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Integrale nedefinite rezolvate cu drag

prof. Gheorghi Adrian tefan


1.

(
x
2
( x
2
+1)
)dx=?
Solutie :

(
( x
2
+11)
( x
2
+1)
) dx=xarctg( x)+C
2.

( x
3
+x
2
+1) dx=?
Solutie :

( x
3
) dx+

( x
2
)dx+

dx=
x
4
4
+
x
3
3
+x+C
3.

(
1
( 2x+1)
) dx=?
Solutie :
Observam ca

ln( 2x+1)
4.

(
1
4x+5
)dx=?
Solutie :
Se rezolvn mod similar cu cea de mai sus numai ca , vom pune
1
4
n faaintegralei deoarece
1
(4x+5)
=(ln( 4x+5))'

(
1
( 4x+5)
) dx=
1
4

(ln (4x+5)) ' dx=


1
4
ln( 4x+5)+
5.

(
2x
.(2x
2
+3)
)dx=?
Solutie :
! De obicei cnd ntlnimradicalul la numitor derivamsi observamce forma obtinem:
Pentrucazul nostru observam ca :
(.2x
2
+3)' =
4x
2.2x
2
+3
=
2x
.2x
2
+3
ceea ce reprezinta exact valoarea din integral

2x
. 2x
2
+3
dx=

(.2x
2
+3)' dx=.2x
2
+3+
6.

x
.5x
2
+2
dx=?
Solutie :
(.5x
2
+2)' =
10x
2.5x
2
+2
=
5x
.5x
2
+2
rezulta
x
.5x
2
+2
=(
.5x
2
+2
5
)'

x
.5x
2
+2
dx=
1
5

(.5x
2
+2)' dx=
1
5
.5x
2
+2+


8.

cos(3x)dx=?
Solutie:
Daca derivam , (cos(3x)) ' =3sin(3x)
Dar (sin (3x)) ' =3cos (3x) rezulta cos(3x)=(
sin(3x)
3
)'
Deci

cos(3x) dx=
1
3

(sin(3x)) ' dx=


1
3
sin(3x)+
9. I =

( x
2
+2x+
1
x
) dx , x0; I =?
Solutie :
I =

x
2
dx+

2x dx+

1
x
dx
I =
x
3
3
+x
2
+ln (x)+
!Observatie: Rezultatul contine ln(x) pentruc din ipotez timc x0.
10. I =

( x+
1
x
) dx , x>0; I =?
Solutie :
I =

x dx+

dx
x
=
x
2
2
+ln ( x)+
!Observatie: n acest caz rezultatul conineln ( x) pentru ca x0.
11.I=

x3
x
5
dx , x>0; I =?
Solutie :
I =

(
x
x
5
+
3
x
5
)dx=

dx
x
4
+3

dx
x
5
I =

x
4
dx+3

x
5
dx=
x
4
+1
4+1
+3
x
5
+1
5+1
+
I =
1
3x
3

3
4x
4
+
12. I =

(asin( x)+bcos( x))dx ; a , b; I =?


Solutie :
I =a

sin( x) dx+b

cos( x)dx=acos( x)+bsin( x)+


13. I =

cos(2x)
sin
2
( x) cos
2
( x)
dx , x(0 ,
n
2
) ; I =?
Solutie :
Scriem cos(2x)=cos
2
( x)sin
2
( x) i obinem:
I =

cos
2
( x)sin
2
( x)
sin
2
( x) cos
2
( x)
dx=

(
1
sin
2
( x)

1
cos
2
( x)
)dx
I =

dx
sin
2
( x)

dx
cos
2
( x)
=ctg ( x)tg ( x)+
14. I =

dx
.14x
2
, x(
1
2
,
1
2
) ; I =?
Solutie :
I =

dx
.1
2
(2x)
2
=
1
2
arcsin (2x)+
Verificare :(
1
2
arcsin(2x)) ' =
1
2
1
.1
2
(2x)
2
2=
1
.1
2
(2x)
2
15. I =

(
2
sin
2
( x)
+
1
cos
2
( x)
)dx , x(0,
n
2
) ; I =?
Solutie :
I =2

dx
sin
2
( x)
+

dx
cos
2
( x)
=2ctg( x)+tg ( x)+
16. I =

dx
.169x
2
, x(
4
3
,
4
3
) ; I =?
Solutie :
I se mai pote scrie i astfel :
I =

dx
.4
2
(3x)
2
=
1
3
arcsin(
3x
4
)+
Verificare :(
1
3
arcsin (
3x
4
))' =
1
3
1
.4
2
(3x)
2
3=
1
.169x
2
17. I =

dx
.4x
2
, x(2,2) ; I =?
Solutie :
I =

dx
.2
2
x
2
=arcsin(
x
2
)+
18. I =

dx
x
2
+4
; I =?
Solutie:
I =

dx
x
2
+2
2
=
1
2
artcg(
x
2
)+
19. I =

dx
4x
2
+1
: I =?
Solutie:
I =

dx
( 2x)
2
+1
2
=
1
2
arctg (2x)+
20. I =

(.x+
3
. x+
4
.x) dx , x0 ; I =?
Solutie:
I =

x
1
2
dx+

x
1
3
dx+

x
1
4
dx
I =
x
1
2
+1
1
2
+1
+
x
1
3
+1
1
3
+1
+
x
1
4
+1
1
4
+1
I =
x
3
2
3
2
+
x
4
3
4
3
+
x
5
4
5
4
+
I =
2
3
.x
3
+
3
4
3
.x
4
+
4
5
4
.x
5
+
I =
2
3
x.x +
3
4
x
3
. x +
4
5
x
4
.x +
21.I=

(
2
. x

3
3
. x
)dx , x>0; I =?
Solutie :
I =2

1
2
dx3

1
3
dx= 2
x

1
2
+1

1
2
+1
3
x

1
3
+1

1
3
+1
+
I =
2. x
1
2

3x
2
3
2
3
+
I =4 . x
9
2
3
. x
2
+
22. I =

( 2
x
+e
x
) dx , x; I =?
Solutie :
I =

2
x
dx+

e
x
dx=
2
x
ln2
+e
x
+
! Amobservat c (2
x
)' =2
x
ln2 , deci 2
x
=
(2
x
)'
ln2
23. I =

(2e
x
3
x
)dx , x; I =?
Solutie:
I =2

e
x
dx

3
x
dx=2e
x

3
x
ln3
+
Verificare :( 2e
x
3
x
) ' =2e
x

3
x
ln3
ln3
=2e
x
3
x
24. I =

dx
x
2
1
, x(1,1); I =?
Solutie:
I =

1
x
2
1
dx=
1
2
ln

x1
x+1

+=ln
.
x1
x+1
+
25. I =

dx
e
x
, x; I =?
Solutie :
I =

e
x
dx=e
x
+
26. I =

( x
2
1)
2
x
4
dx , x>0; I =?
Solutie :
( x
2
1)
2
=x
4
2x
2
+1
I =

x
4
x
4
dx2

x
2
x
4
dx+

1
x
4
dx=

1dx2

1
x
2
dx+

1
x
4
dx
I =

dx+2

x
2
dx+

x
4
dx=x+
2
x

1
3x
3
+
27. I =

1.1x
2
1x
2
dx , x(1,1); I =?
Solutie:
I =

(
1
1x
2

.1x
2
1x
2
)dx=

dx
x
2
1

dx
.1x
2
I =
1
2
ln

x1
x+1

arcsin( x)+
Dar , innd cont c x(1,1) , I va fi :
I =
1
2
ln (
x1
x+1
)arcsin( x)+
28. I =

3+. x
2
+4
x
2
+4
dx , x; I =?
Solutie :
I =

(
3
x
2
+4
+
. x
2
+4
x
2
+4
)dx =3

dx
x
2
+4
+

dx
. x
2
+4
I =
3
2
arctg(
x
2
)+ln ( x+. x
2
+4)+
29. I =

cos
2
( x)
cos
4
( x)
dx , x(0,
n
2
) ; I =?
Solutie:
I =

dx
cos
2
( x)
=tg ( x)+
30. I =

dx
. x
2
+25
, x; I =?
Solutie:
I =

dx
.x
2
+5
2
=lnx+. x
2
+5
2
+
Integrarea prin pri
!Nu din pri :D
Formula:

f g ' dx=f g

f 'g dx
S se calculeze integralele:
1.

lnx dx , x>0
Solutie :
Alegem f ( x)=ln ( x) , g ' ( x)=1. De aici :
f ' ( x)=1, g( x)=x
Folosind formula integrrii prin pri , obinem:

x ln ( x) dx=

x' ln( x) dx=xln( x)

x
1
x
dx=
=xln( x)x+
2.

xln( x) dx , x>0
Soltuie :
Alegem f ( x)=ln( x) , g ' ( x)=x. nconcluzie :
f ' ( x)=
1
x
, g ( x)=
x
2
2
Aplicm formula integrrii prin pri :

xln( x) dx=

ln ( x)(
x
2
2
)' dx=ln( x)
x
2
2

1
2

x
2

1
x
dx=
=
x
2
2
ln ( x)
1
4
x
2
+
3.

ln
2
( x)dx , x>0
Solutie :
Notm f ( x)=ln
2
( x) , g' ( x)=1.Deci :
f ' ( x)=
2
x
ln( x) , g( x)=x
Gsim:

ln
2
( x) dx=

x' ln ( x) dx=xln
2
( x)2

ln( x)
x
xdx=
=xln
2
( x)2

ln( x) dx Folosind ex1. obinem:

ln
2
( x)dx=xln
2
( x)2( xln( x)x)+=
=x(ln
2
( x)2ln ( x)+2)+
4.

x
2
ln( x) dx , x>0
Solutie :
f ( x)=ln ( x) , g ' ( x)=x
2
si avem:
f ' ( x)=
1
x
, g ( x)=
x
3
3
Aplicnd formulaobinem:

x
2
ln ( x)dx=(
x
3
3
)' ln( x)
1
3

x
3

1
x
dx=
x
3
3
ln( x)
1
3

x
3
3
+=
=
x
3
3
ln ( x)
1
9
x
3
+
5.

ln ( x)
x
dx , x>0
Solutie :
f ( x)=ln ( x) , g' ( x)=
1
x
f ' ( x)=
1
x
, g ( x)=ln( x)
Aplicm formula:

ln ( x)
x
dx=

( ln( x)) 'ln( x) dx=ln


2
( x)

1
x
ln ( x) dx
Observmc

ln( x)
x
dx=ln
2
( x)

ln ( x)
x
dx , deci
2

ln( x)
x
dx=ln
2
( x)+, n final :

ln ( x)
x
dx=
1
2
ln
2
( x)+
6.

x
2
e
x
dx , x
Solutie :
f ( x)=e
x
, g ' ( x)=x
2 ,
atunci :
f ' ( x)=e
x
, g( x)=
x
3
3 ,
deci :

x
2
e
x
dx=

(
x
3
3
) 'e
x
dx=
x
3
3
e
x

1
3

x
3
e
x
dx
Observm c integrala astfel obinut este mult mai complicat
Atunci vomalege f ( x)=x
2,
g ' ( x)=e
x
cu
f ' ( x)=2x , g( x)=e
x
Deci :

x
2
e
x
dx=

x
2
( e
x
)' dx=
=x
2
e
x
2

xe
x
dx
Aplicmncodat formuladeintegrare prin pri i alegem:
f ( x)=x , g' ( x)=e
x
astfel nct :
f ' ( x)=1, g( x)=e
x
si obinem:

xe
x
dx=

x( e
x
)' dx=xe
x

e
x
x' dx= xe
x
e
x
+
n final :

x
2
e
x
dx=x
2
e
x
2( xe
x
e
x
)+=
=e
x
( x
2
2 x+2)+
7.

( x
2
2x1) e
x
dx , x
Solutie :
Considerm f ( x)=x
2
2x1si g' ( x)=e
x
cu
f ' ( x)=2x2 si g( x)=e
x
Aplicnd formula obinem:

( x
2
2x1) e
x
dx=

( x
2
2x1)(e
x
)' dx=newkine =( x
2
2x1)e
x
2

( x1) e
x
dx
Lund separat :

( x1)e
x
dx=

xe
x
dx

e
x
dx=(conformex6)=
=xe
x
e
x
+
n final :

( x
2
2x1) e
x
dx=( x
2
2x1) e
x
2xe
x
+4 e
x
+=
=e
x
( x
2
4x+3)+
8.

x sin( x) dx , x
Solutie :
Notm f ( x)=x , g ' ( x)=sin( x) si avem:
f ' ( x)=1, g ( x)=cos ( x)
Deci :

xsin( x) dx=

x(cos ( x))' dx=


=xcos( x)

cos( x) dx=
=xcos( x)+sin( x)+
9.

x
2
sin( x) dx , x
Solutie :
f ( x)=x
2
, g ' ( x)=sin( x) -
- f ' ( x)=2x , g ( x)=cos( x) , integrala devine :

x
2
sin( x) dx=

x
2
(cos ( x)' ) dx=
=x
2
cos ( x)2

xcos( x) dx , notam 2

xcos( x)dx=I '


I ' =2

xcos( x) dx=2int x(sin( x)) ' dx=


=2xsin ( x)2

x(sin( x))' dx=


=2x sin( x)+2cos( x)+
Finalizare :

x
2
sin( x) dx=x
2
cos( x)+2xsin( x)+2cos( x)+
10.

sin
2
( x) dx , x
Solutie :
Lum f ( x)=sin
2
( x) si g' ( x)=1-
- f ' ( x)=2sin( x)cos ( x)=sin( 2x) si g( x)=x

sin
2
( x)dx=

( x)' sin
2
( x) dx=xsin
2
( x)

xsin(2x)dx notam

xsin(2x)dx=I '
I ' =
1
2

x(cos (2x))' dx=


1
2
xcos( 2x)
1
2

cos( 2x) dx=


=
1
2
xcos(2x)
1
2
sin( 2x)
1
2
+
Finalizare :

sin
2
( x)dx=x(sin
2
( x)
cos(2x)
2
)
1
4
sin( 2x)+
11.

e
x
sin( x) dx , x
Solutie:
Notm f ( x)=e
x
, g ' ( x)=sin( x) -
- f ' ( x)=e
x
, g ( x)=cos( x)
n concluzie:
I =

e
x
sin( x) dx=

e
x
(cos ( x)) dx=
=e
x
cos( x)+

e
x
cos ( x) dx notam

e
x
cos( x) dx=I '
I ' =

e
x
(sin( x))' dx=e
x
sin( x)

e
x
sin( x) dx dar

e
x
sin( x) dx=I
Deci :
I =e
x
cos ( x)+e
x
sin( x)I +
I =
1
2
e
x
(sin( x)cos ( x))+
Obs: I'->citim I prim i nu I derivat
->l-am ales ca pe o notaie
``
12.
. x
2
9dx , x>3
Solutie :
I =

. x
2
9
1
. x
2
9
dx=(amraionalizat )=

x
2
9
. x
2
9
dx=
=

x
2
. x
2
9
dx
_
I
1
9

dx
.x
2
9
_
I
2
unde I =I
1
I
2
I
2
=9lnx+.x
2
9
Pentru a calcula I
1,
notm f ( x)=x , g ' ( x)=(. x
2
9) ' adic g ' ( x)=2
x
2.x
2
9
=
x
x
2
9
unde:
f ' ( x)=1 si g ( x)=.x
2
9
n concluzie:

x
2
. x
2
9
dx=

x(. x
2
9)' dx=
=x .x
2
9
. x
2
9 dx=x .x
2
9I , Dar I =I
1
I
2
-
-I =x.x
2
9I 9ln

x+. x
2
9

-
-I =
1
2
( x.x
2
99lnx+. x
2
9)+
Formul general:
.x
2
a
2
dx=
1
2
( x . x
2
a
2
a
2
lnx+.x
2
a
2
)+, x|a , a , a>0
13. I =
.x
2
+9dx ; I =?
Solutie:
I =

x
2
9
.x
2
+9
dx=
=

x
2
. x
2
+9
dx
_
I
1
+9

dx
. x
2
+9
_
I
2
I
2
=9ln( x+. x
2
+9)+
Tem : Calculai I
1
folosind ex12
Finalizare : I =
1
2
( x. x
2
+9+9ln .x
2
+9)+
14.
.9x
2
dx , x(3,3)
Solutie:
I =

.9x
2
dx=

9x
2
.9x
2
dx=
=9

1
.9x
2
dx
_
I
1

x
2
.9x
2
dx
_
I
2
I
1
=9arcsin(
x
3
)+
I
2
=

x
x
.9x
2
dx
Observmc: ( .9x
2
)' =
x
.9x
2
Deci I
2
se poate calcula prin pri astfel :
I
2
=

x(.9x
2
)' dx=x.9x
2
+
.9x
2
dx
Finalizare :
I =I
1
I
2
=9arcsin(
x
2
)+x .9x
2
I -
-I =
1
2
( x .9x
2
+9arcsin
x
3
)+
Formul general:
.a
2
x
2
dx=
1
2
( x .a
2
x
2
+a
2
arsin
x
a
)+ x|a , a , a>0
15.

xe
2x
dx , x
Solutie :
Notm f ( x)=x si g ' ( x)=e
2x
- f ' ( x)=1 si g( x)=
1
2
e
2x
I =

xe
2x
dx=
1
2

x (e
2x
) ' dx=
=
1
2
xe
2x

1
2

e
2x
dx=
=
1
2
xe
2x

1
4
e
2x
+ --I =
1
2
e
2x
( x
1
2
)+
I =
1
2
e
2x
(
2x1
2
)+
16.

x .x
2
9dx , x>3
Solutie:
I =

x . x
2
9dx=

x( x
2
9)
.x
2
9
dx=
=

x
3
. x
2
9
dx
_
I
1
9

x
.x
2
9
dx
_
I
2
unde I
2
=9.x
2
9
Pentru a calcula I
1
notm f ( x)=x
2
si g ' ( x)=
x
. x
2
9
-
- f ' ( x)=2x si g( x)=.x
2
9
Deci :
I
1
=

x
2
(.x
2
9) ' dx=x
2
. x
2
92

x . x
2
9dx=
=x
2
. x
2
92 I
I =I
1
I
2
=x
2
.x
2
92I9.x
2
9
I =
1
3
( x
2
9). x
2
9+
17.

e
x
cos( x)dx , x
Solutie :
Notm f ( x)=cos( x) si g ' ( x)=e
x
- f ' ( x)=sin( x) si g( x)=e
x
Integrala devine:
I =

e
x
cos( x)dx=

(e
x
) ' cos( x) dx=
=e
x
cos( x)

e
x
(sin( x)) dx=
=e
x
cos( x)+

e
x
sin( x)dx
_
I
'
Pentru a calcula integrala I ' folosim iari formula de integrare prin pri astfel :
f ( x)=sin( x) si g ' ( x)=e
x
- f ' ( x)=cos( x) si g ( x)=e
x
I ' =

(e
x
)' sin( x) dx=e
x
sin( x)

e
x
cos( x) dx
n colncluzie :
I =e
x
cos ( x)+e
x
sin( x)I -
-I =
e
x
2
(cos ( x)+sin( x))+
18.

arcsin( x) dx , x(1,1)
Solutie:
Alegem f ( x)=arcsin( x) si g ' ( x)=1 - f ' ( x)=
1
.1x
2
si g( x)=x
Asadar :
I =

arcsin( x)dx=

( x)' arcsin( x)dx=


=xarcsin( x)

x
.1x
2
dx
Observmc: (.1x
2
)' =
x
.1x
2
, n concluzie:
I =xarcsin( x)+

(.1x
2
)' dx= x codt arcsin( x)+.1x
2
+
19.

sin
2
( x) dx , x
Solutie :
Met I : Notm f ( x)=sin( x) si g' ( x)=sin( x)-
- f ' ( x)=cos( x) si g ( x)=cos( x)
I =

sin( x)sin( x) dx=

sin( x)(cos( x)) dx=


=sin( x) cos( x)+

cos
2
( x) dx= Dar cos
2
( x)=1sin
2
( x) deci :

cos
2
( x) dx=

dx

sin
2
( x) dx Finalizare :
I =sin( x) cos( x)+xI , dar sin( x)cos( x)=
sin(2x)
2
Deci :
I =
x
2

1
4
sin(2x)+
Met II : Notm f ( x)=sin
2
( x) si g ' ( x)=1-
- f ' ( x)=2sin( x)cos( x) si g( x)=x
I =

( x)' sin
2
( x) dx=xsin
2
( x)

2xsin( x) cos( x)dx


I =xsin
2
( x)

xsin(2x) dx
Folosim iari formula de integrare prin pri:
Notm f ( x)=x si g' ( x)=sin(2x) - f ' ( x)=1 si g( x)=
1
2
cos (2x)
x(
1
2
cos(2x))' dx=
1
2
xcos(2x)+
1
2

cos (2x) dx
I =

xsin (2x)dx=

i I =xsin
2
( x)+
1
2
xcos(2x)
1
4
sin( 2x)+=
=
x
2
( 2sin
2
( x)+cos(2x))
1
4
sin(2x)+
Dar cos (2x)=cos
2
( x)sin
2
( x) , dec:
2sin
2
( x)+cos (2x)=2sin
2
( x)+cos
2
( x)sin
2
( x)=1
Finalizare :
I =
x
2

1
4
sin (2x)+
20.

arctg( x) dx , x
Solutie:
Folosimnotaia: f ( x)=arctg ( x) si g ' ( x)=1 - f ' ( x)=
1
1+x
2
si g ( x)=x
Obinem:
I =

arctg( x) dx=

( x)' arctg( x) dx=xarctg( x)

x
1+x
2
dx
Printr-o oarecare intuiie matematic observm c:
|
1
2
ln(1+x
2
) ' =
x
1+x
2
, aadar :
I =xarctg( x)
1
2
ln (1+x
2
)+
Exerciii propuse
Calculai integralele:
1.

xe
x
dx , x
2.

x
2
e
3x
dx , x
3.

( x1)
2
e
x
dx , x
3.

( x
3
3x+2) e
x
dx , x
5.

( x2)
2
e
2x
dx , x
6.

xcos ( x) dx , x
7.

x
2
cos( x) dx , x
8.

cos
2
( x) dx , x
9.

e
2x
sin ( x) dx , x
10.
.x
2
25 dx , x >5
11.

.x
2
+196 dx , x
12.
.36x
2
dx , x (6,6)
13.

x . x
2
25 dx , x>5
14.

e
x
(cos( x)) dx , x
15.

arccos( x) dx , x (1,1)
16.

arcctg ( x) dx , x
Metoda substituiei
Prima metod de schimbare de varibil
Probleme rezolvate:
S se calculeze, folosind prima metod de schimbare de variabil,
primitivele urmtoarelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=
2 x+1
x
2
+x+7
, x
Solutie :
Notm x
2
+x+7=t si derivm:
( x
2
+x+7)' dx=t ' dt - ( 2 x+1) dx=dt
Integrala devine :
I =

2 x+1
x
2
+x+7
dx=

dt
t
=lnt+
Revenind la substituia fcut avem:
I =ln ( x
2
+x+7)+
2. f ( x)=
2 x+3
x
2
+3 x+1
, x
Soltie :
Notam x
2
+3 x+1=t i derivm:
( x
2
+3 x+1) ' dx=t ' dt - (2 x+3)' dx=dt
Integrala devine :
I =

2x+3
x
2
+3 x+1
dx=

dt
t
=lnt+
n final revenim la substituie :
I =ln ( x
2
+3 x+1)+
3. f ( x)=
4 x+2
x
2
+x+2
x
Solutie :
Notam: x
2
+x+2=t astfel :
( x
2
+x+2)' =t ' dt - ( 2 x+1)' dx=dt 2 - ( 4 x+2) dx=2 dt
Integrala devine :
I =

2
t
dt =2lnt+=ln t
2
+
Finalizare :
I =2ln ( x
2
+x+2)
2
+
4. f ( x)=
sin( x)
1+cos
2
( x)
x
Solutie :
Notam cos( x)=t , derivam:
sin( x) dx=dt - sin( x) dx=dt
Deci : I =

sin( x)
1+cos
2
( x)
dx=

dt
1+t
2
=
=arctg(t )+
Finalizare :
I =arctg(cos( x))+
5. f ( x)=tg ( x) , x(0,
n
2
)
Solutie :
Notam cos( x)=t , derivam:
sin( x) dx=dt - sin( x) dx=dt
Obs : Am folosit faptul c tg( x)=
sin( x)
cos( x)
astfel :
I =

tg ( x) dx=

sin( x)
cos( x)
dx=

dt
t
=ln(t )+
Finalizare :
I =ln(cos( x))+
6. f ( x)=
1+tg
2
( x)
tg ( x)
, x(0,
n
2
)
Solutie:
Met I :
I =

(
1
tg ( x)
+
tg
2
( x)
tg ( x)
)dx=

(
1
tg ( x)
+tg ( x)) dx=

dx
tg ( x)
_
I
1
+

tg ( x)dx
_
I
2
I
1
=

ctg( x)dx=

cos( x)
sin( x)
dx
Notam sin( x)=t - cos( x)dx=dt -
I
1
=

dt
t
=lnt+=ln(sin ( x))+
I
2
=

tg ( x)dx=

sin ( x)
cos( x)
dx
Penru a rezolva integrala I
2
vom proceda n mod analog
Tem: Rezolvai integrala I
2
Trebuie s gsii c : I
2
=ln(cos( x))+
Finalizare :
I =ln(sin( x))ln (cos ( x))+ sau
I =ln(
sin( x)
cos( x)
)+=ln(tg ( x))+
Met II :
I =

1+tg
2
( x)
tg ( x)
dx=

1
tg ( x)
(tg ( x))' dx
Obs : Am intuit foarte simplu faptul c:
1+tg
2
( x)=
cos
2
( x)
cos
2
( x)
+
sin
2
( x)
cos
2
( x)
=
sin
2
( x)+cos
2
( x)
cos
2
( x)
=
1
cos
2
( x)
=(tg ( x))'
Aadar i prin urmare...
Notamtg( x)=t - (tg ( x))' dx=dt
I =lnt+
Finalizare :
I =ln(tg ( x))+
7. f ( x)=x
3
e
x
4
, x
Solutie:
Notam x
3
e
x
4
=t derivnd constatm:
4 x
3
e
x
4
=dt - x
3
e
x
4
dx=
dt
4
n acestecircumstane...
I =

x
3
e
x
4
dx=
1
4

dt
t
=
1
4
lnt+
the end... I =
1
4
ln(e
x
4
)+
8. f ( x)=sin( x)cos
2
( x) , x
Solutie:
Folosimnotaiacos( x)=t - sin( x) dx=dt
Utilizm formula de schimbare devariabil:
I =

sin( x) cos
2
( x) dx=

t
2
dt =
t
3
3
+
Revenimla schimbarea devariabil:
I =
cos
3
( x)
3
+
9. f ( x)=sin
3
( x)cos
3
( x) , x
Solutie:
Notam cos ( x)=t -sin( x) dx=dt
I =

sin
3
( x)cos
3
( x) dx=

sin
2
( x)sin ( x)cos
3
( x) dx=
=

(1cos
2
( x))sin( x)cos
3
( x) dx=

(1t
2
)t
3
dt =
=

(t
5
t
3
) dt =

t
5
dt

t
3
dt =
=
t
6
6

t
4
4
+
Finalizare :
I =
cos
6
( x)
6

cos
4
( x)
4
+
10. f ( x)=tg ( x)+tg
3
( x) , x(
n
2
,
n
2
)
Solutie :
Amintimdin ex6:
(tg ( x))' =
1
cos
2
( x)
=
sin
2
( x)+cos
2
( x)
cos
2
( x)
=
cos
2
( x)
cos
2
( x)
+
sin
2
( x)
cos
2
( x)
=1+tg
2
( x)
Notamtg ( x)=t - (1+tg
2
( x))dx=dt
I =

tg ( x)+tg
3
( x) dx=

tg ( x)(1+tg
2
( x)) dx=
=

t dt =
t
2
2
+
I =
tg
2
( x)
2
+=
1
2
tg
2
( x)+
!Obs:Pentru a beneficia de un punctaj maxim n cazul rezolvrii
unui exerciiu matematic, trebuie s aducem soluia sub forma cea
mai simpl.
11. f ( x)=
. x
.1x
3
, x(0; 1)
Solutie :
Notm x .x=t
2
- ( x . x)
2
=x
3
=t
2
Derivm, ( x . x)' dx=dt
Dar ( x. x)' =.x+
x
2. x
=
3x
2.x
, deci :
3
2
. xdx=dt -.xdx=
2
3
dt
integrala I =

. x
.1x
3
dx devine
I ' =

2
3
dt
.1t
2
=
=
2
3
arcsin(t )+
Revenind la schimbare de variabil fcut obinem:
I =
2
3
arcsin ( x.x)+
12. f ( x)=
x
1+x
4
, x
Solutie :
Notam: x
2
=t - 2x dx=dt - xdx=
dt
2
Integrala I =

x
1+x
4
dx=
1
2

2x
1+x
4
dx devine prin schimbare de variabila:
I ' =
1
2

dt
1+t
2
dt =
1
2
arctg(t )+
Revenind la schimbarea factuta obtinem:
I =
1
2
arctg( x
2
)+
13. f ( x)=
e
. x
. x
, x>0, x
Solutie:
Notam.x=t -
1
2. x
dx=dt -
dx
.x
=2dt
Integrala devine :
I =

e
.x
.x
dx=

2e
t
dt =2e
t
+
Revenind la schimbarea factuta obtinem:
I =2e
. x
+
14. f ( x)=
e
2x
.1e
4x
, x0, x
Solutie :
Notame
2x
=t - 2e
2x
dx=dt -
e
2x
=t
2
- e
4x
=t
2
- e
2x
dx=
dt
2
n concluzie: I =

e
2x
.1e
4x
dx=
1
2

1
.1t
2
dt =
1
2
arcsin (t )+
Revenind la schimbareade variabil obtinem:
I =
1
2
arcsin (e
2x
)+
15. f ( x)=
e
tg( x)
cos
2
( x)
, x(
n
2
,
n
2
)
Solutie :
Notamtg ( x)=t -
dx
cos
2
( x)
=dt
Prin schimbare devariabil:
I =

e
tg ( x)
cos
2
( x)
dx=

e
t
dt =e
t
+
Revenind la schimbarea fcut :
I =e
tg ( x)
+
16. f ( x)=.1+x
2
, x
Solutie :
Incercamnotatia 1+x
2
=t - 2xdx=dt - x dx=
dt
2
Tragem de aici concluzia c n acest caz metoda schimbrii de variabil nu ne
prea surde.ncercm s folosim metoda integrrii prin pri....poate,poate...
I =
.1+x
2
dx=

( x)' .1=x
2
dx=x .1+x
2

x
2
1+x
2
dx=
=x .1+x
2
(

x
2
+1
.x
2
+1
dx

1
.x
2
+1
dx) -
- I =x.1+x
2
I +ln ( x+. x
2
+1)+
2I =x .1+x
2
=ln( x+. x
2
+1)+
Finalizare :
I =
1
2
( x .1+x
2
+ln( x+.x
2
+1))+
!!!!!Atentie la pag 30 ex 16'
17. f ( x)=
sin(2x)
sin
4
( x)+3
, x
Solutie :
Alegem sin
2
( x)=t - 2sin( x)cos( x)dx=dt
Dar cunoastem faptul ca 2sin( x) cos ( x)=sin (2x) , deci :
sin(2x) dx=dt iar sin
4
( x)=(sin
2
( x))
2
=t
2
Dup toate acestea...
I =

sin( 2x)
sin
4
( x)+3
dx=

dt
t
2
+3
=
=

dt
t
2
+( .3)
2
=
1
.3
arctg
t
.3
+
Revenimasupra schimbarii facute :
I =
1
.3
arctg(
sin
2
( x)
.3
)+
18. f ( x)=xtg ( x
2
) , x(
n
2
,
n
2
)
Solutie :
Notam x
2
=t - 2xdx=dt - xdx=
dt
2
I =

x tg ( x
2
) dx=
1
2

tg (t ) dt =
=
1
2

sin(t )
cos
(t ) dt
Folosim o nou schimbare de variabil:
cos(t )=a - sin(t )dt =da - sin(t ) dt =da
I =
1
2

da
a
=
1
2
ln(a)+=ln (.( a))+=ln (.cos(t ))+
n final I =ln(.cos( x
2
))+ sau I =ln(
.cos( x
2
)
cos( x
2
)
)+
19. f ( x)=
1
x
2
+x+1
, x
Solutie :
Obs ca: x
2
+x+1=( x
2
+
2x1
2
+
1
4
)
1
4
+1=
=( x+
1
2
)
2
+
3
4
I =

dx
.x+2+x+1
=

dx
( x+
1
2
)
2
+(
.3
2
)
2
Notam x+
1
2
=t - dx=dt
I =

dt
.
t
2
+
(
.3
2
)
2
=ln

t +
.
(
x+
1
2
)
2
+
(
.3
2
)
2

+
n final:
I =ln |
(
x+
1
2
)
2
+
.
(
x+
1
2
)
2
+
(
.3
2
)
2
+ sau
I =ln |
(
x+
1
2
)
2
+.x
2
+x+1+
20. f ( x)=
1
x ln( 2x)
, x>1
Solutie :
Notam: ln (2x)=t -
2
2x
dx=dt -
dx
x
=dt
I =

dx
x ln( 2x)
;
I se transform prinschimbare devariabiln :
I ' =

dt
t
=lnt+Revenimla schimbarea fcut :
I =ln (ln(2x))
! Obs : Modulul a disparut pentru ca x>1
Exerciii propuse
Calculai primitivele urmtoarelor funcii, folosind prima
metod de schimbare de variabil:
1. f ( x)=
3x+1
x
3
+x+2
, x
2. f ( x)=
2x+3
x
2
+3x+6
, x
3. f ( x)=
6x+3
x
2
+x+9
, x
4. f ( x)=
cos( x)
1+sin
2
( x)
, x
5. f ( x)=ctg( x) , x(0,
n
2
)
6. f ( x)=
1tg
2
( x)
tg( x)
, x (0,
n
2
)
7. f ( x)=
x
x
2
+5x+12
, x>e
2,
x
8. f ( x)=
1
.x
sin( .x) , x>0, x
9. f ( x)=
x
3
x
8
+1
, x
10. f ( x)=
e
. x
. x
, x>0, x
11. f ( x)=x
4
e
x
5
, x
Integrarea funciilor raionale simple
Probleme rezolvate:
S se calculeze primitivele urmtoarelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=
1
x+1
, x1
Solutie :

1
x+1
dx=lnx+1+=ln(x1)+
2. f ( x)=
x
( x+1)(2x+1)
, x>1, x
Solutie :
Calculul primitivei acestei funcii presupune mai nti
descompunerea ei n funcii raionale simple, adic:
x
( x+1)(2x+1)
=
A
x+1
+
B
2x+1
Dupa ce aducem la acelasi numitor obtinem:
x
( x+1)(2x+1)
=
2 Ax+A+Bx+B
( x+1)( 2x+1)
, de fapt :
x+0=x(2A+B)+A+B
Trecem la identificarea coeficientilor:

2A+B=1
A+B=0
pentru c coeficientul lui x este 1 iar coeficientul liber este 0.
Rezolvnd sistemul obinem:
A=1si B=1
Ajungemla concluzia:
x
( x+1)(2x+1)
=
1
x+1

1
2x+1
, prin urmare :

f ( x)=

(
1
x+1

1
2x+1
) dx=
=

dx
x+1

dx
2x+1
=
=ln ( x+1)
1
2
ln(2x+1)+=
=ln
(
x+1
.2x+1
)
+
3. f ( x)=
1
x
2
+2x+3
, x
Solutie:
Calculam radacinile polinomului f.
voi folosi n loc de litera grecesca delta pe D
D=b
2
4ac=412=80 - f are radacini complexe.
Datorit acestui fapt ncercm scrierea lui sub form de sum de ptrate.
x
2
+2x+3=x
2
+2x+1+2=( x+1)
2
+(.2)
2

f ( x)=

dx
( x+1)
2
+(.2)
2
=
1
.2
arctg
(
x+1
.2
)
+

4. f ( x)=
4x+1
x( x+1)( x+3)
, x
+
Solutie :
4x+1
x( x+1)( x+3)
=
A
x
+
B
x+1
+
C
x+3
Dup ce aducem la acelai numitor obinem :
4x+1=A( x
2
+4x+3)+Bx( x+3)+Cx( x+1)
4x+1=Ax
2
+4Ax+3A+Bx
2
+3Bx+Cx
2
+Cx
4x+1=x
2
( A+B+C)+x(4A+3B+C)+3A
Trecem la identificarea coeficienilor

A+B+C=0
4A+3B+C=4
3A=1 - A=
1
3

B+C=
1
3
3B+C=
8
3

prin urmare: A=
1
3
, B=
3
2
, C=
11
6
iar
4x+1
x( x+1)( x+3)
=
1
3x
+
3
2( x+1)

11
6( x+3)

4x+1
x( x+1)( x+3)
dx=

1
3x
dx+

3
2( x+1)
dx

11
6( x+3)
dx=
=
1
3

dx
x
+
3
2

dx
x+1

11
6

dx
x+3
=
=
1
3
ln( x)+
3
2
ln( x+1)
11
6
ln ( x+3)+
5. f ( x)=
2x
x
2
5x+6
, x>3, x
Solutie:
Calculm soluiile ecuaiei : x
2
5x+6=0
D=b
2
4ac=2524 - D=1
x
1
=
5+1
2
- x
1
=3
x
2
=
51
2
- x
2
=2
n concluzie:
2x
x
2
5x+6
=
2x
( x3)( x2)
=
A
x3
+
B
x2
2x=Ax2A+Bx3B
2x=x( A+B)2A3B

A+B=2 2
2A3B=0
- A=6, B=4

2x
x5x+6
dx=6

dx
x3
4

dx
x2
=
=6ln ( x3)4ln( x2)+=
=ln
( x3)
6
( x2)
4
+
6. f ( x)=
6x+21
x
2
+x2
, x>1
Solutie:
Calculm soluiile ecuaiei x
2
+x2=0 cu scopul de a descompune funcia f(x) n funcii
raionale simple.
x
2
+x+2=0
D=1+8=9 - D=1 - x
1
=1 si x
2
=2
Observamca:
6x+21
x
2
+x2
=
6x+21
( x1)( x+2)
=
A
x1
+
B
x+2
6x+21=Ax+2A+BxB
6x+21=x( A+B)+2AB
Indentificamcoeficientii :

A+B=6
2AB=21
3A=27 - A=9 si B=3
Astfel am aflat ca:
I =

6x+21
x
2
+x2
dx=9

dx
x1
3

dx
x+2
= =9ln( x1)3ln( x+2)+
I =ln
( x1)
9
( x+2)
3
+
7. f ( x)=
1
( x+2)( x
2
+5x+6)
, x>1
Solutie:
Pentru a descompune funcia aflm mai nti soluiile ecuaiei: x
2
5x+6=0
D=2524=1
x
1
=3, si x
2
=2
Aadar :
1
( x+2)( x
2
+5x+6)
=
1
( x+2)( x3)( x2)
=
A
x+2
+
B
x3
+
C
x2
Indentificamcoeficientii :
1=A( x3)( x2)+B( x+2)( x2)+C ( x+2)( x3)
1=A( x
2
5x+6)+B( x
2
4)+C ( x
2
x6)
1=x
2
( A+B+C)+x(5AC)+6A4B6C

A+B+C=0
5AC=0 - C=5A
6A4B6C=1

4A+B=0 4
36A4B=1

16A+4B=0
36A4B=1
A=
1
20
, B=
1
5
, C=
1
4
Dup ce nlocuim coeficienii aflai, obinem:

f ( x) dx=

(
1
20( x+2)
+
1
5( x3)

1
4( x2)
) dx=
=
1
20
ln( x+2)+
1
5
ln( x+3)
1
4
ln ( x2)+
8. f ( x)=
2
(2x+5)(5x+2)
, x
+
Solutie :
21
(2x+5)(5x+2)
=
A
2x+5
+
B
5x+2
21=5Ax+2A+2Bx+5B
21=x(5A+2B)+2A+5B


5A+2B=02
2A+5B=215

10A4B=0
10A+25B=105
n conluzie:
A=2 si B=5

f ( x) dx=2

dx
2x+5
_
I
1
+5

dx
5x+2
_
I
2
Pentru a intui rezultatul integralei I
1
observm c:
(ln( 2x+5))' =
2
2x+5
-
1
2x+5
=
(ln( 2x+5))'
2
n mod analog pt I
2
-
1
5x+2
=
(ln(2x+5))'
2
Datorit acestor indicii :

f ( x) dx=2

(ln (2x+5))'
2
dx+5

(ln (5x+2))'
2
dx=
=ln (2x+5)+ln (5x+2)+=
=ln (
5x+2
2x+5
)+
9. f ( x)=
x
3
+x+2
x
3
+x
2
+x+1
, xC
Solutie:
Amintim:
n cazul ecuaiei de gradul III, de obicei, cercetm dac soluia se afl printre divizorii termenului
liber. n cazul nostru D
1
={-1,1} i observm c x
1
=-1 este soluie.
Folosind Schema lui Horner:
x
3
x
2
x 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0 -1
Obinem:
x
3
+x
2
+x+1=( x+1)( x
2
+1) , unde x
2
+1=0 admite soluii complexe
x
2
+x+2
x
3
+x
2
+x+1
=
x
2
+x+2
( x+1)( x
2
+1)
=
A
x+1
+
Bx+C
x
2
+1
x
2
+x+2=Ax
2
+A+Bx
2
+Bx+Cx+C
x
2
+x+2=x
2
( A+B)+x( B+C)+A+C

A+B=1
B+C=1
A+C=2
- A=1, B=0, C=1
x
2
+x+2
( x+1)( x
2
+1)
=
1
x+1
+
1
x
2
+1

f ( x) dx=

dx
x+1
+

dx
x
2
+1
=
=ln ( x+1)+arctg( x)+
10. f ( x)=
x
5
+x
4
8
x
3
4x
, x>2
Solutie:
Deoarece gradul numrtorului este mai mare dect gradul
numitorului efectum mprirea:
( x
5
+x
4
8) :( x
3
4x)=x
2
+x+4, r=4x
2
+16x8, astfel :
x
5
+x
4
8=( x
3
4x)( x
2
+x+4)+4x
2
+16x8
vomscrie: f ( x)=x
2
+x+4+
4x
2
+16x8
x
3
4x
4x
2
+16x8
x( x2)( x+2)
=
A
x
+
B
x2
+
C
x+2
4x
2
+16x8=Ax
2
4 A+Bx
2
+2 Bx+Cx
2
2Cx

A+B+C=14
2B2C=16
4A=8
A=2, B=5, C=3
n concluzie:

f ( x) dx=

( x
2
+x+4) dx2

dx
x
+7

dx
x2

dx
x+2
=
=
x
3
3
+
x
2
2
+4x+2ln ( x)+5ln ( x2)3ln ( x+2)+
11. f ( x)=
x
4
6x
2
+11x6
x
2
3x+2
, x>2
Solutie:
Deoarece gradul numrtorului este mai mare dect gradul
numitorului efectum mprirea:
( x
4
6x
2
+11x6): ( x
2
3x+2)=x
2
+3x+1 r=8x8
Astfel :
( x
4
6x
2
+11x6)
( x
2
3x+2)
=
( x
2
+3x+1)( x
2
3x+2)
( x
2
3x+2)
+
8( x1)
x
2
3x+2
ncercm s descompunem funcia
x1
x
2
3x+2
n funcii raionale
simple.Pentru a face acest lucru cutm mai nti rdcinile
ecuaiei
x
2
3x+2=0.
D=98=1, x
1
=2; x
2
=1
x1
x
2
3x+2
=
x1
( x2)( x1)
=
A
x2
+
B
x1
x1=AxA+Bx2B

A+B=1
A2B=1
De fapt :
x1
x
2
3x+2
=
1
x2
B=0, A=1
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=

( x
2
+3x+1) dx=8

dx
x2
=
=
x
3
3
+
3x
2
2
+x+8ln ( x2)+
Integrarea funciilor raionale pentru care numitorul are rdcini
reale multiple
S se calculeze primitivele urmtorelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=
1
x( x+1)
2
, x>0
Solutie :
n acest caz funcia admite descompunerea :
1
x( x+1)
2
=
A
x
+
B
x+1
+
C
( x+1)
2
1=A( x+1)
2
+Bx ( x+1)+Cx
1=x
2
( A+B)+x(2A+B+C)+A

A+B=0
2 A+B+C=0
A=1
A=1, B=C=1
Deci : f ( x)=
1
x

1
x+1

1
( x+1)
2
iar ,

f ( x) dx=ln ( x)ln( x+1)

( x+1)
2
dx
Pt a calcula

dx
( x+1)
2
not x+1=t - dx=dt si ( x+1)
2
=t
2

dx
( x+1)
2
=

dt
t
2
=

t
2
dt=
1
t
+
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=ln
(
x
x+1
)

1
x+1
)
+=
=
1
x+1
+ln
(
x
x+1
)
+
2. f ( x)=
x
( x1)( x+2)
2
, x>1
Solutie :
Funcia se va descompune cu ajutorul nostru astfel :
x
( x1)( x+2)
2
=
A
x1
+
B
x+2
+
C
( x+2)
2
x=A( x+2)
2
+B( x1)( x+2)+C( x1)
x=x
2
( A+B)+x( 4 A+B+C)+4 A2 BC

A+B=0
4 A+B+C=1
4 A2 BC=0
A=
1
9
B=
1
9
, C=
6
9
x
( x+1)( x+2)
2
=
1
9( x+2)
+
6
9( x+2)
2
Pentru c am ajutat funcia f(x) s se descompun...

f ( x) dx=
1
9
(

dx
x1
_
I
1

dx
x+2
_
I
2
+6

dx
( x+2)
2
_
I
3
)
I
1
i I
2
se rezolv uor.
Pentru a se rezolva I
3
apelm la metoda schimbrii de variabil:
Notm x+2=t
2
( x+2)
2
=t
2
si dx=dt
I
3
=6

dx
( x+2)
2
devine I '
3
=6

dt
t
2
=6
t
1
1
+=
6
t
+
Revenind la schimbarea facuta ,
I
3
=
6
x+2
+
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=
1
9
(
ln( x1)ln( x+2)
6
x+2
)
+=
=
1
9
(

6
x+2
+ln
x1
x+2
)
+
3. f ( x)=
x
( x+1)( x+3)
2
, x>1
Solutie :
Descompunem funcia f ( x) n funcii raionale simple :
x
( x+1)( x+3)
2
=
A
x+1
+
B
x+3
+
C
( x+3)
2
x=A( x
2
+6x+9)+B( x
2
+4x+3)+C ( x+1)
x=x
2
( A+B)+x(6 A+4 B+C)+9 A+3B+C

A+B=0
6 A+4 B+C=1
9 A+3B+C=0
A=
1
4
, B=
1
4,
C=
6
4

f ( x) dx=
1
4
(ln ( x+1)+ln( x+3)+

6
( x+3)
2
dx)
Dar ,

6
( x+3)
2
dx=
6
( x+3)
+

f ( x) dx=
1
4
(
ln
x+3
x+1
+
6
x+3
)
+
4. f ( x)=
x
2
( x+1)( x+2)
2
, x>1
Solutie :
Descompunem funcia f ( x)
x
2
( x+1)( x+2)
2
=
A
x+1
+
B
x+2
+
C
( x+2)
2
x
2
=A( x+2)
2
+B( x+1)( x+2)+C( x+1)

A+B=1
4 A+3 B+C=0
4 A+2B+C=0
A=1, B=0, C=4

f ( x) dx=

dx
x+1
4

dx
( x+2)
2
=
=ln( x+1)+
4
x+2
+
Integrarea unor funcii raionale care au numitorul cu rdcini
complexe simple
Calculai primitivele urmtoarelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=
1
x
3
+1
, x>0
Solutie :
Descompunem functia:
1
x
3
+1
=
1
x( x
2
+1)
=
A
x
+
Bx+C
x
2
+1
Observm c numitorul
x
2
+1
admite rdcini complexe.
Datorit acestui fapt n descompunerea fcut ntlnim mai nou
termenul Bx+C n loc de obinuitul B+C
1=A( x
2
+1)+x( Bx+C)
A+B=0
C=0
A=1 - B=1

f ( x) dx=

(
1
x

1
x
2
+1
) dx=
=

dx
x

dx
x
2
+1
=
=arctg x+ln( x)+
2. f ( x)=
1
x
2
+2x+2
, x>0
Solutie:
Observm c numitorul acestei fracii are rdcini complexe
(D=-4<0)
!Descompunerea universal pentru funcia
1
x
2
+bx+c
cu b
2
4c0 este:
x
2
+bx+c=
(
x+
b
2
)
2
+
(
.4cb
2
2
)
2
adica :
1
x
2
+bx+c
=
1
(
x+
b
2
)
2
+
(
.4cb
2
2
)
2
Am reuit astfel s scriem numitorul ca o sum de ptrate.
x
2
+2x+2=
(
x+
2
2
)
2
+
(
.84
2
)
2
=
=( x+1)
2
+1
2

f ( x) dx=

dx
( x+1)
2
+1
2
=arctg ( x+1)+
3. f ( x)=
4x+5
( x+2)( x
2
+x+1)
, x>0
Solutie :
4x+5
( x+2)( x
2
+x+1)
=
A
x+2
+
Bx+C
x
2
+x+1
4x+5=A( x
2
+x+1)+( Bx+C)( x+2)
4x+5=A( x
2
+x+1)+Bx
2
+2Bx+Cx+2C

A+B=0 - B=A
A+2B+C=4
A+2C=5

A+C=4
A+2C=5
A=1, B=1, C=3

f ( x)=

dx
x+2
+

x+3
x
2
+x+1
dx=
=ln( x+2)+I ' , unde I ' =

x+3
x
2
+x+1
dx
Observm c
( x
2
+x+1) ' =2x+1
,aadar pentru a efectua o schimbare
de variabil modificm puin forma integralei I ' .
I ' =
1
2

2x+6
x
2
+x+1
dx=
1
2

2x+1
x
2
+x+1
dx
_
I
1
'
+
3
2

dx
x
2
+x+1
_
I
2
'
Pentru a rezolva integrala I
1
' efectum schimbarea de variabil:
x
2
+x+1=a
(2x+1)' dx=da
I
1
' =
1
2

da
a
=
1
2
ln( a)+
I
1
' =
1
2
ln( x
2
+x+1)+
I
2
' =
3
2

dx
x
2
+x+1
=
3
2

dx
(
x+
1
2
)
2
+
(
.3
2
)
2
=
=
3
2

2
.3
arctg
x+
1
2
.3
2
+
=.3arctg
2x+1
.3
+
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=ln( x+2)+I
1
' +I
2
' =
=ln( x+2)+ln . x
2
+x+1+.3arctg
2x+1
.3
+=
=ln
. x
2
+x+1
x+2
+.3arctg
2x+1
.3
+
4. f ( x)=
2x
3
3x
2
+2x
( x
2
+4)( x
2
+1)
Solutie :
Descompunem funcia :
2x
3
3x
2
+2x
( x
2
+4)( x
2
+1)
=
Ax+B
x
2
+4
+
Cx+D
x
2
+1
, Aducem la acelasi numitor si obtinem:
2x
3
3x
2
+2x=( A+C) x
3
+( B+D) x
2
+( A+4C) x+B+4D. Prin identificare rezult sistemul :
A+C=2
B+D=3
A+4C=2
B+4D=0
De aici obtinem solutiile : A=2, B=4 ,C=0, D=1
Dup descompunerea funciei putem integrala capt forma:

f ( x) dx=

2x4
x
2
+4
dx+

dx
x
2
+1
=
=

2x dx
x
2
+4
4

dx
x
2
+2
2
+

dx
x
2
+1
Prin schimabarea de variabila x
2
+4=a - 2x dx=da obtinem:

2x
x
2
+4
dx=

da
a
=ln(a)+=ln( x
2
+4)+
Finalizare :

f ( x) dx=ln( x
2
+4)+4
1
2
arctg
x
2
+arctg x+=
=ln( x
2
+4)+2arctg
x
2
+arctg x+
Exerciii propuse:
S se calculeze primitivele urmtoarelor funcii:
1. f ( x)=
1
3x+5
2. f ( x)=
13x
2x+3
3. f ( x)=
1
( x+2)( x+3)
4. f ( x)=
1
x( x+3)
5. f ( x)=
1
3x
2
+5
6. f ( x)=
1
x
2
3x+2
7. f ( x)=
1
3x
2
+x+1
8. f ( x)=
1
2x
2
x3
9. f ( x)=
4x3
2x
2
3x+1
10. f ( x)=
5x2
x
2
+4
11. f ( x)=
x+1
x
2
+2x+10
12. f ( x)=
x
3
1+x
8
13. f ( x)=
x
( x1)
10
14. f ( x)=
x4
( x2)( x5)
15. f ( x)=
x
2
+5x+7
x+3
16. f ( x)=
x
2
+1
x1
17. f ( x)=
5
x
2
+x+1
18. f ( x)=
2x
x
2
6x+5
19. f ( x)=
5
x( x+1)( x+3)
20. f ( x)=
x
2
+x+2
( x+1)( x
2
+1)
21. f ( x)=
x
3
2x
2
+4
x
2
( x2)
2
22. f ( x)=
x
( x+1)( x+3)( x+5)