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Kitar Pembelajaran 5 Es

Oleh Enchum binti Ibrahim Jabatan Sains

Constructivism
Adalah proses di mana murid memperolehi dan membina pengetahuan sendiri secara individu dan juga bersama Berkaitan : Piaget (konstruktivisme kendiri) dan Vygotsky (konstruktivisme sosial)

Pembelajaran daripada Perspektif Konstruktivisme


Pembelajaran dilihat sebagai suatu proses di mana murid membina makna secara aktif daripada pengalaman yang dilaluinya dan bersangkutan dengan pengetahuan sedia ada serta dalam konteks sosial. Peranan guru adalah menyediakan satu situasi yang mencabar murid.

Kitar Pembelajaran
Dapatan kajian mencadangkan guru memperingkatkan pengajarannya kepada beberapa siri pengajaran atau fasa pembelajaran Pemeringkatan ini dinamakan Kitar pembelajaran

Lesson Design Menu Appetizer (Exploration) Focus and Review Statement of Objective Main Course (Concept Development) Teacher Input Presentation Guided Practice Dessert (Concept Application) Independent Practice Closure

Exploration Phase
Purpose
Activate prior knowledge Draw students into the lesson Focus students attention on task with clear purpose

Activating prior knowledge


Goal is to establish a connection between what they know and the new information (advanced organizers, anticipatory set, external mediators) External Mediator
Class discussion Provocative objects Graphic outlines of material to be covered

Discussion Sequence
Existing knowledge Thought association Rapid recognition Quick lesson review Open discussion

Graphic Organizers
Bubble trees Prediction charts K-W-L Venn Diagrams Cycles Thinking Maps (see Course Packet p. 95)

Establishing a Clear Purpose


Children ask: Why is this important? Knowing what is expected is important Must be linked to prior knowledge and lessons Generally comes last during introductory sequence Focuses student attention

The Development Phase


This is the main learning experience This is III. Teacher Input or Presentation Key Questions:
What basic concepts or skills are to be taught? What learning materials should be used? How can the teacher help students construct key concepts and skills? What strategies can be used to ensure that students understand and master the skill?

Teaching the Concept


1 Provide Information
Explain the concept Define the concept Provide examples of the concept Model

2 Check for understanding


Pose key questions Ask students to explain concept/definition in their own words Encourage students to generate their own examples

Concepts and Examples


Community
Wilmington Washington, DC Tokyo

Island
Hawaii Cuba Wrightsville Beach

Mountain
Mt. Everest Mt. Fuji Grandfather Mountain

Justice
Taking turns Writing down rules Applying rules equally to everyone

Factstorming
Process of finding relevant details associated with a concept
Fact

Fact

Fact

Concept

Fact

Fact

Fact

Task Analysis
Skills are mental or physical operations having a specific set of actions that are developed through practice Task analysis: process of identifying component parts of skills and sequencing the steps Modeling of skills is highly effective and efficient

Materials for Instruction


Bruners three level of learning Enactive Iconic Symbolic Select materials that represent a balance of these three levels

Assisting students as they construct key concepts


Use of language-based strategies
General instructional conversations Small group instructional conversations Graphic organizers
Conceptual Sequential Cyclical Hierarchical

Questioning Strategies
Two types of questions: Purposes?
Closed Open-ended

Art of Questioning (Dewey) p. 297 Framing questions and Wait time


Ask question Pause 3 5 seconds Call on someone to respond Pause 3 5 more seconds to give think time

Concept/Skill Application Phase


Opportunity to apply and practice new skill or concept through special projects or independent activities Two parts:
Guided Practice Independent Practice or Functional Application

Should result in constructing deeper meaning

Guided Practice
Many kinds of practice for new learning Use of concept mapping/graphic organizers
Conceptual Sequential Cyclical Hierarchical

Thinking Maps

Independent Practice
Independent Activities (different activity from Guided Practice!) Focus on creativity and choice Provide for extension, application, relevance, and usefulness

Closure
Involves summarizing, sharing, reviewing, extending the concept May provide transition to new lesson or learning