkqfud fo'o us Hkkjr vkSj iwohZ viz+ Qhdh pjokgk leqnk;ksa ds thou esa ftu ifjorZuksa dks tUe fn;k
muesa dbZ lekurk, FkhaA ,sls nks ifjorZuksa ds ckjs esa fyf[k, tks Hkkjrh; pjokgksa vkSj eklkbZ xM+fj;ksa]
nksuksa ds chp leku :i ls ekStwn FksA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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1- Li"V dhft, fd ?kqearw leqnk;ksa dks ckj&ckj ,d txg ls nwljh txg D;ksa tkuk iM+rk gS\ bl fujarj
vkokxeu ls i;kZoj.k dks D;k ykHk gSa\

116

f;kdyki

f;kdyki

v;k; 6

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj


fiNys nks v;k;ksa esa vki ouksa vkSj pjkxkgksa osQ ckjs esa i<+ jgs Fks] vkSj
muosQ ckjs esa Hkh tks bu ksrksa ls jkskh&jksVh vftZr djrs gSaA vkius >we
[ksrh djus okyksa] pjokgksa vkSj tutkrh; lewgksa osQ ckjs esa Hkh i<+kA vkius
tkuk fd fdl rjg ouksa vkSj pjkxkgksa dks vkkqfud ljdkjksa us fu;af=kr
djuk 'kq: fd;k vkSj mudh ikcafn;ksa ls mu ij Hkh vlj iM+k tks bu
lalkkuksa ij vkfJr FksA
bl v;k; esa vki fofHkUu ns'kksa osQ [ksfrgj leqnk;ksa osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA
;gk ,d vksj baXySaM osQ NksVs fdlkuksa (dkWVstj)] vesfjdk osQ xsgw
mRikndksa vkSj caxky osQ vI+kQhe mRiknd fdlkuksa osQ ckjs esa tkudkjh
gkfly djsaxs ogha nwljh rjI+kQ vki tkusaxs fd vkkqfud [ksrh dh 'kq#vkr
dk fofHkUu nsgkrh lewgksa ij D;k izHkko iM+kA ;g Hkh fd fo'oO;kih
iwthoknh ckkkj ls tqM+us dk nqfu;k osQ vyx&vyx bykdksa ij D;k
izHkko iM+rk gSA bu fofHkUu LFkkuksa dh rqyuk ls vki ;g tku ik,xs fd
bu LFkkuksa dk bfrgkl ,d&nwljs ls fHkUu gksrs gq, Hkh ,d izf;k osQ :i
esa fdruk feyrk&tqyrk jgk gSA
vkb, bl lI+kQj dh 'kq#vkr baXySaM ls gh djsa tgk f"k kafr us
igyh nLrd nh FkhA

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vkSj dk'rdkj
fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

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117

baXySaM esa vkkqfud [ksrh dh 'kq#vkr

igyh twu 1830 dh ?kVuk gSA baXySMa osQ mkj&if'peh {ks=k osQ ,d fdlku
u, 'kCn
us vpkud ik;k fd mlosQ ckM+s esa jkr dks vkx yxus ls iqvky lfgr lkjk
ckM+kcanh% ikjaifjd [kqyh kehuksa ij futh
[kfygku tydj jk[k gks x;k gSA ckn osQ eghuksa esa bl rjg dh ?kVuk, dbZ
ckM+ yxkus dh ,sfrgkfld izfozQ;kA
nwljs fkyksa esa Hkh ntZ dh xbA dgha flI+kZQ iqvky ty tkrh vkSj dgha rks
dkWeUl% ikjaifjd lektksa esa lk>k] lkeqnkf;d
iwjk dk iwjk I+kQkeZ gkmQl gh Lokgk gks tkrk FkkA fiQj 28 vxLr 1830 osQ
ty&taxy&kehuA
fnu baXySMa osQ bZLV osaQV esa eknwjksa us ,d Fkzfs 'kax e'khu dks rksM+ dj u"V
dj fn;kA blosQ ckn nks lky rd naxksa dk nkSj pyk ftlesa rksM&+ iQksM+ dh
;s ?kVuk, iwjs nf{k.kh baXySMa esa iSQy xbA bl nkSjku yxHkx 387 Fkzfs 'kax
e'khusa rksMh+ xbA fdlkuksa dks kedh Hkjs i=k feyus yxs fd os bu e'khuksa
dk bLrseky djuk can dj nsa D;ksfa d buosQ dkj.k esgurd'kksa dh jkskh fNu
xbZ gSA ;knkrj [krksa ij ^oSQIVsu fLoax* uke osQ fdlh vkneh osQ nLr[kr
gksrs FksA kehankjksa dks ;g [krjk lrkus yxk fd dgha gfFk;kjcan fxjksg jkr
esa mu ij Hkh geyk u cksy nsAa bl pDdj esa cgqr lkjs kehankjksa us rks
viuh e'khusa [kqn gh rksM+ MkyhaA tokc esa ljdkj us l[r dkjZokbZ dhA ftu
+ dj fy;k x;kA
yksxksa ij 'kd Fkk fd os naxs esa fyIr gSa mUgsa I+k QkSju fxj rkj
1976 yksxksa ij eqdnek pyk] 9 dks iQklh nh xbZ vkSj 505 dks ns'k fudkyk
fn;k x;k ftuesa ls 450 dks vkWLVfs y;k Hkst fn;k x;kA yxHkx 644 yksxksa
dks canh cuk;k x;kA
bu [krksa esa ekStwn ^oSQIVsu fLoax* ,d feFkdh; uke FkkA rks fLoax osQ
uke ij naxs djus okys vkf[kj Fks dkSu\ os Fkzsf'kax e'khuksa dks rksM+us ij
D;ksa vkeknk Fks\ os fdl ckr dk fojksk dj jgs Fks\ bu lokyksa dk tokc
tkuus osQ fy, gesa vBkjgoha vkSj mUuhloha lnh osQ nkSjku baXySaM dh
ksr d
[ksrh esa vk, cnyko dks ns[kuk gksxkA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

1-1 [kqys [ksrksa vkSj dkWeUl dk nkSj

vBkjgoha lnh osQ vafre o"kks vkSj mUuhloha lnh osQ 'kq#vkrh nkSj esa
baXySaM osQ nsgkrh bykdksa esa ukVdh; cnyko gq,A igys baXySaM dk xzkeh.k
{ks=k dkI+kQh [kqyk&[kqyk gqvk djrk FkkA u rks kehu HkwLokfe;ksa dh futh
laifk Fkh vkSj u gh mldh ckM+kcanh dh xbZ FkhA fdlku vius xko osQ
vklikl dh kehu ij I+kQly mxkrs FksA lky dh 'kq#vkr esa ,d lHkk
cqykbZ tkrh Fkh ftlesa xko osQ gj O;fDr dks kehu osQ VqdM+s vkoafVr
dj fn, tkrs FksA kehu osQ ;s VqdM+s leku :i ls mitkmQ ugha gksrs Fks
vkSj dbZ txg fc[kjs gksrs FksA dksf'k'k ;g gksrh Fkh fd gj fdlku dks
vPNh vkSj [kjkc] nksuksa rjg dh kehu feysA [ksrh dh bl kehu osQ ijs
lk>k kehu gksrh FkhA dkWeUl dh bl lk>k kehu ij lkjs xzkeh.kksa dk
gd gksrk FkkA ;gk os vius eos'kh vkSj HksM&+ cdfj;k pjkrs Fks] tykou dh

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;s kedh Hkjs [kr dkI+kQh cM+s iSekus ij Hksts tkrs FksA


dbZ ckj bu [krksa dh Hkk"kk dkiQh 'kkyhu gksrh Fkh
tcfd dbZ ckj cgqr dM+h Hkk"kk dk bLrseky fd;k
tkrk FkkA oqQN i=k cgqr NksVs gksrs FksA ns[ksa ,d
uewuk %
Jheku
ge vkidks ;g crkuk pkgrs gSa fd vxj vkius
viuh Fkzsf'kax e'khu [kqn ugha rksM+h rks ge vius
yksxksa dks Hkst dj ;g dke djk,xsA
lc yksxksa dh vksj ls
fLoax
b-ts- gkWClckWe vkSj tkWtZ :ns] oSQIVsu fLoax lsA

ydfM+;k churs Fks vkSj [kkus osQ fy, dan&ewy&iQy bdV~Bk djrs FksA taxy ksr [k
esa os f'kdkj djrs vkSj ufn;ks]a rky&ryS;ksa esa eNyh idM+rAs xjhcksa osQ fy,
fLoax dh vksj ls l[r Hkk"kk esa Hksts x, [kr dk ,d
rks ;g lk>k kehu fkank jgus dk cqfu;knh lkku FkhA blh kehu osQ cy ij
uewuk %
os yksx viuh vk; esa deh dks iwjk djrs] vius tkuojksa dks ikyrsA tc fdlh
lky I+kQly pkSiV gks tkrh rks ;gh kehu mUgsa ladV ls mckjrh FkhA
Jheku]
baXySMa osQ oqQN fgLlksa esa [kqys [ksrksa vkSj eqDr vkSj lk>h kehu dh ;g
vkidk uke CySd cqd esa ntZ CySd gkV~Zl dh lwph
esa j[kk x;k gSA vki vkSj vki tSls vU; yksxksa dks
vFkZO;oLFkk lksygoha 'krkCnh ls gh cnyus yxh FkhA lksygoha lnh esa tc
lykg nh tkrh gS --- fd viuk bjknk crk,A
u osQ nke fo'o ckkkj esa p<+us yxs rks laiUu fdlku ykHk dekus osQ
fy, u dk mRiknu c<+kus dh dksf'k'k djus yxsA blosQ fy, mUgsa HksMk+ as
vki gj volj ij turk osQ fojkskh jgs gksA vkidks
dh uLy lqkkjus vkSj csgrj pjkxkgksa dh vko';drk gqbAZ urhtk ;g gqvk
tSlk djuk pkfg, Fkk vHkh rd vkius oSlk fd;k
fd lk>k kehu dks dkV&NkV dj ?ksjuk 'kq: dj fn;k x;k rkfd ,d dh
ugha gSA
laifk nwljs ls ;k lk>k kehu ls vyx gks tk,A lk>k kehu ij >ksifM+;k
fLoax
Mky dj jgus okys xzkeh.kksa dks mUgksua s fudky ckgj fd;k vkSj ckM+kcan [ksrksa
esa mudk izo's k fuf"k dj fn;k x;kA ;g ckM+kcanh dh 'kq#vkr FkhA
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ e; rd ckM+kcanh vkanksyu dh j+rkj dkiQh
kheh jghA 'kq: esa fxus&pqus HkwLokfe;ksa us viuh igy ij gh ckM+kcanh dh
FkhA blosQ ihNs jkT; ;k ppZ dk gkFk ugha FkkA ysfdu vBkjgoha lnh osQ
nwljs fgLls esa ckM+kcanh vkanksyu baXySaM osQ iwjs nsgkr esa iQSy x;k vkSj
blus baXySaM osQ Hkwn`'; dks vkewy cnydj j[k fn;kA 1750 ls 1850
osQ chp 60 yk[k ,dM+ kehu ij ckM+sa yxkbZ xbZaA fczVsu dh laln us
lf; Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gq, bu ckM+ksa dks oSkrk iznku djus osQ fy, 4] 000
dkuwu ikfjr fd,A

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fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

lIk+

osaQV

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ukjW I +
kQkd
Qkd
s
s

rksM+h xbZ e'khuksa dh la[;k


fLoax vkanksyu osQ izHkko okyk {ks=k

fp=k 1 & oSQIVsu fLoax vkanksyu (1830&32) osQ nkSjku baXySaM dh fofHkUu dkmafV;ksa esa
rksM+h xbZ Fkzsf'kax e'khusabZ- ts- gkWClckWe rFkk tkWtZ :ns dh iqLrd oSQIVsu fLoax ij vkkkfjrA
119

1-2 vukt dh c<+rh ekx


kehu dks ckM+kcan djus dh ,slh tYnckkh D;ksa Fkh\ vkSj] bu ckM+ksa dk
eryc D;k Fkk\ u, ckM+s iqjkus ckM+ksa ls fHkUu FksA tgk lksygoha 'krkCnh
osQ ckM+ksa esa HksM+ ikyu dk fodkl fd;k x;k] ogha vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ
vafre o"kks esa ckM+kcanh dk ms'; vukt mRiknu c<+kuk gks x;k] vkSj
bldk lanHkZ Hkh vyx Fkk,d u, nkSj dk lwpdA vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ
e; ls baXySaM dh vkcknh rskh ls c<+hA 1750 ls 1900 osQ chp baXySaM
dh vkcknh pkj xquk c<+ xbZA 1750 esa oqQy vkcknh 70 yk[k Fkh tks
1850 esa 2-1 djksM+ vkSj 1900 esa 3 djksM+ rd tk igqphA kkfgj gS fd
vc ;knk vukt dh k:jr FkhA blh nkSj esa baXySaM dk vkS|ksxhdj.k Hkh
gksus yxk FkkA cgqr lkjs yksx jgus vkSj dke djus osQ fy, xko ls 'kgjksa
dk #[k djus yxs FksA [kk|kUuksa osQ fy, og ckkkj ij fuHkZj gksrs x,A bl
rjg tSls&tSls 'kgjh vkcknh c<+h oSls&oSls [kk|kUuksa dk ckkkj Hkh iQSyrk
x;k vkSj [kk|kUuksa dh ekx osQ lkFk muosQ nke Hkh c<+us yxsA
vBkjgoha lnh osQ var esa iz+ Qkal vkSj baXySaM osQ chp ;q 'kq: gks x;kA
bldh otg ls ;wjksih; [kk|kUuksa osQ vk;kr lfgr O;kikj ckfkr gqvkA
bldk urhtk ;g gqvk fd baXySaM esa [kk|kUuksa osQ nke vkleku Nwus yxsA
blls mRlkfgr gksdj HkwLokeh viuh ckM+kcan kehu esa cM+s iSekus ij
vukt mxkus yxsA mudh frtksfj;k Hkjus yxha vkSj mUgksaus ckM+kcanh dkuwu
ikfjr djus osQ fy, laln ij ncko Mkyuk 'kq: dj fn;kA

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120

f'kfyax izfr cq'ksy

100

80

60

40

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

20

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1771- 1776- 1781- 1786- 1791- 1796- 1801- 1805- 1811- 1816- 1821- 1826- 1831- 1836- 1841- 184675
80
85
90
95 1800 05
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

o"kZ
vkS
lr ewprice
Y;
average

fp=k 2 % baXySaM vkSj osYl esa xsgw osQ nkeksa dk okf"kZd vkSlr % 1771&1850-

u, 'kCn
cq'ksy % {kerk dh eki
f'kfyax % baXySaM dh ,d eqnzk dk ukeA 20 f'kfyax = 1 ikSaM
120

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f;kdyki
xzkI+kQ dks ;kuiwoZd ns[ksaA xkSj djsa fd ewY; js[kk
1790 osQ nkSjku fdl izdkj rskh ls ij mBrh gS
vkSj 1815 osQ ckn ukVdh; <ax ls uhps fxjus yxrh
gSA D;k vki xzkI+kQ dh bu js[kkvksa esa vk, bu
mrkj&p<+koksa osQ dkj.kksa dk irk yxk ldrs gSaA

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+ d dk nsgkrh bykdkfp=k 3 & mUuhloha lnh dh 'kq#vkr esa lI kQks


vaxsz k fp=kdkj tkWu dkWUlVscy dh frA dkWUlVscy osQ firk vukt osQ cM+s O;kikjh FksA dkWUlVscy dk cpiu iwohZ baXySMa osQ xzkeh.k {ks=k lI+kQksd esa chrkA bl {ks=k esa ckM+kcanh dk
dke mUuhloha lnh ls dkI+kQh igys iwjk gks pqdk FkkA dkWUlVscy osQ fp=k nsgkr osQ [kqys thou dks cM+s Hkkoiw.kZ <ax ls mosQjrs gSaA muosQ fp=k gesa ,d ,sls nkSj ls ifjfpr djkrs
gSa tc nsgkr dk lhkk] ljy vkSj [kq'kuqek thou vrhr dh ckr curk tk jgk Fkk vkSj [kqys [ksrksa dh ckM+kcanh dh tk jgh FkhA bl fp=k esa ge [kssrksa ij yxh ckM+sa ns[k ldrs gSaA
ysfdu blls gesa ;g irk ugha pyrk fd rRdkyhu Hkwn`'; oSQls cnyrk tk jgk FkkA dkWUlVscy osQ fp=kksa esa gesa vkerkSj ij esgurd'k turk fn[kkbZ ugha nsrhA fp=k 1 ij ukj Mkyus
ls irk pyrk gS fd lI+kQksd ,sls bykdksa ls f?kjk gqvk Fkk tgk fLoax naxksa osQ nkSjku cM+s iSekus ij Fkzsf'kax e'khusa rksM+h xbZ FkhaA

fp=k 4 & lalnh; dkuwuksa osQ rgr lkoZtfud Hkwfe dh


ckM+kcanh % vBkjgoha&mUuhloha lnhbZ- ts- gkWClckWe rFkk tkWtZ :ns dh iqLrd oSQIVsu fLoax ij vkkkfjrA

121

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

o
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5 ls de
5&10
10&30
30&50
50 vkSj mlls vf/d

lIk+ ukjW Ik+


Qkd
s Qkd
s

baXySaM osQ bfrgkl esa 1780 dk n'kd igys osQ fdlh Hkh nkSj ls ;knk
ukVdh; fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA blls igys vdlj ;g gksrk Fkk fd vkcknh
c<+us ls [kk|kUu dk ladV xgjk tkrk FkkA ysfdu mUuhloha 'krkCnh esa
baXySaM esa ,slk ugha gqvkA ftl rskh ls vkcknh c<+h] mlh fglkc ls
[kk|kUu mRiknu Hkh c<+kA tula[;k o`f dh rsk j+rkj osQ ckotwn
1868 esa [kk|kUu dh viuh k:jrksa dk vLlh izfr'kr baXySaM [kqn iSnk
dj jgk FkkA ckdh dk vk;kr fd;k tk jgk FkkA
[kk|kUu mRiknu esa gqbZ ;g o`f [ksrh dh rduhd esa gq, fdlh u,
cnyko dk ifj.kke ugha FkhA cfYd gqvk flI+kZQ ;g fd ubZ&ubZ kehu ij
[ksrh dh tkus yxhA HkwLokfe;ksa us eqDr [ksrks]a lkoZtfud taxyks]a nynyh
kehu vkSj pjkxkgksa dks dkV&NkV dj cM+&s cM+s [ksr cuk fy, FksA
bl le; rd fdlku [ksrh esa mUgha ljy rduhdksa dk bLrseky dj
jgs Fks tks vBkjgoha lnh osQ izkjaHk esa cM+s iSekus ij izpfyr FkhaA 1660
osQ n'kd esa baXySaM osQ dbZ fgLlksa esa fdlku 'kyte vkSj frifr;k ?kkl
(Dyksoj) dh [ksrh djus yxs FksA mUgsa tYn gh vglkl gks x;k fd bu

ckM+kcanh dk izfr'kr

osaQV

1-3 ckM+kcanh dk ;qx

I +kQlyksa ls kehu dh iSnkokj c<+rh gSA fiQj] 'kyte dks i'kq Hkh cM+s pko
ls [kkrs FksA blfy, os 'kyte vkSj frifr;k ?kkl dh [ksrh fu;fer :i
ls djus yxsA ckn osQ v;;uksa ls irk pyk fd bu I+k Qlyksa ls kehu esa
ukbVkstu dh ek=kk c<+ tkrh gS tks I+k Qly o`f osQ fy, egoiw.kZ FkhA
vly esa yxkrkj [ksrh djus ls kehu esa ukbVkstu dh ek=kk ?kV tkrh gS
ftlosQ dkj.k kehu dh moZjrk Hkh de gksus yxrh gSA 'kyte vkSj
frifr;k ?kkl dh [ksrh ls kehu esa ukbVkstu dh ek=kk fiQj ls c<+ tkrh
Fkh vkSj kehu fiQj mitkmQ gks tkrh FkhA bl rjg mUuhloha lnh osQ
izkjafHkd o"kks esa [ksrh esa lqkkj ykus osQ fy, fdlku bUgha ljy rjhdksa dk
fu;fer :i ls bLrseky djus yxs FksA
vc ckM+kcanh dks ,d nh?kZdkfyd fuos'k osQ :i esa ns[kk tkus yxk
Fkk vkSj feV~Vh dh moZjrk c<+kus osQ fy, yksx cny&cny dj I +kQlysa
cksus yxs FksA ckM+kcanh ls vehj HkwLokfe;ksa dks viuh tksr c<+kus vkSj
ckkkj osQ fy, igys ls ;knk mRiknu djus dh lgwfy;r feyhA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

1-4 xjhcksa ij D;k chrh \

ckM+kcanh us HkwLokfe;ksa dh frtksfj;k Hkj nhaA ij mu yksxksa dk D;k gqvk


tks jkskh&jksVh osQ fy, dkWeUl ij gh vkfJr Fks\ ckM+ yxus ls ckM+s osQ
Hkhrj dh kehu HkwLokeh dh futh laifk cu tkrh FkhA xjhc vc u rks
taxy ls tykou dh ydM+h cVksj ldrs Fks vkSj u gh lk>k kehu ij
vius i'kq pjk ldrs FksA os u rks lsc ;k dan&ewy chu ldrs Fks vkSj u
gh xks'r osQ fy, f'kdkj dj ldrs FksA vc muosQ ikl I+k Qly dVkbZ osQ
ckn cph BwaBksa dks cVksjus dk fodYi Hkh ugha jg x;k FkkA gj phk ij
tehankjksa dk dCkk gks x;k] gj phk fcdus yxh vkSj og Hkh ,slh dherksa
ij fd ftUgsa vnk djus dh lkeF;Z xjhcksa osQ ikl ugha FkhA
tgk dgha cM+s iSekus ij ckM+kcanh gqbZ] [kklrkSj ij baXySaM osQ e;orhZ
{ks=kksa vkSj vklikl osQ izkarksa (dkmafV;ksa) esa] ogk xjhcksa dks kehu ls
csn[ky dj fn;k x;kA muosQ ikjaifjd vfkdkj khjs&khjs [kRe gksrs x,A
vius vfkdkjksa ls oafpr vkSj kehu ls csn[ky gksdj os u, jkskxkj dh
ryk'k esa nj&nj HkVdus yxsA e;orhZ {ks=kksa ls os nf{k.kh izkarksa dh vksj
tkus yxsA e; {ks=k esa lcls l?ku [ksrh gksrh Fkh vkSj ogk [ksfrgj eknwjksa
dh Hkkjh ekx FkhA ysfdu vc dgha Hkh xjhcksa dks ,d lqjf{kr vkSj
fu;fer jkskxkj ugha fey ik jgk FkkA
iqjkus kekus esa vkerkSj ij eknwj HkwLokfe;ksa osQ lkFk gh jgk djrs FksA
os ekfydksa osQ lkFk [kkuk [kkrs vkSj lky Hkj mudh lsok&Vgy djrs FksA
;g fjokt 1800 rd vkrs&vkrs lekIr gksus yxk FkkA vc eknwjksa dks
dke osQ cnys fngkM+h nh tkrh Fkh vkSj dke Hkh osQoy dVkbZ osQ nkSjku
gh gksrk FkkA tehankj viuk equkI +kQk c<+kus osQ fy, eknwjksa dh fngkM+h dh
en esa dVkSrh djus yxsA dke vfuf'pr] jkskxkj vlqjf{kr vkSj vk;
vfLFkj gks xbZA o"kZ osQ cM+s fgLls esa xjhc csjkskxkj jgus yxsA

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f;kdyki

vkSjrksa vkSj cPpksa ij D;k izHkko iM+k\


xks&ikyu] tykou dh ydM+h chuus] lkoZtfud
Hkwfe ij iQyksa vkSj csfj;ksa dks bdV~Bk djus dk dke
igys vdlj vkSjrsa vkSj cPps djrs FksA
D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd ckM+kcanh dk cPpksa vkSj
fL=k;ksa ij D;k izHkko iM+k gksxk\
lkoZtfud Hkwfe dh lekfIr dk ifjokj osQ Hkhrj
L=kh&iq#"k vkSj cPpksa osQ vkilh laca kksa ij D;k vlj
gqvk gksxk\

1-5 Fkzsf'kax e'khu dk vkxeu

ksr x

ftu fnuksa usiksfy;u baXySaM osQ fo# ;q NsM+s gq, Fkk] mu fnuksa [kk|kUu
ckM+kcanh osQ dkj.k lkoZtfud kehu ij vfkdkj
lekIr gksus ls ,d fdlku us LFkkuh; kehankj dks
osQ Hkko dkI+kQh ps Fks vkSj dk'rdkjksa us tedj viuk mRiknu c<+k;kA
;g i=k fy[kk Fkk %
eknwjksa dh deh osQ Mj ls mUgksaus ckkkj esa ubZ&ubZ vkbZ Fkszf'kax e'khuksa
^vxj dksbZ xjhc vkneh lkoZtfud kehu ls vkidh
dks [kjhnuk 'kq: dj fn;kA dk'rdkj vdlj eknwjksa osQ vkyl]
,d HksM+ ys ys rks dkuwu mlosQ f[kykI +kQ [kM+k gks
'kjkc[kksjh vkSj esgur ls th pqjkus dh f'kdk;r fd;k djrs FksA mUgsa yxk
tk,xkA ysfdu vxj vki lSdM+kas xjhcksa dh HksM&+ cdfj;ksa
fd e'khuksa ls eknwjksa ij mudh fuHkZjrk de gks tk,xhA
osQ pjus dh kehu Nhu ysrs gSa rks dkuwu oqQN ugha
;q lekIr gksus osQ ckn cgqr lkjs lSfud vius xko vkSj [ksr&[kfygku
djrkA vxj xjhc vkneh vkils dksbZ phk Nhu ys
esa okil ykSV vk,A vc mUgsa u, jkskxkj dh k:jr FkhA ysfdu mlh
rks mldks iQklh ns nh tkrh gS tcfd vxj vki ml
O;fDr dh vkthfodk Nhu ysa rks vkiosQ f[kykiQ
le; ;wjksi ls vukt dk vk;kr c<+us yxk] mlosQ nke de gks x, vkSj
dksbZ dkjZokbZ ugha dh tkrh---A xjhc bl ckr dks
f"k eanh Nk xbZ (fp=k 2 esa dherksa dk xzkI+kQ ns[ksa)A cspSu gksdj
fdl rjg le>sa--- fd dkuwu mudh igqp ls ckgj
HkwLokfe;ksa us [ksrh dh kehu dks de djuk 'kq: dj fn;k vkSj ekx djus
gS vkSj ljdkj muosQ fy, oqQN ugha djrh*\
yxs fd vukt dk vk;kr jksdk tk,A mUgksaus eknwjksa dh fngkM+h vkSj
ts- ,e- uhlu] dkWeulZ % dkWeu jkbV~l] ,uDyksklZ
la[;k de djuh 'kq: dj nhA xjhc vkSj csjkskxkj yksx dke dh ryk'k
,.M lks'ky psat] 1700&1820 (1993) ls m`rA
esa xko&xko HkVdrs Fks vkSj ftuosQ ikl vLFkk;h&lk dksbZ dke Fkk] mUgsa
Hkh vkthfodk [kks tkus dh vk'kadk jgrh FkhA
;gh og nkSj Fkk tc nsgkr esa oSQIVsu fLoax okys naxs iSQysA xjhcksa dh
ksr ?k
ukj esa Fkzsf'kax e'khu cqjs oDr dh fu'kkuh cu dj vkbZA

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bl rjg baXySaM esa vkkqfud [ksrh osQ vkxeu ls dbZ rjg osQ cnyko
vk,A eqDr [ksr lekIr gks x, vkSj fdlkuksa osQ ikjaifjd vfkdkj Hkh tkrs
jgsA vehj fdlkuksa us iSnkokj esa o`f vkSj vukt dks ckkkj esa csp dj
eksVk equkI+kQk dek;k vkSj rkdroj gks x,A xko osQ xjhc cM+h la[;k esa
'kgjksa dh vksj iyk;u djus yxsA oqQN yksx e;orhZ {ks=kksa dks NksM+dj
nf{k.kh izkarksa dk #[k djus yxs tgk jkskxkj dh laHkkouk csgrj Fkh rks
oqQN vU; 'kgjksa dh vksj py iM+sA eknwjksa dh vk; dk fBdkuk u jgk]
jkskxkj vlqjf{kr vkSj vkthfodk osQ ksr vfLFkj gks x,A

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blosQ foijhr cgqr ls ys[kdksa us ckM+kcanh osQ ykHkksa dh


Hkwfj&Hkwfj iz'kalk dh gSA
^[kqys [ksrksa vkSj ckM+kcanh dh kehu osQ chp dksbZ rqyuk
ugha dh tk ldrhA ckM+kcanh dh O;oLFkk fuf'pr :i
ls [kqys [ksrksa ls csgrj gSA [kqys [ksrksa osQ ekeys esa [ksfrgj
kathjksa esa tdM+k jgrk gSA og feV~Vh ;k ewY;ksa esa dksbZ
cnyko ugha yk ldrkA mldh gkyr ml ?kksM+s tSlh
gksrh gS tks vU; ?kksM+ksa osQ lkFk cakk gksrk gSA ;kuh og
muls vyx gksdj oqQN ugha dj ldrk vkSj muosQ chp
gh owQn&iQkan dj ldrk gS*A
tkWu fefMYVu] vBkgjoha 'krkCnh osQ ,d ys[kdA

f;kdyki

ksr x vkSj ?k dks i<+sa vkSj fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ


mkj nsa %

ksr x esa fdlku D;k dguk pkgrk gS\

tkWu fefMYVu D;k nyhy nsuk pkgrs gSa\

[kaM 1-1 ls 1-4 rd nksckjk i<+sa vkSj [kqys [ksrksa


osQ i{k vkSj foi{k esa fn, x, rdks dk lkj&
la{ksi izLrqr djsaA vki fdl roZQ dks ;knk
mfpr le>rs gSa\
123

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

fu"d"kZ

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^jksVh dh Vksdjh* vkSj jsrhyk catj

vkb, vc tjk vVykafVd osQ ikj vesfjdk pysaA vkb, ns[ksa fd ;gk
vkkqfud [ksrh dk fodkl oSQls gqvk] fdl rjg vesfjdk nqfu;k dh ^jksVh
dh Vksdjh* (czsM ckLosQV) cudj mHkjk vkSj bu cnykoksa dk vesfjdk
osQ xzkeh.kksa ij D;k izHkko iM+k\
tc vBkjgoha lnh osQ var esa baXySaM esa lk>k kehu dks ckM+kcan
fd;k tk jgk Fkk ml le; rd vesfjdk esa cM+s iSekus ij LFkk;h [ksrh
dk fodkl ugha gqvk FkkA ;gk 80 djksM+ ,dM+ Hkwfe ij taxy Fks vkSj
60 djksM+ ,dM+ Hkwfe ij flI+kZQ ?kkl mxrh FkhA fp=k 5 ls vki ml le;
dh izkfrd gfj;kyh osQ ckjs esa vankkk yxk ldrs gSaA

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S iQq
Cyd
ozQks

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ikouh

dksekUph

'kkouh

fpd
klkW

pksDVkm

oQz hd

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

taxyh gfj;kyh
yach ?kkl
NksVh ?kkl
jsfxLrkuh isM&+ ikS/s

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vVy
kfa Vd
egkl
kxj

vkb
jkDs
;vq
kls

kkus
'kk's

e.S Mu

viy
fs 'k;
u io
rZ

iz'kkar egklkxj

cSukWd

ml le; vesfjdh Hkwn`'; dk ;knkrj fgLlk 'osr vesfjfd;ksa osQ


fu;a=k.k esa ugha FkkA 1780 osQ n'kd rd 'osr vesfjdh clkoV iwohZ rV
dh ,d NksVh ladh.kZ iV~Vh rd lhfer FkhA vxj vki ml le;
vesfjdk dh lSj ij fudyrs rks vkidks txg&txg vesfjdk osQ ewy
fuokfl;ksa osQ cM+s&cM+s lewg feyrsA buesa ls oqQN ?kqearw Fks vkSj oqQN
LFkk;h :i ls jgus okys FksA cgqr lkjs lewg flI+kZQ f'kdkj djosQ] [kk|
inkFkZ chu dj vkSj eNfy;k idM+ dj xqkkjk djrs Fks tcfd oqQN
eDdk] iQfy;ksa] rackowQ vkSj oqQEgM+s dh [ksrh djrs FksA vU; lewg taxyh
i'kqvksa dks idM+us esa ekfgj Fks vkSj lksygoha lnh ls gh oufcyko dk I+kQj
;wjksih; O;kikfj;ksa dks csprs jgs FksA fp=k 5 esa vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ
izkjafHkd o"kks esa fofHkUu dchyksa dh vofLFkfr dks n'kkZ;k x;k gSA
124

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fp=k 5 & 'osr vkizokfl;ksa osQ if'peh izlkj ls igys


vesfjdk esa taxy vkSj ?kkl osQ eSnkuksa dh fLFkfr csdj dh iqLrd bdukWfed T;kWxIz +kQh] [k.M 2] 1926 esa ladfyr
^,xzhdYpjy jhtUl vkWI+kQ ukWFkZ vesfjdk* ls m`rA taxyksa dk
djhc vkkk vkSj ?kkl osQ eSnkuksa dk ,d&frgkbZ fgLlk [ksrh osQ
fy, lkI+kQ fd;k x;k FkkA ekufp=k esa vki mUuhloha lnh osQ
izkjafHkd dky esa vesfjdk osQ fofHkUu ewy dchyksa osQ fuokl {ks=kksa
dks Hkh ns[k ldrs gSaA

ou iV
~Vh

pj
kxk
g

Sj
vk

eDosQ dh iV~Vh

by
kd
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?kkl
kh
lw[

l
xszV IysU

kyk
orZ e
W hi
jkd
u
Lrk
jfs x

/a h;
dfVc
k
.
s
"
k
i
h; m
lkxj y iVV~ h
a
r
k
k
i'z
iQl

?kkl ,o
a

xsgw dk
{ks=k

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eDdk vkSj xsgw dh iV~Vh

variZorZ h;
iBkj

O;olk; iV~Vh
a h; rV
c/
miks".k dfV

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fp=k 6 % 1920 esa vesfjdk osQ [ksfrgj {ks=kksa dh fLFkfr1920 osQ n'kd esa izdkf'kr csdj dh iqLrd bdukWfed T;kWxIz +kQh esa ladfyr ys[kksa osQ vkkkj ijA

chloha lnh vkrs&vkrs ;g Hkwn`'; iwjh rjg cny pqdk FkkA 'osr
vesfjdh if'pe dh vksj iQSy x, Fks vkSj mUgksaus ogk dh kehu dks f"k
;ksX; cuk fy;k FkkA bl izf;k esa mUgksaus ewy dchyksa dks mudh txgksa
ls foLFkkfir djosQ vyx&vyx [ksfrgj bykosQ cuk fy, FksA f"k
mRiknu osQ fo'o ckkkj esa vesfjdk dh rwrh cksyus yxh FkhA ;g
ifjorZu oSQls laHko gqvk\ vesfjdk esa clus okys ;s u, yksx dkSu Fks\
[ksrh osQ bl izlkj ls vesfjdk osQ ewy fuoklh ;kuh bafM;u ewy osQ
dchykbZ leqnk;ksa osQ thou ij D;k izHkko iM+k\

2-1 if'pe dh vksj izlkj rFkk xsgw dh [ksrh

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fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

vesfjdk esa f"k foLrkj dk lacak 'osrksa osQ if'peh {ks=k esa tkdj clus
ls xgjs :i ls tqM+k gSA 1775 ls 1783 rd pys vesfjdh Lora=krk
laxzke vkSj la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk osQ xBu osQ ckn 'osr vesfjdh if'peh
bykdksa dh rjI+k Q c<+us yxsA VkWel tsI +kQlZu osQ 1800 esa vesfjdk dk
jk"Vifr cuus rd yxHkx lkr yk[k 'osr] njks osQ jkLrs viysf'k;u
iBkjh {ks=k esa tkdj cl pqosQ FksA iwohZ rV ls ns[kus ij vesfjdk
laHkkoukvksa ls Hkjk fn[krk FkkA ogk osQ fc;kckuksa dks f"k ;ksX; Hkwfe esa
cnyk tk ldrk Fkk] taxy ls bekjrh ydM+h dk fu;kZr fd;k tk ldrk
Fkk] [kky osQ fy, i'kqvksa dk f'kdkj fd;k tk ldrk Fkk vkSj igkfM+;ksa
ls lksus tSls [kfut inkFkks dk nksgu fd;k tk ldrk FkkA ysfdu bldk

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1775

1830

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1850

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1920

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 7 & 1775 ls 1920 osQ chp 'osr vkizokfl;ksa dk if'pe dh vksj izlkj-

eryc Fkk fd igys ;gk osQ v'osr fuokfl;ksa dks fudky ckgj fd;k
tk,A la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk dh ljdkj us 1800 osQ ckn osQ n'kdksa esa
vkSipkfjd uhfr cuk dj vesfjdh bafM;uksa dks igys felhflih unh osQ
ikj vkSj ckn esa vkSj Hkh if'pe dh rjI+kQ [knsM+uk 'kq: fd;kA bl izf;k
esa dbZ yM+kb;k yM+h xb] ewy fuokfl;ksa dk tulagkj fd;k x;k vkSj
muosQ xko tyk fn, x,A bafM;uksa us izfrjksk fd;k] dbZ yM+kb;ksa esa thrs
Hkh] ysfdu varr% mUgsa le>kSrk&lafk;k djuh iM+ha vkSj viuk ?kj&ckj
NksM+dj if'pe dh vksj owQp djuk iM+kA
ewy fuokfl;ksa dh txgksa ij u, izoklh clus yxsA izokfl;kas dh ygj
ij ygj vkrh xbZA vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ igys n'kd rd ;s izoklh
viysf'k;u iBkj esa cl pqosQ Fks vkSj 1820&1850 osQ chp mUgksaus
felhflih dh ?kkVh esa Hkh iSj tek fy,A mUgksaus taxyksa dks dkV&tykdj]
BwB m[kkM+dj] [ksr vkSj ?kj cuk fy,A fiQj mUgksaus ckdh taxyksa dk
lI+kQk;k djosQ ckM+sa yxk nhaA bl kehu ij og eDdk vkSj xsgw dh [ksrh
djus yxsA
'kq#vkrh o"kks esa bl moZj kehu ij fdlkuksa us vPNh I+kQlysa iSnk dhaA
tSls gh ,d txg kehu dh iSnkokj ?kV tkrh] fdlku csgrj kehu dh
ryk'k esa ubZ txg pys tkrsA felhflih unh osQ ikj fLFkr fo'kkydk; eSnkuksa
esa izoklh vkcknh dk izlkj 1860 osQ ckn dh ?kVuk gSA ckn osQ n'kdksa esa
;g lewpk {ks=k vesfjdk osQ xsg w mRiknu dk ,d cM+k {ks=k cu x;kA

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fp=k 8 & lhekar {ks=kksa esa lkWM edku?kkl osQ eSnku lkI+kQ djus osQ nkSjku vkizoklh fdlku bl rjg osQ ?kj
cukrs FksA bl {ks=k esa edku cukus osQ fy, ydM+h dk vHkko FkkA
(lkStU; % I+kzQMs gYVLVMaS fgLVh bu fiDplZ dysD'ku] ,uMhvkbZvkj,l
&,uMh,l;w] I+kQkjxks)A

u, 'kCn
lkWM % ?kkl o fe^h dk feJ.kA

vc kjk xsgw mRiknd fdlkuksa osQ ckjs esa oqQN foLrkj ls ckr dh tk,A
ns[kk tk, fd bu fdlkuksa us fdl rjg ?kkl osQ eSnkuksa dks vesfjdk dh
^jksVh dh Vksdjh* esa rCnhy fd;kA mUgsa fdu leL;kvksa ls tw>uk iM+k
vkSj bl izf;k osQ D;k ifj.kke jgs\

2-2 xsgw mRiknd fdlku


mUuhloha lnh osQ vkf[kjh lkyksa esa vesfjdk osQ xsgw mRiknu esa kcnZLr
o`f gqbZA bl nkSjku vesfjdk dh 'kgjh vkcknh c<+rh tk jgh Fkh vkSj
fu;kZr ckkkj Hkh fnuksafnu iQSyrk tk jgk FkkA ekx c<+us osQ lkFk xsgw osQ
nkeksa esa Hkh mNky vk jgk FkkA blls mRlkfgr gksdj fdlku xsgw mxkus dh
rjI+ kQ >qdus yxsA jsyos osQ izlkj ls [kk|kUuksa dks xsgw mRiknd {ks=kksa ls
fu;kZr osQ fy, iwohZ rV ij ys tkuk vklku gks x;k FkkA chloha 'krkCnh
dh 'kq#vkr rd xsgw dh ekx esa vkSj Hkh o`f gqbZ rFkk izFke fo'o;q
osQ nkSjku xsgw osQ fo'o ckkkj esa Hkkjh mNky vk;kA :lh xsgw dh vkiwfrZ
ij jksd yxus osQ ckn xsgw osQ fy, ;wjksi vesfjdk ij gh vkfJr FkkA
vesfjdk osQ jk"Vifr foYlu us fdlkuksa ls oDr dh iqdkj lquus dk
vkg~oku fd;k ^[kwc xsgw mitkvksA xsgw gh gesa tax ftrk,xkA*
1910 esa vesfjdk dh 4-5 djksM+ ,dM+ kehu ij xsgw dh [ksrh dh
tk jgh FkhA ukS lky ckn xsgw mRiknu dk {ks=kiQy c<+dj 7-4 djksM+
,dM+ ;kuh yxHkx 65 izfr'kr ;knk gks x;k FkkA blesa ls ;knkrj o`f
fo'kky eSnkuksa (xzsV IysUl) esa gqbZ Fkh tgk fur u, {ks=kksa dks tksrk tk jgk
FkkA xsgw mRiknu cgqkk cM+s fdlkuksa osQ dCks esa Fkk&dbZ cM+s fdlkuksa osQ
ikl rks nks&rhu gkkj ,dM+ rd kehu gksrh FkhA

fp=k 9 & Nq^h dh nksigj dks lqLrkrk ,d fdlku ifjokj MdksVk osQ fo'kky eSnkuksa dk chloha lnh osQ igys n'kd esa fy;k x;k
fp=k A
(lkStU; % izQ+ Ms gYVLVMaS fgLVh bu fiDplZ dysD'ku] ,uMhvkbZvkj,l
&,uMh,l;w] i+Qkjxks)A

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fp=k 10 & lpy gy-

2-3 ubZ rduhd dk vkxeu

xsgw mRiknu esa gqbZ ;g foy{k.k o`f ubZ rduhd dk ifj.kke FkhA
mUuhloha 'krkCnh esa u, izoklh tSls&tSls ubZ kehu dks vius dCks esa
ysrs x, oSls&oSls mUgksaus ubZ k:jrksa osQ eqrkfcd viuh rduhd esa Hkh
cnyko fd,A tc os yksx e; if'pe osQ ?kkl osQ eSnkuksa esa igqps rks
muosQ os lkkkj.k gy csdkj lkfcr gq, ftudk os iwohZ rV ij bLrseky
djrs vk, FksA ;gk osQ eSnku ?kuh ?kkl ls <osQ Fks ftldh tM+sa cgqr xgjh
gksrh FkhaA bl l[r kehu dks rksM+us osQ fy, dbZ rjg osQ gy fodflr
fd, x,A LFkkuh; Lrj ij fodflr bu gyksa esa oqQN gy 12 I+kqQV yacs
gksrs FksA bu gyksa dk vxyk fgLlk NksVs&NksVs ifg;ksa ij fVdk gksrk Fkk vkSj
mUgsa 6 cSy ;k ?kksM+s [khaprs FksA chloha 'krkCnh dh 'kq#vkr esa fo'kky
eSnkuh {ks=k osQ fdlku bl l[r kehu dks VDS Vj vkSj fMLd gyksa dh enn
ls xsgw dh [ksrh djus osQ fy, rS;kj djus esa tqVs FksA
I+ kQly idus osQ ckn mldh dVkbZ dk uacj vkrk FkkA 1830 ls igys
I+ kQly dVkbZ osQ fy, gfl;s dk bLrseky fd;k tkrk FkkA ;g ,d ,slk

xkSj djsa fd gy dk vxyk fgLlk ,d NksVs ls ifg, ij fVdk gqvk


gSA blesa ihNs dh rjI+kQ ,d gRFkk yxk gksrk Fkk ftldh enn ls gy
dks vkxs&ihNs pyk;k tk ldrk FkkA bl gy esa cSy ;k ?kksMs+ tksrs tkrs
Fks (ns[ksa fp=k 13)A

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

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fp=k 11 & lkbjl eSDdkWfeZd }kjk 1831 esa cuk;k x;k jhij-

127

fp=k 12 & mUuhloha lnh osQ e; ls igys ,sls gfl;ksa dk bLrseky ?kkl dkVus osQ
fy, fd;k tkrk Fkk-

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fp=k 13 & e'khuh ;qx ls igys ubZ kehu dks [ksrh osQ fy, bl
rjg rS;kj fd;k tkrk Fkkfp=k esa ckjg gyksa osQ lewg esa dbZ ?kksM+s tqrs fn[kkbZ ns jgs gSaA
(lkStU; % I+kszQM gYVLVSaM fgLVh bu fiDplZ dysD'ku] ,uMhvkbZvkj,l&
,uMh,l;w] I+kQkjxks)A

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 14 & fMy e'khuksa vkSj VSDVjksa }kjk chtksa dh jksikbZA


mkjh MdksVk dk ,d f"k IkQkeZ] 1910 ;gk rhu fMy vkSj iSdj e'khusa fn[kkbZ xbZ gSaA bUgsa VSDVj osQ ihNs
ckkk tkrk FkkA fMy e'khusa 10&12 i+QVq yach gksrh FkhaA izR;sd fMy esa
20 fMLd yxh gksrh FkhaA fMLd dk dke kehu dks cqvkbZ osQ fy,
rS;kj djuk gksrk FkkA iSdlZ jksis x, chtksa ij feV~Vh Mkyus dk dke
djrs FksA fp=k esa nwj rd iSQyh jksfir kehu fn[kkbZ ns jgh gSA
+ ,- ikkund fp=k laxgz ] ,uMhvkbZvkj,l&,uMh,l;w]
lkStU; % ,IkQI+kQkjxksA

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fp=k 15 & mkjh MdksVk osQ fo'kky eSnkuksa esa kehu dh lI+kQkbZ] 1910bl fp=k esa fefu;kiksfyl ok"i VSDVj fn[kk;k x;k gSA VSDVj osQ ihNs tkWu Mhjs gy ca/k gS vkSj mlesa kkrq osQ iQky yxs gSaA bu iQkyksa dh lgk;rk ls kehu dks vklkuh ls rksM+k
tk ldrk FkkA ?kkl dh ekcwr tM+ksa dk lI+kQk;k djus esa Hkh ;s gy dkI+kQh ennxkj FksA e'khu osQ ihNs xgjs owaQM+ ns[ks tk ldrs gSaA ck;ha vksj dh kehu ij nwj&nwj rd ?kkl iQSyh
gqbZ gSA bu e'khuksa dk bLrseky xsgw mxkus okys cM+s fdlku gh dj ikrs FksA (lkStU; % I+kszQM gYVLVSaM fgLVh bu fiDplZ dysD'ku] ,uMhvkbZvkj,l&,uMh,l;w] i+Qkjxks)A

128

dke Fkk ftls lSdM+kas L=kh&iq#"k ,d lkFk yxdj djrs FksA ysfdu 1831
esa lk;jl eSDdkWfeZd us ,d ,sls vkSkkj dk vkfo"dkj fd;k tks ,d gh
fnu esa bruk dke dj nsrk Fkk ftruk fd 16 vkneh gfl;ksa osQ lkFk dj
ldrs FksA bl rjg chloha 'krkCnh osQ 'kq: gksrs&gksrs vesfjdk osQ ;knkrj
fdlku I+kQly dkVus osQ fy, dEckbUM gkosZLVlZ dk bLrseky djus yxs
FksA bu e'khuksa dh lgk;rk ls 500 ,dM+ osQ [ksr dh dVkbZ dk dke
flI+kZQ nks lIrkg esa gh fuiVk;k tk ldrk FkkA
fo'kky eSnkuksa osQ vehj fdlkuksa osQ fy, ;g e'khu cgqr egoiw.kZ
cu xbZ FkhA xsgw osQ nke vkleku Nw jgs FksA mldh ekx [kRe gksus dk
uke gh ugha ys jgh FkhA bu e'khuksa ls kehu osQ cM+s VqdM+ksa ij I+k Qly
dkVus] BwB fudkyus] ?kkl gVkus vkSj kehu dks nksckjk [ksrh osQ fy,
rS;kj djus dk dke cgqr vklku gks x;k FkkA ;g lkjk dke e'khusa cgqr
tYnh dj Mkyrh FkhaA blosQ fy, ekuo Je dh Hkh cgqr vko';drk
ugha iM+rh FkhA fo|qr ls pyus okyh ;s e'khusa bruh mi;ksxh Fkha fd
mudh lgk;rk ls flI+kZQ pkj O;fDr feydj ,d ekSle esa 2000 ls
4000 ,dM+ Hkwfe ij I+kQly iSnk dj ldrs FksA

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2-4 xjhc turk dh n'kk

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xjhc fdlkuksa osQ fy, ;s e'khusa cckZnh cudj vkbA cgqr lkjs fdlkuksa
us bu e'khuksa dks bl mEehn osQ lkFk [kjhnk Fkk fd xsgw osQ nkeksa esa igys
tSlh rskh cuh jgsxhA bu fdlkuksa dks cSad vklkuh ls .k ns nsrs FksA
ysfdu .k dks pqdkuk eqf'dy dke gksrk FkkA .k vnk u djus dh
fLFkfr esa cgqr lkjs fdlkuksa dks viuh kehu ls gh gkFk kksuk iM+ tkrk
FkkA vkSj bldk eryc gksrk Fkk dke dh u, fljs ls ryk'kA

ysfdu bl dky esa jkskxkj cgqr eqf'dy ls fey ikrk FkkA fctyh
pkfyr e'khuksa osQ vkxeu ls eknwjksa dh k:jr dkI +kQh de gks xbZ FkhA blosQ
lkFk gh 1920 osQ n'kd osQ e; rd mUuhloha 'krkCnh osQ vafre o"kks vkSj
chloha 'krkCnh osQ vkjafHkd o"kks dh vkfFkZd rskh [kRe gks pyh FkhA egk;q
osQ mijkar mRiknu dh gkyr ;g gks xbZ Fkh fd ckkkj xsgw ls vVk iM+k Fkk
ysfdu [kjhnkj < <w + s ugha feyrs FksA ;knkrj fdlkuksa osQ fy, ;g ladV dk
le; FkkA xsgw osQ HkaMkj c<+rs tk jgs FksA xksnkeksa esa [kk|kUu Hkjk jgrk FkkA gkyr
;gk rd igqp xbZ Fkh fd xksnke esa j[ks [kk|kUu dks i'kqvksa dks f[kyk;k tk
jgk FkkA xsgw osQ nke fxjus ls vk;kr ckkkj <g x;k FkkA 1930 osQ n'kd dh
ftl egkeanh dk vdlj fk fd;k tkrk gS mldh i`"BHkwfe esa ;gh
ifjfLFkfr;k dke dj jgh FkhaA bl eanh dk vlj gj txg fn[kkbZ iM+rk FkkA

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

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2-5 ^ jksVh dh Vksdjh* ls ^ jsr ds dVksjs* rd


fo'kky eSnkuksa esa xsgw dh l?ku [ksrh ls dbZ leL;k, iSnk gqbZaA 1930 osQ
n'kd esa nf{k.k osQ eSnkuksa esa jsrhys rwI+kQku vkus 'kq: gq,A bu rwI+kQkuksa dh

fp=k 16 % if'peh dalkl esa dkyk rwI+kQku] 14 vizSy 1935 -

129

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

pkbZ 7] 000 ls 8]000 I+kQhV gksrh FkhA xanys dhpM+ dh


'kDy esa vkus okys bu rwI+kQkuksa ls pkSrjI+kQk rckgh iQSy
tkrh FkhA 1930 dk iwjk n'kd bu rwI+kQkuksa ls vkkar jgkA
bl iwjs dky esa ,slk dksbZ fnu ;k o"kZ ugha jgk tc bu
jsrhys rwI+kQkuksa us rckgh u epkbZ gksA tSls gh vkleku esa
vaksjk Nkus yxrk] jsr osQ ;s rwI+kQku 'kgjksa vkSj [ksrksa dks
pkjksa vksj ls ?ksj ysrsA rwI+kQku osQ dkj.k lc oqQN vakdkje;
gks tkrk FkkA isQiQM+ksa esas kwy vkSj dhpM+ Hkjus ls i'kq Hkkjh
la[;k esa ejus yxsA jsrhys rwI+kQkuksa ls [ksr osQ [ksr iV tkrs
Fks vkSj mudh easM+ jsr esa xqe gks tkrh FkhA ;g jsr unh
dh lrg ij bl dnj te tkrh Fkh fd eNfy;k lkl
rd ugha ys ikrh FkhaA eSnkuksa esa gj rjI+kQ fpfM+;ksa vkSj
i'kqvksa dh gfM~M;k fc[kjh fn[kkbZ nsrh FkhaA 1920 osQ
n'kd esa xsgw osQ mRiknu esa kafr ykus okys VSDVj vkSj
e'khuas vc jsr osQ <sjksa esa iaQl dj csdkj gks x, FksA ;s
e'khusa bl gn rd [kjkc gks pqdh Fkha fd mudh ejEer
Hkh ugha dh tk ldrh FkhA
bl rckgh dk dkj.k D;k Fkk\ jsrhys rwI+kQku D;ksa iSnk
gq, Fks\ rwI+kQkuksa dk ,d dkj.k rks 1930 osQ n'kd osQ
vkjafHkd o"kks esa iM+us okyk lw[kk FkkA dbZ o"kks rd ckfj'k
u gksus osQ dkj.k rkieku c<+rk pyk x;kA ysfdu jsr osQ
;s lkekU; rwI+kQku dkys Hk;kog rwI+kQku dk :i blfy, ys
losQ D;ksafd kehu osQ ,d fo'kky fgLls ij yxkrkj [ksrh
djus osQ dkj.k kehu dh mQijh ijr dkI+kQh gn rd VwV
xbZ FkhA ml ij ?kkl dk ukeksfu'kku ugha cpk FkkA
mUuhloha lnh osQ vkjafHkd o"kks esa xsgw iSnk djus okys
fdlkuksa us kehu osQ gj laHko fgLls ls ?kkl lkI+kQ dj
Mkyh FkhA ;s fdlku VSDVjksa dh lgk;rk ls bl kehu dks
xsgw dh [ksrh osQ fy, rS;kj dj jgs FksA jsrhys rwI+kQku blh
vlarqyu ls iSnk gq, FksA ;g lkjk {ks=k jsr osQ ,d
fo'kkydk; dVksjs esa cny x;k Fkk ;kuh [kq'kgkyh dk
liuk ,d Mjkouh gdhdr cu dj jg x;k FkkA izokfl;ksa
dks yxrk Fkk fd os lkjh kehu dks vius dCks esa ysdj
mls xsgw dh ygygkrh I+kQly esa cny Mkysaxs vkSj djksM+ksa
esa [ksyus yxsaxsA ysfdu rhl osQ n'kd esa mUgsa ;g ckr
le> esa vkbZ fd i;kZoj.k osQ larqyu dk lEeku djuk
fdruk k:jh gSA

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fp=k 17 & MkmV lokZ;olZ % ,ysDkSaMj gksx dk js[kkfp=k (1936)gksx us vius fp=kksa esa jsrhys rwI+kQkuksa ls gksus okyh rckgh vkSj ekSr osQ rkaMo dks n'kkZ;k gSA
ykbI+kQ eSxkhu us gksx dks jsrhys dVksjs dk fp=kdkj crk;k FkkA

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130

Hkkjrh; fdlku vkSj vI+kQhe dh [ksrh

vkb,] vc Hkkjr dh vksj pysa vkSj ns[ksa fd vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ vafre
o"kks vkSj mUuhloha 'krkCnh dh 'kq#vkr esa Hkkjr osQ xzkeh.k {ks=k esa D;k
py jgk FkkA
tSlk fd vki tkurs gSa] Iyklh osQ ;q (1757) osQ ckn Hkkjr esa
khjs&khjs vaxzskh jkTk LFkkfir gks pyk FkkA vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ nkSjku
Hkkjr osQ xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa vkewy cnyko vk,A vaxzsk lkk osQ fy, jktLo
ljdkjh vk; dk ,d cM+k ksr FkkA ljdkj viuh vk; c<+kus osQ fy,
Hkw&jktLo (yxku) dh ,d fu;fer O;oLFkk djuk pkgrh FkhA bl uhfr
osQ rgr jktLo dh nj rFkk [ksrh dh tksr c<+kus osQ iz;kl Hkh fd, x,A
tSls&tSls [ksrh dk {ks=k c<+rk x;k oSls&oSls taxy vkSj pjkxkg de gksus
yxsA fdlkuksa vkSj pjkxkgksa ij vkfJr leqnk;ksa dks blosQ pyrs dbZ
leL;kvksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+kA vaxzskh lkk osQ dkuwuksa osQ rgr vc
fdlku taxyksa dk eupkgk iz;ksx ugha dj ldrs FksA ljdkj us taxy vkSj
vU; izkfrd lalkkuksa osQ mi;ksx ij dbZ rjg dh ikcafn;k yxk nh FkhaA
fdlkuksa ij yxku tek djus dk ncko gj le; cuk jgrk FkkA
vkSifuosf'kd dky osQ nkSjku Hkkjr osQ xzkeh.k {ks=k us fo'o ckkkj dh
ekx osQ vuqlkj dbZ ubZ I+kQlyksa dks mxkuk 'kq: fd;k x;kA mUuhloha
'krkCnh osQ vkjafHkd o"kks esa uhy tSlh O;kolkf;d I+k Qlyksa dh [ksrh blh
varjkZ"Vh; ckkkj dh ekax osQ iQyLo:i 'kq: dh xbZ FkhA 'krkCnh dk var
gksrs&gksrs ;gk osQ fdlku xUuk] dikl] twV (iVlu)] xsgw vkSj vU; ,slh
gh fu;kZr vkkkfjr I+kQlysa iSnk djus yxs FksA ;s I+kQlysa ;wjksi dh 'kgjh
vkcknh vkSj baXySaM fLFkr yadk'kk;j vkSj eSupsLVj dh diM+k feyksa dh
k:jrksa dks iwjk djus osQ fy, iSnk dh tk jgh FkhaA
Hkkjrh; fdlkuksa osQ fy, bl varjkZ"Vh; okf.kT; vkSj O;kikj ls tqM+us
dk vuqHko oSQlk jgk] bl ckr dks ge vI+kQhe dh [ksrh osQ ek;e ls
le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA blls gesa [ksfrgj yksxksa ij vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu
osQ izHkko dks le>us esa enn feysxhA lkFk gh ge ;g Hkh tku losaQxs fd
bl nkSjku mifuos'kksa esa ckkkj O;oLFkk fdl rjg dke djrh FkhA

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3-1 pk; dk 'kkSd % phu ds lkFk O;kikj

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

Hkkjr esa vI+kQhe osQ mRiknu dk bfrgkl phu vkSj baXySaM osQ ikjLifjd
O;kikj ls xgjs :i ls tqM+k gSA vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ vkf[kjh o"kks osQ
nkSjku bZLV bafM;k daiuh phu ls pk; vkSj js'ke [kjhndj baXySaM esa cspk
djrh FkhA pk; dh yksdfiz;rk c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk pk; dk O;kikj
fnuksafnu egoiw.kZ gksrk x;kA 1785 osQ vklikl baXySaM esa 1-5 djksM+
ikSaM pk; dk vk;kr fd;k tk jgk FkkA 1830 rd vkrs&vkrs ;g vkdM+k
3 djksM+ ikSaM dks ikj dj pqdk FkkA okLro esa] bl le; rd bZLV bafM;k
oaQiuh osQ equkI+ksQ dk ,d cgqr cM+k fgLlk pk; osQ O;kikj ls iSnk gksus
yxk FkkA
131

bl O;kikj dh ,d leL;k ;g Fkh fd baXySaM esa bl le; ,slh


fdlh oLrq dk mRiknu ugha fd;k tkrk Fkk ftls phu osQ ckkkj esa
vklkuh ls cspk tk losQA phu dk eapw 'kkld fons'kh O;kikfj;ksa dks lansg
dh n`f"V ls ns[krk FkkA 'kkldksa dks Hk; Fkk fd ;s O;kikjh LFkkuh; jktuhfr
esa gLr{ksi fd;k djsaxs vkSj 'kkldksa dh lkk esa vM+axk yxkus dh dksf'k'k
djsaxsA oqQy feykdj eapw 'kkld fons'kh oLrqvksa osQ fy, phu osQ njokks
[kksyus osQ i{k esa ugha FksA
vkf[kj ,slh fLFkfr esa if'pe osQ O;kikjh pk; osQ O;kikj dks oSQls
tkjh j[k ldrs FksA O;kikj larqyu dk;e j[kuk muosQ fy, ,d cM+h
leL;k cu x;k FkkA O;kikjh pk; osQ cnys pknh osQ flDosQ (cqfy;u)
fn;k djrs FksA pknh osQ fu;kZr dks baXySaM esa vPNh fuxkg ls ugha ns[kk
tkrk FkkA ;g ,d rjg ls baXySaM osQ [kkkus dks [kkyh djuk FkkA baXySaM
esa ;g lkoZtfud fpark dk fo"k; cu x;k FkkA yksxksa esa ;g Hkkouk ?kj
djus yxh Fkh fd [kkkuk [kkyh gksus ls ns'k esa xjhch iQSy tk,xh vkSj
jk"Vh; laifk gkFk ls fudy tk,xhA blh dkj.k O;kikjh pknh dk fodYi
<w<+us dh dksf'k'k dj jgs FksA os ,d ,slh oLrq dh ryk'k esa Fks ftls phu
osQ ckkkj esa cspk tk losQA
vI+kQhe ,d ,slk gh mRikn FkkA phu esa vI+k Qhe dh 'kq#vkr lksygoha
'krkCnh osQ izkjaHk esa iqrZxkfy;ksa us dh Fkh ysfdu vI+kQhe dks eq[;r%

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baXySaM
yanu

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phu

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

Hkkjr dydkk

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oSQa Vu

vkS"kfk osQ :i esa ns[kk tkrk FkkA cgqr&lh nokb;ksa esa bldk bLrseky fd;k
tkrk FkkA phu osQ 'kkld vI+kQhe dh yr dks ysdj fpafrr FksA ogk osQ
'kkld us vkS"kfk osQ vykok vI+kQhe osQ mRiknu vkSj fo; ij jksd yxk
j[kh FkhA ysfdu jktdh; ikcanh osQ ckotwn vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ e; esa
if'pe osQ O;kikfj;ksa us phu esa vI+kQhe dk voSk O;kikj djuk 'kq: dj
fn;kA if'pe osQ O;kikjh phu osQ nf{k.k&iwohZ canjxkgksa ij vI+kQhe ykrs Fks
vkSj ogk ls LFkkuh; ,tsaVksa osQ kfj, ns'k osQ vkarfjd fgLlksa esa Hkst nsrs
FksA 1820 osQ vklikl vI+kQhe osQ yxHkx 10] 000 ozsQV voSk :i ls phu
esa yk, tk jgs FksA 15 lky ckn xSjdkuwuh <ax ls yk, tkus okyh bl
vI+kQhe dh ek=kk 35] 000 ozsQV dk vkdM+k ikj dj pqdh FkhA
132

fp=k 18 & f=kdks.kh; O;kikj vaxsz k O;kikjh Hkkjr ls vI+kQhe ys tkdj phu esa csprs Fks vkSj phu ls
baXySMa dks pk; dk fu;kZr djrs FksA Hkkjr vkSj baXySM osQ chp nksrjI+kQk
O;kikj gksrk FkkA mUuhloha lnh osQ vkjaHk esa Hkkjr ls baXySM dks gksus
okys gFkdj?kk fu;kZr esa fxjkoV vkus yxh vkSj blosQ LFkku ij dPps
eky (js'ke o dikl) rFkk [kk|kUuksa dk fu;kZr c<+us yxkA baXySaM
Hkkjr esa vius ;gk fufeZr eky Hkstus yxk ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i Hkkjr
osQ nLrdkjh mRiknksa dk kl gksus yxkA

f;kdyki
ekufp=k esa fn[kkbZ ns jgs rhj osQ fu'kkuksa osQ vuqlkj
crk, fd fdl ns'k ls dkSu&lh oLrq fdl ns'k dks
Hksth tkrh FkhA

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fp=k 19 & phu ls Hkkjr vk, tgkk dk fp=k -

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FkkWel Msfu;y dh frA Msfu;y vius Hkrhts fofy;e Msfu;y osQ lkFk 1786 esa Hkkjr vk, FksA os nksuksa igys phu x, FksA ogk oqQN le; fcrkus osQ ckn os oSaQVu] nf{k.k phu
ls Hkkjr igqp
As mudk tgkk Hkkjr osQ ,d canjxkg ij iathr FkkA ysfdu bl tgkk ls iwohZ ns'kksa osQ lkFk O;kikj fd;k tkrk FkkA phu osQ lkFk vI+kQhe osQ voSk O;kikj osQ fy,
blh rjg osQ tgkkksa dk bLrseky fd;k tkrk FkkA

ksr p

1839 esa phu osQ 'kkld us fyu ks&'kw dks oSaQVu dk fo'ks"k vk;qDr fu;qDr fd;kA fyu ks&'kw dks vI+kQhe dk O;kikj
jksdus dh ftEesnkjh nh xbZ FkhA og 1839 osQ olar esa oSaQVu igqpkA ks&'kw us in laHkkyrs gh vI+kQhe osQ O;kikj esa yxs
1600 yksxksa dks fxj+rkj djus osQ vkns'k fn, vkSj 11]000 ikSaM vI+kQhe tCr dj yhA blosQ ckn fyu ks&'kw us fons'kh
I+kSQfDV;ksa dks vI+kQhe dk LVkWd [kkyh djus dh fgnk;r nhA bl dkjZokbZ osQ rgr vI +kQhe osQ 20] 000 ozsQV u"V fd,
x,A ks&'kw osQ oSaQVu esa fons'kh O;kikj ij jksd yxkus ls baXySaM us phu osQ f[kykI+kQ ;q dh ?kks"k.kk dj nhA vI+kQhe
;q (1837&42) esa phu dks eqg dh [kkuh iM+h vkSj mls ,d viekutud lafk Lohdkj djuh iM+hA lafk dh 'krks
osQ vuqlkj vI+kQhe osQ O;kikj dks dkuwuh ekU;rk ns nh xbZ vkSj phu osQ njokks fons'kh O;kikfj;ksa osQ fy, [kksy fn,
x,A ;q ls igys fyu us baXySaM dh egkjkuh foDVksfj;k dks ,d i=k fy[kk Fkk ftlesa vI+kQhe osQ O;kikj dh HkRlZuk
dh xbZ FkhA ;gk fyu }kjk egkjkuh dks fy[ks x, ml i=k dk ,d va'k izLrqr gSA
phu esa tks yksx vI+kQhe dh [kjhn&I+kQjks[r djrs gSa ;k mldk lsou djrs gSa mUgsa e`R;qnaM fn;k tkuk pkfg,A vxj ge
vI+kQhe cspus okys bu ccZj yksxksa osQ vijkkksa dh tkp djsa vkSj mudh gjdrksa ls ns'k dks gksus okys uqdlku dk tk;kk
ysa rks bu yksxksa dks e`R;qnaM nsuk dgha ls xyr ugha yxrk---

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ksr

ksr % lw;w rsax vkSj tkWu I+ksQ;jcSad] pkbukk jsLikWUl Vw n osLV (1954)A

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

vkidk ns'k phu ls lkB ;k lkj gkkj yh (rhu yh] ,d ehy osQ cjkcj gksrk gS) nwj gSA blosQ ckotwn bu ccZj
yksxksa osQ tgkk vI+kQhe osQ O;kikj osQ fy, phu esa vkrs gSa vkSj Hkkjh equkI+kQk dekrs gSaA phu dh laifk dk ;s ccZj
O;kikjh vius fgr esa nksgu dj jgs gSaA bldk eryc ;g gS fd bu ccZj O;kikfj;ksa }kjk dek;k x;k ku okLro esa
phu dh laifk gSA bu yksxksa dks bl ckr dk dksbZ vfkdkj ugha gS fd bl O;kikj osQ cnys os phu dh turk dks ;g
[krjukd u'khyh nok f[kyk,A eSa iwNuk pkgrk gw fd vkidh uSfrdrk dgk pyh xbZ gSA eSaus lquk gS fd baXySaM esa vI+kQhe
osQ lsou ij l[r jksd gSA bldk dkj.k ;g gS fd vkidk ns'k vI+kQhe osQ [krjksa dks le>rk gSA ;fn vki vius ns'k
dk uqdlku ugha djuk pkgrs rks nwljs ns'kksa dk uqdlku djus dk Hkh vkidks dksbZ vfkdkj ugha gSA Hkyk phu bl
cyk dk f'kdkj D;ksa\

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bl rjg ;g gqvk fd tgk baXySaM esa phu ls vk;kr dh xbZ pk; yksxksa
dh kcku ij p<+us yxh ogha phu dh turk vI+kQhe dh yr dk f'kdkj
gksus yxhA ;g yr lekt osQ lHkh oxks & nqdkunkj] ljdkjh deZpkjh]
lsuk osQ yksx] mPp oxZ vkSj fHk[kkfj;ksa esa iQSy xbZ FkhA 1839 esa oSaQVu
osQ fo'ks"k vk;qDr fyu ks&'kw osQ vuqlkj phu esa 40 yk[k yksx vI+kQhe
dk lsou dj jgs FksA oSaQVu esa jgus okys ,d vaxzsk MkWDVj osQ eqrkfcd
yxHkx 1 djksM+ 20 yk[k yksx vI+kQhe dh yr osQ vknh gks pqosQ FksA ,d
rjI+kQ tgk phu vI+kQhefp;ksa dk ns'k cu x;k Fkk ogha baXySaM dk pk;
O;kikj fnuksafnu izxfr dj jgk FkkA vI+kQhe osQ bl voSk O;kikj ls gkfly
dh xbZ jkf'k dk bLrseky pk; [kjhnus osQ fy, fd;k tk jgk FkkA

f;kdyki
dYiuk djsa fd phu osQ 'kkld us vkils vI+kQhe osQ
uqdlkunsg izHkkoksa osQ ckjs esa ,d ipkZ rS;kj djus osQ
fy, dgk gSA irk yxk, fd vI+kQhe osQ lsou dk
euq"; ij D;k&D;k izHkko iM+rk gSA ,d ipkZ rS;kj
djsa vkSj mls vkd"kZd 'kh"kZd nsaA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

3-2 vaxzsk O;kikjh vI+kQhe dgk ls izkIr djrs Fks\


vI+kQhe osQ O;kikj esa Hkkjrh; fdlkuksa dh Hkwfedk ;gha ls 'kq: gksrh gSA
caxky fot; osQ ckn vaxzskksa us vius dCks dh kehu ij vI+kQhe dh
[ksrh 'kq: dhA tSls&tSls phu esa vI+kQhe dk ckkkj c<+rk x;k oSls&oSls
caxky osQ canjxkgksa ls vI+kQhe dk fu;kZr c<+us yxkA 1767 ls igys Hkkjr
ls osQoy 500 isVh (nks eu osQ cjkcj) vI+kQhe fu;kZr dh tkrh FkhA
flI+kZQ pkj o"kks osQ Hkhrj ;g ek=kk rhu xquk c<+ xbZA 100 o"kZ ckn vFkkZr~
1870 rd vkrs&vkrs ljdkj gj o"kZ yxHkx 50]000 isVh vI+kQhe dk
fu;kZr djus yxh FkhA
fnuksafnu c<+rs O;kikj dks dk;e j[kus osQ fy, vI+kQhe dh ekx dks
c<+kuk vko';d Fkk ysfdu ;g dke vklku ugha FkkA vkf[kj fdlkuksa dks
vI+kQhe dh [ksrh osQ fy, oSQls rS;kj fd;k tk ldrk Fkk\ fdlku vI+kQhe
cksus osQ fy, rS;kj ugha FksA blosQ dbZ dkj.k FksA lcls igys fdlkuksa dks
vI+kQhe dh [ksrh lcls moZj kehu ij djuh gksrh FkhA [kklrkSj ij ,slh
kehu ij tks xko osQ ikl iM+rh FkhA vkerkSj ij ,slh mitkmQ kehu ij
fdlku nky iSnk djrs FksA vPNh vkSj moZj kehu ij vI+kQhe cksus dk
eryc nky dh iSnkokj ls gkFk kksuk FkkA mUgsa nky dh I+kQly osQ fy,
de moZj kehu dk bLrseky djuk iM+ jgk FkkA [kjkc kehu esa nkyksa dk
mRiknu u osQoy vfuf'pr jgrk Fkk cfYd mldh iSnkokj Hkh dkI+kQh de
jgrh FkhA nwljs] cgqr lkjs fdlkuksa osQ ikl kehu Fkh gh ughaA vI+kQhe dh
[ksrh osQ fy, ,sls fdlkukas dks HkwLokfe;ksa dks yxku nsuk iM+rk FkkA os bu
HkwLokfe;ksa ls cVkbZ ij yh xbZ kehu ij vI+kQhe mxkrs FksA xko osQ ikl
dh kehu dh yxku nj cgqr ph jgrh FkhA rhljs] vI+kQhe dh [ksrh
cgqr eqf'dy ls gksrh FkhA vI+kQhe osQ ukkqd ikSks dks ftank j[kuk cgqr
esgur dk dke FkkA vI+kQhe cksus osQ ckn fdlku nwljh I+ kQlyksa ij ;ku
ugha ns ikrs FksA var esa] ljdkj vI+kQhe cksus osQ cnys fdlkuksa dks cgqr
de nke nsrh FkhA fdlkuksa osQ fy, ljdkjh ewY; ij vI+kQhe iSnk djuk
?kkVs dk lkSnk FkkA

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u, 'kCn
eu % Hkkj dh eki
1 eu % 40 lsjA 1 lsj 1 fdyksxzke ls
oqQN de gksrk gSA

f;kdyki

dYiuk djsa fd vki vI+kQhe dh [ksrh dk fojksk


djus okys fdlkuksa dk usrR` o dj jgs gSAa vkidks bZLV
bafM;k daiuh osQ LFkkuh; vfkdkfj;ksa ls bl laca k esa
ckr djuh gSA ckrphr oSQls vkxs c<+sxh\ d{kk osQ
fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks nks lewg esa ckVsa vkSj ppkZ djsaA

3-3 fdlkuksa dks vI+kQhe dh [ksrh ds fy, dSls euk;k x;k \


fdlkuksa dks vI+kQhe dh [ksrh djus osQ fy, vfxze jde nh tkrh FkhA
caxky vkSj fcgkj osQ xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa xjhc fdlkuksa dh ,d cM+h tekr
,slh Fkh tks gj le; vkfFkZd ladV esa f?kjh jgrh FkhA HkwLokeh dk dj
pqdkus ;k vius fy, Hkkstu vkSj oL=k dk izcak djuk muosQ fy, ges'kk
eqf'dy jgrk FkkA 1780 osQ ckn xko osQ eqf[k;k bu fdlkuksa dks vI+kQhe
iSnk djus osQ fy, vfxze jde is'k djus yxsA .k dh lqfokk bu
fdlkuksa osQ fy, cM+h jkgr cu dj vkbZA .k dh lqfokk osQ pyrs
fdlku u osQoy viuh rkRdkfyd k:jrksa dks iwjk dj ikrs Fks cfYd
igys ls fy, dkZ dks Hkh vnk djus dh gkyr esa vk tkrs FksA ysfdu
bl .k O;oLFkk osQ lkFk ,d [kjkc ckr ;g tqM+h gqbZ Fkh fd .k ysrs
gh fdlku xko osQ izkku vkSj ljdkj osQ cakqvk gks tkrs FksA bu fdlkuksa
rd ;g jde vI+kQhe osQ ljdkjh ,tsaVksa osQ tfj, igqprh FkhA ;s ,tsaV
xko osQ izkku dks vfxze jde nsrs Fks vkSj xko dk izkku bu fdlkuksa dksA
,d ckj .k ysus osQ ckn fdlku vI+kQhe cksus ls eqdj ugha ldrs FksA
bl O;oLFkk osQ rgr fdlkuksa dks ,d fuf'pr {ks=kiQy esa vI+kQhe cksuh
iM+rh FkhA I+kQly vI +kQhe osQ ,tsaVksa }kjk dkVh tkrh FkhA ,d ckj I+kQly
cksus osQ ckn ml ij fdlku dk dksbZ vfkdkj ugha jg tkrk FkkA og bl
kehu ij dksbZ nwljh I+kQly ugha mxk ldrk FkkA mls bl I+kQly dks dgha
vkSj cspus dh Hkh vkkknh ugha FkhA lkFk gh I+kQly osQ nke ,tsaV }kjk r;
fd, tkrs Fks vkSj ;s nke ges'kk gh cgqr de gksrs FksA
tgk rd vI +kQhe dh [ksrh ls gksus okyh de vk; dk loky gS ;g
vI +kQhe osQ nke c<+kus ls nwj dh tk ldrh FkhA ysfdu bl ekeys esa ljdkj
dk joS;k ldkjkRed ugha FkkA og [kqn bl ckr osQ i{k esa Fkh fd vI +kQhe
dk mRiknu de ls de ykxr ij fd;k tk, vkSj dydkk osQ vI +kQhe
,tsVa ksa dks ;g vI +kQhe ps nke ij csph tk,A dydkk fLFkr ;s ,tsVa bl
vI +kQhe dks phu Hkstus dh O;oLFkk djrs FksA vI+kQhe osQ bl ; vkSj fo;
dk varj ljdkj osQ [kkrs esa tkrk FkkA nwljs 'kCnkas esa ;gh ljdkj dk jktLo
gksrk FkkA vI+kQhe iSnk djus okys fdlkuksa dks bruk de ewY; fn;k tkrk Fkk
fd vBkjgoha 'krkCnh dh 'kq#vkr rd vkrs&vkrs fdlku csgrj nke dh
ekx djus yxs Fks vkSj vfxze is'kxh ysus ls bUdkj djus yxs FksA cukjl osQ
vklikl osQ {ks=k esa vI+kQhe iSnk djus okys fdlkuksa us rax vkdj bldh
[ksrh gh can dj nh FkhA blosQ cnys mUgksua s xUus vkSj vkyw dh [ksrh viuk
yhA cgqr lkjs fdlkuksa us viuh I +kQlyksa dks ?kqera w O;kikfj;ksa (iSdkjksa) dks
csp Mkyk FkkA ;s O;kikjh fdlkuksa dks csgrj nke nsrs FksA
1773 rd caxky ljdkj us vI+kQhe osQ O;kikj ij vkfkiR; tek
fy;kA ljdkj osQ vykok dksbZ ckgjh O;fDr ;g O;kikj ugha dj ldrk
FkkA 1820 osQ n'kd esa vaxzsk ljdkj us ik;k fd muosQ {ks=k esa vI+kQhe
dk mRiknu ?kVus yxk gSA tcfd xSj&fczfV'k bykdksa esa vI+kQhe dh [ksrh
[kwc iQy&iwQy jgh FkhA e; Hkkjr vkSj jktLFkku tSls xSj&fczfV'k {ks=kksa esa

ksr N
1833 esa bykgkckn osQ lgk;d vI+kQhe ,tsVa us fy[kk
Fkk %
+ iSnk ugha djuk
^cksMZ ekurk gS fd fdlku vIkQhe
pkgrsA fiNys nks o"kks osQ nkSjku eSa tequk osQ nf{k.kh
fkyksa esa jgus okys fdlkuksa osQ laidZ esa jgk gw vkSj
eSaus ;g ckr eglwl dh gS fd ;gk osQ lHkh fdlku
bl O;oLFkk ls ukjkk gSaA os bls drbZ ilan ugha
djrsA bl ekeys esa eSaus dbZ txg iM+rky dh gS
vkSj esjk vuqHko ;g gS fd vI+kQhe dh [ksrh dks
fdlku vfHk'kki ekurs gSaA os vI+kQhe dh [ksrh viuh
ekhZ ls ugha cfYd MaMs osQ kksj ij djrs gS-a --A ;g [ksrh
dysDVj osQ vkns'k osQ rgr 'kq: dh xbZ Fkh---A yksx
ckx crkrs gSa fd muosQ lkFk pijklh cnrehth ls
is'k vkrs gSa vkSj muls xkyh&xykSk djrs gSa---A
fdlkuksa dh jk; gS fd vI+kQhe dh [ksrh ls mUgsa
uqdlku gqvk gSA*

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fcukW; pkSkjh dh iqLrd xzksFk vkWI+kQ def'kZ;y


,xzhdYpj bu caxky lsA

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

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135

vI+kQhe dk mRiknu cnLrwj tkjh FkkA bu {ks=kksa esa LFkkuh; O;kikjh fdlkuksa
dks csgrj ewY; nsrs FksA 1820 osQ n'kd esa ;s O;kikjh l'kL=k ny&cy
osQ lkFk O;kikj djrs FksA vaxzskksa dh n`f"V esa ;g O;kikj voSk FkkA os bls
rLdjh ekurs Fks vkSj bl ij jksd yxkuk pkgrs FksA ljdkj vI+kQhe ij
viuk vkfkiR; cuk, j[kuk pkgrh Fkh blfy, mlus fj;klrksa esa rSukr
vius ,tsaVksa dks bu O;kikfj;ksa dh vI+kQhe kCr djus vkSj I+kQlyksa dks u"V
djus osQ vkns'k fn,A
tc rd vI+kQhe dk mRiknu tkjh jgk rc rd fczfV'k ljdkj]
fdlku vkSj LFkkuh; O;kikfj;ksa osQ chp ;g Vdjko pyrk jgkA
ysfdu blls gesa ;g vFkZ ugha fudkyuk pkfg, fd vkSifuosf'kd
Hkkjr esa lHkh fdlkuksa dh gkyr vI+kQhe dh [ksrh djus okys fdlkuksa tSlh
gh FkhA vkSifuosf'kd Hkkjr esa vU; fdlkuksa dh gkyr osQ ckjs esa ge ,d
vyx v;k; esa ckr djsaxsA

fu"d"kZ

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bl v;k; esa vkius i<+k fd vkkqfud dky esa fo'o osQ fofHkUu xzkeh.k
{ks=kksa esa egoiw.kZ ifjorZu vk,A bu cnykoksa ij ukj Mkyrs le; gesa bl
ckr dk ;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd ;s cnyko gj txg ,d tSls ugha FksA xzkeh.k
{ks=k osQ lHkh oxks ij bu ifjorZuksa dk izHkko ,d leku ugha FkkA bu cnykoksa
ls oqQN oxks dks ykHk gqvk vkSj oqQN dks uqdlkuA vkkqfudhdj.k dk ;g
bfrgkl flI +kZQ oSHkoiw.kZ gh ugha FkkA bls osQoy o`f vkSj fodkl dh ,d
'kkunkj dgkuh Hkj ugha dgk tk ldrkA bl dky esa yksxksa dks viuh ewy
txg NksMd
+ j vkthfodk dh ryk'k esa vU; LFkkuksa dk #[k djuk iM+kA ;g
dky xjhch] i;kZoj.kh; ladV] lkekftd foksg] vkSifuos'khdj.k vkSj neu
dk dky Hkh FkkA gesa bu cnykokas osQ fofHkUu i{kksa dks le>us dk iz;kl
djuk pkfg, D;ksfa d vkkqfud fo'o esa [ksfrgj turk vkSj fdlkuksa us bl
fLFkfr dk eqdkcyk vyx&vyx <ax ls fd;k gSA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 20 & mUuhloha lnh esa vI+kQhe dh isfV;ksa dks xkkhiqj jsyos LVs'ku ys tkrs fdlku136

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f;kdyki

ns'k

ifjorZu

fdldk
uqdlku gqvk

f;kdyki

1- 1650 ls 1930 osQ chp f"k osQ {ks=k esa vk, egoiw.kZ cnykoksa dks n'kkZus osQ fy, ,d dkyjs[kk rS;kj djsaA
2- uhps nh xbZ lkj.kh esa bl v;k; esa mfYyf[kr ?kVukvksa osQ vkkkj ij tkudkjh HkjsaA ;kn j[ksa fd fdlh ns'k
esa ,d ls ;knk cnyko Hkh ns[ks tk ldrs gSaA

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fdldks
ykHk gqvk

iz'u

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1- vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa baXySMa dh xzkeh.k turk [kqys [ksr dh O;oLFkk dks fdl n`f"V ls ns[krh FkhA la{ksi esa O;k[;k
djsaA bl O;oLFkk dks

,d laiUu fdlku

,d eknwj

,d [ksfrgj L=kh
dh n`f"V ls ns[kus dk iz;kl djsaA

2- baXySaM esa gq, ckM+kcanh vkanksyu osQ dkj.kksa dh la{ksi esa O;k[;k djsaA

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3- baXySaM osQ xjhc fdlku Fkzsf'kax e'khuksa dk fojksk D;ksa dj jgs Fks\

4- oSQIVsu fLoax dkSu Fkk\ ;g uke fdl ckr dk izrhd Fkk vkSj og fdu oxks dk izfrfufkRo djrk Fkk\

fdlku vkSj dk'rdkj

5- vesfjdk ij u, vkizokfl;ksa osQ if'peh izlkj dk D;k izHkko iM+k\


6- vesfjdk esa Ik+ Qly dkVus okyh e'khuksa osQ I+kQk;ns&uqdlku D;k&D;k Fks\

7- vesfjdk esa xsgw dh [ksrh esa vk, mNky vkSj ckn esa iSnk gq, i;kZoj.k ladV ls ge D;k lcd ys ldrs gSa\
8- vaxzsk vI+kQhe dh [ksrh djus osQ fy, Hkkjrh; fdlkuksa ij D;ksa ncko Mky jgs Fks\
9- Hkkjrh; fdlku vI+kQhe dh [ksrh osQ izfr D;ksa mnklhu Fks\

137

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o


138

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[k.M III

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jkskkuk dh fkanxh] laLfr vkSj jktuhfr

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bfrgkl egk nqfu;k dh egku ;k ukVdh; ?kVukvksa dh nkLrku ugha gSA ;g gekjs thou dh NksVh&eksVh
ckrksa ls Hkh mruk gh tqM+k gSA gekjs vklikl dh gj phk dk ,d bfrgkl gS&tks diM+s ge igurs
gSa] tks [kkuk ge [kkrs gSa] tks nok, ge ysrs gSa] tks laxhr lqurs gSa] tks lkfgR; i<+rs gSa vkSj tks [ksy
[ksyrs gSaA ;s lc phksa oDr osQ lkFk cuh gSa ;k cnyh gSaA jkskejkZ dh phk gksus osQ pyrs gekjk ;ku
mu ij ugha tkrkA ge Bgjdj lksprs Hkh ugha fd lkS lky igys buesa ls dksbZ phk oSQlh jgh gksxh_
;k vyx&vyx lekt osQ yksx Hkkstu ;k diM+s osQ ckjs esa oSQls fHkUu&fHkUu rjhosQ ls lksprs gSaA

v;k; 7 bfrgkl o [ksy ij gSA blesa vki ,d ,sls [ksy dk bfrgkl i<+saxs ftlus fiNys oqQN n'kdksa
ls vius ns'k osQ yksxksa dks nhokuk dj j[kk gSA fosQV ls tqM+h [kcjsa v[kckjksa dh lqf[kZ;k cu tkrh
gSaA fosQV dk [ksy vk;ksftr djosQ jk"Vksa osQ chp nksfLr;k xkBh tkrh gSa vkSj fosQVj vius ns'k osQ
jktnwr ekus tkrs gSaA lp dgk tk, rks ;g [ksy Hkkjr dh ,drk dk izrhd cudj mHkjk gSA ysfdu
D;k vki tkurs gSa fd ges'kk ls ,slk ugha Fkk\ bl v;k; esa vkidks blosQ yacs vkSj Vs<+s&es<+s lI+kQj
dh ,d >yd feysxhA
,d kekus esa] djhc Ms<+ lkS lky igys] fosQV fI k+ Qjaxh [ksy FkkA bldk vkfo"dkj baXySaM esa gqvk vkSj
;g 19oha lnh osQ foDVksfj;kbZ lekt vkSj laLfr osQ jax esa jx x;kA bl [ksy dks vaxzsk vius reke
fiz; ewY;ksa&cjkcjh dk U;k;] vuq'kklu] 'kjkI+kQr (tsUV~yeSufyusl)&dk okgd ekurs FksA fosQV dks
LowQyksa esa 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk osQ o`gkj dk;Ze osQ rgr yxk;k x;k fd yM+osQ vkn'kZ ukxfjd cu losaQA
yM+fd;ksa dks yM+dksa dk [ksy [ksyus dh btkkr ugha FkhA vaxzskksa osQ lkFk pydj fosQV mifuos'kksa
esa igqpkA vkSifuosf'kd ekfydksa us lkspk fd [ksy dks blosQ okftc vankk] bldh vlyh Hkkouk osQ
lkFk flI+kZQ ogh [ksy ldrs gSaA fygkkk tc mifuos'k osQ xqyke yksx fosQV [ksyus yxs vkSj vdlj
muls csgrj [ksyus yxs_ bruk gh ugha dbZ ckj mUgsa gjkus esa Hkh liQy jgs] rks mUgsa xaHkhj fpark gksus
yxhA bl rjg fosQV dk [ksy mifuos'kokn vkSj jk"Vokn dh jktuhfr ls tqM+ x;kA

bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

jkskkuk dh ftanxh] laLfr vkSj jktuhfr

rhljs [kaM esa vkidk ifjp; nSfud thou osQ bfrgkl ls gksxkA ;gk vki [ksy vkSj igukos dk bfrgkl
i<+ losaQxsA

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mifuos'kksa osQ vanj [ksy dk viuk bfrgkl Hkh isphnk jgkA tSlk fd vki v;k; 7 esa ns[ksaxs] fosQV
tkfr] {ks=k] leqnk; o jk"V dh jktuhfr ls tqM+ x;kA jk"Vh; [ksy osQ :i esa fozQosQV dk mHkjuk dbZ
n'kdksa osQ ,sfrgkfld fodkl dk ifj.kke FkkA
139

fosQV osQ ckn ge igukos dh vksj c<+saxs (v;k; 8)A vki ns[ksaxs fd igukos osQ bfrgkl ls gesa
fofHkUu lektksa osQ bfrgkl osQ ckjs fdruk oqQN irk pyrk gSA yksx tks diM+s igurs gSa] mu ij lekt
dh jhfr&uhfr;ksa dh Nki gksrh gSA muls gesa lqanjrk] e;kZnk o mfpr&vuqfpr vkpkj&O;ogkj osQ muosQ
[k;kykr dk irk pyrk gSA lekt osQ cnyus ls ;s jhfr;k&uhfr;k Hkh cnyrh gSaA ysfdu lekt osQ
jLeksa&fjokt vkSj igukos&vks<+kos esa cnyko osQ ihNs yach tkstgn gksrh gSA budk ,d bfrgkl gksrk
gS] ;s LokHkkfod rkSj ij] ;w gh cl] gks ugha tkrsA

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v;k; 8 blh bfrgkl ls vkidk ifjp; djk,xkA vki i<+saxs fd baXySaM o Hkkjr esa igukos esa gq,
cnyko fdl rjg bu ns'kksa esa py jgs lkekftd vkanksyuksa vkSj vkfFkZd ifjorZuksa ls izHkkfor gq,A vki
,d ckj fiQj ns[ksaxs fd igukok Hkh mifuos'koknh o jk"Voknh] tkfr vkSj oxZ dh jktuhfr ls fdl
xgjkbZ ls tqM+k gSA igukos osQ bfrgkl ij FkksM+k xkSj djsa rks Lons'kh dh jktuhfr o pj[ks osQ izrhd esa
gesa u, vFkZ [kqyrs fn[ksaxsA 'kk;n blls gesa egkRek xka/h dks Hkh csgrj le>us dk ekSdk feys D;ksafd
og vosQys ,sls balku Fks] tks u fliZQ diM+ksa dh jktuhfr osQ izfr fugk;r ltx Fks] cfYd mUgksaus bl
ij tedj fy[kk HkhA

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vxj vki bu nks&,d phkksa osQ bfrgkl dks le>us yxsa rks 'kk;n viuh fkanxh osQ ,sls igyqvksa dk
bfrgkl [kqn VVksyus yxsaxs ftUgsa vc rd vkius lk/kj.k ekudj vuns[kk dj fn;k FkkA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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bfrgkl
[ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh
bfrgkl vkSj vkS
[ksy % fosj
QV dh dgkuh

fosQV baXySaM esa 500 lky igys vyx&vyx fu;eksa osQ rgr [ksys tk
jgs xsan&MaMs osQ [ksyksa ls iSnk gqvkA ^cSV* vaxzskh dk ,d iqjkuk 'kCn gS]
ftldk lh/k vFkZ gS ^MaMk* ;k ^oqqaQnk*A l=kgoha lnh esa ,d [ksy osQ :i
esa fosQV dh vke igpku cu pqdh Fkh vkSj ;g bruk yksdfiz; gks pqdk
Fkk fd jfookj dks ppZ u tkdj eSp [ksyus osQ fy, blosQ nhokuksa ij
tqekZuk yxk;k tkrk FkkA vBkjgoha lnh osQ e; rd cYys dh cukoV
gkWdh&fLVd dh rjg uhps ls eqM+h gksrh FkhA bldh lh/h&lh otg ;s Fkh
fd ckWy yq<+dk dj] vaMjvkeZ] IksaQdh tkrh Fkh vkSj cSV osQ fupys fljs
dk ?kqeko cYysckk dks xsan ls laioZQ lk/us esa enn djrk FkkA
baXySaM osQ xkoksa ls mBdj ;g [ksy oSQls vkSj dc cM+s 'kgjksa osQ
fo'kky LVsfM;e esa [ksyk tkusokyk vk/qfud [ksy cu x;k] ;g bfrgkl
dk ,d fnypLi fo"k; gS] D;ksafd bfrgkl dk ,d bLrseky rks ;gh gS
fd og gesa orZeku osQ cuus dh dgkuh crk,A [ksy gekjh ekStwnk knxh
dk ,d vge fgLlk gS&blosQ kfj, ge viuk euksjatu djrs gSa] ,d
nwljs ls gksM+ ysrs gSa] [kqn dks fI +kQV j[krs gSa vkSj viuh lkekftd rjI+kQnkjh
Hkh O;Dr djrs gSaA vxj vkt osQ fnu yk[kksa&djksM+ksa fgUnqLrkuh lc&oqQN
NksM+&NkM+dj Hkkjrh; Vhe dks VsLV ;k ,dfnolh; eSp [ksyrs ns[kus esa
tqV tkrs gSa rks ;g tkuuk k:jh yxrk gS fd nf{k.k&iwoZ baXySaM esa [kkstk
x;k ;g xsan&MaMs dk [ksy vkf[kj Hkkjrh; miegk}hi dk tquwu oSQls cu
x;kA bl [ksy dh dgkuh blfy, Hkh fnypLi gS D;ksafd ,d vksj tgk
mifuos'kokn o jk"Vokn dh cM+h dgkuh blls tqM+h gS rks nwljh vksj /eZ
o tkfr dh jktuhfr us Hkh ,d gn rd
bldk Lo:i x<+kA
fosQV osQ bl bfrgkl esa igys ge
baXySaM esa blosQ fodkl dks ns[ksaxs vkSj ml
le; izpfyr 'kkjhfjd pqLrh o izf'k{k.k dh
laLfr dk Hkh tk;kk ysaxsA rc ge Hkkjr
dk #[+k djrs gq, fosQV dks ;gk viuk;s
tkus ls ysdj blesa gq, vk/qfud cnykoksa
rd dh ppkZ djsaxsA gjsd [kaM esa ge ns[ksaxs
fd [ksy dk bfrgkl fdl rjg lkekftd
bfrgkl ls uFkk&xqFkk gSA

v;k; 7

bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV


dh dgkuh

fp=k 1 & vkt ekStwn lcls iqjkuk cYykblosQ eqM+s gq, fljs dks ns[ksa tks gkWdh fLVd tSlk yxrk gSA

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fp=k 2 & ykWMZ~l] baXySaM fosQV eSnku dk ,d fp=kdkj }kjk cuk;k x;k fp=k] 1821 -

141

baXySaM esa [ksy osQ :i esa fosQV


dk ,sfrgkfld fodkl

vBkjgoha o mUuhloha lnh osQ baXySaM osQ lkekftd vkSj jktuhfrd


bfrgkl us fosQV dks bldk vuks[kk Lo:i iznku fd;k] D;ksafd ;g
fosQV dk 'kq#vkrh nkSj FkkA felky osQ rkSj ij ;g flI+ kZQ VsLV
fosQV dk gh vtwck gS fd [ksy ikp fnu rd yxkrkj pys vkSj
dksbZ urhtk u fudysA fdlh Hkh vU; vk/qfud [ksy osQ [kRe gksus
esa blls vk/k oD+r Hkh ugha yxrkA iqQVckWy eSp djhc Ms<+ ?kaVs
pyrk gSA xsan o cYys ls [ksys tkus okys cslckWy tSls vk/qfud
kekus osQ fygkk ls vis{kkr yacs [ksy esa Hkh mrus le; esa ukS
ikfj;k gks tkrh gSa ftrus esa fosQV osQ y?kq laLdj.k] ;kuh ,dfnolh;
eSp] dh ,d ikjh gks ikrh gSA
fosQV dh ,d vkSj fnypLi [+kkfl;r ;g gS fd fip dh yackbZ rks
r;& 22 xk &gksrh gS ij eSnku dk vkdkj&izdkj ,d&lk ugha gksrkA
gkWdh] iqQVckWy tSls nwljs Vhe&[ksyksa esa eSnku osQ vk;ke r; gksrs gSa]
fosQV esa ughaA ,sMhysM vksoy dh rjg eSnku vaMkdkj gks ldrk gS] rks
psUubZ osQ psikWd dh rjg yxHkx xksy HkhA esycuZ fosQV xzkmaM esa
NDdk gksus osQ fy, xsan dks dkI+kQh nwjh r; djuh iM+rh gS] tcfd fnYyh
osQ fi+Qjksk'kkg dksVyk esa FkksM+s iz;kl esa gh xsan lhek&js[kk osQ ikj tkdj
fxjrh gSA
bu nksuksa vtwcksa osQ ihNs ,sfrgkfld dkj.k gSaA o+ Qk;nk&o+ Qkuwu ls ckus
okys [ksyksa esa fosQV dk uacj vOoy Fkk] ;kuh] lkWdj o gkWdh tSls cko+ Qh
[ksyksa osQ eqo+ Qkcys esa fosQV us lcls igys vius fy, fu;e cuk, vkSj
ofnZ;k Hkh viukbA ^fosQV osQ o+ Qkuwu* igys&igy 1744 bZ- esa fy[ks
x,A muosQ eqrkfcd] ^^gkfkj 'kjhi+Qksa esa ls nksuksa
fizafliy (dIrku) nks vaik;j pqusaxs] ftUgsa fdlh
Hkh fookn dks fuiVkus dk vafre vf/dkj gksxkA
LVai 22 bap ps gksaxs] muosQ chp dh fxfYy;k 6
bap dhA xsan dk oku 5 ls 6 vkSal osQ chp gksxk
vkSj LVai osQ chp dh nwjh 22 xk gksxh**A cYys
osQ :i o vkdkj ij dksbZ ikcanh ugha FkhA
,slk yxrk gS fd 40 ukWp ;k ju dk Ldksj
+
dkiQh cM+k gksrk Fkk] 'kk;n blfy, fd xsanckk
rskh ls cYysckk osQ uaxs] iSMjfgr fiaMfy;ksa ij
xsan isaQdrs FksA nqfu;k dk igyk fosQV Dyc
gSEcYMu esa 1760 osQ n'kd esa cuk vkSj esfjfyckWu
fosQV Dyc (,elhlh) dh LFkkiuk 1787 esa
gqbZA blosQ vxys lky gh ,elhlh us fosQV osQ fp=k 3 & esfjfyckWu fosQV Dyc (,elhlh) dk iSfofy;u] 1874-

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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142

fu;eksa esa lq/kj fd, vkSj mudk vfHkHkkod cu cSBkA ,elhlh osQ lqkkjksa
ls [ksy osQ jax&<ax esa <sj lkjs ifjorZu gq,] ftUgsa 18oha lnh osQ nwljs
fgLls esa ykxw fd;k x;kA
1760 o 1770 osQ n'kd esa kehu ij yq<+dkus dh txg xsan dks gok
esa ygjkdj vkxs iVdus dk pyu gks x;k FkkA blls xsanckkksa dks xsan dh
yackbZ dk fodYi rks feyk gh] os vc gok esa pdek Hkh ns ldrs Fks vkSj
igys ls dgha rsk xsansa isaQd ldrs FksA blls fLiu vkSj fLoax osQ fy, u,
njokks [kqysA tokc esa cYysckkksa dks viuh Vkbfeax o 'kkWV p;u ij
egkjr gkfly djuh FkhA ,d urhtk rks i+QkSju ;g gqvk fd eqM+s gq, cYys
dh txg lh/s cYys us ys yhA bu lcdh otg ls gquj o rduhd
egRoiw.kZ gks x,] tcfd cM+&[kkcM+ eSnku ;k 'kq rkdr dh Hkwfedk
de gks xbZA
xsan dk oku vc lk<+s ikp ls ikSus N% vkSal rd gks x;k vkSj cYys
dh pkSM+kbZ pkj bap dj nh xbZA ;g rc gqvk tc ,d cYysckk us viuh
iwjh ikjh foosQV ftrus pkSM+s cYys ls [ksy Mkyh! igyk ysx fci+Qksj
foosQV (ixck/k) fu;e 1774 esa izdkf'kr gqvkA yxHkx mlh le;
rhljs LVai dk pyu Hkh gqvkA 1780 rd cM+s eSpksa dh vof/ rhu
fnu dh gks xbZ Fkh vkSj blh lky N% lhou okyh fosQV ckWy Hkh
vfLrRo esa vkbZA
mUuhloha lnh esa <sj lkjs cnyko gq,A okbM ckWy dk fu;e ykxw
gqvk] xsan dk lVhd O;kl r; fd;k x;k] pksV ls cpkus osQ fy, iSM o
nLrkus tSls fgi+Qkkrh midj.k miyC/ gq,] ckmaMh dh 'kq#vkr gqbZ]
tcfd igys gjsd ju nkSM+ dj ysuk iM+rk Fkk] vkSj lcls vge ckr]
vksojvkeZ cksfyax dkuwuh Bgjk;h xbZA ij vBkjgoha lnh esa fosQV
iwoZ&vkS|ksfxd [ksy jgk] ftls ifjiDo gksus osQ fy, vkS|ksfxd kafr]
;kuh 19oha lnh osQ nwljs fgLls dk barkkj djuk iM+kA vius bl [+kkl
bfrgkl osQ pyrs fosQV esa Hkwr&orZeku nksuksa dh fo'ks"krk, 'kkfey gSaA
fosQV dh xzkeh.k tM+ksa dh iqf"V VsLV eSp dh vof/ ls Hkh gks tkrh
gSA 'kq: esa fosQV eSp dh le;&lhek ugha gksrh FkhA [ksy rc rd pyrk
Fkk tc rd ,d Vhe nwljh dks nksckjk iwjk vkmV u dj nsA xzkeh.k fkanxh
dh j+rkj /heh Fkh vkSj fosQV osQ fu;e vkS|ksfxd kafr ls igys cuk,
x, FksA vk/qfud i+SQDVh dk eryc Fkk fd yksxksa dks ?kaVs] fngkM+h ;k
+ osQ fglkc ls dke osQ iSls feyrs Fks% iqQVckWy ;k gkWdh tSls [ksyksa
grs
dh lafgrk, vkS|ksfxd kafr osQ ckn cuha] fygkkk mudh dBksj le;&lhek,
vkS|ksfxd 'kgjh fkanxh osQ :Vhu dks ;ku esa j[kdj cukbZ xbA
mlh rjg fosQV esa eSnku osQ vkdkj dk vLi"V gksuk mldh xzkeh.k
'kq#vkr dk lcwr gSA fosQV ewyr% xko osQ dkWeUl esa [ksyk tkrk FkkA
dkWeUl ,sls lkoZtfud vkSj [kqys eSnku Fks ftuij iwjs leqnk; dk lk>k
go+ Q gksrk FkkA dkWeUl dk vkdkj gjsd xko esa vyx&vyx gksrk Fkk]
blfy, u rks ckmaMh r; Fkh vkSj u gh pkSosQA tc xsan HkhM+ esa ?kql tkrh

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bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

fp=k 4 & ,elhlh }kjk fukkZfjr vkSj la'kksfkr gksus okys fosQV
osQ fu;eksa dks bl :i esa fu;fer :i ls izdkf'kr fd;k tkrk
FkkA cYysckkh osQ fu;eksa dks Hkh vkSipkfjd :i ls r; fd;k
tkrk Fkk -

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u, 'kCn
lafgrk % Li"V :i ls fukkZfjr fu;eksa vkSj
dkuwuksa dks vkSipkfjd :i esa lw=kc dj
nsukA
143

rks yksx {ks=kj{kd ;k i+QhYMj osQ fy, jkLrk cuk nsrs Fks] rkfd og vkdj
xsan okil ys tk,A tc lhek&js[kk fosQV dh fu;ekoyh dk fgLlk cuh
rc Hkh] foosQV ls mldh nwjh r; ugha dh xbZA fu;e fli+ZQ ;g dgrk
gS fd ^vaik;j nksuksa dIrkuksa ls lykg dj osQ [ksy osQ bykosQ dh lhek
r; djsxkA*
[ksy osQ vkSkkjksa dks ns[ksa rks irk pyrk gS fd oDr osQ lkFk cnyus
osQ ckotwn fosQV viuh xzkeh.k baXySaM dh tM+ksa osQ izfr oi+Qknkj jgkA
fosQV osQ lcls k:jh midj.k izfr esa miyC/ iwoZ&vkS|ksfxd lkexzh
ls curs gSaA cYyk] LVai o fxfYy;k ydM+h ls curh gSa] tcfd xsan
peM+s] lqryh (V~okbu) vkSj dkx (dkWoZQ) lsA vkt Hkh cYyk vkSj xsan
gkFk ls gh curs gSa] e'khu ls ughaA cYys dh lkexzh vyckk oDr osQ
lkFk cnyhA fdlh kekus esa bls ydM+h osQ ,d lkcqr VqdM+s ls cuk;k
tkrk FkkA ysfdu vc blosQ nks fgLls gksrs gSa & CysM ;k iQV~Vk tks foyks
(cSn) uked isM+ ls curk gS vkSj gRFkk tks csar ls curk gSA csar rc
tkdj miyC/ gqbZ tc ;wjksih; mifuos'kdkjksa o daifu;ksa us [kqn dks
,f'k;k esa tek;kA xksYi+Q vkSj Vsful osQ foijhr] fosQV us IykfLVd]
i+Qk;cj&'kh'kk ;k /krq&tSlh vkS|ksfxd ;k f=ke lkexzh osQ bLrseky dks
fljs ls udkjk gSA tc vkWLVsfy;kbZ fosQVj Msful fyyh us ,Y;qehfu;e
osQ cYys ls [ksyus dh dksf'k'k dh rks vaik;jksa us mls voS/ djkj fn;kA
nwljh vksj fgi+Qkkrh lkk&lkeku ij rduhdh cnyko dk lh/k
vlj iM+k gSA oYosQukbM jcM+ dh [kkst osQ ckn iSM iguus dk fjokt
1848 esa pyk] tYn gh nLrkus Hkh cus vkSj /krq] flUFksfVd o
gYdh lkexzh ls cus gsYesV osQ fcuk rks vk/qfud fosQV dh dYiuk gh
vlaHko gSA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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fp=k 6 & egku cYysckk MCY;w- th- xzsl cYysckkh osQ fy, vkrs gq,] ykWMZ~l] 1895og Iys;lZ osQ f[kykI+kQ tsaVyesu osQ fy, [ksyrs FksA

144

fp=k 5 & bl iksLVj esa ykWMZ~l esa 1848 esa gksus okys ,d eSp
dk ,syku fd;k tk jgk gSiskLVj esa 'kkSfd;k vkSj is'ksoj f[kykfM+;kssa dks ^tsaVyesu* vkSj
^Iys;lZ* dg dj lacksfkr fd;k x;k gSA mUuhloha 'krkCnh esa gksus
okys eSpksa osQ foKkiu jaxeap osQ iksLVjksa tSls yxrs Fks vkSj muls bl
[ksy osQ ukVdh; Lo:i dk irk pyrk gSA

1-1 fosQV vkSj foDVksfj;kbZ baXySaM


baXySaM esa fozQosQV osQ vk;kstu ij vaxzskh lekt dh Nki lkI+kQ gSA vehjksa
dks] tks eks osQ fy, fozQosQV [ksyrs Fks] ^'kkSfd;k* f[kykM+h dgk x;k vkSj
viuh jkskh&jksVh osQ fy, [ksyusokys xjhcksa dks ^is'ksoj* (izksi+sQ'kuy) dgk
x;kA vehj 'kkSfO+kQ;k nks dkj.kksa ls Fks% ,d] ;g [ksy muosQ fy, ,d rjg
dk euksjatu Fkk & [ksyus osQ vkuan osQ fy, u fd iSls osQ fy, [ksyuk
uokch BkB dh fu'kkuh FkkA nwljs] [ksy esa vehjksa dks yqHkk ldus yk;d
iSlk Hkh ugha FkkA is'ksoj f[kykfM+;ksa dk esgurkuk okhi+Qk] pans] ;k xsV ij
bdV~Bk fd, x, iSls ls fn;k tkrk FkkA ekSleh gksus osQ dkj.k [ksy ls
lky Hkj dk jkskxkj rks ugha fey ldrk FkkA tkM+s osQ eghuksa] ;kuh
vkWi+Q&lhku esa] ;knkrj is'ksoj f[kykM+h [knkuksa esa dke djrs Fks ;k dgha
vkSj eknwjh djrs FksA
'kkSdhuksa dh lkekftd Js"Brk fosQV dh ijaijk dk fgLlk cu xbZA
'kkSO+kQhuksa dks tgk ^tsaV~yesu* dh mikf/ nh xbZ rks is'ksojksa dks ^f[kykM+h*
(^Iys;lZ*) dk vnuk&lk uke feykA eSnku esa ?kqlus osQ muosQ izos'k&}kj
Hkh vyx&vyx FksA 'kkSdhu tgk cYysckk gqvk djrs ogha [ksy esa
vlyh e'kDdr vkSj tkZ okys dke] tSls rsk xsanckkh] f[kykfM+;ksa osQ
ksr d

u, 'kCn
pank % fdlh [kkl mn~ns'; (tSls fosQV)
osQ fy, bd_k dh tkus okyh jkf'k ;k ennA

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VkWel wk (1822&1896) us ml le; jXch LowQy esa i<+kbZ dh Fkh ftl le; FkkWel vkuZYM ogk osQ izkkukpk;Z FksA vius LowQyh vuqHkoksa osQ
vkkkj ij mUgksua s ,d miU;kl fy[kk ftldk 'kh"kZd Fkk & VkWe czkmUl LowQyMskA 1857 esa Nih ;g fdrkc dkIk+ Qh yksdfiz; gqbZ vkSj mlls ckgqcyh
bZlkb;r (eLD;qyj ff'p,sfuVh) osQ izlkj esa enn feyhA bZlkbZ keZ dh bl kkjk dk ekuuk Fkk fd LoLFk ukxfjdksa dks bZlkbZ vkn'kks vkSj [ksyksa
osQ kfj, <kyk tkuk pkfg,A

blh miU;kl osQ va'k

^pyks] czkmu] vc vius O;aX;&ck.k er ekjks*] ekLVj us dgkA ^eSaus bl [ksy dks oSKkfud <ax ls le>uk 'kq: dj fn;k gS vkSj D;k 'kkyhu
[ksy gS ;g!*
^gS fd ugha\ ysfdu ;g flI+kZQ [ksy ugha gS*] VkWe us dgkA
^fcyoqQy*] vkFkZj us dgk] ^fczfV'k tokuksa ls ysdj cw<+ksa dk tUefl vf/dkj tSls fd canh izR;{khdj.k vkSj izfozQ;k&lEer U;k; gj fczfV'k
dk go+ Q gSA*
^blls gesa vuq'kklu vkSj ikjLifjd fuHkZjrk dh tks lh[k feyrh gS] og vueksy gS*] ekLVj us dguk tkjh j[kk] ^eq>s yxrk gS fd bl [ksy
dks bruk gh fu%LokFkhZ gksuk pkfg,A ;gk O;fDr ,dkn'k esa fey tkrk gS_ og blfy, ugha [ksyrk fd og thrs] cfYd mldh Vhe thrsA*
^;g fcyoqQy lgh gS*] VkWe us dgk] ^vkSj blhfy, I+kqQVcky vkSj fozQosQV iqjkus ikjaifjd [ksyksa osQ eqo+Q kcys ;knk yksdfiz; gSaA D;ksafd ckdh [ksyksa
esa balku viuh thr osQ fy, [ksyrk gS u fd vius i{k dh thr osQ fy,A*
^fiQj ,dkn'k osQ dIrku osQ D;k dgus!* ekLVj us dgk] ^gekjh LowQyh nqfu;k esa oSQlh xfjek gS bl in dh!--- blosQ fy, gquj Hkh pkfg,] Hknzrk
vkSj l[rh Hkh] vkSj u tkus fdrus lkjs vkSj xq.kA*

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VkWel wk] VkWe czkmUl LowQyMsk ls m`rA

145

bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

bl iqLrd esa VkWe czkmu] ?kj dh ;kn esa [kks, jgus okys vkSj eq>kZ, ls yM+osQ dh txg ,d dn~nkoj] enkZuk fo|kFkhZ cu tkrk gSA mls uk;dksa
tSlh [;kfr feyrh gS vkSj 'kkjhfjd lkgl] f[kykM+hiu] oI+kQknkjh vkSj ns'kHkfDr dh Hkkouk osQ fy, lc mldh ppkZ djrs gSaA ;g :ikarj.k ml
ifCyd LowQy osQ vuq'kklu vkSj [ksy laLfr ls iSnk gksrk gSA

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fgLls vkrs FksA fosQV esa lansg dk ykHk (csusfi+QV vkWi+Q MkmV) ges'kk
cYysckk dks D;ksa feyrk gS] mldh ,d otg ;g Hkh gSA fosQV
cYysckkksa dk gh [ksy blhfy, cuk D;ksafd fu;e cukrs le; cYysckkh
djusokys ^tsaVyesu* dks rjthg nh xbZA 'kkSfo+ Q;k f[kykfM+;ksa dh lkekftd
Js"Brk dk gh urhtk Fkk fd Vhe dk dIrku ikjaifjd rkSj ij cYysckk
gh gksrk Fkk% blfy, ugha fd cYysckk oqQnjrh rkSj ij csgrj dIrku gksrs
Fks] cfYd blfy, fd cYysckk rks vke rkSj ij ^tsaVyesu* gh gksrs FksA
pkgs Dyc dh Vhe gks ;k jk"Vh; Vhe] dIrku rks 'kkSfo+Q;k f[kykM+h gh
gksrk FkkA 1930 osQ n'kd esa tkdj igyh ckj vaxzskh Vhe dh dIrkuh
fdlh is'ksoj f[kykM+h &;kWoZQ'kk;j osQ cYysckk ysu gVu&us dhA
vdlj dgk tkrk gS fd ^okVjyw dk ;q bZVu osQ [ksy osQ eSnku
esa thrk x;k*A bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd fczVsu dh lSfud liQyrk dk jkk
mlosQ ifCyd LowQy osQ cPpksa dks fl[kk, x, ewY;ksa esa FkkA vaxzskh
vkoklh; fo|ky; esa vaxzsk yM+dksa dks 'kkgh baXySaM osQ rhu vge
laLFkkuksa&lsuk] iz'kklfud lsok o ppZ esa dfj;j osQ fy, izf'kf{kr fd;k
tkrk FkkA mUuhloha lnh dh 'kq#vkr rd VkWel vkuZYM&tks e'kgwj jXch
LowQy osQ gsMekLVj gksus osQ lkFk&lkFk vk/qfud ifCyd LowQy iz.kkyh osQ
iz.ksrk Fks&jXch o fosQV tSls [ksyksa dks egk eSnkuh [ksy ugha ekurs Fks
cfYd vaxzsk yM+dksa dks vuq'kklu] p&uhp dk cks/] gquj] LokfHkeku
dh jhfr&uhfr vkSj usr`Ro {kerk fl[kkus dk kfj;k ekurs FksA bUgha xq.kksa
ij rks fczrkuh lkezkT; dks cukus vkSj pykus dk nkjksenkj FkkA foDVksfj;kbZ
lkezkT;&fuekZrk nwljs ns'kksa dks thruk fu%LokFkZ lekt lsok ekurs Fks]
D;ksafd muls gkjus osQ ckn gh rks fiNM+s lekt fczrkuh dkuwu o if'peh
Kku osQ laioZQ esa vkdj lH;rk dk lcd lh[k ldrs FksA fosQV us
vfHktkr vaxzskksa dh bl vkReNfo dks iq"V djus esa enn dh&,slk
'kkSfd;k [ksy dks crkSj vkn'kZ is'k djosQ gqvk] ;kuh [ksy tgk i+Qk;ns ;k
thr osQ fy, u gksdj fli+ZQ [ksyus vkSj fLifjV vkW i+Q i+sQ;jIys (U;k;ksfpr
[ksy Hkkouk) osQ fy, [ksyk tkrk FkkA
lPph ckr rks ;g gS fd usiksfy;u osQ f[kyki+Q yM+kbZ blfy, thrh
tk ldh fd LdkWVySaM o osYl osQ ykSg m|ksx] yadk'kk;j dh feyksa o
flVh vkWi+Q yanu osQ fokh; ?kjkuksa ls Hkjiwj lg;ksx feykA baXySaM osQ
O;kikj o m|ksx esa vkxs gksus osQ pyrs fczVsu fo'o dh lcls cM+h rkdr
cu x;k Fkk] ysfdu vaxzskh 'kkld&oxZ dks ;gh [k;ky vPNk yxrk Fkk
fd nqfu;k esa mudh Js"Brk osQ ihNs vkoklh; fo|ky;ksa esa i<+dj rS;kj
gq, vkSj 'kjhi+Qksa dk [ksy&fosQV&[ksyusokys ;qokoxZ dk pfj=k gh gSA

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fp=k 7 & ykWMZ~l ij bZVu vkSj gSjks uked e'kgwj ifCyd


LowQyksa osQ chp fosQV dk eSp ;g [ksy rks lc txg ,d tSlk yxrk gS ysfdu mldks ns[kus osQ
fy, tqVus okyh HkhsM+ ,d tSlh ugha gksrhA ckmQyj Vksfi;k igus
iq#"k vkSj kwi ls cpus osQ fy, iSjklksy igus eSp ns[kus vk;h
vkSjrksa osQ fp=k.k ls bl [ksy dk mPpoxhZ; lkekftd pfj=k lkIkQ+
fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA byLVsVsM yanu U;wk] 20 tqykbZ 1872 lsA

146

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fp=k 8 & vkSjrksa osQ fy, fosQV ugha cfYd ksosQV vkSjrksa osQ fy, dfBu vkSj izfrLikhZ [ksy vPNk ugha ekuk tkrk FkkA ksosQV ,d kheh xfr okyk lkSE; [sky Fkk ftls vkSjrksa osQ fy,] [kklrkSj ls mPpoxhZ; vkSjrksa osQ fy, vPNk
ekuk tkrk FkkA f[kykfM+uksa osQ yacs xkmu] >kyjksa vkSj Vksfi;ksa ls muosQ [ksyksa osQ Lo:i dh >yd feyrh gSA byLVsVsM yanu U;wt+] 20 tqykbZ 1872 lsA

ksr [k

mUuhloha lnh osQ vkf[kjh lkyksa rd [ksy&owQn vkSj O;k;ke yM+fd;ksa dh f'k{kk dk
fgLlk ugha FkkA 1858 ls 1906 rd psyVsugse ysMhk dkWyst dh izkkukpk;kZ jgh
MksjksFkh ch,ys us LowQy osQ tkp vk;ksx dks crk;k Fkk %

bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

^yM+dksa dks fosQV vkfn [ksyksa ls tks 'kkjhfjd O;k;ke feyrk gS mlosQ LFkku ij
yM+fd;ksa osQ fy, iSny pky vkSj --- owQnus vkfn dh O;oLFkk dh tkuh pkfg,A*
oSQFkyhu] bZ- eSDkWus] ^Iys vi! Iys vi! ,s.M Iys n xse % LiksVZ ,sV n ysV
foDVksfj;u xYlZ ifCyd LowQy* ls m`rA

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1890 osQ n'kd rd igqp


rs&igqp
rs LowQy dks [ksy osQ eSnku vkfn feyus yxs vkSj
yM+fd;ksa dks Hkh mu [ksyksa esa gkFk vkkekus dk ekSdk feyus yxk ftUgsa vc rd
osQoy yM+dksa dk [ksy ekuk tkrk FkkA ysfdu yM+fd;ksa ls izfrLikkZRed [ksy dh
mEehn vc Hkh ugha dh tkrh FkhA MksjksFkh ch,ys us 1893&1894 esa LowQy ifj"kn~
dks crk;k %

^eSa ekurh gw fd yM+fd;ksa dks vius 'kjhj ij k:jr ls ;knk kksj ugha Mkyuk pkfg,
vkSj u gh mUgsa ,sFkysfVd izfr}af}rk esa Mwc tkuk pkfg,A blhfy,] ge nwljs LowQyksa
osQ fo# ugha [ksyrsA esjs [k;ky esa yM+fd;ksa dks mQcM+&[kkcM+ eSnkuksa esa [kqn dks
Fkdkus osQ ctk; ouLifr 'kkL=k] HkwxHkZ'kkL=k vkfn esa gh fnypLih ysuh pkfg,A*
oSQFkyhu] bZ- eSDkWus] ^Iys vi! Iys vi! ,s.M Iys n xse* ls m`rA

f;kdyki
mUuhloha lnh osQ LowQyh ikB~;e osQ vkkkj ij ml
le; yM+fd;ksa osQ fy, oSQlk vkpj.k lgh ekuk
tkrk Fkk\

147

fosQV dk izlkj

gkWdh o iqQVckWy tSls Vhe&[ksy rks varjkZ"Vh; cu x,] ij fosQV


vkSifuosf'kd [ksy gh cuk jgk] ;kuh ;g mUgha ns'kksa rd lhfer jgk tks
dHkh fczfV'k lkezkT; osQ vax FksA fosQV dh iwoZ&vkS|ksfxd fofp=krk osQ
dkj.k bldk fu;kZr gksuk eqf'dy FkkA blus mUgha ns'kksa esa tM+sa tek;ha tgk
vaxzskksa us dCkk tekdj 'kklu fd;kA bu mifuos'kksa (tSls fd nf{k.k
vI+kzQhdk] fkEckCos] vkWLVsfy;k] U;wkhySaM] osLV baMhk vkSj dhfu;k) esa
fosQV blfy, yksdfiz; [ksy cu ik;k D;ksafd xksjs ckf'kanksa us bls
viuk;k ;k fiQj tgk LFkkuh; vfHktkr oxZ us vius vkSifuosf'kd
ekfydksa dh vknrksa dh udy djus dh dksf'k'k
dh] tSls fd Hkkjr esaA
gkykfd fczfV'k 'kkgh vi+Qlj mifuos'kksa esa
;g [ksy ysdj k:j vk, ij blosQ izlkj osQ
fy,] [kkl rkSj ij osLV baMhk o gnqLrku tSls
x+Sj&xksjs mifuos'kksa esa] mUgksaus 'kk;n gh dksbZ
iz;kl fd;kA fosQV [ksyuk ;gk lkekftd
o uLyh Js"Brk dk izrhd cu x;k vkSj
vi+Qz hdh&oSQfjfc;kbZ vkcknh dks Dyc fosQV
[ksyus ls ges'kk grksRlkfgr fd;k x;kA urhtru]
bl ij xksjs ckxku&ekfydksa vkSj muosQ ukSdjksa
dk cksyckyk jgkA osLV baMhk esa igyk xSj&xksjk
Dyc mUuhloha lnh osQ var esa cuk vkSj ;gk
Hkh lnL; gYosQ jaxokys eqySV~Vks leqnk; osQ fp=k 9 & vkSifuosf'kd Hkkjr osQ eSnkuksa esa nksigj ckn Vsful;gk fp=kdkj us ;g n'kkZus dk iz;kl fd;k gS fd ;g [kssy euksjatu vkSj O;k;ke] nksuksa fygkk ls
FksA bl rjg dkys jax osQ yksx leqnzh chpksa ij] mi;ksxh FkkA vkSjr&enZ izfrLikkZ osQ fy, ugha cfYd euksjatu osQ fy, lkFk&lkFk [ksy ldrs FksA
lqulku xfy;ksa vkSj ikdks esa cM+h la[;k esa xzkfi+Qd] iQjojh 1880 lsA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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u, 'kCn
fp=k 10 & fgeky; dh i`"BHkwfe esa ekSt&eLrh osQ fy, py jgk [ksybl rLohj esa iSfofy;u osQ vklikl [kM+s ukSdjksa osQ vykok 'kk;n vkSj dksbZ Hkkjrh; ugha gSA

148

eqyVS V~ ks % fefJr ;wjksih; vkSj vi+zQhdh ewy


osQ yksxA

fosQV [ksyrs Fks] ysfdu Dyc fosQV ij 1930 osQ


n'kd rd xksjs vfHktuksa dk gh opZLo jgkA
osLV baMhk esa vfHktkr xksjksa dh fof'k"Vrkoknh
uhfr;ksa osQ ckotwn oSQfjfc;kbZ }hi lewg esa fosQV
egkyksdfiz; gks x;kA fosQV esa dke;kch dk eryc
uLyh lekurk o jktuhfrd izxfr gks x;kA viuh
vkkknh osQ le;] i+QksClZ cuZgSe o ,fjd fofy;El tSls
usrkvksa us fosQV esa vkRelEeku vkSj varjkZ"Vh; izfr"Bk
dh laHkkouk, ns[khaA tc osLV baMhk us 1950 osQ n'kd
esa baXySaM osQ f[kyki+Q viuh igyh VsLV k`a[kyk thrh
rks jk"Vh; mRlo euk;k x;k] ekuks osLV bafM;uksa us fp=k 11 & fgeky; osQ ,d xko esa yksx dkepykmQ vankt+ esa fosQV [ksy jgs gSa
fn[kk fn;k gks fd os xksjs vaxzskksa ls de ugha gSaA bl (1894)10 osQ foijhr ;gk f[kykM+h gkFk dh cuh foosQVksa vkSj cYyksa ls gh [ksy jgs gSaA mUgksaus
egku thr esa nks foMacuk, FkhaA igyh] fot;h osLV fp=k
ydM+h osQ lkekU; VqdM+ksa dks gh dkV&NkV dj ;ss midj.k cuk, gSaA
baMhk dh Vhe dk dIrku ,d xksjk gh FkkA ;kn jgs fd
1960 esa igyh ckj fdlh v'osr& i+zSQUd okWjsy & dks usr`Ro lHkkyus dk
ekSdk feykA nwljh] osLV baMhk dh Vhe fdlh ,d ns'k dh ugha Fkh]
cfYd mlesa dbZ Mksehfu;uksa osQ f[kykM+h 'kkfey Fks vkSj ;s jkT; ckn
esa Lora=k ns'k cusA eksnkj ckr gS fd oSQfjfc;kbZ {ks=k dh uqekbanxh
djusokyh osLV bafM;u Vhe] osLV bafM;u ,drk osQ reke vliQy
iz;klksa dk ,dek=k viokn gSA
fosQV osQ i+SQu tkurs gSa fd fosQV ns[kus dk eryc gh gS fd vki
fdlh u fdlh vksj ls gSaA j.kth VkWi+Qh eSp esa tc fnYyh dk eqacbZ ls
eqo+Qkcyk gks rks n'kZd dh oi+Qknkjh bl ij fuHkZj djrh gS fd og fdl
'kgj dk gS ;k og fdldk lkFk ns jgk gSA tc Hkkjr cuke ikfdLrku gks
rks Hkksiky ;k psUubZ esa Vsyhfoku ij eSp ns[krs n'kZdksa dh Hkkouk,
jk"Vh; fu"Bkvksa ls r; gksrh gSaA ysfdu Hkkjrh; izFke Js.kh fosQV osQ
'kq#vkrh bfrgkl esa Vheksa dks HkkSxksfyd vk/kjksa ij ugha ckVk tkrk Fkk &
cfYd ;g tkuuk fnypLi gS fd 1932 osQ igys fdlh Vhe dks VsLV
eSp esa jk"Vh; uqekbanxh dk vf/dkj ugha feyk FkkA rks Vhesa curh oSQls
Fkha vkSj jk"Vh; vkSj {ks=kh; Vheksa osQ ugha gksus dh fLFkfr esa i+SQu viuh
rji+Qnkjh oSQls r; djrs Fks\ vkb, ns[ksa fd bfrgkl osQ ikl bu lokyksa
fp=k 12 & ySjh dkWULVSaVkbuosLV baMht+ osQ fo'o izfl f[kykfM+;ksa
osQ D;k tokc gSans[ksa fd Hkkjr esa fosQV oSQls iuik vkSj dkSu&lh
esa ls ,dA
oi+Qknkfj;k fczrkuh jkt osQ kekus esa fganqLrkfu;ksa dks lkFk yk jgh Fkha vkSj
dkSu mUgsa ckV jgh FkhaA

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2-2 fosQV] uLy vkSj /eZ


vkSifuosf'kd Hkkjr esa fosQV uLy o /eZ osQ vk/kj ij laxfBr FkkA
Hkkjr esa fosQV dk igyk lcwr gesa 1721 ls feyk gS] tks vaxzsk
tgkfk;ksa }kjk oSQEcs esa [ksys x, eSp dk C;kSjk gSA igyk Hkkjrh; Dyc]

u, 'kCn
Mksehfu;u % fczfV'k lkezkT; osQ varxZr vkus
okys Lo'kkflr {ks=kA
149

bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

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dydkk Dyc] 1792 esa cukA iwjh vBkjgoha lnh esa fosQV Hkkjr esa
fczfV'k lSfud o flfoy losV~l }kjk fli+ZQ&xksjs Dycksa o fte[kkuksa esa
[ksyk tkusokyk [ksy jgkA bu Dycksa dh futh pgkjnhokfj;ksa osQ vanj
fosQV [ksyus esa ekk rks Fkk gh] ;g vaxzskksa osQ Hkkjrh; izokl osQ [krjksa
o eqf'dyksa ls jkgr o iyk;u dk lkeku Hkh FkkA fganqLrkfu;ksa esa bl [ksy
osQ fy, k:jh gquj dh deh le>h tkrh Fkh] u gh muls [ksyus dh
mEehn dh tkrh FkhA ysfdu os [ksysA
gnqLrkuh fosQV&;kuh gnqLrkfu;ksa }kjk fosQV&dh 'kq#vkr dk Js;
cEcbZ osQ kjrqf'r;ksa ;kuh ikjfl;ksa osQ NksVs ls leqnk; dks tkrk gSA O;kikj
osQ pyrs lcls igys vaxzskksa osQ laioZQ esa vk, vkSj if'pehr gksusokys
igys Hkkjrh; leqnk; osQ :i esa ikjfl;ksa us 1848 esa igys fosQV Dyc
dh LFkkiuk cEcbZ esa dh] ftldk uke Fkk&vksfj,aVy fosQV DycA ikjlh
Dycksa osQ izk;kstd o fokiks"kd Fks VkVk o okfM;k tSls ikjlh O;olk;hA
fosQV [ksyus okys xksjs izHkqoxZ us mRlkgh ikjfl;ksa dh dksbZ enn ugha
dhA mYVs] xksjksa osQ ckWEcs fte[kkuk Dyc vkSj ikjlh fosQVjksa osQ chp
ikoZQ osQ bLrseky dks ysdj ,d >xM+k Hkh gqvkA ikjfl;ksa us f'kdk;r dh
fd ckWEcs fte[kkuk osQ iksyks Vhe osQ ?kksM+ksa }kjk jkSans tkus osQ ckn eSnku
fosQV [ksyus yk;d ugha jg x;kA tc ;s lki+Q gks x;k fd vkSifuosf'kd
vf/dkjh vius ns'kokfl;ksa dk i{k ys jgs gSa] rks ikjfl;ksa us fosQV [ksyus
osQ fy, viuk [kqn dk fte[kkuk cuk;kA ij
ikjfl;ksa o uLyoknh ckWEcs fte[kkuk osQ chp
dh bl Li/kZ dk var vPNk gqvk&ikjfl;ksa
dh ,d Vhe us ckWEcs fte[kkuk dks 1889 esa
gjk fn;kA ;g Hkkjrh; jk"Vh; dkaxzsl dh
LFkkiuk osQ pkj lky ckn gqvk] vkSj fnypLi
ckr ;g gS fd bl laLFkk osQ ewy usrkvksa esa
ls ,d nknkHkkbZ ukSjksth] tks vius oDr osQ
egku jktusrk o cqfthoh Fks] ikjlh gh FksA
ikjlh fte[kkuk Dyc dh LFkkiuk us tSls
,d ubZ ijaijk Mky nh] nwljs Hkkjrh;ksa us Hkh
/eZ osQ vk/kj ij Dyc cukus pkyw dj
fn,A gnw o eqlyeku nksuksa gh 1890 osQ fp=k 13 & ikjlh Vhe] igyh Hkkjrh; fosQV Vhe ftlus 1886 esa baXySaM dk nkSjk fd;kn'kd es a gnw o bLyke fte[kkuk os Q ijaijkxr fosQV iks'kkd osQ lkFk os ikjlh Vksih Hkh igus gq, gSaA
fy, iSls bdV~Bs djrs fn[kkbZ fn,A fczfV'k
vkSifuosf'kd Hkkjr dks jk"V ugha ekurs Fks&muosQ fy, rks ;g tkfr;ksa]
uLyksa o /eks osQ yksxksa dk ,d leqPp; Fkk] ftUgsa mUgksaus miegk}hi osQ
Lrj ij ,dhr fd;kA 19oha lnh osQ var esa dbZ gnqLrkuh laLFkk, o
vkanksyu tkfr o /eZ osQ vk/kj ij gh cus D;ksafd vkSifuosf'kd ljdkj
Hkh bu cVokjksa dks c<+kok nsrh Fkh&lkeqnkf;d laLFkkvksa dks I+kQkSju ekU;rk
fey tkrh FkhA felky osQ rkSj ij] bLyke fte[kkuk }kjk cEcbZ osQ leqnzh

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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150

bykosQ osQ ikl okyh kehu dh vkhZ ij fopkj djrs gq, ckWEcs izsflMsalh
osQ xouZj us fy[kk% ^--- gesa ekudj pyuk pkfg, fd cgqr tYn gekjs
ikl fdlh gnw fte[kkuk osQ fy, ,slh gh vkhZ vk,xh--- bu vfZk;ksa dks
ukeakwj djus dk dksbZ mik; esjs ikl ugha gS] ysfdu eSa --- gj jk"Vh;rk
osQ fte[kkus dh LFkkiuk osQ ckn--- vkxs osQ vkosnuksa dks Lohdkj ugha
d:xk*A (kksj gekjk)A bl i=k ls kkfgj gS fd vkSifuosf'kd vi+Qlj
gjsd /kfeZd leqnk; dks vyx jk"Vh;rk ekurs FksA ;g Hkh lki+Q gS fd
/kfeZd izfrfuf/Ro osQ uke ij Lohfr dh xqatkb'k ;knk FkhA
fte[kkuk fosQV osQ bfrgkl us izFke Js.kh osQ fosQV dks lkaiznkf;d
o uLyh vk/kjksa ij laxfBr djus dh fjok;r MkyhA vkSifuosf'kd
fganqLrku esa lcls e'kgwj fosQV VwukZesaV [ksyusokyh Vhesa {ks=k osQ vkkkj
ij ugha curh Fkha] tSlk fd vktdy j.kth VkWiQh esa gksrk gS] cfYd
kkfeZd leqnk;ksa dh curh FkhaA bl VwukZesaV dks 'kq:&'kq: esa DokMSaX;qyj
;k prq"dks.kh; dgk x;k] D;ksafd blesa pkj Vhesa&;wjksih;] ikjlh] fganw o
eqlyeku & [ksyrh FkhaA ckn esa ;g isVa kaX;qyj ;k ikpdks.kh; gks x;k&vkSj
n jsLV uke dh ubZ Vhe esa Hkkjrh; bZlkbZ tSls cps&[kqps leqnk;ksa dks
uqekbanxh nh xbZA felky osQ rkSj ij fot; gkkjs] tks bZlkbZ Fks] n jsLV osQ
fy, [ksyrs FksA
i=kdkjksa] fosQVjksa o jktusrkvksa us 1930&40 osQ n'kd rd bl
ikpdks.kh; VwukZesaV dh uLyoknh o lkaiznkf;d cqfu;kn ij loky mBkus
'kq: dj fn, FksA ckWEcs kWfudy uked v[kckj osQ e'kgwj laiknd
,l-,- cjsyoh] jsfM;ks desaVsVj ,-,i+Q-,l- ry;kj[kku vkSj Hkkjr osQ
lcls yksdfiz; jktusrk egkRek xka/h us isaVkaX;qyj dks leqnk; osQ vk/kj
ij ckVusokyk crkdj bldh fuank dhA mudk dguk Fkk ,sls le; esa tc
jk"Voknh fganqLrkuh voke dks ,dtqV djuk pkg jgs Fks] bl VwukZesaV dk
D;k rqd Fkk\ blosQ foijhr {ks=k&vk/kfjr uS'kuy fosQV pSafi;uf'ki
uked ,d u, VwukZesaV dk vk;kstu 'kq: gqvk (ftls ckn esa j.kth VkWi+Qh
dgk x;k)] ysfdu ikpdks.kh; VwukZesaV dh txg ysus osQ fy, bls vkkknh
dk barkkj djuk iM+kA ikpdks.kh; VwukZesaV dh uhao esa fczrkuh ljdkj dh
^iwQV Mkyks jkt djks* dh uhfr FkhA ;g ,d vkSifuosf'kd VwukZesaV Fkk] tks
fczfV'k jkt osQ lkFk [kRe gks x;kA

ckWDl 1
tkfr vkSj fosQV
ikyoadj ckyw dk tUe 1875 esa iwuk esa gqvk FkkA
ml le; Hkkjrh;ksa dks VsLV fosQV ugha [ksyus fn;k
tkrk FkkA blosQ ckotwn ckyw kheh xfr dh xsanckth
esa vius le; osQ csgrjhu xsna ckt FksA ckyw vkSifuosf'kd
dky osQ lcls cM+s Hkkjrh; fosQV eqdkcys DokMXaS ;qyj
esa fganwk Vhe dh rjI+kQ ls [ksyrs FksA viuh Vhe dk
lcls vPNk f[kykM+h gksrs gq, Hkh mUgsa dHkh dIrku
ugha cuk;k x;k D;ksafd og nfyr Fks vkSj lo.kZ
p;udrkZ muosQ fo# i{kikr djrs FksA vkxs pydj
1923 esa] muosQ NksVs HkkbZ fo~VBy dks fganwk Vhe dh
dIrkuh dk ekSdk feyk vkSj ;wjksih; f[kykfM+;ksa osQ
f[kykI+kQ dbZ liQyrkvksa esa mUgksaus viuh Vhe dk
usr`Ro fd;kA ,d v[kckj osQ uke Hksts x, i=k esa
fosQV osQ ,d iz'kald us fganwk Vhe dh thr vkSj
^vLi`';rk* osQ fo# xkakhth }kjk pyk, tk jgs
vfHk;ku dks ,d&nwljs ls tksM+rs gq, fy[kk Fkk %

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^fganwk dh 'kkunkj fot; dk Js; eq[; :i ls bl


ckr dks tkrk gS fd fganw fte[kkuk osQ drkZkrkZvksa us
ns'k osQ csgrjhu xsanckk Jh ckyw osQ HkkbZ Jh foV~By
dks fganwk Vhe dk dIrku fu;qDr fd;k gS tks fd
vNwr oxZ ls vkrs gSaA fgnwk dh thr ls ;gh
lcd fudyrk gS fd NqvkNwr osQ [kkRes ls gh
Lojkt dk jkLrk [kqysxk&tks egkRek th dh Hkh
Hkfo";ok.kh gSA*
bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

jkepanz xqgk] , dkWuZj vkWiQ , I+kQkWjsu I+kQhYMA

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fp=k 14 & ikyoadj ckyw (1904)vHkwriwoZ [ksy ;ksX;rk osQ /uh ckyw dks Vhe ls ckgj rks ugha j[kk tk ldrk Fkk ysfdu nfyr tkfr ls
gksus osQ dkj.k mUgsa dHkh Vhe dk dIrku ugha cuk;k x;kA

151

[ksy osQ vk/qfud cnyko

vk/qfud fosQV esa VsLV vkSj ,dfnolh; baVjuS'kuy dk opZLo gS] ftUgsa
jk"Vh; Vheksa osQ chp [ksyk tkrk gSA e'kgwj gksdj yksxksa dh ;knksa esa
jp&cl tkusokys fosQVj vke rkSj ij viuh jk"Vh; Vheksa osQ f[kykM+h
gksrs gSaA ikpdks.kh; vkSj prq"dks.kh; eSpksa osQ nkSj ls mUgha f[kykfM+;ksa dks
fganqLrkuh i+SQu ;kn djrs gSa] ftUgsa VsLV fosQV [ksyus dk lkSHkkX; izkIr
gqvkA vius le; osQ csgrjhu cYysckk lh-osQ- uk;Mw dks rks yksx vc
Hkh ;kn djrs gSa] tcfd ikyoadj foV~By o ikyoadj ckyw tSls muosQ
oqQN vU; ledkyhu blfy, Hkqyk fn, x, gSa] D;ksafd uk;Mw dk dfj;j
rks yack Fkk ij ;s nksuksa f[kykM+h VsLV fosQV [ksyus osQ oDr rd lf;

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ksr ?k

egkRek xkakh vkSj vkSifuosf'kd [ksy

egkRek xkakh nsg vkSj fnekx osQ chp larqyu cuk, j[kus osQ fy, [ksy&owQn dks cgqr egRoiw.kZ ekurs FksA ysfdu og ;g ckr Hkh vdlj
dgrs Fks fd fosQV vkSj gkWdh tSls [ksy vaxzsk Hkkjr esa ysdj vk, gSa vkSj ;s [ksy gekjs ijaijkxr [ksyksa dks u"V djrs tk jgs gSaA mudk
ekuuk Fkk fd fosQV] gkWdh] IkqQVckWy vkSj Vsful tSls [ksy laiUu oxks osQ [ksy gSaA bu [ksyksa esa vkSifuosf'kd euksn'kk osQ n'kZu gksrs gSa
vkSj ;s [ksy gekjh viuh feV~Vh ls mits lkkkj.k O;k;keksa osQ eqdkcys de izHkkoh f'k{kk gh ns ikrs gSa] ,slk mudk ekuuk FkkA

egkRek xkakh osQ ys[kksa esa ls fy, x, bu rhu va'kksa dks if<+;s vkSj VkWel vkuZYM ;k wk (ksr d) }kjk f'k{kk vkSj [ksy&owQn osQ ckjs
esa O;Dr fd, x, fopkjksa ls mudh rqyuk dhft, %
^vkb,] vc 'kjhj dh vksj n`f"Vikr djsaA gj jksk ,d ?kaVk Vsful] iqQVckWy vFkok fosQV [ksy ysus ls D;k ge 'kjhj dks f'kf{kr gqvk
dg ldrs gSa\ ;g lp gS fd 'kjhj blesa etcwr gskrk gSA ysfdu tSls taxy esa euekuk nkSM+us&fiQjusokys ?kksM+s dk 'kjhj etcwr rks dgk
tk ldrk gS] fdarq f'kf{kr ugha dgk tk ldrk] mlh izdkj ,slk 'kjhj etcwr gksrs gq, Hkh f'kf{kr ugha dgk tk ldrkA f'kf{kr 'kjhj
uhjksx gksrk gS] etcwr gskrk gS] dlk gqvk gksrk gS vkSj mlosQ gkFk&iSj vkfn Hkh bfPNr dk;Z dj ldrs gSaA mlosQ gkFkksa esa oqQnkyh] iQkoM+k]
gFkkSM+k] vkfn lq'kksfHkr gksrs gSa vkSj ;s gkFk bu lcdk mi;ksx Hkh dj ldrs gSaA rhl ehy dh ;k=kk djrs gq, f'kf{kr 'kjhj FkosQxk ugha_
,slh 'kjhfjd f'k{kk oSQls feyrh gS\ ge dg ldrs gSa fd vk/qfud ikB~;e esa bl n`f"V ls 'kjhfjd f'k{kk ugha nh tkrhA*
^lPph f'k{kk D;k gS*] 20 iQjojh 1926] laiw.kZ xka/h ok~e;] [k.M 30^ysfdu] vxj ;g gdhdr gks fd bl ifo=k Hkwfe ij fosQV vkSj iqQVckWy dk pyu gksus ls igys vkiosQ vius jk"Vh; [ksy gksa rks eSa
vkils vuqjks/ d:xk fd vkidh laLFkk dks mUgsa iqu% izfrf"Br djuk pkfg,A eSa tkurk gw fd Hkkjr osQ dbZ cgqr vPNs ns'kh [ksy gSaA
os fosQV vkSj iqQVckWy dh gh rjg jkspd vkSj mRlkgo/Zd gSaA muesa [krjs Hkh mrus gh jgrs gSa vkSj mQij ls mudh ,d [kwch ;g gS
fd os O;;lk; ugha gksrs] D;ksafd muij yxHkx dksbZ [kpZ ugha cSBrkA*
efgan dkyst] xSy esa Hkk"k.k] 24 uoacj 1927] laiw.kZ xka/h ok~e;] [k.M 35-

Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

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^esjh n`f"V esa LoLFk 'kjhj og gS tks vkRek dk vaoqQ'k ekurk gS vkSj mldh lsok osQ lk/u osQ :i esa lnk rS;kj jgrk gSA esjh jk; esa
,sls 'kjhj iqQVckWy osQ eSnku esa ugha cuk;s tkrsA os rks vukt osQ [ksrksa vkSj IkQkeks esa cuk;s tkrs gSaA esjk vkils vuqjks/ gS fd vki bl
laca/ esa fopkj djsa vkSj vkidks eSaus tks oqQN dgk gS mldh lPpkbZ osQ leFkZu esa vla[; mnkgj.k fey tk;saxsA gekjs mifuos'kksa esa
mRiUu Hkkjrh; iqQVckWy vkSj fosQV osQ bl mUekn osQ izokg esa cg tkrs gSaA oqQN fo'ks"k fLFkfr;ksa esa bu [ksyksa dk viuk egRo gks ldrk
gSA vki bl lh/h&lknh ckr ij fopkj D;ksa ugha djrs fd ekuo tkfr dk cgqr cM+k Hkkx ftuosQ 'kjhj vkSj efLr"d 'kfDr'kkyh gSa]
fliZQ fdlku gh gSa] os bu [ksyksa dks tkurs rd ugha vkSj os gh lalkj esa loZJs"B gaSA*
i=k % yktjl dks] 17 vSy 1915] laiw.kZ xka/h ok~e;] [k.M 13-

152

ugha jgsA gkykfd uk;Mw Hkh baXySaM osQ f[kyki+Q 1932 esa 'kq: gksusokys
igys fosQV eSpksa rd vius iqjkus i+QkWeZ esa ugha Fks] ij ns'k osQ igys VsLV
dIrku osQ :i esa bfrgkl esa mudk uke lqjf{kr gSA
bl rjg Hkkjr us vkkkn gksus osQ Ms<+ n'kd igys gh VsLV fosQV
esa izos'k ys fy;k FkkA ,slk blfy, laHko gqvk pwfd 1877 esa viuh
'kq#vkr ls gh VsLV fosQV fczfV'k lkezkT; osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa osQ chp
[ksyk tkrk Fkk u fd laizHkq jk"Vksa osQ chpA igyk VsLV vkWLVsfy;k o baXySaM
osQ chp tc [ksyk x;k rc vkWLVsfy;k xksjksa dk mifuos'k&Hkj Fkk] Lo'kklh
Mksehfu;u jkT; Hkh ugha FkkA mlh rjg] osLV baMhk osQ uke ls tkus
tkusokys fofHkUu oSQfjfc;kbZ ns'k nwljs fo'o;q osQ dki+Qh ckn rd
fczfV'k mifuos'k gh FksA

3-2 [ksy vkSj fo&vkSifuos'khdj.k

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bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

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;wjksih; lkezkT;ksa ls vkkknh gkfly dj Lora=k jk"Vksa osQ cuus dh izf;k


dks fo&vkSifuos'khdj.k dgk tkrk gSA lu~ 1947 esa Hkkjr dh vkkknh ls
'kq: gksdj ;g flyflyk vxyh vk/h lnh rd pyrk jgkA bl
flyflys dk vlj O;kikj&okf.kT;] lSU; {ks=k] varjkZ"Vh; jktuhfr vkSj
varr% [ksy esa fczVsu osQ iru osQ :i esa gqvkA ysfdu ;g lc ,dckjxh
ugha gqvk & fosQV laxBu esa mkj&lkezkT;oknh fczVsu osQ izHkko dks de
gksus esa vPNk&[kklk oDr yxkA
Hkkjr dh vkkknh ls fczrkuh lkezkT; osQ [kkRes dk fcxqy rks ct x;k
Fkk] ij fosQV osQ varjkZ"Vh; vk;kstu ij lkezkT;oknh fosQV dkWUiz+ sQUl
dk fu;a=k.k cjdjkj jgkA vkbZlhlh ij] ftldk 1965 esa uke cnydj
baVjuS'kuy fosQV dkWUi+zsQUl gks x;k] blosQ laLFkkid lnL;ksa dk opZLo
jgk] mUgha osQ gkFk esa dk;Zdyki osQ ohVks vf/dkj jgsA baXySaM o
vkWLVsfy;k osQ fo'ks"kkf/dkj 1989 esa tkdj [kRe gq, vkSj os vc lkekU;
lnL; jg x,A
fiNyh lnh osQ 50 o 60 osQ n'kd esa fo'o fosQV osQ fekkt dk
irk bl ckr ls feyrk gS fd baXySMa rFkk dkWeuosYFk osQ nwljs ns'kks&a vkWLVfs y;k
o U;wkhySaM&us nf{k.k vi+zQhdk tSls ns'k osQ lkFk fosQV [ksyuk tkjh j[kk]
tgk u fli+ZQ uhfrxr rkSj ij uLyh HksnHkko cjrk tkrk Fkk] cfYd VsLV
eSpksa esa v'osrksa (n- vi+Qz hdk dh cgqer vkcknh) dks [ksyus dh eukgh
FkhA Hkkjr] ikfdLrku o osLV baMhk us gkykfd nf{k.k vi+Qz hdk dk
cfg"dkj fd;k] ysfdu varjkZ"Vh; fosQV ifj"kn~ (vkbZlhlh) esa mudh
bruh rkdr ugha Fkh fd mls [ksy ls izfrcaf/r dj nsaA ;g rHkh gks ik;k
tc ,f'k;k o vi+zQhdk esa mifuos'kokn ls u, vkkkn gq, ns'kksa us vkSj
lkFk esa fczVsu dh mnkjoknh gok us vaxzskh fosQV vf/dkfj;ksa ij ncko
Mkydj 1970 esa fczVsu osQ nf{k.k vi+Qz hdh nkSjs dks j djokus esa
dke;kch ik;hA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

vkt osQ nkSj esa O;kikj] ehfM;k vkSj fosQV

fosQV 1970 osQ n'kd esa dki+Qh cny x;k% ;g ,slk nkSj Fkk ftlesa bl
ikjaifjd [ksy us cnyrs kekus osQ lkFk [kqn dks <ky fy;kA vxj 1970
esa nf{k.k vi+zQhdk dks fosQV ls cfg"r fd;k x;k] rks 1971 dks
blfy, ;kn fd;k tk,xk pwfd bl lky baXySaM o vkWLVsfy;k osQ chp
lcls igyk ,dfnolh; eSp esycuZ esa [ksyk x;kA fosQV dk ;g NksVk
laLdj.k bruk yksdfiz; gqvk fd 1975 esa igyk fo'o di [ksyk x;k
vkSj liQy jgkA fiQj 1977 esa] tc fosQV VsLV eSpksa dh lkSoha t;arh
euk jgk Fkk] rks [ksy ges'kk osQ fy, cny x;kA bl cnyko esa fdlh
f[kykM+h ;k iz'kkld dk ugha] cfYd ,d O;olk;h dk gkFk FkkA
osQjh iSdj uked vkWLVsfy;kbZ Vsyhfoku eqx+y us fosQV osQ izlkj.k
dh ckkkjh laHkkoukvksa dks Hkkidj nqfu;k osQ 51 csgrjhu f[kykfM+;ksa dks
muosQ cksMZ dh ekhZ osQ f[kyki+Q vuqca/ ij ys fy;k vkSj nks lkyksa rd
oYMZ lhjhk fosQV osQ uke ls lekarj] x+jS &vf/r ^VsLV* o ^,dfnolh;*
[ksyksa dk vk;kstu fd;kA iSdj dk ;g ^loZQl* (bls rc ;gh dgk tkrk
Fkk) nks lkyksa osQ ckn iSd gks x;k] ysfdu Vsyhfoku n'kZdksa dks yqHkkus
osQ fy, mlosQ }kjk fd, x, cnyko LFkk;h lkfcr gq,] vkSj blls [ksy
dk jax&<ax gh cny x;kA
jaxhu onhZ] fgi+Qkkrh gsYesV] {ks=kj{k.k dh ikcafn;k] jkS'kuh tykdj
jkr dks fosQV [ksyuk] vkfn oqQN ,slh phksa gSa tks iSdj osQ ckn fosQV
dk LFkk;h fgLlk cu x,A lcls vge ckr] iSdj us kkfgj dj fn;k fd
fosQV dk ckkkj gS vkSj bls cspdj cgqr iSls dek;s tk ldrs gSaA
Vsyhfoku daifu;ksa dks Vsyhfoku izlkj.k dk vf/dkj cspdj fosQV
cksMZ vehj gks x,A Vsyhfoku daifu;ksa us foKkiu&le; O;kolkf;d
daifu;ksa dks csps] ftUgsa bruk cM+k n'kZd&lewg vkSj dgk feyrk! fujarj
Vhoh dojst osQ ckn fosQVj lsysfczVh cu x, vkSj mUgsa vius fosQV
cksMZ ls rks ;knk osru feyus gh yxk] ij mlls Hkh cM+h dekbZ osQ lkku
Vk;j ls ysdj dksyk rd osQ Vhoh foKkiu gks x,A
Vhoh izlkj.k ls fosQV cny x;kA blosQ kfj, fosQV dh igqp
NksVs 'kgjksa o xkoksa osQ n'kZdksa rd gks xbZA fosQV dk lkekftd vk/kj
Hkh O;kid gqvkA egkuxjksa ls nwj jgusokys cPps tks dHkh cM+s eSp ugha
ns[k ikrs Fks] vc vius uk;dksa dks ns[kdj lh[k ldrs gSaA
mixzg (lSVsykbV) Vhoh dh rduhd vkSj cgq&jk"Vh; daifu;ksa dh
nqfu;k Hkj dh igqp osQ pyrs fosQV dk oSf'od ckkkj cu x;kA flMuh
esa py jgs eSp dks vc lh/s lwjr esa ns[kk tk ldrk FkkA bl ekewyh ckr
us fosQV dh lkk dk osaQnz gh cny fn;k% ftl izf;k dh 'kq#vkr
fczfV'k lkezkT; osQ iru ls gqbZ Fkh] og oS'ohdj.k esa vius rkfdZd

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154

vatke rd igqphA pwfd Hkkjr esa [ksy osQ lcls ;knk n'kZd Fks vkSj ;g
fosQV [ksyus okys ns'kksa esa lcls cM+k ckkkj Fkk] blfy, [ksy dk xq#Ro
osQUnz nf{k.k ,f'k;k gks x;kA izrhdkRed rkSj ij vkbZlhlh eq[;ky; dk
+ nqcbZ esa vkuk LokHkkfod yxrk gSA
yanu ls VSDl& h
vaxzskh&vkWLVsfy;kbZ /qjh ls xq#Ro osQUnz osQ f[kldus dh ,d vkSj
fu'kkuh ;s gS fd gky osQ o"kks esa fosQV osQ u, rduhdh iz;ksx Hkkjrh;
miegk}hi osQ f[kykfM+;ksa us 'kq: fd, gSaA ikfdLrku us xsanckkh dks
^nwljk* o ^fjolZ&fLoax* uke osQ nks vge gfFk;kj fn,A ;s nksuksa bZtkn
egk}hih; fLFkfr;ksa dh mit gSaA ^nwljk* blfy, fd Hkkjh cYyksa ls
vkked cYysckkh djusokys f[kykM+h mxfy;ksa dh fLiu dks csdkj
lkfcr fd, ns jgs Fks vkSj ^fjolZ fLoax* blfy, fd [kqyh /wi esa] /wy
mM+krh] cstku fipksa ij rsk xsansa ?kqekbZ tk losaQA bu nksuksa iz;ksxksa dks
'kq:&'kq: esa baXySaM o vkWLVsfy;k tSls ns'kksa us 'kd dh ukj ls ns[kk] mUgsa
yxk fd ;s rks pksjh&fNis fosQV osQ fu;eksa osQ lkFk f[kyokM+ fd;k tk
jgk gSA oDr osQ lkFk ;g eku fy;k x;k fd fosQV osQ dkuwu fliZQ
vkWLVsfy;kbZ ;k vaxzskh fLFkfr;ksa osQ eqrkfcd ugha cuk, tk ldrs vkSj bu
tqxkM+ksa dks iwjh nqfu;k osQ xsanckkksa us viuk fy;kA
yxHkx 150 lky igys Hkkjr osQ vxz.kh fosQVjksa & ikjfl;ksa & dks
[ksy osQ eSnku osQ fy, la?k"kZ djuk iM+k FkkA vkt oSf'od ckkkj us
fgUnqLrkuh fosQVjksa dks [ksy dk lcls e'kgwj vkSj vehj f[kykM+h cuk
fn;k gS] iwjh nqfu;k tSls vc mudk jaxeap gks x;k gSA bl ,sfrgkfld
cnyko osQ ihNs oqQN NksVs&eksVs dkj.k Hkh Fks% 'kkSfd;k tsaV~yesu dh txg
osruHkksxh is'ksojksa dk vkuk] yksdfiz;rk esa VsLV eSp fosQV dk ,dfnolh;
eSpksa }kjk iNkM+ fn;k tkuk vkSj oSf'od okf.kT; o izkS|ksfxdh esa vge
cnykoksa dk gksukA oDr osQ lkFk ifjorZu dks le>uk gh bfrgkl dk dke
gSA bl v;k; esa geus ,d vkSifuosf'kd [ksy osQ bfrgkl osQ kfj,
blosQ foLrkj dks le>k vkSj ;g Hkh fd mifuos'kkskj kekus esa blus
[kqn dks oSQls <kykA

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bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

mifuos'kkskj % mifuos'k$mkj = vkkknh osQ


cknA

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ckWDl 2
gkWdh] Hkkjr dk jk"Vh; [ksy
vkkqfud gkWdh dk mn; ,d kekus esa fczVsu esa cM+s iSekus ij [ksys tkus okys ijaijkxr [ksyksa ls gqvk gSA LdkWVySaM esa [ksys tkus okys [ksy
f'kaVh vkSj bafXy'k ,oa osY'k [ksy csaMh o vkbfj'k gfyx dks gkWdh dk iwoZt ekuk tk ldrk gSA
cgqr lkjs nwljs vkkqfud [ksyksa dh rjg gekjs ;gk Hkh gkWdh dh 'kq#vkr vkSifuosf'kd dky esa fczfV'k lsuk }kjk gh dh xbZ FkhA igys gkWdh
Dyc dh LFkkiuk 1885&1886 esa dydRrk esa gqbZA vksyfEid [ksyksa dh gkWdh izfrLikkZ esa Hkkjr dks igyh ckj 1928 esa 'kkfey fd;k x;k
FkkA bl izfrLikkZ esa vkWfLV;k] teZuh] MsuekdZ vkSj fLoV~kjySaM dks gjkrs gq, Hkkjr I+kQkbuy rd tk igqpkA I+kQkbuy esa Hkkjr us gkWySaM dks
Hkh 'kwU; osQ eqdkcys rhu xksy ls ekr ns nhA
gkWdh osQ tknwxj ;kupan tSls f[kykfM+;ksa osQ [ksy&dkS'ky vkSj rh{.krk us gekjs ns'k dks vksyfEid osQ dbZ Lo.kZ ind fnyk,A 1928 ls 1956
osQ chp Hkkjrh; Vhe us yxkrkj N% vksyfEid [ksyksa esa Lo.kZ ind thrk FkkA gkWdh dh nqfu;k esa Hkkjrh; opZLo osQ bl Lo.kZ ;qx esa Hkkjr us
vksyfEid esa oqQy 24 eSp [ksys vkSj lHkh esa liQyrk izkIr dhA bu eSpksa esa Hkkjrh; f[kykfM+;ksa us 178 xksy (izfr eSp vkSlru 7-43 xksy)
nkxs vkSj foi{kh Vhesa muosQ f[kykI+kQ osQoy 7 gh xksy dj ik;haA gkWdh esa Hkkjr dks ckdh nks Lo.kZ ind 1964 osQ Vksfd;ks vksyfEid vkSj 1980
osQ ekLdks vksyfEid esa izkIr gq, FksA

ckWDl 3

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iksyks dks lsuk vkSj HkkxnkSM+ osQ ekfgj ukStokuksa osQ fy, vPNk [ksy ekuk tkrk FkkA baXySaM osQ iqjkus [ksyksa esa ls ,d dk fo'ys"k.k djrs gq,
byLVsVsM yanu U;wt+ us nkok fd;k Fkk %
^dljr osQ rkSj ij --- bl lkgfld vkSj xfjekiw.kZ [ksy ls lSfudksa dks cYye o ryokj osQ ;k vU; lSU; gfFk;kjksa osQ bLrseky esa vkSj ;knk
n{krk izkIr gks ldrh gSA blosQ lkFk gh mUgsa jdkc esa vkSj ekcwrh ls tes jgus rFkk iyd >idrs nkfgus ;k ck, eqM+us dk vH;kl Hkh gksxk
tks fd ;q osQ ekspsZ ij csgn mi;ksxh lkfcr gksxkA*
byLVsVsM yanu U;wk] 1872 ls m`rA

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o

fp=k 15 & iksyks dk [ksy Hkh vkSifuosf'kd vfkdkfj;ksa us gh


fodflr fd;k Fkk vkSj tYnh gh mls Hkkjh yksdfiz;rk feyus
yxhA fosQV fczVsu ls Hkkjr vk;k Fkk tcfd iksyks tSls dqN
[ksy mifuos'kksa esa fodflr gq, vkSj ckn esa mUgsa fczVsu esa Hkh
[ksyk tkus yxk ftlls ogk [ksyksa dk Lo:i Hkh izHkkfor gqvkA
byLVsVsM yanu U;wk] 20 tqykbZ 1872 lsA

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1- i<+kbZ&fy[kkbZ esa [ksyksa osQ egRo ij jXch LowQy osQ izkkukpk;Z VkWel vkuZYM vkSj egkRek xkakh osQ
chp ,d dkYifud ckrphr osQ ckjs esa lksfp,A nksuksa osQ dFku D;k gksrs\ iwjh ckrphr dks fyf[k,A
2- fdlh ,d LFkkuh; [ksy osQ bfrgkl dk irk yxkb,A vius ekrk&firk vkSj muls Hkh iqjkuh ih<+h osQ
yksxksa ls iwfN, fd tc os cPps Fks rks og [ksy oSQls [ksyk tkrk FkkA rqyuk dhft, fd D;k ml [ksy
dks vHkh Hkh mlh rjg [ksyk tkrk gSA vxj dksbZ cnyko vk, gSa rks bl ckr ij fopkj dhft, fd
muosQ ihNs fdu ,sfrgkfld 'kfDr;ksa dk gkFk jgk gksxkA

iz'u

f;kdyki

f;kdyki

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1- VsLV fosQV dbZ ek;uksa esa ,d vuwBk [ksy gSA bl ckjs esa ppkZ dhft, fd ;g fdu&fdu vFkks esa
ckdh [ksyksa ls fHkUu gSA ,sfrgkfld :i ls ,d xzkeh.k [ksy osQ :i esa iSnk gksus ls VsLV fosQV esa
fdl rjg dh foy{k.krk, iSnk gqbZ gSa\
2- ,d ,slk mnkgj.k nhft, ftlosQ vkkkj ij vki dg losaQ fd mUuhloha lnh esa rduhd osQ dkj.k
fosQV osQ lkt+ks&lkeku esa ifjorZu vk;kA lkFk gh ,sls midj.kksa esa ls Hkh dksbZ ,d mnkgj.k nhft,
ftuesa dksbZ cnyko ugha vk;kA
3- Hkkjr vkSj osLV baMht+ esa gh fosQV D;ksa bruk yksdfiz; gqvk\ D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd ;g [ksy
nf{k.kh vessfjdk esa bruk yksdfiz; D;ksa ugha gqvk\

Hkkjr esa igyk fosQV Dyc ikjfl;ksa us [kksykA

egkRek xkakh isaVkaX;qyj VwukZesaV osQ vkykspd FksA

vkbZlhlh dk uke cny dj bEihfj;y fosQV dkWUi+zaQs l osQ LFkku ij baVjuS'kuy (varjkZ"Vh;)
fosQV dkWUi+ zaQs l dj fn;k x;kA

vkbZlhlh eq[;ky; yanu dh txg nqcbZ esa LFkkukarfjr dj fn;k x;kA

bfrgkl vkSj [ksy % fosQV dh dgkuh

4- fuEufyf[kr dh laf{kIr O;k[;k dhft, %

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5- rduhd osQ {ks=k esa vk, cnykoksa] [kklrkSj ls Vsyhfot+u rduhd esa vk, ifjorZuksa ls ledkyhu
fosQV osQ fodkl ij D;k izHkko iM+k gS\

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Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o


158

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Chapter VIII

Clothing:
A Social History
It is easy to forget that there is a history to the clothes we wear. All
societies observe certain rules, some of them quite strict, about the
way in which men, women and children should dress, or how
different social classes and groups should present themselves. These
norms come to define the identity of people, the way they see
themselves, the way they want others to see them. They shape our
notions of grace and beauty, ideas of modesty and shame. As times
change and societies are transformed, these notions also alter.
Modifications in clothing come to reflect these changes.

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The emergence of the modern world is marked by dramatic changes


in clothing. In this chapter, we will look at some of the histories of
clothing in the modern period, that is in the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries.
Why are these two centuries important?

Clothing:
AHistory
Social History
Clothing: A Social

Before the age of democratic revolutions and the development of


capitalist markets in eighteenth-century Europe, most people dressed
according to their regional codes, and were limited by the types of
clothes and the cost of materials that were available in their region.
Clothing styles were also strictly regulated by class, gender or status
in the social hierarchy.
After the eighteenth century, the colonisation of most of the world
by Europe, the spread of democratic ideals and the growth of an
industrial society, completely changed the ways in which people
thought about dress and its meanings. People could use styles and
materials that were drawn from other cultures and locations, and
western dress styles for men were adopted worldwide.

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In Chapter I you have seen how the French Revolution transformed


many aspects of social and political life. The revolution also swept
away existing dress codes, known as the sumptuary laws. Let us
look briefly at what these laws were.

159

1 Sumptuary Laws and Social Hierarchy

India and the Contemporary World

In medieval Europe, dress codes were sometimes imposed upon


members of different layers of society through actual laws which
were spelt out in some detail. From about 1294 to the time of the
French Revolution in 1789, the people of France were expected to
strictly follow what were known as sumptuary laws. The laws tried
to control the behaviour of those considered social inferiors,
preventing them from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain
foods and beverages (usually this referred to alcohol) and hunting
game in certain areas. In medieval France, the items of clothing a
person could purchase per year was regulated, not only by income
but also by social rank. The material to be used for clothing was also
legally prescribed. Only royalty could wear expensive materials like
ermine and fur, or silk, velvet and brocade. Other
classes were debarred from clothing themselves with
materials that were associated with the aristocracy.

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The French Revolution ended these distinctions. As


you know from Chapter I, members of the Jacobin
clubs even called themselves the sans culottes to
distinguish themselves from the aristocracy who
wore the fashionable knee breeches. Sans culottes
literally meant those without knee breeches. From
now on, both men and women began wearing
clothing that was loose and comfortable. The colours
of France blue, white and red became popular as
they were a sign of the patriotic citizen. Other
political symbols too became a part of dress: the red
cap of liberty, long trousers and the revolutionary
cockade pinned on to a hat. The simplicity of clothing
was meant to express the idea of equality.

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New words
Cockade Cap, usually worn on one side.
Ermine Type of fur.
160

Fig.1 An upper-class couple in eighteenth-century England.


Painting by the English artist Thomas Gainsborough (17271788)

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Fig.3 Woman of the middle classes, 1791.

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Fig.4 Volunteers during the French Revolution.

Box 1

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Fig.5 A sans-culottes family, 1793.

Activity

Not all sumptuary laws were meant to emphasise social hierarchy.

Look at Figures 2 - 5. Write 150 words on

Some sumptuary laws were passed to protect home production

what the differences in the pictures tell us

against imports. For instance, in sixteenth-century England, velvet

about the society and culture in France at the

caps made with material imported from France and Italy were popular

time of the Revolution.

amongst men. England passed a law which compelled all persons


over six years of age, except those of high position, to wear woollen
caps made in England, on Sundays and all holy days. This law
remained in effect for twenty-six years and was very useful in building
up the English woollen industry.

161

Clothing: A Social History

Fig.2 An aristocratic couple on the eve of the French Revolution.


Notice the sumptuous clothing, the elaborate headgear, and the lace
edgings on the dress the lady is wearing. She also has a corset inside
the dress. This was meant to confine and shape her waist so that she
appeared narrow waisted. The nobleman, as was the custom of the
time, is wearing a long soldiers coat, knee breeches, silk stockings and
high heeled shoes. Both of them have elaborate wigs and both have
their faces painted a delicate shade of pink, for the display of natural
skin was considered uncultured.

2 Clothing and Notions of Beauty


The end of sumptuary laws did not mean that everyone in European
societies could now dress in the same way. The French Revolution
had raised the question of equality and ended aristocratic privileges,
as well as the laws that maintained those privileges. However,
differences between social strata remained. Clearly, the poor could
not dress like the rich, nor eat the same food. But laws no longer
barred peoples right to dress in the way they wished. Differences in
earning, rather than sumptuary laws, now defined what the rich and
poor could wear. And different classes developed their own culture
of dress. The notion of what was beautiful or ugly, proper or
improper, decent or vulgar, differed.

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Fig.6 Scene at an upper-class wedding by the


English painter William Hogarth (1697-1764)

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Styles of clothing also emphasised differences between men and


women. Women in Victorian England were groomed from childhood
to be docile and dutiful, submissive and obedient. The ideal woman
was one who could bear pain and suffering. While men were expected
to be serious, strong, independent and aggressive, women were seen
as frivolous, delicate, passive and docile. Norms of clothing reflected
these ideals. From childhood, girls were tightly laced up and dressed
in stays. The effort was to restrict the growth of their bodies, contain
them within small moulds. When slightly older, girls had to wear
tight fitting corsets. Tightly laced, small-waisted women were
admired as attractive, elegant and graceful. Clothing thus played a
part in creating the image of frail, submissive Victorian women.

India and the Contemporary World

2.1 How Did Women React to These Norms?

Many women believed in the ideals of womanhood. The ideals were


in the air they breathed, the literature they read, the education they
had received at school and at home. From childhood they grew up
to believe that having a small waist was a womanly duty. Suffering
pain was essential to being a woman. To be seen as attractive, to be
womanly, they had to wear the corset. The torture and pain this
inflicted on the body was to be accepted as normal.

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But not everyone accepted these values. Over the nineteenth century,
ideas changed. By the 1830s, women in England began agitating for
democratic rights. As the suffrage movement developed, many began
campaigning for dress reform. Womens magazines described how
tight dresses and corsets caused deformities and illness among young
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Fig.7 A child in an aristocratic household by


the English painter William Hogarth (16971764). Notice the tiny waist even at this age,
probably held in by a corset, and the sweeping
gown which would restrict her movement.

New words
Stays Support as part of a womans dress
to hold the body straight
Corset A closely fitting and stiff inner
bodice, worn by women to give shape and
support to the figure.
Suffrage The right to vote. The suffragettes
wanted the right for women to vote.

girls. Such clothing restricted body growth and hampered blood


circulation. Muscles remained underdeveloped and the spines got
bent. Doctors reported that many women were regularly complaining
of acute weakness, felt languid, and fainted frequently. Corsets then
became necessary to hold up the weakened spine.
Source A

Activity

Mary Somerville, one of the first woman mathematicians,


describes in her memoirs the experience of her childhood days:
Although perfectly straight and well made, I was encased in
stiff stays, with a steel busk in front, while above my frock,
bands drew my shoulder back until the shoulder blades met.
Then a steel rod with a semi-circle, which went under my chin,
was clasped to the steel busk in my stays. In this constrained
state, I and most of the younger girls had to prepare our
lessons.

Read Sources A and B. What do they tell you

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about the ideas of clothing in Victorian

society? If you were the principal in Mary

Somervilles school how would you have


justified the clothing practices?

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From Martha Somerville, ed., Personal Recollections from Early


Life to Old Age of Mary Somerville, London 1873.

Source B

Many government officials of the time were alarmed at the


health implications of the prevailing styles of dressing amongst
women. Consider the following attack on the corset:

It is evident physiologically that air is the pabulum of life, and


that the effect of a tight cord round the neck and of tight lacing
differ only in degrees for the strangulations are both fatal.
To wear tight stays in many cases is to wither, to waste, to
die.
The Registrar General in the Ninth Annual Report of 1857.

Do you know how the famous English poet John Keats (1795
1821) described his ideal woman? He said she was like a
milk-white lamb that bleats for mans protection.

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In his novel Vanity Fair (1848), Thackeray described the charm


of a woman character, Amelia, in these words:

Activity

In what ways do you think these notions of

Clothing: A Social History

Source C

weakness and dependence came to be


reflected in womens clothing?

I think it was her weakness which was her principle charm, a


kind of sweet submission and softness, which seemed to
appeal to each man she met, for his sympathy and protection.

New words
Busk A strip of wood, whalebone or steel in front of the corset to stiffen and support it
Pabulum Anything essential to maintain life and growth.

163

In America, a similar movement developed amongst the white settlers


on the east coast. Traditional feminine clothes were criticised on a
variety of grounds. Long skirts, it was said, swept the grounds and
collected filth and dirt. This caused illness. The skirts were
voluminous and difficult to handle. They hampered movement and
prevented women from working and earning. Reform of the dress,
it was said, would change the position of women. If clothes were
comfortable and convenient, then women could work, earn their
living, and become independent. In the 1870s, the National Woman
Suffrage Association headed by Mrs Stanton, and the American
Woman Suffrage Association dominated by Lucy Stone both
campaigned for dress reform. The argument was: simplify dress,
shorten skirts, and abandon corsets. On both sides of the Atlantic,
there was now a movement for rational dress reform.
Box 2

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The movement for Rational Dress Reform

Mrs Amelia Bloomer, an American, was the first dress reformer to

launch loose tunics worn over ankle-length trousers. The trousers


were known as bloomers, rationals, or knickerbockers. The

Rational Dress Society was started in England in 1881, but did not
achieve significant results. It was the First World War that brought

India and the Contemporary World

about radical changes in womens clothing.

The reformers did not immediately succeed in changing social values.


They had to face ridicule and hostility. Conservatives everywhere
opposed change. They lamented that women who gave up traditional
norms of dressing no longer looked beautiful, and lost their femininty
and grace. Faced with persistent attacks, many women reformers
changed back into traditional clothes to conform to conventions.

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By the end of the nineteenth century, however, change was clearly


in the air. Ideals of beauty and styles of clothing were both
transformed under a variety of pressures. People began accepting
the ideas of reformers they had earlier ridiculed. With new times
came new values.

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Fig.8 A woman in nineteenth-century


USA, before the dress reforms.
Notice the flowing gown sweeping the
ground. Reformers reacted to this type
of clothing for women.

3 New Times
What were these new values? What created the pressure for change?
Many changes were made possible in Britain due to the introduction
of new materials and technologies. Other changes came about because
of the two world wars and the new working conditions for women.
Let us retrace our steps a few centuries to see what these changes
were.

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3.1 New Materials


Before the seventeenth century, most ordinary women in Britain
possessed very few clothes made of flax, linen or wool, which were
difficult to clean. After 1600, trade with India brought cheap,
beautiful and easy-to-maintain Indian chintzes within the reach of
many Europeans who could now increase the size of their wardrobes.

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Then, during the Industrial Revolution, in the nineteenth century,


Britain began the mass manufacture of cotton textiles which it
exported to many parts of the world, including India. Cotton clothes
became more accessible to a wider section of people in Europe. By
the early twentieth century, artificial fibres made clothes
cheaper still and easier to wash and maintain.

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Fig.9 Changes in clothing in the early


twentieth century.
Fig.9a Even for middle- and upper-class
women, clothing styles changed. Skirts
became shorter and frills were done away with.

Fig.9b Women working at a British


ammunition factory during the First World War.
At this time thousands of women came out to
work as war production created a demand for
increased labour.The need for easy movement
changed clothing styles.

New words
Chintz Cotton cloth printed with designs
and flowers. From the Hindi word chint.

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Clothing: A Social History

In the late 1870s, heavy, restrictive


underclothes, which had created such a
storm in the pages of womens magazines,
were gradually discarded. Clothes got lighter,
shorter and simpler.

Yet until 1914, clothes were ankle length, as they had been since the
thirteenth century. By 1915, however, the hemline of the skirt rose
dramatically to mid-calf.
Why this sudden change?

3.2 The War


Changes in womens clothing came about as a result of the two World
wars.

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Many European women stopped wearing jewellery and luxurious


clothes. As upper-class women mixed with other classes, social barriers
were eroded and women began to look similar.

India and the Contemporary World

Clothes got shorter during the First World War (1914-1918) out of
practical necessity. By 1917, over 700,000 women in Britain were
employed in ammunition factories. They wore a working uniform
of blouse and trousers with accessories such as scarves, which was
later replaced by khaki overalls and caps. Bright colours faded from
sight and only sober colours were worn as the war dragged on. Thus
clothes became plainer and simpler. Skirts became shorter. Soon
trousers became a vital part of Western womens clothing, giving
them greater freedom of movement. Most important, women took
to cutting their hair short for convenience.

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By the twentieth century, a plain and austere style came to reflect


seriousness and professionalism. New schools for children emphasised
the importance of plain dressing, and discouraged ornamentation.
Gymnastics and games entered the school curriculum for women.
As women took to sports, they had to wear clothes that did not
hamper movement. When they went out to work they needed clothes
that were comfortable and convenient.

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So we see that the history of clothing is linked to the larger history


of society. We saw how clothing was defined by dominant cultural
attitudes and ideals of beauty, and how these notions changed over
time. We saw how reformers and conservatives struggled to shape
these ideals, and how changes within technology and economy, and
the pressures of new times made people feel the need for change.

166

4 Transformations in Colonial India


What about India in this same period?

When western-style clothing came into India in the nineteenth century,


Indians reacted in three different ways:

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Fig.10 Parsis in Bombay, 1863.

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One. Many, especially men, began incorporating some elements of


western-style clothing in their dress. The wealthy Parsis of western
India were among the first to adapt Western-style clothing. Baggy
trousers and the phenta (or hat) were added to long collarless coats,
with boots and a walking stick to complete the look of the gentleman.
To some, Western clothes were a sign of modernity and progress.
Western-style clothing was also especially attractive to groups of dalit
converts to Christianity who now found it liberating. Here too, it
was men rather than women who affected the new dress styles.

Fig.11 Converts to
Christianity in Goa in 1907, who
have adopted Western dress.

Two. There were others who were convinced that western culture
would lead to a loss of traditional cultural identity. The use of Westernstyle clothes was taken as a sign of the world turning upside down.
The cartoon of the Bengali Babu shown here,
mocks him for wearing Western-style boots
and hat and coat along with his dhoti.

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Three. Some men resolved this dilemma by


wearing Western clothes without giving up
their Indian ones. Many Bengali bureaucrats
in the late nineteenth century began stocking
western-style clothes for work outside the
home and changed into more comfortable
Indian clothes at home. Early- twentiethcentury anthropologist Verrier Elwin
remembered that policemen in Poona who
were going off duty would take their

Fig.13 Cartoon
from Indian Charivari,
1873.

Fig.12 Cartoon, The Modern Patriot, by


Gaganendranath Tagore, early twentieth century.
A sarcastic picture of a foolish man who copies
western dress but claims to love his motherland
with all his heart. The pot-bellied man with
cigarette and Western clothes was ridiculed in
many cartoons of the time.

167

Clothing: A Social History

During the colonial period there were significant changes in male and
female clothing in India. On the one hand this was a consequence of
the influence of Western dress forms and missionary activity; on the
other it was due to the effort by Indians to fashion clothing styles that
embodied an indigenous tradition and culture. Cloth and clothing in
fact became very important symbols of the national movement. A
brief look at the nineteenth century changes will tell us a great deal
about the transformations of the twentieth century.

trousers off in the street and walk home in just tunic and
undergarments. This difference between outer and inner worlds is
still observed by some men today.
Still others tried a slightly different solution to the same dilemma.
They attempted to combine Western and Indian forms of dressing.
These changes in clothing, however, had a turbulent history.

4.1 Caste Conflict and Dress Change


Though there were no formal sumptuary laws as in Europe, India
had its own strict social codes of food and dress. The caste system
clearly defined what subordinate and dominant caste Hindus should
wear, eat, etc., and these codes had the force of law. Changes in
clothing styles that threatened these norms therefore often created
violent social reactions.

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In May 1822, women of the Shanar caste were attacked by uppercaste Nairs in public places in the southern princely state of
Travancore, for wearing a cloth across their upper bodies. Over
subsequent decades, a violent conflict over dress codes ensued.

The Shanars (also called Nadars) were a community of toddy tappers


who migrated to southern Travancore to work under Nair landlords.
As they were considered a subordinate caste, they were prohibited
from using umbrellas and wearing shoes or golden ornaments. Men
and women were also expected to follow the local custom of never
covering their upper bodies before the upper castes.

India and the Contemporary World

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Under the influence of Christian missions, Shanar women converts


began in the 1820s to wear tailored blouses and cloths to cover
themselves like the upper castes. Soon Nairs, one of the upper castes
of the region, attacked these women in public places and tore off
their upper cloths. Complaints were also filed in court against this
dress change, especially since Shanars were also refusing to render
free labour for the upper castes.

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At first, the Government of Travancore issued a proclamation in


1829 ordering Shanar women to abstain in future from covering the
upper parts of the body. But this did not prevent Shanar Christian
women, and even Shanar Hindus, from adopting the blouse and
upper cloth.
The abolition of slavery in Travancore in 1855 led to even more
frustration among the upper castes who felt they were losing control.
In October 1859, riots broke out as Shanar women were attacked in
168

the marketplace and stripped of their upper cloths. Houses were looted
and chapels burned. Finally, the government issued another
proclamation permitting Shanar women, whether Christian or Hindu,
to wear a jacket, or cover their upper bodies in any manner whatever,
but not like the women of high caste.

4.2 British Rule and Dress Codes


How did the British react to Indian ways of dressing? How did Indians
react to British attitudes?

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In different cultures, specific items of clothing often convey contrary


meanings. This frequently leads to misunderstanding and conflict. Styles
of clothing in British India changed through such conflicts.

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Consider the case of the turban and the hat. When European traders
first began frequenting India, they were distinguished from the Indian
turban wearers as the hat wearers. These two headgears not only
looked different, they also signified different things. The turban in
India was not just for protection from the heat but was a sign of
respectability, and could not be removed at will. In the Western
tradition, the hat had to be removed before social superiors as a sign of
respect. This cultural difference created misunderstanding. The British
were often offended if Indians did not take off their turban when they
met colonial officials. Many Indians on the other hand wore the turban
to consciously assert their regional or national identity.

Fig.14 Europeans bringing gifts to Shah


Jehan, Agra, 1633, from the Padshahnama.
Notice the European visitors hats at the
bottom of the picture, creating a contrast with
the turbans of the courtiers.

Another such conflict related to the wearing of shoes. At the beginning


of the nineteenth century, it was customary for British officials to
follow Indian etiquette and remove their footwear in the courts of
ruling kings or chiefs. Some British officials also wore Indian clothes.
But in 1830, Europeans were forbidden from wearing Indian clothes
at official functions, so that the cultural identity of the white masters
was not undermined.

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Clothing: A Social History

Box 3

The turban on the head

The Mysore turban, called peta, was edged with gold lace, and adopted
as part of the Durbar dress of the Mysore court in the mid-nineteenth
century. By the end of the nineteenth century, a wide variety of officials,
teachers and artists in Mysore began wearing the turban, sometimes
with the Western suit, as a sign of belonging to the princely state.
Today, the Mysore turban is used largely on ceremonial occasions and
to honour visiting dignitaries.

Fig.15 Sir M. Visveswaraya. A leading


engineer-technocrat and the Dewan of Mysore
state from 1912 to 1918. He wore a turban
with his three-piece Western style suit.

169

At the same time, Indians were expected to wear Indian clothes to


office and follow Indian dress codes. In 1824 - 1828, GovernorGeneral Amherst insisted that Indians take their shoes off as a sign of
respect when they appeared before him, but this was not strictly
followed. By the mid-nineteenth century, when Lord Dalhousie was
Governor- General, shoe respect was made stricter, and Indians
were made to take off their shoes when entering any government
institution; only those who wore European clothes were exempted
from this rule. Many Indian government servants were increasingly
uncomfortable with these rules.
In 1862, there was a famous case of defiance of the shoe respect rule
in a Surat courtroom. Manockjee Cowasjee Entee, an assessor in the
Surat Fouzdaree Adawlut, refused to take off his shoes in the court
of the sessions judge. The judge insisted that he take off his shoes as
that was the Indian way of showing respect to superiors. But
Manockjee remained adamant. He was barred entry into the
courtroom and he sent a letter of protest to the governor of Bombay.

Source D
When asked to take off his shoes at the
Surat Fouzdaree Adawlut at Surat in
1862, Manockjee told the judge that he
was willing to take off even his turban
but not his shoes. He said:
Taking off my pugree would have been
a greater insult to myself than to the
court, but I would have submitted to it,
because there is nothing of conscience,
or religion involved in it. I hold no respect
or disrespect, embodied or disembodied
in the shoes, but the putting on of our
turban is the greatest of all respects that
we pay. We do not have our pugrees on
when at home, but when we go out to
see respectable persons we are bound
by social etiquette to have it on whilst
we [Parsees] in our social intercourse
never ever take off our shoes before any
Parsee however great

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The British insisted that since Indians took off their shoes when they
entered a sacred place or home, they should do so when they entered
the courtroom. In the controversy that followed, Indians urged that
taking off shoes in sacred places and at home was linked to two
different questions. One: there was the problem of dirt and filth.
Shoes collected the dirt on the road. This dirt could not be allowed
into spaces that were clean, particularly when people in Indian homes
sat on the ground. Second, leather shoes and the filth that stuck
under it were seen as polluting. But public buildings like the
courtroom were different from home.

India and the Contemporary World

But it took many years before shoes were permitted into


the courtroom.

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170

Activity

Imagine yourself to be a Muslim pleader in


the Allahabad high court in the late nineteenth
century. What kind of clothes would you wear?
Would they be very different from what you
wore at home?

5 Designing the National Dress


As nationalist feelings swept across India by the late nineteenth
century, Indians began devising cultural symbols that would express
the unity of the nation. Artists looked for a national style of art.
Poets wrote national songs. Then a debate began over the design of
the national flag. The search for a national dress was part of this
move to define the cultural identity of the nation in symbolic ways.
Self-conscious experiments with dress engaged men and women of
the upper classes and castes in many parts of India. The Tagore family
of Bengal experimented, beginning in the 1870s, with designs for a
national dress for both men and women in India. Rabindranath
Tagore suggested that instead of combining Indian and European
dress, Indias national dress should combine elements of Hindu and
Muslim dress. Thus the chapkan (a long buttoned coat) was considered
the most suitable dress for men.

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Fig.17 Jnanadanandini Tagore (on the left)


with her husband Satyendranath Tagore and
other family members. She is wearing a
Brahmika sari with a blouse modelled on a
Western gown. (Courtesy: Rabindra Bhawan Photo

Archives, Visva Bharati University, Shantiniketan)

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Fig.18 Sarala daughter of RC Dutt. Note the


Parsi-bordered sari with the high collared and
sleeved velvet blouse showing how clothing
styles flowed across regions and cultures.
Fig. 16 Lady Bachoobai
(1890), a well-known Parsi
social activist.
She is wearing a silk gara
embroidered with swans and
peonies, a common English flower.
(courtesy: Parsi Zoroastrian Project, New Delhi.)

New words
Brahmo Those belonging to the Brahmo Samaj

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Clothing: A Social History

There were also attempts to develop a dress style that would draw
on the tradition of different regions. In the late 1870s, Jnanadanandini
Devi, wife of Satyendranath Tagore, the first Indian member of the
ICS, returned from Bombay to Calcutta. She adopted the Parsi
style of wearing the sari pinned to the left shoulder with a brooch,
and worn with a blouse and shoes. This was quickly adopted by
Brahmo Samaji women and came to be known as the Brahmika sari.
This style gained acceptance before long among Maharashtrian and
Uttar Pradesh Brahmos, as well as non-Brahmos.

However, these attempts at devising a pan-Indian style did not fully


succeed. Women of Gujarat, Kodagu, Kerala and Assam continue
to wear different types of sari.

Source E
Some people supported the attempt to change womens clothing, others
opposed it.
Any civilised nation is against the kind of clothing in use in the
present time among women of our country. Indeed it is a sign of
shamelessness. Educated men have been greatly agitated about
it, almost everyone wishes for another kind of civilised clothing
there is a custom here of women wearing fine and transparent
clothing which reveals the whole body. Such shameless attire in no
way allows one to frequent civilised company such clothes can
stand in the way of our moral improvement.

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Soudamini Khastagiri, Striloker Paricchad (1872)

Source F

Fig.19 Maharani of Travancore (1930).


Note the Western shoes and the modest longsleeved blouse. This style had become
common among the upper classes by the early
twentieth century.

India and the Contemporary World

C. Kesavans autobiography Jeevita Samaram recalls his


mother-in-laws first encounter with a blouse gifted by her
sister-in-law in the late nineteenth century:

It looked good, but I felt ticklish wearing it. I took it off, folded
it carefully and brimming with enthusiasm, showed it to my
mother. She gave me a stern look and said Where are you
going to gallivant in this? Fold it and keep it in the box. I
was scared of my mother. She could kill me. At night I wore the
blouse and showed it to my husband. He said it looked good
[the next morning] I came out wearing the blouse I didnt
notice my mother coming. Suddenly I heard her break a piece
from a coconut branch. When I turned round, she was behind
me fierce and furious she said Take it off you want to
walk around in shirts like Muslim women?

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5.1 The Swadeshi Movement

You have read about the Swadeshi movement in Bengal in the first
decade of the twentieth century. If you reflect back on the movement
you will realize that it was centrally linked to the politics of clothing.
What was this politics?

You know that the British first came to trade in Indian textiles that
were in great demand all over the world. India accounted for onefourth of the worlds manufactured goods in the seventeenth century.
There were a million weavers in Bengal alone in the middle of the
172

Activity

These two quotations (Sources E and F),


from about the same period are from two
different regions of India, Kerala and Bengal.
What do they tell you about the very different
notions of shame regarding womens attire?

eighteenth century. However, the Industrial Revolution in Britain,


which mechanised spinning and weaving and greatly increased the
demand for raw materials such as cotton and indigo, changed
Indias status in the world economy.
Political control of India helped the British in two ways: Indian
peasants could be forced to grow crops such as indigo, and cheap
British manufacture easily replaced coarser Indian one. Large
numbers of Indian weavers and spinners were left without work,
and important textile weaving centres such as Murshidabad,
Machilipatnam and Surat declined as demand fell.

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Yet by the middle of the twentieth century, large numbers of


people began boycotting British or mill-made cloth and adopting
khadi, even though it was coarser, more expensive and difficult
to obtain. How did this change come about?

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In 1905, Lord Curzon decided to partition Bengal to control the


growing opposition to British rule. The Swadeshi movement
developed in reaction to this measure. People were urged to
boycott British goods of all kinds and start their own industries
for the manufacture of goods such as matchboxes and cigarettes.
Mass protests followed, with people vowing to cleanse themselves
of colonial rule. The use of khadi was made a patriotic duty.
Women were urged to throw away their silks and glass bangles
and wear simple shell bangles. Rough homespun was glorified in
songs and poems to popularise it.

Activity

If you were a poor peasant would you have


willingly taken to giving up mill-made cloth?

The change of dress appealed largely to the upper castes


and classes rather than to those who had to make do with
less and could not afford the new products. After 15 years,
many among the upper classes also returned to wearing
European dress.

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Clothing: A Social History

Though many people rallied to the cause of nationalism at


this time, it was almost impossible to compete with cheap
British goods that had flooded the market.

Despite its limitations, the experiment with Swadeshi gave


Mahatma Gandhi important ideas about using cloth as a
symbolic weapon against British rule.

5.2 Mahatma Gandhis Experiments with Clothing


The most familiar image of Mahatma Gandhi is of him seated,
bare chested and in a short dhoti, at the spinning wheel. He

Fig.20 The familiar image of Mahatma Gandhi, bare


chested and at his spinning wheel.

173

made spinning on the charkha and the daily use of khadi, or coarse
cloth made from homespun yarn, very powerful symbols. These
were not only symbols of self-reliance but also of resistance to the
use of British mill-made cloth.
Mahatma Gandhis life and his experiments with clothing sum up
the changing attitude to dress in the Indian subcontinent. As a boy
from a Gujarati Bania family, he usually wore a shirt with a dhoti or
pyjama, and sometimes a coat. When he went to London to study
law as a boy of 19 in 1888, he cut off the tuft on his head and dressed
in a Western suit so that he would not be laughed at. On his return,
he continued to wear Western suits, topped with a turban. As a
lawyer in Johannesburg, South Africa in the 1890s, he still wore
Western clothes.

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Fig.21 Mahatma
Gandhi in his
earliest known
picture, aged 7.

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Soon he decided that dressing unsuitably was a more powerful


political statement. In Durban in 1913, Gandhi first appeared in a
lungi and kurta with his head shaved as a sign of mourning to protest
against the shooting of Indian coal miners.

India and the Contemporary World

On his return to India in 1915, he decided to dress like a Kathiawadi


peasant. Only in 1921 did he adopt the short dhoti, the form of
dress he wore until his death. On 2 September 1921, a year after
launching the non-cooperation movement, which sought swaraj in
one year, he announced:

Fig.22 Mahatma
Gandhi at age 14,
with a friend.

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Fig.23 Mahatma Gandhi (seated front right) London,


1890, at the age of 21. Note the typical Western
three-piece suit.

174

Fig.24 In Johannesburg
in 1900, still in Western
dress, including tie.

Fig. 25 In
1913 in South
Africa, dressed
for Satyagraha

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Fig.26 Mahatma Gandhi with Kasturba,


shortly after his return from South Africa.
Dressed simply, he later confessed to feeling
awkward amongst the Westernised Bombay
elite. He said that he was more at home
among the labourers in South Africa.

I propose to discard at least up to 31st of October my topi and


vest and to content myself with a loincloth, and a chaddar whenever
necessary for protection of my body. I adopt the change because
I have always hesitated to advise anything I may not be prepared
to follow

At this time, he did not want to use this dress all his life and only
wanted to experiment for a month or two. But soon he saw this
as his duty to the poor, and he never wore any other dress. He
consciously rejected the well-known clothes of the Indian ascetic
and adopted the dress of the poorest Indian. Khadi, white and
coarse, was to him a sign of purity, of simplicity, and of poverty.
Wearing it became also a symbol of nationalism, a rejection of
Western mill- made cloth.

Clothing: A Social History

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He wore the short dhoti without a shirt when he went to England


for the Round Table Conference in 1931. He refused to
compromise and wore it even before King George V at
Buckingham Palace. When he was asked by journalists whether
he was wearing enough clothes to go before the King, he joked
that that the King had enough on for both of us!
175

5.3 Not All could Wear Khadi


Mahatma Gandhis dream was to clothe the whole nation in khadi.
He felt khadi would be a means of erasing difference between religions,
classes, etc. But was it easy for others to follow in his footsteps? Was
such a unity possible? Not many could take to the single peasant
loincloth as he had. Nor did all want to. Here are some examples of
other responses to Mahatma Gandhis call:
Nationalists such as Motilal Nehru, a successful barrister from
Allahabad, gave up his expensive Western-style suits and adopted the
Indian dhoti and kurta. But these were not made of coarse cloth.

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Those who had been deprived by caste norms for centuries were
attracted to Western dress styles. Therefore, unlike Mahatma Gandhi,
other nationalists such as Babasaheb Ambedkar never gave up the
Western-style suit. Many Dalits began in the early 1910s to wear threepiece suits, and shoes and socks on all public occasions, as a political
statement of self-respect.

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A woman who wrote to Mahatma Gandhi from Maharashtra in


1928 said, A year ago, I heard you speaking on the extreme necessity
of every one of us wearing khadi and thereupon decided to adopt it.
But we are poor people, My husband says khadi is costly. Belonging
as I do to Maharashtra, I wear a sari nine yards long (and) the elders
will not hear of a reduction (to six yards).
Other women, like Sarojini Naidu and Kamala Nehru, wore coloured
saris with designs, instead of coarse, white homespun.

India and the Contemporary World

Conclusion

Changes in styles of clothing are thus linked up with shifts in cultural


tastes and notions of beauty, with changes within the economy and
society, and with issues of social and political conflict. So when we see
clothing styles alter we need to ask: why do these changes take place?
What do they tell us about society and its history? What can they tell
us about changes in tastes and technologies, markets and industries?

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176

Activity

Can you think of other reasons why the use


of khadi could not spread among some
classes, castes and regions of India?

Box 4

The Gandhi cap


Some time after his return to India from South Africa in 1915, Mahatma Gandhi transformed the Kashmiri cap that he
sometimes used into a cheap white cotton khadi cap. For two years from 1919, he himself wore the cap, and then gave
it up, but by this time it had become part of the nationalist uniform and even a symbol of defiance. For example, the
Gwalior state tried to prohibit its use in 1921 during the non co-operation movement. During the Khilafat movement the
cap was worn by large numbers of Hindus and Muslims. A group of Santhals who attacked the police in 1922 in Bengal

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demanding the release of Santhal prisoners believed that the Gandhi cap would protect them from bullets: three of
them died as a result.

Large numbers of nationalists defiantly wore the Gandhi cap and were even beaten or arrested for doing so. With the

rise of the Khilafat movement in the post-First World War years, the fez, a tasseled Turkish cap, became a sign of anti-

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colonialism in India. Though many Hindus as in Hyderabad for instance also wore the fez, it soon became identified
solely with Muslims.

Fig.27
1915.
Mahatma
Gandhi with a
turban.

Fig.28
1915. In an
embroidered
Kashmiri cap.

Fig.29
1920.
Wearing the
Gandhi cap.

Fig.30
1921. After
shaving his
head.

Clothing: A Social History

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Fig.31 On his visit to Europe in 1931. By now his


clothes had become a powerful political statement against
Western cultural domination.

177

1. Imagine you are the 14-year-old child of a trader. Write a paragraph on


what you feel about the sumptuary laws in France.

Activities

Activities

2. Can you think of any expectations of proper and improper dress which
exist today? Give examples of two forms of clothing which would be
considered disrespectful in certain places but acceptable in others.

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1. Explain the reasons for the changes in clothing patterns and materials in
the eighteenth century.

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2. What were the sumptuary laws in France?

3. Give any two examples of the ways in which European dress codes were
different from Indian dress codes.

4. In 1805, a British official, Benjamin Heyne, listed the manufactures of


Bangalore which included the following:
Womens cloth of different musters and names
Coarse chintz
Muslins
Silk cloths

India and the Contemporary World

Of this list, which kind of cloth would have definitely fallen out of use in the
early 1800s and why?

5. Suggest reasons why women in nineteenth century India were obliged to


continue wearing traditional Indian dress even when men switched over to
the more convenient Western clothing. What does this show about the
position of women in society?

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6. Winston Churchill described Mahatma Gandhi as a seditious Middle Temple


Lawyer now posing as a half naked fakir.
What provoked such a comment and what does it tell you about the
symbolic strength of Mahatma Gandhis dress?
7. Why did Mahatma Gandhis dream of clothing the nation in khadi appeal
only to some sections of Indians?

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