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# Lesson 13: Precise Piloting and Anchoring

3/3/2013

## Lesson 13: Precise Piloting and Anchoring

AGENDA:
Ships Handling Characteristics Advance, Transfer and Turn Bearings Precision Anchoring

## Ships Handling Characteristics

Advance - the distance gained in the original direction until a ship steadies on its final course. Transfer - the distance gained at a right angles to the direction of the original course until the ship steadies on on its final course. Turning Circle - the path followed by a ships pivot point when executing a 360 turn. Tactical Diameter - the transfer involved in the execution of a single turn of 180. Final Diameter - the diameter of the turning circle that a ship would scribe when turning 360

Transfer
Final Course

End of Turn

Start of Turn

## Tactical Diameter, Final Diameter, and Turning Circle

C
Tactical D F A Wheel Over Original Course 000 Diameter B

Example: Speed: 15 kts Standard Rudder Angle Angle of Turn Advance Transfer 15o 180 18 30o 230 30 45o 270 60 60o 310 110 Calculate Advance and Transfer for a 50o turn.

Example cont. Advance = 270 + 5/15 * (310-270) = 283 yards Transfer = 60 + 5/15 * (110-60) = 77 yards

## Use of Advance/Transfer During Piloting

STEP #1 - Calculate advance/transfer from tactical data folder. STEP #2 - Plot transfer line perpendicular to original course. STEP #3 - Plot advance by parallel to original course.

## STEP #4 - Draw the turning point.

STEP #5 - Select a NavAid for a Turn Bearing (TB)/

N
50

TR

TR - 000

100

100

200

300

Scale in Yards

Angle of Turn 15 30 45 60 75

## For a 50 degree turn: Advance = 283 yds Transfer = 77 yds

N
B

A
77

TR

TR - 000

100

100

200

300

Scale in Yards

N
B

TR - 000

77

TR

90

283

100

100

200

300

Scale in Yards

Turn Bearings
Turn Bearings - In order to plot the position at which the ship must put the rudder over (to turn onto a planned track), you must select a suitable Navaid as a turn bearing.

N
B

283

TR - 000

77

## Select a suitable NAVAID as a turn bearing.

100 0 100 200 300

TR TB 270

90

Scale in Yards

Danger Bearings
Danger Bearings - Are drawn on the chart, displaced from the shoal water by a distance that will keep the ship in safe water even when the pelorus is on the danger bearing. - The displaced distance will be the equivalent of the distance from the pelorus to either the bow or the stern, whichever is greater.

Tank

## Danger Bearings / Ranges

Light
FL 6s 58ft 9M

9
12 9 13 13
pa

5 12

5 9 5 9

5 9 9 12 12 13 13 12

9 12

15

15

19

13

NMT 070 17
20

12

15
96

19 20

17

17

19 20

17 19
20

## NLT 200 yds

20
21 21 23 20 21 23 23 21

21

21
21 20

23

23

23

Danger Bearings

NLT 090

Tank

Light
FL 6s 58ft 9M

Conclusion
Describe the means by which a ships position can be accurately and continuously assessed by visual observation. Regular fixes and the use of DR is still required in order to confirm the visual assessment of the navigator.
The key to successful precise navigation is comprehensive preparation prior to the passage.

Anchoring Stages
4 stages of Anchoring: 1. Selection 2. Plotting 3. Execution 4. Post Anchoring

## Selection: Determining a Suitable Anchorage

Suitable criteria: Low winds Low current Sufficient and Suitable Navaids Free of Hazards - Draw the swing circle Bottom: sand, mud, not rocks Sufficient Water Depth

Sources of Information
Chart Publications, to include:
Coast Pilots Sailing Directions Fleet Guides (ports most frequented by USN ships)

## Word-of-mouth Pass down files

Plotting Terms
Approach Track - Final leg that the ship must follow to arrive at the center of the anchorage. Head bearing - the final heading of the ship prior to anchoring Range circle - arcs plotted along the approach track to indicated the distance from the anchorage. (100 1000, 1200, 1500, 2000 yds) Letting-go bearing- the bearing to a Navaid to that indicates when the anchor should be let go Letting-go circle - centered at the center of the berth with a radius of equal to distance from the hawsepipe to the pelorus.

20

10

10 Mast 12 10

Kentmore marina

## 6 8 4 2 G1 G C 3 Piles Dredged 10 ft 1996 RN4 R2 4 2 Pepe Pt Fl 6s 54ft 7M

20
400

20
200
100

16 16

14

20 14
20 20

300

16

14
R12 10 Fl R 2.5s Hobbs Rks 6 14

t
8
14

16 16 14

t Red 2 t t
4

14 16 16

12

Uncov. 1m

## Pepe Reef 14 R14 Fl R 5s

6
12

10 8

16
20

16 Anchorage Plot

16

Execution
Approach slowly when you reach the letting-go bearing=> Let go the anchor ! immediately shoot a fix. If done correctly, anchor is within 50 yds of center of anchorage Ship is now backed to set the anchor

Post Anchoring
Anchor scope: 5 - 7 times the depth of the water Now, Navigator shoots another fix and notes the direction the anchor is tending => Determine final anchor position Draw the SWING CIRCLE. If no obstructions exist w/in => OK Draw the DRAG CIRCLE.

## Post Anchoring Terms

Swing Circle purpose: to ensure the anchorage is hazard free centered at the position of the anchor Radius = (Length of ship) + (Length of anchor chain)

## Post Anchoring Terms (cont)

Drag Circle purpose: to ensure the anchor is not dragging centered at the position of the anchor Radius = (Distance from Hawsepipe to Pelorus) + (Length of anchor chain)

## Drag / Swing Circle

130 yds

300 yards

Drag Circle

Swing Circle

N
TR

Anchorage Plot

HB 004

Tank
100

Stack
200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

TR 004

1200 1500

## Plotting a Precision Anchorage

Preparation (Pre-Sail):
Step 1 - Predict the effects of wind and current along the approach track. Step 2 - Identify a prominent navaid to use as a head bearing and plot the approach track. Step 3 - Measure and plot the radius of the letting-go circle over the center of the anchorage

## Plotting a Precision Anchorage

Preparation (Pre-Sail):
Step 4 - Scribe and label the range arcs on the chart. Step 5 - Select a suitable navaid to use as a Letting-go bearing, and plot the LGB on the chart.

## Plotting a Precision Anchorage

At Anchor (Post-Sail): Step 1 - As the anchor is Let go, take a fix noting the ships heading.
Step 2 - Once the fix is plotted, the anchor position is plotted (measured from the fix in the direction of the ships head at a distance equal to the distance between the hawespipe and the pelorus.

## Plotting a Precision Anchorage

At Anchor (Post-Sail):
Step 3 - Plot the swing and drag circles around the anchors actual position.

Post-anchoring Considerations
Veer out sufficient anchor chain (scope) Cover the chart with acetate over the swing and drag circles Select the navaids to use to fix the ships position while at anchor Set the Anchor watch

Homework
Do the following: Chapter 14: #1ab, 2a, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16