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Bio q Respiration and photosynthesis Unit 5 Describe how light energy absorbed by chlorophyll molecules is used to synthesise ATP.

Excitation of chlorophyll molecule/electrons/ energy of (pairs of) electrons raised to higher energy level; Electron(s) emitted from chlorophyll molecule; Electron(s) to electron transport chain; Loss of energy by electron(s) along electron transport chain; Energy lost by electron(s) is used to synthesise ATP; From ADP + Pi; In the presence of oxygen, respiration yields more ATP per molecule of glucose than it does in the absence of oxygen. Explain why. Oxygen as terminal hydrogen/electron acceptor; Operation of electron transport chain/ oxidative phosphorylation; Fate of pyruvate; Krebs cycle; Significance of ATP formed in glycolysis; The nettle leaves with the larger area had more chloroplasts, which produce ATP and reduced NADP. Explain how ATP and reduced NADP are used in the synthesis of glucose in the chloroplasts. (Reduced NADP and ATP) used in light-independent reactions; To convert GP to triose phosphate / PGA PGAL; Reduction by reduced NADP / reduced NADP supplies hydrogen ions/atoms; ATP supplies energy; (Some) triose phosphate converted to hexose/glucose; Explain why oxygen is needed for the production of ATP on the cristae of the mitochondrion. ATP formed as electrons pass along transport chain; oxygen is terminal electron acceptor / accepts electrons from electron transport chain; electrons cannot be passed along electron transport chain if no O2 to accept them; forms H2O / accepts H+ from reduced NAD/FAD / oxidises reduced NAD/FAD; Describe the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis and explain how they allow the continued synthesis of hexose sugars. 1. 5C/RuBP combines with CO2; 2. to form 3C compound / TP / GP; 3. using ATP; 4. and reduced NADP / eq; 5. 2 molecules of 3C compound/ TP / GP form hexose; 6. all RuBP is regenerated; 7. 10 molecules of 3C/TP/GP form 6 molecules of 5C/RuBP; Describe the role of electron transport chains in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. 1. electron transport chain accepts excited electrons; 2. from chlorophyll / photosystem; 3. electrons lose energy along chain; 4. ATP produced; 5. from ADP and Pi; 6. reduced NADP formed; 7. when electrons (from transport chain) and H+ combine with NADP;

8. H+ from photolysis; Describe how NAD is regenerated in anaerobic respiration in yeast cells. Formed when reduced NAD used to reduce / donate H ions to pyruvate / convert pyruvate to ethanol; Use the diagram to describe what happens to a molecule of chlorophyll in photosystem II when it absorbs a photon of light. chlorophyll molecule/electron gains energy/becomes excited/is raised higher energy level; chlorophyll molecule loses (excited) electron/becomes positively charged; Molecules of ATP are formed as electrons are transferred from photosystem II to photosystem I. Explain how this is possible. energy lost by electrons (is used to .drive. reaction between ADP and Pi.); Reduced NADP produced during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is used in the light-independent reactions. Explain how. reduction/described; of GP to triose phosphate; Explain why converting pyruvate to ethanol is important in allowing the continued production of ATP in anaerobic respiration. allows NAD to be recycled/re-formed; so that glycolysis/described/candidates answer to (i) can proceed/so that (more) glucose can be converted to pyruvate/so that process X can continue; Give two ways in which anaerobic respiration of glucose in yeast is (i) similar to anaerobic respiration of glucose in a muscle cell; ATP formed/used; pyruvate formed/reduced; NAD/reduced NAD; glycolysis involved/two stage process; (ii) different from anaerobic respiration of glucose in a muscle cell. ethanol/alcohol formed by yeast, lactate (allow lactic acid) by muscle cell; CO2 released by yeast but not by muscle cell; Explain how ATP and reduced NADP are used in the synthesis of glucose in the chloroplasts. (Reduced NADP and ATP) used in light-independent reactions; To convert GP to triose phosphate / PGA PGAL; Reduction by reduced NADP / reduced NADP supplies hydrogen ions/atoms; ATP supplies energy; (Some) triose phosphate converted to hexose/glucose; In the presence of oxygen, respiration yields more ATP per molecule of glucose than it does in the absence of oxygen. Explain why. Oxygen as terminal hydrogen/electron acceptor; Operation of electron transport chain/ oxidative phosphorylation; Fate of pyruvate; Krebs cycle; Significance of ATP formed in glycolysis; In which part of a chloroplast do the light-dependent reactions occur? Grana / granum / thylakoids

ATP is better than either glucose or fatty acids as an immediate energy source for cell metabolism. Explain why. ATP energy released in single reaction; ATP energy released in small quantities / manageable quantities / less energy wasted / less heat produced; Photolysis of water occurs in photosynthesis. Describe what happens during photolysis. Water oxygen / O / O2 ; Allow .oxygen atoms. hydrogen / H / H+ ; (not H2) Light / energy excites electron(s)/ raises electron(s) to higher energy level /releases electron(s) from chlorophyll/ chlorophyll/ photosystem receives e- (s)/ photosystem; The following process is part of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis. Glycerate 3-phosphate (GP) Triose phosphate This process requires two substances produced in the light-dependent reactions. Name these two substances. Describe the role of each in the conversion of GP to triose phosphate. ATP; Provides energy; Reject .provides phosphate. Reduced NADP; Reduces (GP) / adds H (to GP); Ecosystems unit 5 The percentage of the light energy trapped by the producers is very low. Give two reasons why. o Reflected / absorbed by water; o Reflected from producers; o Transmitted / passes between chloroplasts/ between plants / too few chloroplasts; o Wrong wavelength / some = heat / some = UV / used to evaporate water; o Used to drive reactions of photosynthesis / lost in photosynthesis; o Other limiting factor / named example . carbon dioxide / temperature; The biomass of primary consumers is less than the biomass of producers. Explain why. o Loss of energy/heat / use of energy / less energy to be passed on; o In respiration; o In excreta / excretion / urine / carbon dioxide; o Inedible parts / indigestible parts / egesta / egestion / to decomposers; The activities of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nitrifying bacteria and decomposers help to maintain the fertility of the soil in alley-cropping. Describe how.

New Zealand pygmy weed has been introduced into many garden ponds and has spread to some natural ponds. Here, it competes with naturally occurring plants. Suggest how the introduction of pygmy weed may lead to a reduction in the diversity of the community in a natural pond. o pygmy weed competes for CO2 / light / nutrients; o reduction in numbers of original plants; o some of original plant species lost; o loss of habitats / niches / shelter / food sources; o consumers die / some migrate; Explain how soil microorganisms contribute to the cycling of carbon. o microorganisms are decomposers / microorganisms break down detritus; respire (products of decomposition); o CO2 produced (passes into air); o CO2 used (by plants) in photosynthesis (CO2 taken up by roots cancels this point only); Explain the roles of the decomposers and the nitrifying bacteria in converting nitrogen in organic compounds in the sewage into a soluble, inorganic form. o decomposers convert (nitrogen in organic compounds) into ammonia/ammonium; o suitable example of .organic nitrogen. . protein/urea/amino acid etc. (e.g. linked to process); o nitrifying bacteria / correctly named convert ammonium to nitrate; via nitrite; Nitrifying bacteria are one kind of bacteria that are important in the nitrogen cycle; nitrogen-fixing bacteria are another kind. Describe the part played by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the nitrogen cycle. o convert nitrogen (gas) into ammonium / ammonia / amino acids; o add usable/available nitrogen to an ecosystem Suggest how the features of the heterocysts improve the efficiency of the process of nitrogen fixation. o Thick walls exclude oxygen; o Produced by photosynthetic cells (of fern and Anabaena); o Contain no chlorophyll so do not photosynthesise; o Do not produce oxygen; o Oxygen would inhibit nitrogen fixation process; In China, the fern is cultivated and ploughed into fields to act as an organic fertiliser. Explain how ploughing the fern plants into the soil results in an improvement in the growth of the rice crop grown in these fields. o Decomposers/ bacteria/fungi/saprobionts (in fields); o Convert protein/organic nitrogen (in cells of fern) into ammonium ions (allow ammonia); o Ammonium ions (ammonia) converted to nitrite; o Nitrite converted to nitrate; o By nitrifying bacteria / correctly named; o Nitrate used to form protein / amino acids in rice; o Link between application of fern and protein/cells of rice; o Decomposers respire (suitable substrate) and release CO2; o Used in photosynthesis by rice;

Use your knowledge of the nitrogen cycle to explain the potential benefit of applying a fertiliser containing ammonium nitrate rather than one containing potassium nitrate. o ammonium nitrate contains more nitrogen per molecule than potassium nitrate; o nitrate ions in fertiliser available/ absorbed immediately; o ammonium converted to nitrate; o by nitrifying bacteria/Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter; o fertiliser would provide only the initial release of nitrate/potassium nitrate Explain the role of bacteria in making carbon in dead plant remains available to plants. o decomposers/ saprotrophs; o release enzymes and digest detritus/ substances found in detritus/ eq.; o absorb products of digestion/ suitable e.g. that relates to candidates 2nd point; o respired and CO2 released; o used by plants in photosynthesis/ enters leaves; In this food chain, the phytoplankton reproduce very rapidly. Suggest why this rapid rate of reproduction is essential to sustain the food chain. Idea of rapid reproduction to replace population/standing crop / so they don.t o become extinct; o Idea of supplying energy/biomass to zooplankton; o Idea of taking account of energy losses between trophic levels; Give two conditions necessary for results from mark-release-recapture investigations to be valid. o No immigration/migration (Ignore references to emigration); o No reproduction (Ignore references to death); o Idea of mixing; o Marking does not influence behaviour / increase vulnerability to predation; o Sample/population large enough;

Substances found in fallen leaves contain the elements carbon and nitrogen. Explain how the activities of decomposers and nitrifying bacteria recycle the substances in fallen leaves for re-use by the trees.

When a small area of trees has been cut down, it can return naturally to tropical rainforest. Suggest and explain how re-establishment of the rainforest ecosystem may occur in such areas.

How does the distribution of woodlice increase their chances of survival? Idea of conflict between effective gas exchange and excessive water loss; Humid surroundings reduce concentration gradient; So reduce water loss/ risk of dehydration/eq.; [Note: Ignore reference to predation] Explain how feature B (spines on cacti) could have evolved to be present in all plants of this species. Mutation in allele(s) determining leaf shape in original population; Those with leaves reduced to spines have an advantage due to reduced water loss; Survive to reproduce better than other forms; Increase in frequency with each generation; Pass on advantageous alleles; Advantageous alleles increase in frequency with each generation; Genetics unit 5 How many antigen-determining alleles will be present in a white blood cell? Give a reason for your answer. o Two, as white blood cells are diploid cells/alleles are present on each o chromosome of an homologous pair/one maternal and one paternal; Identify the type and stage of cell division shown. Give evidence from the diagram to support your answer. o (meiosis) anaphase I; o chromosomes are moving apart; o chromosomes still double structures; Describe how crossing over occurs during meiosis I. o chromosomes in each (homologous) pair twist around each o other; chromatids break and rejoin to chromatid on sister chromosome;

Explain how resistance to an antibiotic could become widespread in a bacterial population following a gene mutation conferring resistance in just one bacterium. 1. frequent use of antibiotic creates selection pressure/ antibiotic kills bacteria; 2. bacteria with mutation/ resistance have (selective) advantage over others / described; 3. (survive to) reproduce more than other types; 4. pass on advantageous allele/ mutated allele in greater numbers; 5. frequency of (advantageous) allele increases in subsequent generations; 6. frequency of resistant types increases in subsequent generations; The table gives one difference between meiosis and mitosis. Complete the table by giving three further differences.

Species/ classification unit 5 In South America, there are several species of guinea pig. They are thought to have arisen by sympatric speciation.Explain how sympatric speciation may have occurred. o Mutation occurs; o Correct e.g. of isolating mechanism o e.g. temporal . different breeding seasons / feeding times / o ecological / behavioural . different courtship displays / different niches/ habitats / feeding areas / o mechanical . mismatch of reproductive parts / gamete incompatibility . sperm killed in female.s reproductive tract/ hybrid inviability / hybrid infertility; o Different selection pressures operate / changes in allele frequency / o divergence of gene pools; Give two features that are characteristic of the kingdom Fungi. o chitin cell wall; ignore non . cellulose o mycelial habit / hyphae; o coenocytic / eq.; What is a species? o Group of physically/physiologically similar individuals / genetically similar; o Can (inter)breed; o To produce fertile offspring; Suggest why the kingdom Protoctista is sometimes referred to as a taxonomic dumping ground. o Membership of Protoctista is often by exclusion from other kingdoms; What information concerning the organisms present in the area is suggested by the increase in the index of diversity? o Increase in number of species; o Increase in numbers of some species; The increase in the index of diversity is one indication that a biological succession is taking place in the area. Describe those features of a succession that would bring about an increase in the index of diversity. o Initial environment hostile / few organisms adapted; o These organisms change the environment / suitable example; o More niches / more habitats; o Allowing other organisms to become established; Phytoplankton are mainly unicellular Protoctista. Give two structural features you would expect to find in phytoplankton cells. o Cell wall; o Ribosomes; o Membrane-bound organelles (accept 2 different examples); o Nucleus/component of nucleus; o Plasma membrane; o ER; Explain what is meant by stabilising selection and describe the circumstances under which it takes place. 1. Occurs in an unchanging environment; 2. (Initial range of values in which) mean is best adapted;

3. Selection against extremes / selection for the mean; 4. Mean/median/mode unaltered 5. Range/S.D is reduced; 6. Repeated over many generations; 7. Increasing proportion of populations becomes well adapted to environment; Use Figure 2 to explain how natural selection would favour the evolution of sediment-dwelling bacteria containing a different photosynthetic pigment from those living near the surface of the water. Little green light reaches bottom as absorbed by surface dwellers / water; Red and blue not absorbed and so penetrate; Variation in pigments of sediment dwellers; Bacteria with chlorophyll at an advantage; As chlorophyll absorbs red and blue; (Survive to) reproduce in greater numbers; Pass on advantageous alleles/genes in greater numbers / increase in frequency of advantageous alleles in subsequent generations; Increase in frequency/numbers of bacteria with chlorophyll; These two species are thought to have evolved as a result of sympatric speciation. Suggest how this might have occurred. Original population living in one area / 2 species evolved in the area; Idea of genetic variability; Concept of reproductive isolation; Possible mechanism; Gene pools become increasingly different; Until interbreeding does not produce fertile offspring; Explain what is meant by stabilising selection and describe the circumstances under which it takes place. 1. Occurs in an unchanging environment; 1 + 2. (Initial range of values in which) mean is best adapted; 3. Selection against extremes / selection for the mean; 4. Mean/median/mode unaltered 5. Range/S.D is reduced; 6. Repeated over many generations; 7. Increasing proportion of populations becomes well adapted to environment; Explain the proportions of cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants in clover populations growing in the area where the mean minimum winter temperature is below 4C and in the area where it is above 10 C. 1. All plants are acyanogenic below -4C and (most) cyanogenic above +10C; 2. Cyanogenic plants. cells freeze below -4; 3. Releasing cyanide (into their own tissues); 4. Damaging/killing plants / disrupting metabolism; 5. Selective advantage not to produce cyanide at -4C; 6. Slugs present at higher temperatures / not usually present/inactive at lower temperatures; 7. Cyanide production kills/deters slugs; 8. Advantage only at higher temperatures; Explain how geographical isolation can lead to the formation of new species. 1 Populations separated by physical barrier/ example; 2 No mixing of gene pools; 3 Different selection pressures;

4 Become adapted to local environment; 5 Survive and reproduce; 6 Mutation in one group (different from other group); 7 Change in allele frequencies; [Reject: Gene] 8 Isolated populations/ new species cannot interbreed; Digestion unit 6 Explain the benefit of the use of the nervous system to control the release of saliva o nervous system faster; o food in mouth only a short time / provides immediate lubrication / o enzyme already present; the use of a hormone to control the release of digestive juices in the stomach. o sustained release of digestive secretions / longer-lasting effect; Explain why the digestion of proteins is more efficient if they are exposed to endopeptidases before being acted on by exopeptidases. o endopeptidase cuts in middle of (polypeptide) chain / produces several chains; produces many (free) .ends. for exopeptidase to act on; Ruminants, such as cattle, have a diet which is poor in protein. Explain how the presence of mutualistic microorganisms in the rumen can increase the amounts of amino acids available for absorption from the digestive system. o microorganisms release cellulase / can digest plant cell walls / can digest cellulose; o makes (internal) cell proteins accessible; microorganisms use NH4 o + / NH3 / urea / non-protein nitrogen; Reject .digest. o microorganisms make amino acids / proteins; o cow digests (dead) microorganisms / digests microbial protein; random unit 6 Root pressure is a force that is partly responsible for the movement of water through xylem in stems. Explain how the active transport of mineral ions into xylem vessels in the roots results in water entering these vessels and then being moved up the xylem tissue. Water potential in xylem reduced (by entry of ions); Water potential gradient established between xylem and surrounding cells; Plasma membranes of surrounding cells are partially permeable; Water enters xylem by osmosis; Volume of water in xylem increases; Cannot move back due to gradient; Pressure in xylem increases (and forces water upwards); The presence of an air bubble in a xylem vessel in the stem blocks the movement of water through that vessel. Use the cohesion-tension theory to explain why. Evaporation from leaves / transpiration; Water in xylem under tension*/negative pressure/pulled up; Water molecules cohere*/stick together/form hydrogen bonds; [Ignore: references to adhesion] So water a single column; Air bubble breaks column / prevents cohesion; The photolysis of water is an important part of the process of photosynthesis. Describe what happens in the photolysis of water.

(Water) forms H+ /hydrogen ions and electrons/e ; O2/oxygen formed; [NOT O, NOT O.] (Light) excites electrons / raises energy level of electrons / electrons to chlorophyll / to photosystem; Describe and explain the effect of Rhizobium bacteria on the growth of soybeans. Forms mutualistic/symbiotic union with soyabean / forms root nodules / mutual benefits (/described); makes ammonia/ammonium; (Nitrates CANCEL) Helps produce organic-N / amino acids / protein; In daylight, most of the water evaporates from the leaves but some is used by the plant. Describe the ways in which this water could be used by the plant. (water is used in) the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis; electrons from water enable ATP production / H+ are used to reduce NADP / produces O2; (water can be used in) hydrolysis reactions within the plant; to create turgor; as a solvent for transport; as a medium for chemical reactions; component of cells / cytoplasm; Describe how the resting potential is established in an axon by the movement of ions across the membrane. active transport / pump of Na+ out of axon; diffusion of K+ out of axon / little diffusion of Na+ into the axon; In which part of the brain is the cardiovascular centre located? medulla; Many tropical plants have a specialised method of photosynthesis. Explain how this method adapts the plant to tropical conditions. 1. method is C4 photosynthesis / correct ref. to a 4-carbon molecule; 2. carbon dioxide stored in a molecule; (reject 3-carbon molecule/RuBP ) 3. stomata close during day / hot conditions; 4. reducing water loss; 5. low carbon dioxide concentration inside leaves; 6. carbon dioxide released from molecules for photosynthesis; 7. allows efficient use of high light intensity; allow 8. effect of inhibition of RUBISCO is overcome; Transpiration unit 6 Explain how root pressure and cohesiontension are responsible for the movement of water in xylem vessels. Root pressure: 1. Active transport of salts into xylem; 2. Endodermis / Casparian strip; 3. Prevents leakage / water / ions must use symplast pathway; 4. Lower water potential inside xylem; 5. Water (enters xylem) down WP gradient / by osmosis; 6. Upward water movement by root pressure is relatively low; Cohesion tension:

7. Transpiration / evaporation of water; 8. From spongy mesophyll / through stomata; 9. Lowers water potential of mesophyll; 10. Water molecules hydrogen bond / stick together; 11. Ref. to columns / chains; 12. Water pulled up xylem (creating tension); 13. Adhesion between water molecules and xylem vessel walls; 14. Responsible for majority of water movement up xylem vessels; Only credit if earlier reference to limited water movement by root pressure has not been credited. Describe and explain the effects of increasing light intensity on the tension in the xylem vessels in the leaves. 1. (when light intensity is increased) tension in the xylem becomes greater / more negative / stronger; 2. (this increase) takes place over 100 second; 3. then levels out; 4. stomata open (more); 5. increased evaporation / transpiration; 6. therefore the water potential of leaf cells becomes more negative / lower; 7. therefore more water moves from xylem to surrounding cells; 8. down a water potential gradient; 9. correct ref. to hydrogen bonds / cohesion; Explain how the negative pressure in the xylem vessels of the leaves causes water to move up the plant from the xylem in the roots. 1. continuous / leaf to root column of water; 2. H-bonds; 3. cohesion; 4. column under tension / pull transmitted; Describe one piece of evidence that supports the root pressure theory and explain how it supports this theory. Suitable accepted evidence, 1 mark for evidence and 1 mark for explanation . EITHER e.g.guttation (only) upward pressure could force liquid water out of leaves; OR Sap exuding from a cut, rooted stem; (only) upward force could make this happen The diameter of a tree is less during the day, when the tree is transpiring, than it is at night. Explain how this (i) supports the cohesion-tension theory; Evaporation from leaves during daytime only/mainly; tension/negative pressure (on water) in xylem creates inward pull (on walls of xylem vessel); xylem vessels become narrower; due to adhesion of water molecules (to walls of xylem vessels); (ii) does not support the root pressure theory. root pressure gives outward force/push on walls of xylem vessels; tree would become wider/stay same diameter; xylem vessels become wider/stay same diameter; Describe and explain how water moves via the apoplastic and symplastic pathways from the soil to the xylem in a root. Apoplastic . Via cell walls / spaces external to cell membrane / external to cytoplasm

/ between cells; As far as endodermis / Casparian strip / layer of wax; Caused by transpiration pull; Cohesion / hydrogen-bonding between water molecules; Symplastic . Through cell surface membrane (of epidermis / root hair cell) / ref. vacuoles membrane; High to low . / .s; Diffusion / osmosis; Cell-to-cell via plasmodesmata / via strands of cytoplasm; Secretion / active transport of ions into xylem by endodermis; OR Active uptake of ions from soil at epidemis Lowers . / .s in xylem / increases osmosis into xylem; Use information from the graphs, and your knowledge of the cohesion-tension theory of water movement through a plant, to explain why the diameter of the trunk is smallest at midday. 1. Diameter of trunk minimal at warmest / brightest time of day / midday = warmest / brightest; 2. Stomata open in light more water loss; 3. Water evaporates more when warm / more heat energy for water evaporation; 4. Hydrogen-bonding between water molecules; 5. Cohesion (/ described) between water molecules; 6. Adhesion (described) between water molecules and walls of xylem vessels; 7. (Xylem) pulled inwards by faster flow of water / pulled in by tension; 8. Reduced pressure at leaves / top of plant / pull from top / from leaves / tension from leaves / from top of plant due to transpiration / evaporation; 9. Water pulled up plant; Describe and explain the effects of increasing light intensity on the tension in the xylem vessels in the leaves. 1. (when light intensity is increased) tension in the xylem becomes greater / more negative / stronger; 2. (this increase) takes place over 100 second; 3. then levels out; 4. stomata open (more); 5. increased evaporation / transpiration; 6. therefore the water potential of leaf cells becomes more negative / lower; 7. therefore more water moves from xylem to surrounding cells; 8. down a water potential gradient; 9. correct ref. to hydrogen bonds / cohesion; Many tropical plants have a specialised method of photosynthesis. Explain how this method adapts the plant to tropical conditions. 1. method is C4 photosynthesis / correct ref. to a 4-carbon molecule; 2. carbon dioxide stored in a molecule; (reject 3-carbon molecule/RuBP ) 3. stomata close during day / hot conditions; 4. reducing water loss; 5. low carbon dioxide concentration inside leaves; 6. carbon dioxide released from molecules for photosynthesis; 7. allows efficient use of high light intensity; allow 8. effect of inhibition of RUBISCO is overcome;

Nerves/ saltation/ the eye unit 6 Explain the effect of myelination on the rate of nerve impulse conduction. o myelin insulates / prevents ion movement; o saltation / described re leaping node to node;

1. X / Acetylcholine . opening of Na+ channels / increases Na+ permeability; 2. X / Acetylcholine . Na+ ion entry into Z; 3. X / Na+ entry - raises potential / reduces potential difference / makes potential less negative; 4. Y / Cl. entry - lowers potential / increases potential difference / makes potential more negative; 5. X stimulates and Y inhibits (Z); 6. balance of impulses from X and Y determines whether Z fires action potential / determines whether potential rises above threshold; Describe how the resting potential is established in an axon by the movement of ions across the membrane. o active transport / pump of Na+ out of axon; o diffusion of K+ out of axon / little diffusion of Na+ into the axon; Sodium and potassium ions can only cross the axon membrane through proteins. Explain why. o can not pass through phospholipid bilayer; o because water soluble / not lipid soluble / charged / hydrophilic / hydrated; Explain what causes vision using the fovea to be in colour; o (Three) different types of (cone) cells / types 6 and 7 sensitive to different wavelengths / different frequencies / different colours; to have high visual acuity.

Impulses along separate neurone from each receptor cell / each receptor cell connects to separate neurone;

Explain how nervous control in a human can cause increased cardiac output during exercise. 1. Coordination via medulla (of brain) / cardiac centre; 2. (Increased) impulses along sympathetic (/ cardiac accelerator) nerve; 3. To S.A. node / pacemaker; 4. Release of noradrenalin; 5. More impulses sent from / increased rate of discharge of S.A. node / pacemaker; Not .beats.; not .speeds up. 6. Increased heart rate / increased stroke volume; In the eye of an older person, the ciliary muscles do not contract with as much force as in the eye of a younger person. Explain why this might make reading a book difficult for an older person. Correct ref to near vision involved; tension in suspensory ligaments; lens does not become sufficiently convex rays of light refracted less/bent less; (focusing near objects) requires maximum refraction/maximum bending; or rays of light focused beyond retina; Kidney/ water loss/ homeostasis unit 6 At an environmental temperature of 28 C and 100 % saturation of the external air with water vapour, the temperature inside a kangaroo rats nasal passages was 31C. At the same environmental temperature but 0% saturation with water vapour, the temperature in the nasal passages was 26 C. Explain the difference in temperature of the nasal passages and suggest how the lower nasal temperature helps the kangaroo rat to survive in hot, dry conditions. 1. dry air (inhaled) causes evaporation from nasal passages / or converse; 2. cooling due to evaporation; 3. blood is cooled; 4. (cool blood) flows from nose to brain / cools brain / keeps brain at const. temp.; 5. allows activity (e.g. foraging for food / escaping predators / not restricted to staying in humid burrow (in hot conditions); 6. air with high water vapour content leaves lungs / is exhaled; 7. water condenses in nasal passages; 8. due to lower temperature; 9. water can be reabsorbed (into blood) / swallowed / water conservation / less water loss; The loops of Henle in the kangaroo rats kidneys are very long and the animal produces highly concentrated urine in small quantities. Explain the part played by each of the following in the production of highly concentrated urine. The long loops of Henle, 1. Reabsorption of Cl. ions / NaCl / salt ; allow Na+ 2. By active transport; 3. From (thick) ascending limb; 4. Decreased . in surrounding tissue fluid; Allow tissue fluid hypertonic 5. Water reabsorbed from (thin) descending limb / from collecting duct; 6. By osmosis / diffusion; 7. Increased concentration of ions / Na+ / Cl. / salt towards bend in loop of Henle

deep in medulla; 8. Increase in concentration of ions proportional to length of loop of Henle; 9. (The longer the loop of Henle) the more water is reabsorbed; Antidiuretic hormone. o ADH acts on collecting duct / distal convoluted tubule; o causes insertion of aquaporins (/ described) in cell membranes / o makes (cell surface membranes) more permeable to water; o increases reabsorption of water; In which part of the brain is the cardiovascular centre located? o medulla Describe how an impulse reaches the base of the ventricles of the heart from the sinoatrial node. o it spreads through the atria / right atrium / through cardiac muscle; o to the atrioventricular node; o then through conduction fibres / bundle of His /Purkyne fibres); Describe what is meant by negative feedback. o where a change triggers a response which reduces the effect of a change; Water is removed from the body via the kidneys. Give two other ways in which water is removed from the body. o sweating, breathing Name the part of the brain which acts as the coordinator in the control of water balance. o hypothalamus Explain how ADH increases the movement of water from the lumen of the collecting duct into the blood. o ADH causes vesicles containing aquaporins / aquaporins to be inserted into membrane / collecting duct wall/plasma; o water enters cell through aquaporins; o by osmosis / diffusion / down a water potential gradient; o (from cell) to capillary; o via interstitial fluid; What would be the most obvious symptom of diabetes insipidus? o excessive urination / drinking / diluted urine / thirst; Name one target organ for the action of insulin in controlling blood glucose concentration. Liver Effect: glucose glycogen Explain how the fall in body temperature to that of the environment helps the echidna to survive the winter. o Reduced rate of respiration / metabolism / chemical reactions; o Energy conservation / less energy lost / less heat lost / conservation of stored fat /glycogen / food; Explain how a higher body temperature is of benefit to an active echidna.

Optimum / fast / increased / temperature for enzymes / metabolism / chemical reactions / respiration; Optimum energy release for movement / faster movement / independent of environmental temperature o Explain how haemoglobin acts as a buffer. o Hb combines with H+ ions / releases H+ ions; Describe how urea is removed from the blood. o hydrostatic pressure / description of pressure; o causes ultrafiltration at Bowmans capsule/glomeruli/renal capsule; o through basement membrane; o enabled by small size of urea molecule; Explain how urea is concentrated in the filtrate. o reabsorption of water; [water out] o by osmosis; o at the PCT / descending LoH; o at the DCT / CD; o active transport of ions/glucose creates gradient (in context); Increased muscle activity increases the amount of oxygen released from a red blood cell during exercise. Using information in the diagram, explain how. (Increased) respiration produces (more) CO2; Increased H+ ion concentration (in RBC); (H+ ions) cause more O2 to be released from Hb / HbO2 dissociates more readily / Hb affinity for O2 is reduced; Use of O2 by muscle lowers O2 concentration so more rapid diffusion of O2 from RBC / more dissociation of HbO2; Suggest an explanation for the changes in the proportions of ammonia and urea excreted. (Frog and tadpole) Change from aquatic to terrestrial environment/ eq.; Loses water more easily on land/ need to conserve water on land/ eq.; Excretes continuously in water/ periodically on land/eq.; Must store excretory product on land/ no need to in water; Ammonia is more toxic than urea/ reverse; Ammonia is more soluble than urea; Ammonia is converted to urea on land/ conversion to urea not necessary in water; Explain what causes the activity of reptiles living in a desert to vary greatly over a twentyfour hour period. Reptiles are ectotherms; [Reject: cold blooded] Body temperature varies with that of environment; Temperature of desert fluctuates greatly over 24 hours; Metabolic reactions controlled by enzymes; Enzyme activity/ metabolic rate changes with body temperature; Speed of bodily actions dependent on metabolic rate/ enzyme activity; Reptiles seek shade/ water when hot/ reduce contact with hot surface; Seek sun when cool; Synoptic stuff in unit 6

A recessive allele which has harmful effects is able to reach a higher frequency in a population than a harmful dominant allele. Explain how. o recessive alleles can be carried by individuals without showing effects/ dominant allele always expressed; o organism that are carriers more likely to reproduce/affected organism less likely to reproduce; o therefore recessive alleles are more likely to be passed on/dominant alleles less likely to be passed on; Explain why increased cardiac output is an advantage during exercise. o In exercise . More energy release / more respiration / actively respiring muscles / for aerobic respiration; o Higher cardiac output . Increases O2 supply (to muscles); o Increases glucose supply (to muscles); o Increases CO2 removal (from muscles) / lactate removal; o Increases heat removal (from muscles) / for cooling; Increased muscle activity increases the amount of oxygen released from a red blood cell during exercise. Using information in the diagram, explain how. (Increased) respiration produces (more) CO2; Increased H+ ion concentration (in RBC); (H+ ions) cause more O2 to be released from Hb / HbO2 dissociates more readily / Hb affinity for O2 is reduced; Use of O2 by muscle lowers O2 concentration so more rapid diffusion of O2 from RBC / more dissociation of HbO2; Maths stuff When comparing variation in size between two groups of organisms, it is often considered more useful to compare standard deviations rather than ranges. Explain why. o Range influenced by single .outlier. (accept anomaly) / converse for S.D.; o S.D. shows dispersion/spread about mean; o Range only shows highest and lowest values/extremes; o S.D. allows statistical use; o Tests whether or not differences are significant; What calculation would have to be made to find the productivity of the phytoplankton? Increase in biomass/ time The increase in the index of diversity is one indication that a biological succession is taking place in the area. Describe those features of a succession that would bring about an increase in the index of diversity. Initial environment hostile / few organisms adapted; These organisms change the environment / suitable example; More niches / more habitats; Allowing other organisms to become established; Use the data about the length of leaves in the two sites to explain why standard deviation is more useful than range as a measure of variation within a population. Definition of range + SD / effect of outliers on range + SD; Ranges are similar in both areas; Suggests that variation within populations is similar; SD smaller in area of high light intensity; Shows that area of high light intensity is a more uniform population;

What other statistic could be calculated from the standard deviation that would give an indication of how the mean leaf length might vary in other samples from the same population of nettles? Standard error (of the mean); Explain how you would find out whether the value obtained for 2 indicates that the null hypothesis should be accepted or rejected. Correct reference to three degrees of freedom; 0.05 probability level / p = 0.05; .2 exceeds critical/table value . results differ significantly from expected; .2 less than/equal to critical/table value . differences due to chance; .2> critical value: reject H0 / .2 < critical value: accept H0;