Sie sind auf Seite 1von 67

WE ARE ONE

Students Guide to

I AM A COMMUNITY ORGANIZER
Methods of
Community
Organization

Compiled by

S.Rengasamy

See also the related materials on page no.5


S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

ொக்க௏ிடம் ப௉ோகவும்
Go to the People அ௑ர்களுடன் ௑ோௐவும்
Live among them அ௑ர்கள௏ பேசிக்கவும்
Lao Tsu அ௑ர்க௏ிடொிருந்து
Love them கற்றுக்ககோள்௏வும்

Learn from them அ௑ர்கள் இருக்குொிடதி௎ிருந்து,


அ௑ர்கள் ேிள௎ோி௎ிருந்து
Start from where they are ஆௌம்௉ிக்கவும்
அ௑ர்களுடன் ப௑ள௎ கசய்ோவும்
Work with them
அ௑ர்க௏ிடம் இருப்௉ளத ள௑த்பத
Build on what they have. கட்டளொக்கவும்
ஒரு ேல்௎ தள௎௑ன்
But of the best leaders,
இருக்குொிடத்தில்
When the task is accomplished, சோதளை முடிந்த௉ின்
ப௑ள௎ முடிந்த௉ி்கு
The work completed, ொைிதர் எல்ப௎ோரும் கசோல்௑ோர்
The people all remark: இளத ேோங்கப௏ கசய்து
ககோண்படோகொன்று
"We have done it ourselves"

2
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Contents
Fact Finding -What are the facts to be collected –Model I .................................................................................. 12
Types of Community Need & its Identification ............................................................................................... 12
Analyzing Community Problems - Model I ......................................................................................................... 13
What is analyzing community problems all about? ......................................................................................... 13
Why should analyze a community problem? .................................................................................................. 13
When should analyze a community problem? ................................................................................................ 13
How should analyze a community problem?.................................................................................................. 13
Dia: Steps to analyze a community problem ................................................................................................. 14
Analysis helps to find out an effective solution. ............................................................................................. 14
Analyzing the facts / Problem identification –Model II .................................................................................... 14
What is the problem? ................................................................................................................................. 14
Where does the problem exist? ................................................................................................................... 14
Who is affected by the problem? ................................................................................................................. 14
Why the problem occurred? ........................................................................................................................ 14
To what extent the problem is felt? ............................................................................................................. 14
What are the facts to be collected –Model II ..................................................................................................... 15
Information requirement to understand a community ........................................................................................ 15
1.Basic community characteristics ................................................................................................................ 15
2.How the community functions to meet its needs ........................................................................................ 15
3. Unmet needs ......................................................................................................................................... 15
4. Community resources ............................................................................................................................. 15
5. Capacity for disposition towards purposeful change ................................................................................... 15
1. Basic community characteristics ................................................................................................................... 16
Population ................................................................................................................................................. 16
How the community functions? ........................................................................................................................ 16
2.1. Physical needs ......................................................................................................................................... 16
2.2. Social and emotional needs ....................................................................................................................... 16
2.3. Political needs ......................................................................................................................................... 16
2.4. Economic needs ....................................................................................................................................... 16
2.5. Educational and communication needs ....................................................................................................... 16
3. Assessing the community‘s unmet needs ...................................................................................................... 16
4. Community resources.................................................................................................................................. 17
5. Capacity for change and disposition to change .............................................................................................. 17
How to find out what we need to know? ........................................................................................................... 17
Look for organizations that do at least one of the following things ...................................................................... 17
Guided personal discussions ............................................................................................................................ 18
Focus groups ................................................................................................................................................. 18
Surveys and questionnaires ............................................................................................................................. 18
Collecting list ................................................................................................................................................. 18
A check list that can be used to facilitate discussion to study/ understand a community ........................................ 18
Phases/ Methods /Outcome of Community Organization..................................................................................... 19
Understanding the Community by Understanding the Local Business ................................................................... 20
Community Business Survey ............................................................................................................................ 20
Understanding the Community by Understanding the Local Business ................................................................... 20
Collection of self explanatory diagrams on Steps /Stages in Community Organization ........................................... 21
Stages & Steps in Community Organization .................................................................................................. 22
Stages in Guiding / Organizing Communities ................................................................................................. 23
Some self explanatory diagrams on Problem Solving Process.......................................................................... 24
Phases in community organization learning................................................................................................... 25
Diagrams of Phases / Steps / Stages in Community Organization .................................................................... 26
Tools that can be used at different stages and for different purposes .............................................................. 27
PRA tools for many purposes – to understand and organize the communities .................................................. 28
Diagram: Problem Analysis Model ................................................................................................................ 30
Diagrams: Models - Steps / Stages in Community Organization ...................................................................... 31
Comprehensive list of Community Organization / Engagement Tools ................................................................... 32
Levels of Community Engagement Its Objectives, Outcomes & Techniques used.............................................. 33

3
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Description of Tools.................................................................................................................................... 34
Methods of Group Decision Making and Co-Operative Action .............................................................................. 39
Groups in the context of Community Organization ............................................................................................. 39
Synopsis ........................................................................................................................................................ 39
Meaning of a Group: .................................................................................................................................. 40
Meaning of Decision Making ........................................................................................................................ 40
Meaning of Group Decision Making: ............................................................................................................. 40
Understanding the Groups ............................................................................................................................... 41
Stages in the development of a group. ............................................................................................................. 41
Napier and Gershenfled................................................................................................................................... 41
Forming Stage................................................................................................................................................ 41
Beginning Stage ............................................................................................................................................. 41
Storming Stage .............................................................................................................................................. 41
Movement toward Confrontation Stage ............................................................................................................. 41
Compromise and Harmony Stage ..................................................................................................................... 41
Performing Stage ........................................................................................................................................... 41
Reassessment Stage ....................................................................................................................................... 41
Adjourning Stage ............................................................................................................................................ 41
Resolution and recycling stage ......................................................................................................................... 41
Task Roles and Relationship Roles of a Group: .................................................................................................. 41
Structure of the Groups................................................................................................................................... 42
Pairs are useful for ......................................................................................................................................... 42
Group Decision Making ................................................................................................................................... 43
Involvement / Types of decision making ........................................................................................................... 44
Difficulties in decision-making: ......................................................................................................................... 45
Fear of Consequences: ............................................................................................................................... 45
Conflicting Loyalties: .................................................................................................................................. 45
Interpersonal Conflict: ................................................................................................................................ 45
Hidden agenda: ......................................................................................................................................... 45
Blundering Methods: .................................................................................................................................. 45
Inadequate Leadership: .............................................................................................................................. 46
Clash of Interest: ....................................................................................................................................... 46
Factors, which help in making good decisions: .................................................................................................. 46
Advantages & Disadvantages in group decision- making .................................................................................... 46
Different methods of group decision-making ..................................................................................................... 46
Meeting Practice: ............................................................................................................................................ 47
Merits and demerits of parliamentary procedure ................................................................................................ 47
Conference .................................................................................................................................................... 47
Characteristics: .............................................................................................................................................. 47
Committee Practice ......................................................................................................................................... 48
Characteristics of a Committee: ....................................................................................................................... 48
Functions of a Committee................................................................................................................................ 48
Guidelines for Organizing Committees .............................................................................................................. 48
Organization of a committee: .......................................................................................................................... 49
Chairman .................................................................................................................................................. 49
Members ................................................................................................................................................... 49
Committee Aide (Staff Assistance to committee) ........................................................................................... 49
Committee Procedures: ................................................................................................................................... 49
Agenda : ................................................................................................................................................... 49
Loophole Agenda & Hidden Agenda ............................................................................................................. 50
Minutes ..................................................................................................................................................... 50
Conflict and conflict Resolution in Community Organization ................................................................................ 51
Conflict- Meaning ........................................................................................................................................... 51
Competition Vs Conflict ................................................................................................................................... 52
Box: Community Conflict ................................................................................................................................. 52
Levels of Conflict ........................................................................................................................................ 52
Types of conflict......................................................................................................................................... 52
Economic Conflict:...................................................................................................................................... 52
Power Conflict: .......................................................................................................................................... 53

4
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Value Conflict: ........................................................................................................................................... 53


Other types of conflict: ............................................................................................................................... 53
Personality clashes: .................................................................................................................................... 53
Escalation of Conflict: ................................................................................................................................. 53
Table: Strengths and Limitations of various Approaches to Conflict Management .................................................. 54
Methods of Conflict Resolution: ........................................................................................................................ 54
Approaches to managing conflict: .................................................................................................................... 54
Two-dimensional model of conflict management: .............................................................................................. 54
Box: Levels of Conflict..................................................................................................................................... 55
Conflict Resolution Terminologies Defined......................................................................................................... 56
Box: Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management ......................................................................... 57
Strategies of Community Organization .............................................................................................................. 58
Methods of Conflict Resolution ......................................................................................................................... 58
Table: Four approaches in conflict resolution .................................................................................................... 58
The major elements we need to understand before deciding a strategy ............................................................... 59
NEGOTIATION ............................................................................................................................................... 59
1. Supporting Survival Needs ................................................................................................................... 60
2. Demonstrating public support and sympathy: ........................................................................................ 60
4. Conducting Behind – The Scenes Discussions ....................................................................................... 60
5. Targeting pressure points:................................................................................................................... 60
6. Threatening: ...................................................................................................................................... 61
7. Waging campaigns against persons or institutions: ................................................................................ 61
Skills ............................................................................................................................................................. 61
Community Organizing Skills............................................................................................................................ 62
Community Organizing Skills............................................................................................................................ 62
I. Organizing and Planning Skills .................................................................................................................. 62
Leadership Skills for Community Organizers ...................................................................................................... 63
Skills for community Organizers ....................................................................................................................... 65
Information literacy .................................................................................................................................... 65
Research and inquiry .................................................................................................................................. 65
Ethical, social and professional understanding............................................................................................... 65
Communication and interpersonal ................................................................................................................ 65
Personal & intellectual ................................................................................................................................ 65
Autonomy ................................................................................................................................................. 65

5
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Well Run Well Connected

Governance Transport &


Connectivity
Active
Inclusive & Well
Safe Served
Social & Service
Cultural

Geographical
Community
Housing & Entertainment
Built
Well Environment
designed & Environmentally
built Sensitive

Economy Equity

Thriving Fair for


everyone

6
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Unit III -Syllabus


Phases in community organization. Study, Analysis, Assessment, Decision Making, Organization, Action,
Evaluation, Modification and Continuation. Tools and techniques used in various phases. Methods of negotiation
and conflict resolution. Skills required to handle the community organization methods.

Phases in Community Organization


Phase/Steps/Stages are interrelated terminologies. These terms has been used informally. It
means a distinct time period in a sequence of events; a short unit of time, or an episode of
development or change, usually within the context of a longer period.
Study:
Application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or reflection:
Any personal effort to gain knowledge: to understand community; Something studied or to be
studied: research or a detailed examination and analysis of a subject, phenomenon, etc.
Analysis
Analysis (from Greek "a breaking up") is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into
smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it.
Assessment
Classification of someone or something with respect to its worth; appraisal; the act of judging or
assessing a person or situation or event; judgment
Decision Making
The act of making up our mind about something, or a position or opinion or judgment reached after
consideration. Decision making means selecting the best course of action from two or more
alternatives
And when people ordinarily consider their own definition of decision making, it is typical that they
consider that somehow it is a thinking process, with lots of mental activity involved in choosing
between alternatives. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered,
and in such a case we want not only to identify as many of these alternatives as possible but to
choose the one that (1) has the highest probability of success or effectiveness and (2) best fits with
our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, and so on.
Decision making is the process of sufficiently reducing uncertainty and doubt about alternatives to
allow a reasonable choice to be made from among them. This definition stresses the information-
gathering function of decision making. It should be noted here that uncertainty is reduced rather than
eliminated. Very few decisions are made with absolute certainty because complete knowledge about
all the alternatives is seldom possible.
Every decision involves a certain amount of risk. But this doesn't include the way some people make
decisions for example You may have heard people saying I have a gut feeling; I know in my heart: I
feel it in my bones
Organization
Orderly arrangement of group effort; An organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective
goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its
environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word (organon) meaning tool. The term is
used in both daily and scientific English in multiple ways.
Action
A process or condition of acting or moving, as opposed to rest; the doing of something; exertion of
power or force, as when one body acts on another; the effect of power exerted on one body by
another; agency; activity; operation; as, the action of heat; a man of action.
Modification
Partial or slight change in form; product of such a change; slight reduction; moderation;

7
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Phase/Steps/Stages are interrelated terminologies. These terms has been used


informally. It means a distinct time period in a sequence of events; a short unit of time, or
an episode of development or change, usually within the context of a longer period

The following diagram explains how Steps /Stages There are many ways to
are used as logical sequences to guide our actions in present the steps / stages
our planned efforts visually –Circular, Ladder
staircase, milestones etc

Community Organization Related Learning Material Compiled by


S.Rengasamy
http://www.scribd.com/doc/11787871/Introduction-to-Community-Organization
http://www.scribd.com/doc/13086532/Introduction-to-Community-Organization-
Phases-and-Methods-
http://www.scribd.com/doc/13988043/Role-of-a-Community-Organizer
http://www.scribd.com/doc/13287799/Understanding-Social-Action
http://www.scribd.com/doc/13828772/Advocacy-Lobbying
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24264150/Understanding-Public-Participation

8
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Arthur Dunham’s Classification of CO Methods


1. Methods of Planning and Related Activities
1. Fact finding 2. Analysis 3. Evaluation 4. Planning
2. Methods of Group Decision Making and Co-operative Action:
5. Meeting practice 6. Conference 7. Committee practice 8. Negotiation
9. Organization including Mass organization
3. Methods of Communication:
10. Education 11. Consultation 12. Public Relations
13. Formal written Communication 14. Formal oral communication 15. The interview
4. Methods of Promotion and Social Action:
16. Promotion 17. Legislative promotion 18. Non Legislative procedural social action
19. Direct action 20. Exerting or invoking authoritative Action
5. Methods of Financing and Fund Raising:
21. Fund procurement by governmental agencies
22. Fund raising by voluntary agencies 23. Federated financial campaigning
24. Joint budgeting
6. Methods of Administration:
25. Administrative activities of agencies concerned with social planning.
26. Administration of common services or community organization
27. Recording.

Some Popular Trends in Community Organization

Participatory
Action Research

9
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Study:
Understanding the

Application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or


reflection: Any personal effort to gain knowledge: to understand community; something
Community

studied or to be studied: research or a detailed examination and analysis of a subject,


phenomenon, etc.
Analysis
Analysis (from Greek "a breaking up") is the process of breaking a complex topic or
substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it.
Assessment
Classification of someone or something with respect to its worth; appraisal; the act of
judging or assessing a person or situation or event; judgment
This phase is generally understood as project implementation phase

Decision Making
The act of making up our mind about something, or a position or opinion or judgment
reached after consideration. Decision making means selecting the best course of action
from two or more alternatives
Deciding to work based on our understanding

And when people ordinarily consider their own definition of decision making, it is typical that
they consider that somehow it is a thinking process, with lots of mental activity involved in
choosing between alternatives. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices
to be considered, and in such a case we want not only to identify as many of these
alternatives as possible but to choose the one that (1) has the highest probability of success
or effectiveness and (2) best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, and so on.
Decision making is the process of sufficiently reducing uncertainty and doubt about
alternatives to allow a reasonable choice to be made from among them. This def inition
stresses the information-gathering function of decision making. It should be noted here that
uncertainty is reduced rather than eliminated. Very few decisions are made with absolute
certainty because complete knowledge about all the alternatives is seldom possible.
Every decision involves a certain amount of risk. But this doesn't include the way some
people make decisions for example You may have heard people saying I have a gut feeling;
I know in my heart: I feel it in my bones
Organization
Orderly arrangement of group effort; An organization is a social arrangement which pursues
collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating
it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word (organon) meaning
tool. The term is used in both daily and scientific English in multiple ways.
Action
A process or condition of acting or moving, as opposed to rest; the doing of something;
exertion of power or force, as when one body acts on another; the effect of power exerted
on one body by another; agency; activity; operation; a man of action.

Evaluation/ Modification /Replication


Evaluating one‘s action and based on that learning partial or slight change of our actions;
product of such a change; slight reduction; moderation; further improving our approach.
Replication means broadening our learning /actions if it is correct

10
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

The first step in organizing the community is to understand it. Understanding the community
involves certain tasks. These tasks are variously outlined as Fact finding, Need assessment,
Problem identification depending upon the objectives of intervention

Fact- finding
Fact-finding includes activities designed to aid the discovery, ascertainment, assembling,
compilation and recording of facts.
Most community problems are sustained by a wide variety of factors, and some are more
influential than others. The challenge is to locate the major factors that have an effect on the
problem requiring correction. To meet this challenge effectively, it is essential to gather relevant
facts regarding the background of the problem.
In gathering information on the problem, the Community Organizer may be faced with two
difficulties: obtaining too much information that may prove to be irrelevant; identifying too little
information from normal sources. Good judgment must be used to distinguish noise
(meaningless data) from information that helps in analyzing a problem. Similarly when
information is not easily available, concerned individuals may be required to use ingenuity,
functioning like good investigative reporter by checking out leads. With the advice of the
knowledgeable researchers, special studies may need to be conducted as part of the fact-finding
process.
Why we need Community Organization
http://www.vcn.bc.ca/citizens-handbook/
Following are the techniques We need more active citizens and CO is the way to do it
normally adopted for fact finding. A way of tackling large public issues
Documentation (Recording / Community Organization - A way of solving local problems
Compilation of information), Community Organization - A way of improving liveability
Formal Hearing (to find out how Community Organization - A bridge to strong democracy
representative citizens think on a Community Organization is a recognized route to better health
Community Organization is a way of rekindling community
particular issue or proposal), Action
Research (Research combined with
some other type of action programs), Demonstration projects (to find out whether a certain
program will work or how effective a particular type of program) and keeping abreast of new
developments and new information in regard to certain subjects

Need assessment / Problem identification – a crucial first step in program development – is a


systematic verification of the existence, prevalence, location, and importance of a social problem
as it is expressed in needs for service.

Problem identification: Social programs are developed to address social problems. Obviously
community organizers have to study and document the existence of the social problem before
developing a program

11
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Fact Finding -What are the facts to be collected –Model I

What are the facts to be collected?


1. External conditions and factors
Levels of socio-economic development and its relationship to the area Location advantages Govt
policies & Programs
2. Characteristics of the area
Land resources –Soil & Water Human Resources Quantitative---Age, Sex, Religion, Education, Literacy
3. Social & Institutional Structure
Familial Corporate Units (Families-House) Associational Corporate Units (Caste) Territorial Corporate
Units (Panchayat Raj, Categoric Units (Religion)
4. Delivery System For Social & Economic Services
Economic i.e. Extension, Credit, Marketing Education, Health, Family Planning, Nutrition
5. Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Marketing
Road, Electricity, Irrigation, Telecommunication

Types of Community Need & its Identification Principles of Organizing


Normative Need: Experienced organizers know that the
It means a desirable standard---if the individual or process of organizing is seldom "tidy"
community falls short of this desirable standard then they — it doesn't always happen in neat,
are being in need. Middle class standard ---’A’ is in need predictable steps. It can be thought
of ‘B’ and ‘B’ is incompatible with the values held in of as a process guided by principles
that repeat in a cyclic, rather than
society ’C’ and therefore ‘B’ should be changed.
linear, way:
Felt Need:
Equated with wants---Felt need is limited by the
perception of the people. People may ask for help
without really needing it. Exaggerate it or inflate it.
Comparative Need:
Relative Need--- this need can be assessed by studying
the characteristics of the people who are receiving a
particular service. Community ‘A’ is in receipt of
service, because it has the similar characteristics of ‘AB’;
Community ‘B’ also has similar characteristics, but not
in receipt of that service. So Community ‘B’ is in need.
Expressed Need:
Expressed need is demanded.
E.g. Phone Facilities: USA-450 per1000; Europe-380 per
1000; Singapore-100 per 1000(?); INDIA-- 4 per 1000 (?) (Highest number indicate normative
condition)
Comparative Need My neighbor has a phone.
Felt Need I am willing to be wait listed
Expressed Need I paid deposit for getting phone connection

12
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Analyzing Community Problems - Model I Analysis:


There's no official definition of a community problem; but Analysis is the application of the
the criteria below should give you a start. six basic analytical questions i.e.
The problem occurs frequently. (Frequency) what, whom, where, when, why
The problem has lasted for a while. (Duration) and how?
The problem affects many people. (Scope or range) What is the problem?
The problem is disturbing, and possibly intense. (Severity) Where does it exist?
(It disrupts personal or community life.) Who is affected by it?
The problem deprives people of legal or moral rights. When does it occur?
(legality) What degree it is felt?
The problem is perceived as a problem. (Perception Analysis lies midway between fact
What is analyzing community problems all about? finding and planning. It involves
In a nutshel, analyzing community problems is a way of collection of data, exploring the content
thinking carefully about a problem or issue before acting on of the data, breaking up the content or
a solution. It first involves looking for possible reasons problem, examining the inter
behind a problem, and checking out whether those reasons relationships between the
are true. Then (and only then) does it involve identifying constituencies. The purpose of analysis
possible solutions, and implementing the best ones. is to gain insight, and understanding.
The techniques for analyzing community problems are easy Planning can scarcely exist without
to state. They require simple logic, and sometimes the analysis. A sound plan normally implies
collection of evidence. But sometimes these techniques that the planner has the facts and that
elude us in practice. the facts and the problem have been
analyzed as a basis for the formulation
Why should analyze a community problem? of the plan.
* To better identify what the problem or issue
* To understand what is at the heart of a problem....
* To determine the barriers and resources associated with addressing the problem .
* To develop the best action steps for addressing the problem.
When should analyze a community problem?
Always. At least, almost always.
Every community problem should benefit from analysis. The only possible exception is when the problem
is an immediate crisis that requires action this very moment. And even then, analysis should help later.
However, there are conditions when analysis is especially important. And these are:
1. When the community problem is not defined very clearly
2. When little is known about the community problem, or its possible consequences
3. When you want to find causes that may improve the chance of successfully addressing the problem
4. When people are jumping to solutions much too soon
5. When you need to identify actions to address the problem, and learn what persons or groups could
best collaborate in taking action.
How should analyze a community problem?
And of course, that is the heart of this section.
The answer is there's no one way to do it. There are many ways to understand the problem better
and to deal with it more effectively. These are the goals of any problem analysis. So the method you
choose should accomplish those goals for you
Steps to analyze a community problem
1. State the problem, in general terms 2. Give specific examples of the problem
3. Think of reasons for the problem 4. Find the most probable reason
5. Identify solutions 6. Choose the best one
7. Implement the solution 8. Evaluate the solution

13
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Dia: Steps to analyze a community problem


State the problem. Give some examples.
1 2
The room is dark. When I turn on the light switch, nothing happens.
.
Think of reasons. Find the most probable
3 (a) I might have blown a fuse. reason.
(b) The switch could be defective. 4 The fuse isn't blown.
(c) The light bulb might have blown. The switch is new.
The bulb is old.
Identify solutions. So it's probably the bulb
5 (a) Replace the fuse.
(b) Replace the switch. Choose the best one.
(c) Replace the bulb. . 6 I'll try changing the bulb; it's simplest and
cheapest. (If the bulb has really blown, that's
probably the only solution there is.)
Implement it.
7 I can change a bulb with
the best of them 8 Evaluate it.
Good. I've got some light now

Community problems, it is true, are generally more complicated than changing light bulbs. But the same
type of analysis can apply to them as well, frequently with similarly -successful results.
Analysis helps to find out an effective solution.
How did you find the most probable reason? A likely answer is that you did some checking around. You
collected some facts about events in the past, and related those facts to the accident patterns now. In
other words, you collected some evidence. And then you used logic. In other words:
Analysis of community problems involves collecting evidence, and using logic to interpret
that evidence.

Analyzing the facts / Problem identification –Model II

What is the problem? Deteriorating Public Health


Where does the problem exist? In the sanitary division No. 36 of Madurai Corporation
Who is affected by the problem? More than 5000 families residing in the 36 division
{geographic} area
When does the problem occur? For the last two years.
Why the problem occurred? Poor drainage facilities; increase in the wastewater
cover.
To what extent the problem is 35% of the patients who attended the local
felt? Medical practitioners are affected by malarial fever
Problem statement: In the past two years, the incidence of malarial fever increased 35% in
the sanitary division No.36 Madurai Corporation. 5000 families are affected due to this public
health deterioration.

Community Survey:
The term survey derived from two words i.e. “SUR” („to see a particular thing) and VOR”
(From a high place) ―Community Survey is a method by which quantitative facts are collected
about the social aspect of a community’s position and activities.

14
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

By survey method the Community Organizer can assess existing services and resources in an
area of need as well as gaps in service. Surveying both service agencies and community
residents, asking them how they perceive their unmet needs can identify potential demand for
service.
Steps in Community Survey:
 Planning the survey
 Executing the survey
What's a community?
 In the physical world, communities are typically groups of people (a village, town) held together by
some common identity or interest. The same holds true for virtual or online communities in that
they, too, are comprised of people with shared identity or interests coming together for a shared
purpose.
 This shared interest or intent offers a strong forum for members of the community to build
relationships and affiliations out of which they can learn from one another and make an impact on
the society or culture around them.
 Coming from two Latin words meaning "with gifts," the term community suggests a general sense of
altruism, reciprocity, and beneficence that comes from working together. Communities help generate
a shared language, rituals and customers, and collective memory of those that join the group.
Encyclopedia Americana defines a community as, "A relatively small, isolated center with a stable
population, in which all economic and social services necessary to life can be maintained. The
community is one of the oldest forms on human social organizations... The ideal type of community
emerges as an intellectual concept when social change threatens to destroy a locality's isolation,
traditionalism, and solidarity.... [This] leads to a newer form -- including occupational and professional
groups, neighborhood groups, and ethnic and political groups -- becomes the functional equivalents of
the older, ecological, isolated community and they make it possible for their members to avoid the
problems of a multidimensional mass society. Their members can find a focus for their social relations,
loyalties, and interests."

What are the facts to be collected –Model II


Information requirement to understand a community
1. Basic community characteristics
[Physical features and population particulars]
2. How the community functions to meet its needs
[Physical needs /Social and Emotional needs / Political needs / Economic needs / Educational
and communication needs]
3. Unmet needs
4. Community resources
[Natural/Tangible human made things / Systems of serving people / Social relationships/Major
institutions / Financial service /Human values / Skills and talents / Knowledge availability e
5. Capacity for disposition towards purposeful change

15
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

1. Basic community characteristics


Size [small or big] * Common places * Landmarks * Look [dirty or clean] * Natural features
Population
Understanding a Community’s
Number*Demographic break down [male female /married / Agriculture
unmarried/old/young/] * Population density * Nature of Agriculture‘s Role in the
families [joint/nuclear/male and female headed/family Community
members] 1. Environmental Role
How the community functions? 2. Economic Role
[Function means community attempt to meet its needs] 3. Cultural Role
2.1. Physical needs Laws that Protect Agriculture
Access to adequate needs * Affordable medical care * Understanding Specific Aspects of
Farming
Adequate and safe transport system * Adequate waste and 1. Timeliness and Seasonality of
drainage system * Clean environment * Routine Farming Practices
maintenance 2. Manure Management
2.2. Social and emotional needs 3. Odors and Noise
Safety and security * Pride in the community * Confident 4. Use of Roads
of their own and others abilities * Caring by others * 5. Use of Pesticides
6. Animals in Pastures
Groupings * Handling of deviants 7. Changing nature of farming
2.3. Political needs
Ability to work together * Participation in decision-making
* Formal/Informal process of making community decisions * Formal government structures and
leadership positions
* Recognizing community problems * Dominants [vocal] and passive [silent]
* Basis of community power * Carrying out decisions
2.4. Economic needs
Access to goods and services * Income and occupational levels * Opportunities available
[plenty/limited] * Earnings [inside/outside] * Production centers * Forces which influence
economic health
2.5. Educational and communication needs
Ways of learning about the things happening in the community /world * How people decide
about what is true? * Whom they listen and their credibility? * Schools and training programs *
Formal provider of news-their philosophical and editorial basis
Informal methods of providing news * Interest in communicating with one another
3. Assessing the community‟s unmet needs
When a community cannot meet its goals or sustain it self, the community has unmet needs
Needs are often undiscovered, undeclared or considered unimportant by those who could do
something about them Recall *Normative need/Comparative need/Expressed need/Felt need
Symptoms of need and solution to need – one should not mistake this as a need it self
E.g. Over crowded clients-inadequate chairs - Symptom
Putting adequate chairs - Solution [Both may be wrong]
Timely service may be the solution

16
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

4. Community resources
A need arises not because of the absence of resource. Allocation of resources and our inability to
recognize and develop resources may result in need. In order to meet the need, collect the
required information about the resources
available in a community.
Natural resources - Land, Water, Trees etc.
Tangible human made things --E.g. Libraries,
bridges, cars etc
Systems of serving people — Local
government, grievance procedure, games, health
etc
Social relationships — Family, friends,
business associations etc
Major institutions — Temples, schools,
government departments’ etc
Financial services — Money, barter etc
Human quality and values — Honesty,
determination, passion etc
Skills and talents — Carpentry, plumbing etc
Knowledge availability — Science, history etc
Resources that can be used in multiple ways — Temples, meeting places etc
Resources that can be combined to produce new resources — Storage place that can be used
to collect used books
Six stages of effective community
organizing:
5. Capacity for change and disposition to
 Assess the community
change  Create an action team
The desire for change often involves correcting  Develop an action plan
injustices, but it is not limited to this. It can also  Mobilize to action
involve providing new opportunities or  Implement
challenges, escaping the boredom of the routine  Evaluate
It's extremely important that one get to know the
All communities have some capacity to change,
community where one will be working in, and the
though some have more constraints than others. history of the issue one will address. Allow two to
E.g. Public employees legally limited to take three months to become familiar with the community,
political action. its history, make-up, demographics, geography and
political leadership. Continue to learn about the
Each community also differs in its disposition community by going ―door knocking ―and conducting
to change E.g. Some communities are happy ―one-to-one discussions ". The organizer must learn
with the existing conditions what community members concerns are and find out
what they identify as problems, not tell the
community what the problem is.
How to find out what we need to know?
Library/Census/City directory/Community profile/Publications/News paper files/Local
magazines/Year books/Resource directories / Impact or issue publications /Lists of local clubs
and organizations/Travel or tourism books/Economic profiles/Community trend profiles etc

Look for organizations that do at least one of the following things


Sell your community: Chamber of Commerce, Tourism organizations etc
Sell in or from your community: Provision stores, Retail estate associations, Business concerns

17
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Serve your community: Schools, Temples, Churches, Service providers


State a particular concern about your community: Environmental organizations, Police,
Transport
Study your community: Universities, Qualities of a good Community Organizer
Planning bureaus, consulting Community organizers think strategically about their work
while always keeping the final goal in mind and continually
companies. making contributions to the goal. This is especially
Guided personal discussions important in community organizing campaigns to enact or
Focus groups change policies. Qualities include:
Surveys and questionnaires • Imagination • Sense of Humor • Blurred vision of a
Collecting list better world • An organized personality
Membership lists *Donor lists *List of • Strong ego/sense of oneself • A free, open mind, and
officers or board of directors political relativity
• Ability to create the new out of the old
Officers of political parties *Creating (Saul Alinsky, 1971)
our own lists

A check list that can be used to facilitate discussion to study/ understand a community

A check list that can be used to facilitate discussion. Adapt it to local conditions
For each of the following statements, please indicate your response using the following key:
Strongly agree -5, Agree- 4, Disagree – 3, Strongly disagree – 2, Don’t know -1
1 This community feels like home to me 5 4 3 2 1
2. I can get help from my friends when I need it. 5 4 3 2 1
3. If I need information to make an important decision I know where to find that information. 5 4 3 2 1
4. The community is able to respond to important issues 5 4 3 2 1
5. I think of myself as similar to the people who live here 5 4 3 2 1
6. People here are confident about the future of our community 5 4 3 2 1
7. I am able to get the services I need in my community 5 4 3 2 1
8. I shop locally whenever I can 5 4 3 2 1
9 The community has strong local leadership 5 4 3 2 1
10 There is a strong sense of cooperation and community pride 5 4 3 2 1
11 Our community is highly regarded in the region 5 4 3 2 1
12 I stop and chat with my neighbors‘ 5 4 3 2 1
13 I feel my concerns and opinions about local issues can be heard 5 4 3 2 1
14 The local businesses support the community 5 4 3 2 1
15 I feel safe in my community 5 4 3 2 1
In the past 3 years
16 Have you ever joined a local community action to deal with an emergency? YES/NO
17. Have you ever taken part in a community project? YES/NO
18. Do you help out a local group as a volunteer? YES/NO
19. Have you ever been part of a project to organize a service in your area? YES/NO
20. Have you taken part in any education or training program? YES/NO
21 What do you think are the three most important issues for this community?
22 Is there anyone else you think would be interested in doing this survey?
23 Is there anyone else you think would be interested in doing this survey?
24 Would you like to make any comments about your community?

18
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Phases/ Methods /Outcome of Community Organization


Based on the syllabus content

5
5
Methods Professional management,
Co management Scheduling & Monitoring
capacity, Visible Evaluation tools, resource
Phases / out puts. User mobilization, Financial Mgt, 4
Steps in groups, Cooperative action
CO Consensus on how to act &
mobilize, developed
Outcomes 5 indicators, visible outputs,
Implementation -
Professional management, Scheduling Organization & 4
& Monitoring Evaluation tools, Action
6 Planning & Decision
Making
6
4
Evaluation / Community Organization
Modification / Replication Phases Project planning tools, Group
decision making, Negotiation,
6
Methods conflict resolution, Appraisal
Developed regulations, Tools &
cooperation & Outcome
integration,

1 3

Base line 1 Study 2 Analysis 3 Assessment Negotiation,


surveys, consultation, PRA
Community Understanding the Community / Issue / Problem Tools, Workshops,
Profiling, Group decision
Observation, 2 making, SWOT
PRA Tools, Analysis,
Need Field consultations, Focus group, Stakeholder workshops , Prioritization
assessment, Meeting, Conference, Committees, Problem & Need analysis matrix,
1 2 3

Understood problems & needs, assessed context, created databases, more awareness about
the problems & stakeholders, community assets,

19
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Understanding the Community by Understanding the Local Business


Community Business Survey

Understanding the Community by Understanding the Local Business


Community Business Survey (Adapt It to Local Conditions)
Category of Business............. Number Employed: Years Established . . . . .
Are you a member of any local business organization? YES NO
If YES which organization/s?
Which of the following best describes how you run your business? (One or more)
A. Provision of essential service to customers B. Provision of competitive service and seek customers
Provision of competitive, quality services and Provision of specialized services so customers seek us
have loyal customers out
Provision of specialized service and people are referred to us Trying new ways of winning business
Reaching customers through advertisements Sponsoring one major local activity
Sponsoring several local activities Employing trainees
Technology and your business: Is there a role in your business for information technology?
Which of the following best describes the technologies you use?
Manual bankcard/credit card facilities Electronic banking for our business needs
Basic computing- word processing and spreadsheets Commercial software packages
Software for stock and inventory control Industry specific software
Internet address and website Using industry specific technologies
About your potential business growth
Which of the following business strategies do you have in place at the moment?
Planning to grow our business Having a working business plan
Having a marketing plan Having a contingency plan for financial
emergencies
About the Business Community:
5. Yes, completely satisfactory 4. Yes, but not completely satisfactory 3. Somewhat, but
need attention to be satisfactory 2. No not at all. Not satisfactory 1. Don’t know
How do you feel about each of the following issues in the business community?
The business sector works together well 5 4 3 2 1 We work to reduce that leakage 5 4 3 2 1
The community supports its local businesses work together to promote the benefits of shopping
54321 locally 5 4 3 2 1
Businesses work together to maximize The business sector is optimistic about the future
opportunities for the future 5 4 3 2 1 54321
The business sector promotes customer service
54321
Business, Council and the Community
A spirit of mutual assistance and cooperation in the There is a strong working relationship between the
community 5 4 3 2 1 Council and the business community 5 4 3 2 1
A high level of optimism in the community There is a strong level of pride in the community
54321 54321
You as a member of the community
Are you involved in any community organizations Do you undertake any voluntary work/ service in
outside work? the community?
What you do and how many hours each week you are involved in community work ?

20
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Collection of self explanatory diagrams on Steps /Stages in Community Organization

A look at the series of diagrams given in the following pages will help to understand how the
steps and stages in community organization is differently described. This is not to confuse the
readers but enable them to appreciate the complexity associated with community organization
process.

4. Problem Census 8. Plenary Primary &


with Individual 5. Consolidated 6. Plenary to Secondary
stakeholder groups problem ranking agree problems Stakeholders
7. Solution & Impact
by facilitators Analysis with Individual
Stakeholders

10. Develop 11. Review &


detailed plan of agree mitigation
3.Household action
Census

9. Development of
community organizations &
Institutions
2. Stakeholder
Analysis

12. Implement action plan


1. Situation including rules &
Analysis monitoring

13. Co management
Start formalized

21
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Stages & Steps in Community Organization

Situation that need improvement

Existing Success
Available opportunities Decided to work Areas of
stories
Resources improvement

What to do?
Situation
Learnings
Assessmen
t When to do it?

Where to do?
Impact of Evaluation Planning it?
project
Who will do it?

Suggestions Required
Implementatio resources
for the future
n

Analyze the issue or problem


What is the issue or problem?

Identify Stakeholders
Who is involved?

Know your target group


Whom you want to reach?

Determine objectives &


outcomes
What you want to achieve?

Design your methods


STAGE 2

What methods should you use?

Consider funding
How much will it cost & Who’ll pay?

Make an action plan & implement


it
Specify Who,What,When,Where?

Monitor & Evaluate


How will you know if its been
successful?

22
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Stages in Guiding / Organizing Communities

23
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Some self explanatory diagrams on Problem Solving Process

Steps in Problem Solving

24
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Phases in community organization learning

Phases in
Community
Organization
Learning

25
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Diagrams of Phases / Steps / Stages in Community Organization


Steps /Phases in Community Organization

26
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Tools that can be used at different stages and for different purposes

Experience

Brain storming
Cause effect Diagrams
Mind Mapping
Social & Resource mapping
Experimentation

Seasonal Diagrams
Visioning
mapping

Reflections
Action /Implementing Exploring Semi structured Interviews

Deciding Analyzing Venn Diagrams


Action Planning SWOT Analysis
Historical Analysis
Nominal Group Technique
Card Technique Force Field Analysis

Interrelationship Diagrams Matrix Analysis


Stakeholder’s Workshops
Priority Ranking

Wealth Ranking

Conceptualization

Major Phases / stages Appropriate tools


1. Understanding the 1. Study Social Map, resource Map, Seasonal Calendar, Wealth ranking, Venn diagrams,
Community 2. Assessment Consultations, focus-group discussions, Community Profiling, , transect walk,
3, Diagnosis Demographic profiles, Asset mapping, Referring secondary sources
2. Project Planning 4. Planning & Focus group discussions, Stakeholders workshops & meetings Data-gathering tools
Decision Making such as stakeholders' analysis, Problem ranking and prioritization, Project Appraisal &
Scheduling techniques, SWOT & Force Field Analysis, PERT & CPM, Professional
Management techniques relevant to Project administration, Logical Framework
Analysis (LFA)
3. Resource mobilization, 5.Implementation Fund raising methods, Budgeting, Financial Management Techniques, Gantt chart,
Financial Management, & Action Monitoring tools, Alternative technologies or methods like micro-finance, sustainable
Monitoring & evaluation agriculture, alternative medicine, co-operative, indigenous forest management,
appropriate technologies for livelihoods
4. Evaluation, 6. Evaluation – Stakeholders workshops & meetings, community-based evaluation tools,
Modification /
Replication

27
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

PRA tools for many purposes – to understand and organize the communities
PRA tools for many purposes – to understand and organize the communities
Gaining ideas Analyzing factors, steps, relationships
•Brainstorming can be applied to gain as •A conceptual model is a diagram of a set of
many ideas as possible without getting caught relationships between certain factors that are believed
up in detailed discussion. to impact or lead to a target condition.
•With flow diagrams you can map out steps that need
Organizing and ranking ideas, factors,
to be taken and the factors that need to be taken into
issues
account
•Cause and effect mapping can be used to
•Force Field analysis is a tool for systematically
brainstorm on and organize causes for a
analyzing the driving and restraining forces in a situation
particular problem
•Interrelationship diagrams are used to examine if
•Card techniques are an easy way to
factors are caused by or a cause of the other factor, and
cluster, organize and rank information.
to show relations between factors with arrows.
•The Delphi technique can be used to
•Issue analysis is identification of major issues that
categorize ideas, issues or questions with a
have been raised from a range of other tools (focus
group
groups, semi-structured interviews) and grouping these
•Mind mapping is a good exploring tool to
into major themes.
cluster similar ideas and see links.
•Matrix analysis can be used for ranking the value of
•Nominal group techniques enable a
a particular activity or item according to a range of
group to quickly develop a ranked list of
criteria
problems, issues or actions
•SWOT is the identification of Strengths, Weaknesses,
Collecting information
Opportunities and Threats
•Focus groups discussions take place with
Participatory learning tools
a small group of selected people to collect
•With historical analysis you create a table with dates
information about an issue.
and topics which can be filled in with a group to create
•With historical narratives you can create
understanding about history and background.
personal testimonies of past events and
•Locality mapping is drawing on the knowledge of
conditions.
local people to develop a map of the local area.
•Questionnaires and surveys are a
•A timeline is a widely used participatory tool to
structured way to gather quantitative
understand a kind of history of a community
information.
•A time trend helps to understand and analyze the
•By semi-structured interviewing we
fluctuation situation of development progress and their
mean guided conversations where broad
reasons during a certain time interval.
questions are asked and new questions are
•An empowerment circle aims to generate
allowed to arise as result of discussion.
information from stakeholders about the progress of
Planning
their empowerment situation after project intervention.
•Visioning is a nice tool to let people think
•With institutional linkage or Venn diagrams you can
about and describe how they would like things
visualize institutions and organizations and their
to be in the future Action plans are tables with
influence for example.
tasks, resources, due date and responsible
•Rich picturing is a kind of group work (4-8 persons)
persons
to visualize a situation on a large sheet of paper with
symbols, pictures and words.

28
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Phases /Steps in Community Organizing

29
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Diagram: Problem Analysis Model

Example of Problem Analysis

High Infant
Deaths

Too Young Close spacing Too many High risk birth High incidence
Mothers of births Births arrives too late of infection
(<18 yrs) (<2 yrs) (>5) at hospital (sepsis)

Pregnancy Mothers are Midwives use


Intermittent
living in far unhygienic
use of Family
due to rape flung areas practices
Planning
Methods

Children are Mothers don’t


Short Breast
know their
living on the feeding
streets pregnancy is
practice
high risk

Religious Non use of


belief forbids Family Planning
use of Family methods
Planning

30
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Diagrams: Models - Steps / Stages in Community Organization

Phases /Steps in Community Organizing

31
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Comprehensive list of Community Organization / Engagement Tools

It is a challenge to list out community organization/engagement - 1. steps/stages and


2.tools and techniques matched to each stage /phase. The choice of steps and techniques will
depend on a number of factors, including:
. The purpose of organization / engagement
. Legal requirements for organization / engagement
. Who is to be consulted?
. The environment in which engagement is being carried out (political, social, cultural –normal,
conflict ridden, emergency)
. Money, time and skills available.

List of Community Organization /


Engagement Tools
Advisory committee
Background papers see Written information
Charette
Citizens‘ jury
Citizens‘ panel
Commission of inquiry see Public hearing
Community information and feedback session
Consultative committee see Advisory
committee
Design workshop see Charette
Discussion forums see Website
Discussion papers see Written information
Face-to-face interview see Meeting
Facilitation .
Feedback see Written information
Focus group
Inquiry by design see Charette
Meeting
Mediation meetings see Meeting
Newsletter see Written information
Open day see Community information and
feedback session
Planning focus meeting
Policy round table see Planning focus meeting
Precinct committee
Pre-lodgment meeting see Meeting
Post-determination meeting see Meeting.
Public forum see Public meeting .
Public hearing
Public meeting
Public notices
Research panel see Citizens‘ panel
Questionnaire
Regional forum
Search conference
Threaded discussion groups see Website
Website
32
Workshop see Focus group
Written information
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Levels of Community Engagement Its Objectives, Outcomes & Techniques used

Level Objectives Promise to the public Major techniques


To provide the public with We will keep you Meeting
balanced and objective informed Public notice
INFORM

information to assist them in Written


understanding the problem, Website
alternatives, or
solutions
To obtain public feedback on We will keep you informed, Citizens‘ panel
analysis, alternatives, or listen to and acknowledge your Community information
decisions concerns, and provide and feedback session
CONSULT

feedback on how public input Facilitation


influenced the decision Focus group
Meeting
Public hearing
Questionnaire
To work directly with the public We will work with you to Facilitation
throughout the process to ensure that your concerns and Planning focus meeting
INVOLVE

ensure that public and private issues are directly Precinct committee
concerns are consistently reflected in the alternatives
understood and considered developed and provide
feedback on how public input
influenced the decision
To partner with the public in We will look to you for direct Advisory committee
COLLABORATE

each aspect of the decision advice and innovation in Charette


including the development of formulating solutions and Facilitation
alternatives and the incorporate your advice and Policy round table
identification of the preferred Recommendations into the Regional forum
solution decisions to the maximum Search conference
extent possible

To place final decision making To place final decision making Citizens‘ jury
EMPOWER

in the hands of the public in the hands of the public Search conference

33
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Description of Tools

MEETINGS
This is a cost effective, relatively informal technique for information sharing that can be a good
alternative to public meetings
Description
Small or one-on-one meetings and interviews are a popular way to inform or consult with interested
parties and members of the community. Being less formal than large meetings, they are a way to engage
those who may be under-represented in public forums. They offer a more focused opportunity to discuss
a planning issue or project with an individual or group.
PUBLIC NOTICE
This is one of the least expensive information giving techniques, although costs will vary according to the
methods used.
Description
A public notice is a means of providing information to the public about a proposal or key community
engagement activity associated with a planning or development assessment process. A public notice
usually appears:
. in a local or national circulation newspaper . as a sign in a public place
. on land or buildings that may be affected by a planning or development
assessment process . on a public notice board.
A public notice describes the proposal or event, for example, local environmental planning process, public
hearing, exhibition. Its purpose and objectives are stated briefly, including:
. the name of the authority or organizers for an event . the place, time and date of the event
. the timeframe for the process.
It may also state that the public can make submissions during a specified submission period.
Public notices are mandatory for specified steps of some statutory planning and development assessment
processes. In some cases not only the contents, but the size of the notice is specified.
WRITTEN INFORMATION
The written word is a widely used and cost effective method of providing information and encouraging
input. Costs will vary depending on the nature of the written information.
Description
Written information is a widely used, traditional consultation method. When associated with consultation
on plan making and development proposals, it takes many forms. These include:
. discussion, issues and background papers . Reports on processes . records of meetings . questionnaires
. articles . advertisements . media releases
. brochures and newsletters publicizing planning proposals and associated community engagement
strategies.
Written material is used to:
. provide information about policies, strategies, services, plans, proposals and forthcoming events
. encourage broad discussion and response to policies, strategies, plans and proposals
. provide feedback to participants in the consultation process or the community generally

34
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

CITIZENS’ PANEL
Although this technique is costly to establish in both time and money, it offers ongoing value as a resource
for a range of engagement techniques.
Description
Standing citizens‘ panels, research panels, or similar techniques have been widely used. They are large
scale consultative groups (1000–2500 participants) weighted for gender, age, ethnic background and
occupation to be representative of the community. This technique provides a relatively permanent forum
that can be surveyed on a regular basis about issues or services. One advantage is that it provides a large
sample from which it is possible to gauge changes in attitudes, knowledge and behaviors over time.

Participants normally serve on a citizens‘ panel for a period of two to four years.
A citizens‘ panel is a 'deliberative' form of participation. Deliberative participation differs from normal public
consultation or public participation because it does not seek 'snapshot' answers on predefined questions
framed by policy makers. Instead the emphasis is on getting citizens to think about their experiences and
priorities, to look at the problems of providing public services, and to frame their own suggestions and
recommendations for policy makers to consider. In short, people are asked to deliberate, listen to
evidence, and get involved in a far more extensive way with the issues under consideration.
The motivation for establishing a citizens‘ panel comes from several sources:
. the intelligence of the electorate should not be underestimated
. it is difficult for public officials to have as much information about citizens' situations as the citizens do
themselves
. the interconnections between problems from the citizens' point of view are often subtle
and yet very important for the way that policy decisions work or do not work.
COMMUNITY INFORMATION AND FEEDBACK SESSION
This technique itself takes little time yet requires significant expenditure of resources to prepare.
Description
A community information and feedback session is usually a day on site at a nominated venue where
participants will:
. view plans for a proposed development
. discuss issues with the sponsoring organization
. provide comments or written feedback about the project.
FACILITATION
This technique involves some additional expenditure of preparation time and money to cover the cost of
the facilitator but can deliver outcomes that would not be possible without facilitation.
Description
Facilitation is a technique used to enhance the effectiveness of other community engagement techniques.
It involves a neutral person, or facilitator, steering an event such as a forum, workshop or public meeting
to ensure that all views are voiced and heard and that the environment is conducive to the open
expression of needs and concerns. A facilitator‘s role is also to lead participants towards identifying
common ground and mutually acceptable options. Facilitation is a vital tool when dealing with contested
issues or where there is potential conflict between parties over outcomes. This can occur in almost any
issue.
Cole-Edelstein (2001) has identified some of the fundamental principles of facilitation:
. trust and integrity . transparency and accountability . flexibility to reflect the directions of the process .
responsibility to process, not outcomes.
FOCUS GROUP
This technique can be relatively resource intensive, especially when a wide range of special interest
groups are targeted, however, it is an effective way to engage groups who may be under represented in
larger forums.
Description
Focus groups can help develop a program or consider a proposal by incorporating views from groups that
have a specific interest or concerns. Focus groups target members of a specific population or special
needs group.

35
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

It is useful to seek advice from individuals or organizations with local expertise when selecting
appropriate groups. Because focus groups tend to involve small numbers, around eight to twelve, all
participants have a chance to contribute.
The advantages of focus groups are that they:
. allow for brainstorming ideas . can include those who may usually be excluded
. allow in depth discussion.
Weaknesses include:
. possible cost . lack of confidentiality . qualitative information only . difficulty in prioritising issues
PUBLIC HEARING
Description A public hearing is held in response to a submission for a hearing to discuss concerns about a
draft local environment plan. A council has the discretion as to whether or not to hold a public hearing.
The concerned authorities may arrange a public hearing to enable the community to comment on a
particular aspect, or on the entire draft of a planning policy.
Some advantages of a public hearing are:
. the public is allowed, by prior arrangement, to speak without rebuttal
. available evidence can to be worked through systematically
. comments are put on record.
Weaknesses include:
. it does not foster dialogue
. an adversarial mood can be created
. minority groups and those who do not like public speaking are not easily included
. people with the confidence or resources to make a case tend to be favoured.
QUESTIONNAIRE
This technique can be a valuable way to obtain information that will inform the engagement process
although it takes significant resources.
Description
A questionnaire or survey is a face-to-face, postal or electronic set of pre-determined questions designed
to obtain information, views and concerns associated with a planning or development process.
The advantages of a questionnaire include:
. those who might not attend meetings are engaged
. statistically valid results can be more acceptable to the public and decision makers.
Weaknesses include:
. resource intensive . low response rate . limited detail.
PLANNING FOCUS MEETING
This technique is a cost effective way of resolving issues at the pre-lodgment stage and involves relatively
few resources.
Description
The planning focus meeting includes one or more meetings between the development proponent and
authorities. It provides a forum for proponents to introduce projects and explain various components and
considerations. It also acts as a contact point for various government agencies including councils in those
areas the development will be, to identify key issues of concern. From this point, the authorities are able
to advise on which key issues the proponents should analyze and assess.
Planning focus meetings are valuable because they deal at an early stage with matters that might
otherwise hold up the assessment process. They help clarify the main standards, criteria and guidelines
that will be used by authorities in assessing and determining projects.
Their purpose is to establish a sound basis that ensures projects are adequately described and their
implications are properly identified and addressed. It is not a forum for making decisions about whether a
project can be approved or for setting conditions
ADVISORY COMMITTEE
This technique requires ongoing commitment and resource support.
Description
Advisory committees generally comprise members of community groups and government or non-
government agencies with expertise in a specific field. They can be formed to monitor

36
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

issues in relation to:


. various government programs
. planning processes – place-based strategic planning or development of a specific local government area
. specific issues – advising on Aboriginal peoples‘ needs/concerns
. specific matters such as access for people with disabilities, and community safety.
In a consultation process, they can offer advice on appropriate changes to programs, policies or plans or
recommend the introduction of specific services. Advisory committees can help produce more appropriate
policy and reduce criticism from interest groups.
Although similar to task forces, advisory committees function as an ongoing structure while task forces
tend to be formed on a short term basis to focus specifically on the development of a particular proposal.
CHARETTE
This is a resource intensive technique that can deliver concrete outcomes very quickly and cost
effectively.
Description
A charette or ‗inquiry by design‘ workshop is an intensive workshop where stakeholders are brought
together to suggest solutions for complex planning issues. Such solutions include trying to balance
planning, economic and social factors as well as urban design and sustainability considerations. A
charette should include representatives from interest groups although it is not limited to these groups. It
involves a rapid and dynamic interchange of ideas between planning practitioners, stakeholders and the
general community. Concrete results are produced rapidly with meaningful and well placed involvement
of the community. It is a cost effective means of envisioning the outcomes at an early stage and
assessing the planning proposals at the final stage. It is important that both the consent authority and
the participants in the charette understand its role in decision-making.
REGIONAL FORUM
This technique is an important way of promoting cooperation and coordination in regional planning. It
requires ongoing commitment of resources and is an implicit component of planning.
Description
A regional forum promotes cooperative and coordinated regional planning and provides comprehensive
advice to the govt. It brings together key government and community based interests in a region and
coordinates preparation, maintenance and implementation of regional strategies. This task also includes:
. streaming information management
. developing consistent, whole-of-government guidance to local councils on implementing regional
strategies.
SEARCH CONFERENCE
This technique is a resource intensive, effective means of creating a partnership with the community. It
can be used for developing and gaining broad commitment in a strategic planning process. Its success
depends on a strong commitment to follow through with conference outcomes.
Description
Search conferences were pioneered in England in 1959. They are usually held early in a planning process
to develop a broad vision for a particular project or organization. Search conferences focus on first
identifying desirable futures and then concentrating on ways to achieve them. Search conferences are
intensive events, usually taking place over two days and two nights (Roulier 1997). Sometimes called
future search conferences, they involve a large group of people, selected because they have power or
information on the topic at hand or are affected by the outcomes. The ideal number is considered to be
64 people, as this breaks down into eight groups of eight. People from similar interest groups are usually
placed together for some or all of the conference to take part in a highly structured process covering five
stages:
1. Review the past
. Each participant writes key events in the history of themselves, the community and the world onto three
parallel time lines.
2. Explore the present
. A mind map is made of trends affecting the local community.
. Specific interest groups identify important trends and what they would like done about them.

37
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

. Groups share what they are proud of and sorry about in their community.
3. Create ideal futures
. Mixed small groups develop visions.
. Barriers to the visions are identified.
. Each group acts out its vision to everyone else.
4. Identify common ground
. First the small groups, then the whole group, work out:
- the common ground or shared vision
- identify projects to achieve it
- identify any unresolved differences.
5. Make action plans
. Self selected action groups plan projects and publicly commit to their action.
CITIZENS’ JURY
A citizens‘ jury is a time, labour and cost intensive exercise that requires expert facilitation.
Description
In a citizens‘ jury, a randomly recruited and demographically representative panel of citizens meets for
three to five days to carefully examine an issue of public significance. The jury usually consists of 12 to
20 individuals, and serves as a microcosm of the community. Jurors are often paid a stipend for their
time. Childcare, specialist support and travel expenses should also be offered to jurors. They hear from a
variety of expert witnesses and are able to deliberate together on the issue. On the final day of their
moderated hearings, the members of the citizens‘ jury present their recommendations to the public.
The ‗charge‘ is the task facing the jury. It typically takes the form of a question or series of questions that
the jurors address and answer during deliberations. A citizens‘ jury is a transparent process that involves
experts, ordinary citizens, service providers, interest groups and the decision makers on a specific topic of
community concern.

38
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Methods of Group Decision Making and Co-Operative Action

Groups in the context of Community Organization


The work of the organizations is largely the work of the groups. Most of the stuff of community
organization – discussing, planning, and decision -making and camaraderie occurs in groups.
Building a successful organization
Synopsis
demands an understanding of the
Groups in the context of Community Organization
The importance of Groups functioning of successful groups.
Meaning of a Group & Decision Making
Meaning of Decision Making Community organizers see group
Meaning of Group Decision Making methods of ensuring authentic
Understanding the Groups participation as a means towards
Stages of Group Formation transformation. Groups are seen as
Johnson & Johnson / Napier & Greshenfeld
preparing ground for participation. Trust
Task roles and Relationship roles
Improving the efficiency of the Groups and dialogues are pre requisite for group
Providing proper learning climate process.
Deciding the size
Group Decision Making Founded on love, humility and faith,
Involvement / Types of decision making dialogue becomes a horizontal
Difficulties in decision-making relationship of mutual trust. Trust is
Making good decisions
established by dialogue; it cannot exist
Advantages & Disadvantages in group decision making
Forms of group decision-making unless the words of both parties coincide
Meeting practice with their actions.
Conference practice
Committee practice Nor can dialogue exist without hope.
Hope is rooted in our human
Characteristics of good & bad decisions Different Types
Good decisions of Decisions
 Informed Irreversible
 Supported by best evidence Reversible
 Compatible with patients values Delayed
 Considers patients preferences Quick decisions
 Weigh pros and cons Experimental
 Practical Trial and Error
Poor decisions Conditional
 Objective data inadequate
 Too few options considered Decision
 Alternatives unclear Making Styles
 Values and preferences unexplored Authoritative
 Roles unclear Facilitative
 Communication is poor Consultative
Delegative

incompleteness, from which we move out in constant search, which can be carried out only in
communion with other people.

Group decisions require an intense faith in human beings; founded on love, humility and faith,
group decision-making process develops mutual trust. (It requires intense faith in human being;

39
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

requires love and humility; requires hope, which is rooted in human incompleteness; involves
critical thinking)

Issues facing the people are often complex and no expert has all the answers. On the other hand
no body is totally ignorant. To discover valid solutions everyone needs to be both a learner and a
teacher. ‘A’ may provide a fact; ‘B’ may provide a premise; ‘C’ may provide a value judgment;
‘D’ may provide a complete alternative; ‘E’ may provide second alternative. This may lead to
valid solutions. To discover valid solutions, everyone needs to be both a learner and a teacher.
Groups provide an environment for mutual learning process.

Meaning of a Group:
Two or more people who interact with and influence each other towards a common purpose.
(Who interact with one another; psychologically aware of one another; who perceive themselves
in a group)
Meaning of Decision Making:
Selection of a preferred course of action from or more alternatives
Meaning of Group Decision Making:
When two or more people who interact and influence each other attempt to select a preferred
course of action from two or more alternatives.
Group decisions emerge from group meetings. These meetings may be called as conferences,
committees, staff meetings etc

An example of Personal Decision Making

40
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Understanding the Groups


Stages in the development of a group.
The following stages are identified in the life cycle of a group.
Tuckmen and Jenson Napier and Gershenfled
1. Forming Stage 1. Beginning Stage
Members are unsure of themselves and the This stage is a period of watching, waiting and testing
group. They try to figure out where they fit how to act
in with these new relationships
2. Storming Stage 2. Movement toward Confrontation Stage
It is characterized by rebellion as members After people have dropped their polite facades and begin
assert their individuality and resist acting more like themselves. Questions arise over who
authority makes decision and how. Members try to firmly establish
their place in the group seeking prestige and influence.
This bound to cause some conflict
3. Norming Stage. 3. Compromise and Harmony Stage
Members establish procedure and a sense The group starts reversing confrontative trend realizing
of how they should act in the group that if continues the group will disintegrate. This period of
goodwill, tolerance for different behaviors and more
acceptance of individuals. Collaboration is increased and
competitiveness is reduced. There is a pressure to
preserve the spirit of harmony
4. Performing Stage 4. Reassessment Stage
The group concentrates on the tasks to be The group starts feeling that the pressure to preserve
achieved superficiality makes them to ignore the members personal
needs, suspicions and realize that it stands in the way of
accomplishing goals. The group realizes that survival
depends on increasing shared responsibility as well as
personal accountability. This in turn increases the trust
and individual risk taking
5. Adjourning Stage 5. Resolution and recycling stage
When the group completes its work, which The group realizes that periods of harmony are normal
results in a change in the relationship and conflicts are handled easily and quickly.
among its members
Task Roles and Relationship Roles of a Group:

TASKS AND RELATIONSHIP NEEDS IN ANY GROUP


In every group some one is needed to play each of the following roles if the group is to accomplish its
tasks and keep good relationships among its members. Any action that strengthens the task or
relationship level can be considered a leadership action.
Task Needs Relationship Needs
Task Component: any action the group undertakes Relationship or Maintenance Component:
to accomplish its purpose / goal. If task component Actions not directed at the working of the, but to
receives little attention, the group wont accomplish enhance the harmony among individuals and the
very much. group. Maintenance component includes the
ability of the group members to work well
together, to effectively manage their conflicts and
to feel good about them. This necessary after a
sequence of intense task activities or otherwise
the group will probably fall apart

41
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

1. Starting the discussion or helping the group 1. Encouraging. Being friendly, responding to
to begin a job. and building suggestions made by others.
2. Asking for information. Asking group Showing acceptance and appreciation of others
members what information they have and / or and their ideas.
where the information can be found on the topic 2. Giving every one a chance to speak
being discussed 3. Asking what people feel. Sharing what one
3. Giving information. When group member do fells and checking group feelings
not have particular facts that are relevant to the 4. Encouraging shy members, especially young
topic. women or those who less formally schooled
4. Asking what people think. Getting group 5. Resolving arguments
members‘ opinion is for good decision-making. It is 6. Encouraging creativity in the group.
also important for people to be willing to share 7. Sharing responsibilities
what they think. 8. Developing the confidence and skills of all
5. Explaining. Giving practical examples to make members
a point clear. 9. Setting standards. E.g. shall we agree that
6. Summing up. Repeating what has been said nobody speaks more than twice
clearly in few words. 10. Diagnosing difficulties E.g. may be some
7. Checking to see if everyone agrees of us are afraid of the consequences of this
8. Analyzing the problems under discussion decision
9. Making creative suggestions to resolve the 11. Relieving tension. By bringing it out into
problems the open, putting a problem in a wider context, or
10. Having clear process for making each making a well timed joke
decision
11. Evaluating. Looking at the strengths and
weaknesses of the group‘s work and seeing how it
can be improved

To use groups as a tool for Community


Decision Making Modes
transformation, Community Organizers
have to concentrate on the following aspects Goal Ambiguity
1. Structure of the Groups Low High
/Conflict
2. Improving the efficiency of the Groups
Low

3. Providing proper learning climate


Structure of the Groups
Rationale Mode Political Mode
Deciding the size:
Uncertainty
Technical

Majority of people find it difficult to speak


in a big group of strangers. Also there is
usually not enough time for everyone to
speak. Therefore if everyone is to
participate actively, small groups are Emotional Mode Anarchy Mode
essential.
High

Pairs are useful for


Interviews, intimate sharing, practicing
some skills, ti stir a passive sleepy group in to action.
3s are very useful for
 Getting everyone thinking and participating actively
 Testing out an idea one is hesitant to present to the big group. If two people think it is
worthwhile, one might risk saying it to the whole group

42
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

4s, 5s, 6s is useful for,


Good size for a planning team or discuss about more complex situations. The bigger the group
gets, the longer the discussion time needed and the longer it will take to make decisions.
6-12
This is a good size for sharing ideas and insights when the group has plenty of time. But the
group is bigger than this, it need an appointed animator or leader. All members should try to be
sensitive to the needs of the group (task and relationship needs)
30s
An ideal size to develop the sprit of a community. But it is also necessary with groups of this size
to break into smaller groups of different kinds for different purposes.
30 – 200 >
Useful to inform new ideas and policy. But these groups should be broken in to small groups and
animators or facilitators are needed to break the passivity.

Group Decision Making


Community organizers frequently use a number of small group process in decision-making /
problem solving process. The use of decision-making groups typically called ‘Committees’ is
common in almost all community organization settings. Decision-making is defined as the
selection of a preferred course of action from two or more alternatives. Group decision-
making has several advantages over individual decisions making. They are:
Greater knowledge
Greater number of approaches to the problem
Greater acceptance of the solution through participation and support
Better comprehension of the decision.

Steps,
Strategy, tools
& techniques

Community
Communities
is a great place
can be
to work transformed,
made liveable

43
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Involvement / Types of decision making


It is neither possible nor desirable to involve everybody in every decision. One of the main skills in
democratic leadership is deciding who should be involved in making which decisions. The basic rule is
that the more deeply people are affected by a decision, the more important it is they should share in
making it.
If we analyze how many people were actively involved in making a decision, we will find they all fall
somewhere along the following line

Plop Hand Clasp Minority Majority Vote True Consensus


One Person Clique Silent Consensus

The plop:
Here the group makes a decision by not making a decision. Not to decide is to decide. Some one
makes a suggestion but drops like a stone into a pond and no one pays any attention to it all. If the
person who made the suggestion really felt enthusiastic about it, the fact that it was totally ignored
could make that person withdraw or resist later suggestions.
The one-person decision:
This is quickly made, but later when the decider depends on free or voluntary support from others to
implement it he /she may find himself / herself carrying it out alone.
The hand Clasp:
One person makes a suggestion. Another says, ―what a marvelous idea‖, and without further
discussion, the matter is decided. These decisions are more frequent than one thinks, and often
passed unnoticed at the time, but resentment comes to the surface later.
The Clique:
Decisions are made by a small group who plan beforehand to get their way, because they are better
organized than those who disagree. They are often successful on the immediate issue, but they bring
a spirit of rivalry rather than the co-operation in to the group. Sometimes groups of people who have
formerly been excluded or silent form a caucus in order to present a common agenda. This can be a
positive action and check-and- balance to a dominant group.
It is a healthy sign in a participatory democracy.
Minority: these decisions are not consciously organize as those of the clique, but a few powerful
personalities dominate the group, often unconsciously and later they wonder why the others are
apathetic.
Majority Vote:
In big groups this is often the most effective way to make a decision. However, one may lose the
interest or the loyalty of the minority who voted against a decision, especially if they feel that their
point of view was not heard.
Silent Consensus:
Some groups aims at unanimous decisions. These are good, if genuine, but they are rarely achieved
completely on certain issues. Unanimous agreement is some times assumed, when some members
have not felt free to disagree and kept silent.
Consensus
This as an agreement, often involving compromise or the combination of various possibilities, after all
opinions have been heard. Disagreements and minority viewpoints are discussed fully. It takes time
and care to build a climate in which all feel free to express themselves, but this method does build
unity, cooperation and commitment. It does not mean listening to people and then doing what we
were going to do in the first place. It means adapting to accommodate the concerns of all. It may
take longer to make a decision this way, but it will often be carried out more quickly and
wholeheartedly.

44
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Difficulties in decision-making:
Every group, to achieve its goal is constantly involved in making decisions. These decisions may
be big, little, easy, hard, right or wrong.

Decision making forms a continuing pattern of relationships among members of a group: a


pattern in which every individual member has some influence. It is amazing to note that a bit of
information may change the mood of the group, a loud objection, an expression of approval or
hostility, envy or admiration, contempt or condescension, can have an impending decision.

So it is little wonder that group after group has difficulty making the decisions. Some become
paralyzed when confronted with a decision: some argue over a minor point: others rush into a
vote only to reverse their decision later on or fail to carry out the plan: others appoint a
committee to save them from having to decide.

Most of the difficulties encountered by a group in making decisions center around one or another
of the following factors.

Fear of Consequences:
In some groups the possible outcomes of an impending decision may bring divisions and
disagreements. Frank acknowledgement of these fears often suggests how they can be dealt with
effectively. E.g. being in a group, this is not liked by the superiors.

Conflicting Loyalties:
When one person is a member of number of groups, this frequently leads to divided loyalties
about decisions. An atmosphere in which it is possible for these conflicts to be brought out into
the open without the threat to the individual is a help in resolving them. E.g. I would like to help
this community project, but I hardly get any time to spend with my wife and children these days.

Interpersonal Conflict:
In group of any size personal differences occur which provoke feelings of affection or dislike
among members and which interfere with sound decision making. When two different people
each trying to get things done in their own way, struggle erupts. Often another member who is
not involved in the interpersonal conflict can bring the real problem into the open.

Hidden agenda:
One person may try to get the group to make certain decision, which he /she wants for reasons
which he / she will not share with the group.

Blundering Methods:
A group may be bound by rigid procedures (e.g. always addressing all remarks to the
chairperson) that there is little chance for free expression of differences. or a group may allow
itself to substitute personal opinion for adequate information. Or a group may approach the
decision making process without testing for consequences.

45
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Inadequate Leadership:
A leader may hinder good decision making if he / she restricts the expression of opinion or
discussion on issues too soon. Leaders also may fail to provide assistance in selecting
appropriate methods for decision-making or be insensitive to the factors causing difficulty in the
group.

Clash of Interest:
Sometimes different group or individuals within an organization do have opposing interest (e.g.
workers wanting higher wages and owners wanting higher profits).

Factors, which help in making good decisions:


a. Clear goal
b. Clear understanding of who has responsibility for the decision.
c. Good means of stimulating and sharing ideals
d. Effective leadership and structures to deal with the size of the group.
e. Effective way of testing different suggestions offered.
f. Commitment of the leader to genuine group involvement in making the decision.
g. Agreement on the procedures on what procedures will be most appropriate. (e.g. consensus,
majority vote, secret ballot etc )
Advantages & Disadvantages in group decision- making
Advantages Disadvantages
Greater knowledge Slow and time consuming
Diversity of ideas Risky shift
Diffuses the responsibility Passing the buck
Better comprehension Strong vocal minority opinion overrides majority
Participation hence acceptance opinion.
Greater number of solutions Group think [norm for consensus overrides the
Protects individuals from embarrassment Realistic appraisal of alternative of alternative
Intense pressure to go along with others. solution; hesitation to disagree with others]

Different methods of group decision-making

Meeting Conference Committee


Meeting may be defined as any Conference means an Committee may be defined as a
gathering, assembly or coming informal group discussion group of persons, limited in
together of two or more persons by three or more persons, membership, by selective appointment,
for the transaction of some lawful with the object of carrying usually appointed by some superior
business of common concern out open minded authority and having joint
exploration and usually of responsibility for inquiry, deliberation,
achieving consensus or decision, action or related activities in
integration of thinking on regard to matters assigned to them
a subject or problem
Properly convened [by formal DO DO
authority] Properly constituted Face to face contact
[quorum & chairmen] Proper
procedure [Agenda & minutes] Participation Specialists in the subject matter
Just to discuss matters To get consensus Both to decide & act
When there is conflict of interest To generate group idea To take joint responsibility
To get majority idea To explore the problem

46
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Meeting Practice:
A ‘meeting’ may be defined as any gathering, assembly or coming together of two or more
persons for the transaction of some lawful business of common concern.
The proper functioning of any association of persons, large or small requires that the members of
the association come together from time to time discuss matters of common concern and take
decisions by common consent by the majority.

Meeting may be classified as public meeting and private or business meeting. It is a statutory
requirement for a registered community organization to conduct regular and proper meetings to
transact its business. A registered organization has to conduct executive committee meeting,
annual general body meeting and extraordinary general body meeting.

These meetings should be properly convened (i.e. by proper authority, by proper notice)
properly constituted (i.e. quorum and chairman) and follow proper procedures (meeting
procedure, agenda).

The method of meeting practice usually adopts parliamentary procedure to make decisions.
Parliamentary procedure is based on the democratic principles of majority rule, which requires
that the minority abide by the will of the majority. In turn, the acceptance of the majority rule by
the minority is based on the willingness of the majority to permit the minority to express its
views before action is taken.

Merits and demerits of parliamentary procedure

Merits Demerits
It provides rules and regulations for the It is much too formal method
orderly conduct of the business. It decreases the losing factions commitment to the
Decisions must be made in the fact of decisions
conflicting interests among members It discourages exploration of innovative
It increases the belief in the organization ideas in a free and open manner because people
tend to take sides early in the discussion.

Conference
“The term conference means informal group discussion by three or more persons, with the
object of carrying on open minded exploration and usually of achieving consensus or
integration of thinking on a subject or problem”.

Consensus is a co-operative effort to find a sound solution acceptable to everyone. Consensus


occurs after all members have had an opportunity to voice their opinions and can then arrive at a
decision that almost everyone can support. It ensures that each individual’s concerns are heard
and understood and then a sincere attempt is made to take them into consideration in searching
for a resolution. This resolution may not reflect the exact wishes of each member, but since does
not violate the deep concerns of anyone, it can be agreed upon by all.

Characteristics:
1) It is carried out by a group.

47
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

2) Conference normally involves a face-to-face meeting of the group.


3) Conference implies general participation.
4) Conference uses informal group discussion.
5) Conference has some definite subject for discussion.
6) Several groups – Committees Boards, study groups, use conference method.
7) Members should open-mindedly discuss the subject; they should also show interest in
reaching consensus.
8) Conference aims to create a group idea (Not majority idea), which will be better than any one
of the members ideas alone – moreover which will be better than all the members idea added
together.
9) Conference method is not appropriate for large bodies.

Committee Practice
The committee is to community organization as the interview is to casework
1. A committee may be defined as two or more people associated for some purpose towards
which they function as an organizational entity.
2. A committee may be defined as a group of persons, limited in membership, by selective
appointment, usually appointed by some superior authority, and having joint responsibility
for inquiry, deliberation, decision, action, Sponsorship, or related activities in regard to
matters assigned to them.
Characteristics of a Committee:
1) A group with limited membership.
2) Membership is based on selection.
3) Appointed by some superior authority.
4) Joint responsibility.
5) Working on the matters referred to it

Functions of a Committee
Functions of the committee depend upon for what
purpose it is constituted. The most common
functions of committees are as follows.
1) Studying the problem. 2) Reporting information.
3) Coordinating work.
4) Distributing work. 5) Solving problem. 6) Making decisions.
5) Monitoring.

Guidelines for Organizing Committees


1) A clear statement of the objectives and functions of the committee.
2) There should be a written assignment or terms of reference.
3) There should be appropriate selection of members.
4) The committee should have competent leadership and adequate executive and clerical
service.
5) There should be appropriate arrangements for follow up after meetings of the committee.
6) There should be appropriate procedures at meetings.
7) There should be adequate preparation for follow up after meetings.
8) The committee should have adequate records.

48
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Organization of a committee:
1. Chairman, 2. Members, 3. Committee Aide / Secretary.
Chairman
- Official head of the committee in both internal and external relationship.
- Decides when meetings should be held.
- Preside the meetings of the committee. As a president, he has to keep the committee on the
track; he has to preserve an atmosphere of freedom and vitality of participation.
- Officially presents the reports to the superior authority.

Members
- The members should be reasonably well equipped for the work of the committee or should be
willing to raise their level of competence.
- The membership should be interested and willing to serve and should have sufficient time,
health and strength.
- The committee membership should adequately represent the interest that needs to be
represented.
- The members should be able to work together as a group.

Committee Aide (Staff Assistance to committee)


Committee aide is a technical resource; he supplies professional assistance to the committee, he
helps the committee in the following ways:
Program Service - He helps the committee to develop its programs.
Organizational Service - Provides the necessary manpower.
Administrative Service - Planning meetings and agendas in consultation with the chairman -
making physical arrangements for the meetings , sending notices, writing reports and handling
correspondence.
The basic task of committee aide involves working with and strengthening the position of the
chairman. He is to facilitate the work of the committee, to help or enable it to perform its task
effectively, but never to dictate or determine its course of action nor to usurp the functions of the
chairman.
Committee Procedures:
1. Agenda 2. Minutes.
Agenda :
A Committee meeting needs a written agenda. The world ―Agenda ―literally means ‘things to be
done’. It refers to the programme of Business to the transacted at a meeting. Agenda is essential
for the systematic transaction of the business of a meeting in the proper order of impotence. It is
customary for all organizations to send an agenda along with the notice of meeting to all
members. Usually routine items are placed first and controversial items later.
The business of the meeting must be conducted in the same order.
Items for agenda may be drawn from:
- Unfinished business from the last meeting.
- Items previously scheduled by the committee for consideration on this date.
- Matters suggested by a member of the committee.

49
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

- Communications from outside the committee requiring consideration by the committee.


- Matters which the chairman, committee aide or a member of the committee feels important to
be discussed by the committee.
Loophole Agenda & Hidden Agenda
It means any other business with the permission of the chair. This provides an opportunity for
the members to discuss on matters, which has not been specifically included in the agenda.
Minutes
Minutes may be defined as the permanent, official record of the proceedings of a meeting. It
serves as a reminder of the subjects previously dealt with and the conclusions reached. Once
approved and signed they are acceptable in a court of law as evidence of the proceedings.
The Minutes should begin by identifying the body that is meting; the date, hour and place; name
of the presiding officers, members absent. The Minutes should generally be chronological,
following the actual order of events.

50
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Conflict and conflict Resolution in Community Organization

CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Synopsis
Conflict.
Competition
Aggression
Conflict theory
Conflict handling modes
Conflict resolution
Functional Vs Dysfunctional
Positive Vs Negative
Competition Vs Conflict
Basic properties – incompatible goals, emotional hostility, antagonistic interaction
Levels of Conflict – intra personal (approach, avoidance types), interpersonal, group conflict, organizational
conflict.
Types of conflict – economic conflict, power conflict, value conflict –
Conflict due to personality clashes, conflict due to different needs, roles, goals, interest.
Different needs,
Stages in conflict – antecedent conditions, perceived / felt conflict; manifest behavior, conflict resolution or
suppression, resolution aftermath.
Escalation of conflict – causes.
Methods of conflict resolution – promoting pro-social behavior, approaches to manage conflict (win-win,
win-lose, lose-lose), withdrawing, smoothing, compromising, forcing, third party consultation (arbitration,
mediation)

Conflict- Meaning The word ‘conflict’ carries negative


Conflict is usually defined as a social situation in connotations. It is often thought of as the
which incompatible goals and activities occur opposite of co-operation and peace, and is
between two or more parties (individuals or groups) most commonly associated with violence, the
who hold antagonistic feelings towards each other threat of violence or disruptive (nonviolent)
and attempt to control each other. disputes. This view of conflict as negative is
Conflict exists whenever incompatible not always helpful. In non-violent settings it
can often be seen as a force for positive social
activities occur.
change, its presence being a visible
Conflict occurs when an individual is demonstration of society adapting to a new
motivated to make two or more political, economic or physical environment.
mutually incompatible responses.
Conflict is a tension between two or more entities (individuals, groups or larger
organizations), which arise from incompatibility of actual or larger responses.

Competition implies an opposition in the goals of the interdependent parties such that the
probability of goal attainment for one decreases as the probability of other increases.
Aggression is a form of behavior intended to inflict injury to a person or object.

51
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Conflict Theory. A theory that views community and society as an arena in which various
groups compete to attain maximum gain for themselves.
Conflict (or alienation) approach. A theory of society, which argues that fundamental tensions
or built in contradictions exist between the powerful and the powerless – and these problems, can
be resolved only through radical changes in society.
Conflict handling modes / conflict resolution. Settlement of disputes that are mutually
satisfactory and that receive a long-term commitment from both the parties.

If there is a possibility to enjoy social justice without recourse to physical violence in any society
then there will be less conflict in that society.
Systems that handle conflict openly and productively can maximize the benefits while reducing
the conflicts
One has to examine both the goals and the means of conflict in order to judge its acceptability.
Functional Vs Dysfunctional Conflict
Positive Vs Negative Conflict
Competition Vs Conflict

Competition Conflict
No direct action of one party to interfere with the ongoing Conflict interferes
activities of another e.g. track and field events
Competition occurs within a set of agreed upon rules. There is no agreed upon rules. All
E.g.hockey is fair in conflict
Box: Community Conflict
Basic properties of conflict:
Incompatible goals. Community Conflict
The potential for community conflict exists whenever and
Emotional hostility
wherever people have contact. Communities faces increasing
Antagonistic interaction community conflicts due to the cultural, linguistic and ethnic
diversity associated with its changing population. Communities
Levels of Conflict and government services are being redefined and, at the same
– intra personal (approach, time, neighbors are facing unfamiliar lifestyles in their
avoidance types), interpersonal, neighborhoods. Stresses caused by economic or social change
group conflict, organizational can impact community resources, leaving groups feeling that
they are being denied government services at the expense of
conflict.
other groups. Law enforcement, schools and local government
Types of conflict officials are increasingly affected by resulting tensions and need
– economic conflict, power to be prepared when serious conflict erupts.
conflict, value conflict – Community conflict also can occur when individuals or groups
Conflict due to personality perceive or experience discriminatory behavior directed at them
clashes, conflict due to different by an agency or its representative, by members of another
needs, roles, goals, interest. group, or by members of their own group. For example, a high-
profile case of police misconduct, an incident of violence on a
different needs,
college campus, a hate crime or case of discrimination can
Economic Conflict: polarize a community. All of these events can produce stress on
It arises due to competing community residents, often resulting in disagreements over what
motives to obtain scarce should be done to solve these problems. This stress can even
resources. Each group wants to lead to open conflict within the community.
maximize its gain at the cost of
other party. Economic conflict will not be resolved by improving communication, but by
difficult and detailed negotiations among the parties.

52
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Power Conflict:
Power conflict arises when each party wishes to maximize the influence it has. This type of
conflict usually ends in a victory for one party and a defeat for another, or in a stand off that
involves a continuing state of tension. The crucial issue is not resource scarcity or differences in
basic values, but simply a question of control and related matters such as pride, recognition and
future material rewards that power may bring.
Value Conflict:
It involves incompatible principles and
practices that people believe in- their
ideology, religion, political system and
culture. E.g. Marxist Vs Capitalist, Religious
conversion etc.

Since the value conflicts lie at the very heart


of a person / peoples identity, they are
extremely difficult to resolve.

Most conflict involve a mixture of realistic


economic, power or value differences as well as unrealistic ingredient of misperception and
miscommunication. Usually a conflict may begin from one source but broaden to include other
elements.

Other types of conflict:


The more our lives overlap with others, the more likely it is that there will at times be conflicts.
So one can identify different types of conflicts.

Personality clashes:
It occurs when two people who have to see each other frequently cause negative feelings and
reactions in one another. Often these people share common goals, but they cannot get along. E.g.
he hurts me
Different needs:
Roles: Role expectation can cause conflict
Goals: lack of clarity or disagreement about the goals of the program
Conflict of interest: e.g. higher wages
Ways of dealing with conflict / opposition
Give in Anger Negative Feelings
Turn away Counter anger Attempt to hear other persons
Flight or run away Negative Response Involvement with other persons
Division/disunity Increased anger Understanding each other ideas

Escalation of Conflict:
Human beings behave in ways calculated to maximize their goals and minimize their loses. The
behavior of each party in conflict imposes constraints on the potential satisfaction of the other.
This tends to escalate conflict. Unless it resolved at an early stage, it become more intense and
hostile to proliferate more issues and involve stronger and more destructive attempts to control.

53
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Escalation usually feeds on fear, defensiveness, selective and distorted perception, attributing
negative intentions on others

Table: Strengths and Limitations of various Approaches to Conflict Management

Strengths and Limitations of various Approaches to Conflict Management


Traditional & Customary Legal Alternative Conflict Management
Strengths Limitations Strengths Limitations Strengths Limitations
Respect for Not all people Well- Tend to Contributes to May not be able
local values may have defined neglect process of to overcome
and equal access to procedures indigenous community self- power
customs the conflict knowledge reliance differences
resolution &empowerment
Provides Courts have Decisions Inaccessible Encourages Decisions are
familiarity supplanted are legally to the participation & not legally
& past local authority binding marginal respects local binding
experience &poor groups customs and
values

Methods of Conflict Resolution:


Promoting pro-social behavior:
Human beings have at least as much potential for caring, sharing and cooperating as they do for
aggression, competing and destroying. Pro social behaviors are activities that have positive social
consequences for others.
Approaches to managing conflict:
Ones approach to manage conflict differs as per ones assumptions 1) people, 2) about conflict, 3)
characteristic attitudes, 4) behaviors and typical outcomes.

The Win-Win approach is a conscious and systematic attempt to maximize the gains of both
parties through collaborative problem solving.
1. Forcing- an antagonistic, competitive approach that pushes for an all or nothing solution

Lose-Lose approach is characterized in many ways


1. Avoidance of conflict is preferred to open competition and half loaf is better than one loaf.
2. Withdrawing- avoiding conflict by retreating or remaining silent
3. Smoothing- playing down differences, emphasizing commonalities and avoiding discussions
on contentious issues
4. Compromising- a simple splitting of differences through negotiation

Two-dimensional model of conflict management:


This model states that assertiveness (to satisfy others concerns) and cooperativeness (to satisfy
others concerns) are both necessary to understand peoples approach and behavior towards
conflict. This model yields five conflict modes

54
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Box: Levels of Conflict

55
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Conflict Resolution Terminologies Defined

Conflict resolution is a range of processes aimed at alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict. The term "conflict
resolution" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term dispute resolution or alternative dispute resolution. Processes
of conflict resolution generally include negotiation, mediation and diplomacy. The processes of arbitration, litigation are
usually described with the term dispute resolution, although some refer to them as "conflict resolution." Processes of
mediation and arbitration are often referred to as alternative dispute resolution.
Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. It is the label for the variety of ways by
which people handle grievances — standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be
wrong. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip, ridicule, lynching, terrorism, warfare, feuding, genocide, law,
mediation, and avoidance. Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat
predicted and explained by the social structure. Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict
resolution
Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for
individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative
dispute resolution. Negotiation occurs in business, non-profit organizations, government branches, legal proceedings, among
nations and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, and everyday life. The study of the subject is called
negotiation theory. Those who work in negotiation professionally are called negotiators. Professional negotiators are often
specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiators, hostage negotiators or may work
under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators or brokers.
Mediation, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) or "appropriate dispute resolution", aims to assist two (or more)
disputants in reaching an agreement. The parties themselves determine the conditions of any settlements reached— rather
than accepting something imposed by a third party. The disputes may involve (as parties) states, organizations, communities,
individuals or other representatives with a vested interest in the outcome.
Advocacy is the pursuit of influencing outcomes — including public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political,
economic, and social systems and institutions — that directly affect people’s current lives.
Advocacy can be seen as a deliberate process of speaking out on issues of concern in order to exert some influence on behalf
of ideas or persons. Based on this definition, Cohen states that “ideologues of all persuasions advocate” to bring a change in
people’s lives. However, advocacy has many interpretations depending on the issue at stake, which can be different from this
initial value-neutral definition.
Diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to find mutually acceptable solutions to a common
challenge, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational or polite manner.
Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. This action is in
support of, or opposition to, one side of an often controversial argument.
The word "activism" is often used synonymously with protest or dissent, but activism can stem from any number of political
orientations and take a wide range of forms, from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning,
economic activism (such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing preferred businesses), rallies, blogging and street marches,
strikes, both work stoppages and hunger strikes, or even guerrilla tactics.
In some cases, activism has nothing to do with protest or confrontation: for instance, some religious, feminist or
vegetarian/vegan activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than persuade governments to
change laws. The cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, and
generally does not lobby or protest politically.
Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that attempts to help students question and challenge domination, and the beliefs
and practices that dominate. In other words, it is a theory and practice of helping students achieve critical consciousness.
Critical pedagogue Ira Shor defines critical pedagogy as "Habits of thought, reading, writing, and speaking which go beneath
surface meaning, first impressions, dominant myths, official pronouncements, traditional clichés, received wisdom, and mere
opinions, to understand the deep meaning, root causes, social context, ideology, and personal consequences of any action,
event, object, process, organization, experience, text, subject matter, policy, mass media, or discourse."

56
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Box: Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management.


Examples of Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management.
Intra micro–micro conflicts:
• Disputes over land and resource ownership, e.g. between private and communal land owners;
• Disputes over land boundaries between individuals or groups;
• Latent family and relationship disputes;
• Disputes due to natural resource projects being captured by élites and/or those who happen to own
Resources of a higher quality;
• Breaking of CPR constitutional or operational rules, such as protection agreements for grazing areas,
fish net sizes, forests, or misappropriation of funds, etc.;
• Disputes over the unfair distribution of work and profits.
Inter micro–micro conflicts:
• Conflict between land-owners and resource users;
• Conflict between indigenous CPR groups, and more recent settlers;
• Disputes generated by jealousy related to growing wealth disparities;
• Lack of co-operation between different community groups;
• Disputes over renewal arrangements for leased land;
• Internal land ownership disputes ignited by the speculation activities of commercial companies;
• Resentment built up due to lack of representation on village committees.
Micro–macro conflicts:
• Contradictory natural resource needs and values, e.g. between wildlife habitat protection and local livelihood
security;
• Cultural conflicts between community groups and outsiders;
• Disputes over project management between community groups and outside project-sponsors;
• Disputes caused by political influence (national, provincial or local);
• Disputes arising from differences between the aspirations of community groups and expectations of NGOs or
commercial companies;

Third
Party

Consultation:
Arbitration: Involves a third party judgment that is arrived at by considering the merits of the
opposing cases and their imposing a settlement.
Mediation: Involves a skilled third party who attempts to help clients reach a compromise on
specific issues that are amenable for negotiation

57
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Strategies of Community Organization


Methods of Conflict Resolution
A strategy is the general framework of or orientation to the activities undertaken to achieve a
goal. It is not a particular action but rather a series of actions that take in to account, the
anticipated maneuvers of people. [Supporters as well as opponents]
A strategy is an orchestration of individual attempts’ that brings together and consciously blends
a variety of different components of action. A strategy takes in to account the actions and
reactions of key allies and adversaries as they bear upon achievement of the proposed goal.
There are four strategic approaches pursued in community organization

Table: Four approaches in conflict resolution

Confrontation Negotiation Co-operation Co-optation


It involves bringing It is a process of It exists when parties It results when parties
the demands of one bringing parties with share resources to share common beliefs
party to the attention different needs and accomplish a common about matters and
of another and forcing perspectives to an goal when success or
compliance agreement failure of one party
produces similar
feelings
Situation for which a particular strategy may be appropriate
Target refuses to Unable to sustain The respondents have Opposite group is
meet with us. confrontation resources we need uncooperative and is
Target is effectively. and from which we not a good target for
unresponsive. Unable to neither can benefit. confrontation.
Need to crystallize or convince nor force the When we have Key individuals in the
dramatize the issue. respondent into full resources to offer. opposite group are
Need to energize the compliance with our Situation of mutual amenable to some
issue. demands. benefit. sort of affiliation.
Need to attract the To see progress Want to increase the Weakening the
allies. toward accomplishing respondents‘ opposite by putting
some gain. dependence on us. them in our agency
When the opponents Respondent is O.K where their opinion is
have recognized the and we want to work silenced.
legitimacy of the together.
demands.
When both sides want
to gain or build
relationship.

Strengths of a Particular strategy


* Fighting with an * Likely to end up *Combined resources * Silencing a
external opponent more favorable * More people to work potentially harmful
may strengthen group condition, even if you * More dependence of critic

58
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

cohesion don‘t get everything others may alter the * Gain some insights
* Winning provides you want balance of power into the working of
tremendous emotional * Other sides ability the competition
uplift to gain some thing * Gaining access to a
* Mere threat of makes them more community that has
confrontation may be accepting of your gain been closed to you
sufficient to * Positive relationship
accomplish our may develop
purpose
Limitations of the strategy
* Loss can be * Settle for to little * More energy is * Letting a fox in the
discouraging that may weaken the needed to maintain hen house
And may lead to future demands the relationship * Co-opted members
internal puckering * Loss of autonomy may manipulate your
* Non cooperation * Others may take transparency
from the other side credit for the success

The major elements we need to understand before deciding a strategy

Elements Things to know


Issues Basic facts; causes and effects of problems; solutions applied in other places;
rights and obligation of parties
Target Probable reaction to specific tactic; principal decision makers; degree of
rationale for support or opposition; strengths and vulnerabilities; cohesion
Your Troops Degree of commitment; numbers; probable reactions to opponent‘s tactics;
cultural norms; strengths and vulnerabilities; cohesion
Other Resources Awareness of needed additional resources; availability and location of
resources; steps required to gain additional resources

NEGOTIATION
In trying to solve certain problems, community Organizations often find it necessary to Negotiate
with other parties. “Negotiation is an attempt to hold discussion with those who evidence
varying degrees of resistance, in the hope of ultimately arriving at an agreement. This is
the essence (i.e. arriving at an agreement through discussion) and the end point of the
negotiating process. In this context a negotiant is anyone whom the community organization is
trying to influence. A negotiant can be undecided, neutral or hostile.
E.g. Strike by the govt. staff. Activism against lock up deaths.

The common element in all these examples is that the community organization attempts to hold
discussions with those who evidence varying degrees of resistance in the hope of ultimately
arriving at an agreement. Thus negotiation implies a conflict and the promotion of a cause or
certain interests.

59
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

In successful negotiation both parties ideally perceive that they have given up something of
limited value to gain something of major value. If one party feels defeated then that party won’t
show any interest in making the agreement stable and may be
provoked into laying plans for future retaliation.

Problems in Negotiation:
Many community organizations do not always heave within
their capacity the power to gain success to decision- makers.
Unlike in industrial negotiation, community groups lacking
power frequently find themselves prevented from the
negotiation process. So community organizations have to
develop their position and power that allows them to sit at the
negotiating table
To gain access to negotiations and enhance their bargaining
positions, community organizations use a variety of tactics.
Tactics to strengthen the Negotiating power of the
community organizations
1. Supporting Survival Needs
Eg.Helping politicians in their campaigns
Supporting local departments to get more budget
allocations.
Assisting in find raising campaigns.
2. Demonstrating public support and sympathy:
It means demonstrating the decision- makers that they espouse
a cause, which has widespread community support
Eg. Holding mass rallies.
Conducting letter-writing campaigns.
Circulating petitions.
Increasing membership.
Obtaining editorial support.
Organizing leading citizens to contact their legislators.
Signature campaigns.
3. Forming Alliances:
Alliances can be formed with other organizations whose members have similar values. Broader
the base of the alliance more power can be exerted in the negotiating process.
E.g. - Demands one NGO supported by other NGOs.
4. Conducting Behind – The Scenes Discussions
In most of the political situations certain people bear major responsibility for what happens.
Through quite discussions with these persons, the key decision- makers can be convinced to
carryout a course of action promoted by the community organization. In fact these key leaders
sometimes become the crusaders of the cause, and the initiating community organization may
have to be satisfied with little credit even through their objective is achieved.
5. Targeting pressure points:
Selecting targets that are vulnerable to the special kinds of pressure a community organization
can bring to hear.
Eg. – Road Blockade

60
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Agitation during assembly session


Wearing Black Badge.
6. Threatening:
Negotiation often involves a degree of threat. The fact that rewards can be with held or
punishment inflicted constitutes a threat.
E.g. – Threat of a Lawsuit.
Threats to withdraw support or boycott.
7. Waging campaigns against persons or institutions:
Direct action.

Skills
Communication

Fund Raising
Group & Organizational

Problem Solving
Planning &
Development
Research & Analysis

Visioning

61
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Community Organizing Skills


Community Organizing Skills
Undergraduate C.O.D. Program at Hunter College

I. Organizing and Planning Skills


Ability to develop and engage people in groups
Capacity to organize and run a meeting
Ability to represent the organization
II. Interpersonal Skills
Capacity to work with different types of people
Capacity to understand how to motivate and involve people in change
Capacity to observe, listen, and hear
III. Analytical Skills
Capacity to understand the issues, philosophy, and styles of the organization
Capacity to gather and use data and information able to understand different types and models of
organizing and advocacy
IV. Administrative Skills
Capacity to keep records
Capacity to communicate verbally and in writing
Capacity to use time productively
V. Political Tactics and Strategies
Capacity to understand and analyze power structures
Capacity to understand and develop relevant tactics
Capacity to understand the impact of gender, race, ethnicity, sexual. orientation on organizing process
and outcomes
VI. Personal Characteristics and Professional Values
Capacity to take initiative and self-directed
Capacity to ask for help, support, guidance
Capacity to make responsible decisions
Capacity to demonstrate integrity
Capacity to identify with clients/community/constituency

62
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Leadership Skills for Community Organizers

INDICATORS OF LEADERSHIP SKILLS IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS


http://www.povertycafe.org/pcweb/archives/December/training_on_basic_community_orga.htm
1. Problem Solving Skills
Leaders are able to:
- Identify group problems
- Analyze problems
- Set priorities
- Set general and specific objectives
- Set action strategies
- Implement action strategies
- Evaluate action strategies
2. Organization Skills
Leaders are able to:
- Prepare/organize meetings
- Prepare agenda/keep records
- Conduct meetings
- Create necessary committees
- Carry committee work effectively
- Communicate verbally to other members and residents on the importance of having viable
organizations, etc.
- Motivate members to attend meetings
- Formulate goals for the organization
3. Relationship Skills
Leaders are able to:
- Express positive and negative feelings about self and others
- Express positive and negative feedbacks to members
- Receive positive and negative feedbacks
- Express need for others
- Volunteer needed help to others
- Determine various ways of creating positive relationships amongst members
- Accept feelings of self and others
- Identify and analyze conflict situation clearly
- Demonstrate excellent interpersonal skills
- Self-discovery
- Self-disclosure
4. Community Management Skills
Leaders are able to:
- Assesses community needs, values, expectations
- Analyze constraints
- Formulate objectives
- Identify, sequence and scheduled activities/resources needed in implementing projects
- Set up a system/procedure in the implementation of identified projects

63
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Skills

64
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

Skills for community Organizers

Critical thinking

Research and inquiry


Problem solving

Personal & intellectual


Self-management
Information literacy

Dissemination

Autonomy
Analysis
Information literacy Independent learning

Information technology literacy

Goal skills
Information research

General Skills Required for Community Organization


Ethical, social and professional

Group& Organizational
Ethical perspective Leading
Communication and interpersonal

Change
Professional perspective Development Project Program effectiveness
understanding

Social Systems Thinking


perspective
Oral communication Community Building

Written communication

Non-verbal communication

Leadership

Teamwork

Networking

65
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

What skills topics are covered?


A Popular Skill Development module for Community Organizers in USA covers a range of
skills which includes an introduction to direct action organizing which includes; power
analysis, strategic planning, public speaking, planning a variety of public events, fundraising
for justice, working with local media, becoming your own media, coalition-building, and
transforming conflicts.

66
S.Rengasamy. Methods of Community Organization

67