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CONSTITUENTS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY

The Constituents of the tourism industry are varied ranging from small scale businesses operating at local levels to multinationals. For e.g.: a fast food counter at an airport is a component of tourism industry, as is an airline or a hotel for it has its own serving purpose for the tourist. More over these different components are closely linked to each other. This linkage is there inspite of the competition within one set of constituents. PRIMARY / MAJOR CONSTITUENTS These are the essential constituents. 1. Transport: a travel agent or a tour operator should be in a position to suggest a mode of transport to his client. Further, the travel depends on the availability of seats. Today, the travel industry with its various branches in the areas of road, rail, air & water. 2. Accommodation: a tourist not only travels but also stays somewhere. And here comes in accommodation. It could be of different type i.e. from cottages or tourist lodges to a house boat or a five star hotel. 3. Catering, food & entertainment: food being a basic necessity the role of catering & food comes into focus. Restaurants fast food joints & dhabas all play roles in this regard with different cuisine to offer. 4. Intermediaries: the intermediaries constitute the travel agency, tour operator & guide services. All the components of tourism are co-related by the travel agents /tour operator who has accumulated knowledge, expertise & contacts with providers of services. He is a useful & invaluable intermediary between the traveler & the suppliers of the tourist services i.e. airlines, transport companies, hotels etc. The guide services play a vital role in tourism as a tourist feels comfortable when the essence of culture is explained especially when it is done in his own language. 5. Government departments / tourist information centers / tourist organizations: many national & international organizations related to tourism form part of the tourism industry. SECONDARY CONSTITUENTS Today there are a variety of services (formal & non formal) that constitute the tourism mix or are directly & indirectly related to tourism. For e.g.: banks dont come under the tourism industry but they cater to tourist through travelers cheque or credit cards. Similarly, insurance companies offer short term safety or accident policies to tourist. Following are such constituents: 1. Shops & entertainment. 2. Handicrafts & souvenirs. 3. Local taxi / transportation. 4. Hawkers & coolies. 5. Communication services at the destination. 6. Advertisement agencies. 7. Publishing industry which publishes travel guides, brochures, magazines, postcards etc. 8. Artists, performers, musicians who entertain the tourist.

ATTRACTION, ACCESSIBILITY, ACCOMODATIONS, AMENITIES, ATTRACTIONS AND AFFORDIBILITY:ATTRACTION: A tourist can be attracted to various places which could be based on either of the following: a) Cultural: historical buildings, monuments, sites & areas of archaeological interest, religious institutions. b) Traditions: national festivals, arts & handicrafts, music, folklore. c) Scenic: national parks wildlife, flora & fauna, beach resorts & mountain resorts. d) Entertainment: amusement & recreation parks, cuisine, oceanariums, cinemas & theaters. e) Other attractions: climate, health, resort & spas. ACCESSIBILITY: It is a very crucial factor as it is a means by which a tourist can reach there where attractions of whatever type would be of little importance if their locations are inaccessible by the normal means of transport. The distance factor also plays an important role in determining a tourists choice of the destination. Longer distances cost much in the way of expression travel as compared to a shorter distance. AMENITIES: Facilities are a necessary aid to the tourist center. For a seaside resort, facilities like swimming, boating, yachting, surf riding & such other facilities like dancing recreation & amusements are important for every tourist center. Amenities are of two types: Natural: beaches, sea bathing, trekking, rowing etc. Manmade: entertainment facilities which cater to the special needs of the tourist. ACCOMODATIONS: This term is used to cover food & lodging. Accommodation is very basic to any tourist destination. Accommodation may in itself be important tourist attractions. ACTIVITIES: It more or less covers some facets mentioned in Amenities especially those mentioned under natural amenities e.g. trekking, beaches, water sports, , fishing , nature trails etc. AFFODABILITY: Very important to attract tourist to destinations. Tourists should be able to afford the trip in terms of transport costs, accommodation charges, entrance fees at attractions and the number of days, which need to be spent for travel and stay i.e. they should be able to afford the holidays in terms of time and money. Tour operators prepare package tours keeping affordability in mind.