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PROBLEMAS RESUELTOS DE ANALISIS DE ESTRUCTURAS POR EL METODO DE LOS NUDOS

Problema resuelto Pg. 246 Esttica BEDFORD Problema 6.1 Esttica BEDFORD edic 4 Problema 6.2 Esttica BEDFORD edic 4 Problema 6.4 Esttica BEDFORD edic 5 Problema 6.13 Esttica BEDFORD edic 4 Problema 6.14 Esttica BEDFORD edic 4 Problema 6.1 BEER Johnston edic 6 Problema 6.2 BEER Johnston edic 6 Problema 6.3 BEER Johnston edic 6 Problema 6.4 BEER Johnston edic 6 Problema 6.1 Esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Problema 6.2 Esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Problema 6.3 Esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Problema 6.4 Esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Problema c-34 esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Problema C-35 esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Problema 6.8 esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Problema resuelto Pag. 145 Esttica Meriam Problema 4.1 Esttica Meriam edicin tres Problema 4.1 Esttica Meriam edicin cinco Problema 4.3 Esttica Meriam edicin tres Problema 4.3 Esttica Meriam edicin cinco Problema 4.4 Esttica Meriam edicin tres Problema 4.4 Esttica Meriam edicin cinco Problema 4.5 Esttica Meriam edicin tres Problema 4.7 Esttica Meriam edicin tres Erving Quintero Gil Tecnlogo electromecnico - UTS Ing. Electromecnico - UAN Especialista en Ingeniera del gas - UIS Bucaramanga Colombia 2011

Para cualquier inquietud o consulta escribir a: quintere@hotmail.com quintere@gmail.com quintere2006@yahoo.com

Mtodo de las juntas o nudos (PROBLEMA RESUELTO PAG. 246 ESTATICA BEDFORD) El mtodo de las juntas implica dibujar diagramas de cuerpo libre de las juntas de una armadura, una por una, y usar las ecuaciones de equilibrio para determinar las fuerzas axiales en las barras. Por lo general, antes debemos dibujar un diagrama de toda la armadura (es decir, tratar la armadura como un solo cuerpo) y calcular las reacciones en sus soportes. Por ejemplo, la armadura WARREN de la figura 6.6(a) tiene barras de 2 metros de longitud y soporta cargas en B y D. En la figura 6.6(b) dibujamos su diagrama de cuerpo libre. De las ecuaciones de equilibrio.
400 N

C A
2m 2m

Fig. 6. 6(a) Armadura WARREN soportando dos cargas


400 N 800 N

A
AX 1m AY 2m 1m

3m
E
1m 2m 1m EY 400 N 800 N

B
TAB

TBD TBC

TBD

D
TDC TDE

TAB TBC TDE

A
AY

TAC

TAC

TEC

TEC

Fig. 6. 6(b) Diagrama de cuerpo libre de la armadura

MA = 0

- 400 (1) - 800 (1 +1+1) + EY (1+1+1+1) = 0

FX = 0 FY = 0

AX = 0

- 400 - 800 (3) + EY (4) = 0 - 400 - 2400 + 4 EY = 0 - 2800 + 4 EY = 0 4 EY = 2800

AY + EY 400 - 800 = 0

EY =

2800 = 700 N 4

EY = 700 N ME = 0

- AY (1+1+1+1) + 400 (1+1+1) + 800 (1) = 0

- AY (4) + 400 (3) + 800 = 0 - 4 AY + 1200 + 800 = 0 4 AY = 2000

AY =

2000 = 500 N 4

AY = 500 N NUDO A El siguiente paso es elegir una junta y dibujar su diagrama de cuerpo libre. En la figura 6.7(a) aislamos la junta A cortando las barras AB y AC. Los trminos TAB y TAC son las fuerzas axiales en las barras AB y AC respectivamente. Aunque las direcciones de las flechas que representan las fuerzas axiales desconocidas se pueden escoger arbitrariamente, observe que las hemos elegido de manera que una barra estar a tensin, si obtenemos un valor positivo para la fuerza axial. Pensamos que escoger consistentemente las direcciones de esta manera ayudara a evitar errores. 400 N

TAB
2

3
1 AY

TAB

A
TAC
AY

TAB

TAC

TAB

C
TAC TAC

A
AY

Figura 6.7(a) Obtencin del diagrama de cuerpo libre de la junta A.

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta A son:

TAB TAC A Y = = 2 1 3
Hallar TAB

Hallar TAC

TAB A Y = 2 3
AY = 500 N

TAB TAC = 2 1
T TAC = AB 2
TAB = 577,35 Newton

TAB 500 = = 288,67 2 3 TAB = 2 (288,67 ) = 577,35 N


TAB = 577,35 Newton(compresin)

TAC =

577,35 = 288,67 N 2

TAC = 288,67 Newton (Tension)

NUDO B Luego obtenemos un diagrama de la junta B cortando las barras AB, BC y BD (Fig. 6.8 a). De las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta B.
400 N

400 N

800 N

B
TAB

TBD

B
TAB

TBD TBC

TBD

400 N

D
60
0

TBD
600

TBC TAB TBC

TAB (Y)

TBC TBC (Y) TAB TAB (X) TBC (X)

A
AY

TAC

TAC

Figura 6.8(a) Obtencin del diagrama de cuerpo libre de la junta B.

sen 60 =

TAB(Y ) TAB

Para abreviar los clculos

TAB (Y) = TAB sen 60

3 TAB(Y ) = TAB 2

sen 60 =

3 2

cos 60 =

1 2

3 TAB(Y ) = 2 TAB
TAB = 577,35 Newton

3 TAB(Y ) = 2 (577,35) = 500 N


TAB (Y) = 500 N

cos 60 =

TAB(X ) TAB

TAB (X) = TAB cos 60

sen 60 =

TBC(Y ) TBC

cos 60 =

TBC (Y) = TBC sen 60

TBC(X ) TBC

1 TAB(X ) = TAB 2 1 TAB(X ) = TAB 2


TAB = 577,35 Newton

3 TBC(Y ) = TBC 2 3 TBC(Y ) = 2 TBC

TBC (X) = TBC cos 60

1 TBC(X ) = TBC 2 1 TBC(X ) = TBC 2

TAB(X ) =

1 (577,35) = 288,67 N 2

TAB (X) = 288,67 N

3 TBC(Y ) = 2 TBC
FY = 0 - 400 + TAB (Y) - TBC (Y) = 0 TAB (Y) = 500 N - 400 + 500 - TBC (Y) = 0 100 - TBC (Y) = 0 100 = TBC (Y) FX = 0 - TBD + TAB (X) + TBC (X) = 0 TAB (X) = 288,67 N TBC (X) = 57,73 Newton - TBD + 288,67 + 57,73 = 0 - TBD + 346,4 = 0 TBD = 346,4 Newton (compresin) 100 = TBC (Y)

3 100 = 2 TBC 200 2 TBC = = 115,47 N 100 = 3 3


TBC = 115,47 N (compresin)

Se halla TBC (X)

1 TBC(X ) = TBC 2
TBC = 115,47 N

1 TBC(X ) = (115,47 ) = 57,73 N 2


TBC (X) = 57,73 Newton

NUDO D Luego obtenemos un diagrama de la junta D cortando las barras BD, DC y DE . De las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta D.
800 N

TBD

800 N

800 N

TBD

TBD

D
TDC TDE TDE TDC (Y)

600

600

TDE TDC TDC (X) TDE (X)

TDE (Y)

TDC TDE

Para abreviar los clculos

TEC

TEC
EY

sen 60 =

3 2

cos 60 =

1 2

sen 60 =

TDC(Y ) TDC

TDC (Y) = TDC sen 60

cos 60 =

3 TDC(Y ) = TDC 2 3 TDC (Y ) = 2 TDC

TDC(X ) TDC

TDC (X) = TDC cos 60

1 TDC(X ) = TDC 2 3 TDC(Y ) = 2 TDC

sen 60 =

TDE(Y ) TDE

cos 60 =

TDE (Y) = TDE sen 60

TDE(X ) TDE

3 TDE (Y ) = TDE 2 3 TDE(Y ) = 2 TDE


FX = 0 TBD - TDE (X) + TDC (X) = 0 TBD = 346,4 Newton

TDE (X) = TDE cos 60

1 TDE (X ) = TDE 2 1 TDE (X ) = TDE 2

(compresin)

346,4

- TDE (X) + TDC (X) = 0

TDE (X) - TDC (X) = 346,4 ecuacin 1 Pero: FY = 0 - 800 + TDE (Y) + TDC (Y) = 0 TDE (Y) + TDC (Y) = 800 ecuacin 2 Pero:

1 TDE (X ) = TDE 2 1 TDC(X ) = TDC 2


Reemplazando en la ecuacin 1

1 TDE 2

1 - TDC = 346,4 ecuacin 3 2

TDE(Y ) = TDC(Y ) =

3 TDE 2 3 TDC 2

Reemplazando en la ecuacin 2

resolver ecuacin 3 y ecuacin 4

3 3 TDE + 2 TDC = 800 ecuacin 4 2

1 1 TDE - TDC = 346,4 multiplicar por 2 2 3 3 TDE + 2 TDC = 800 2 3 - 2 TDC = 346,4 3 3 TDE + 2 TDC = 800 2 3 TDE 2

[ 3]

[ 3 ]= 600

3 3 TDE + 2 TDE = 600 + 800 = 1400 2 3 2 2 TDE = 1400

3 TDE = 1400
TDE = 1400 = 808,29 N 3

TDE = 808,29 Newton (compresin) Reemplazando en la ecuacin 4, se halla TDC

3 3 TDE + 2 TDC = 800 ecuacin 4 2 3 3 (808,29 ) + 2 TDC = 800 2 3 700 + 2 TDC = 800 3 2 TDC = 800 - 700 = 100 2 200 TDC = 100 = 115,47 N = 3 3
TDC = 115,47 Newton (Tensin) Problema 6.1 ESTATICA BEDFORD edic 4 Determine the axial forces in the members of the truss and indicate whether they are in tension (T) or compression (C) A
10 KN

A
10 KN

A
10 KN

2m

2m

2m

B
1m

BX

B C
BY 1m CY

BX

B C
BY 1m CY

MC = 0

FX = 0 10 BX = 0 BX = 10 KN

FY = 0 CY BY = 0 CY = BY Pero: BY = 20 KN

BY (1) 10 (2) = 0

BY (1) = 10 (2) BY = 20 KN

CY = 20 KN

NUDO B
FBA

FX = 0 FBC BX = 0
FBC

FY = 0 FBA BY = 0 FBA = BY pero: BY = 20 KN FBA = 20 KN (tensin)

BX

B
BY

FBC = BX pero: BX = 10 KN FBC = 10 KN (tensin)

NUDO A A
10 KN FBA FBA FAC 2 1
5

FAC

FBA 10 FAC = = 2 1 5
Hallamos FAC

10 KN

10 FAC = 1 5 FAC = 10 5 = 22,36 KN


FAC = 22,36 KN (compresin)

( )

Problema 6.2 ESTATICA BEDFORD edic 4 La armadura mostrada soporta una carga de 10 kN en C. a) Dibuje el diagrama de cuerpo libre de toda la armadura y determine las reacciones en sus soportes b) Determine las fuerzas axiales en las barras. Indique si se encuentran a tensin (T) o a compresin (C) .

BY BX

FCB

FAB 3m

=0 =0

MB = 0

FAB AX

FCB

AX (3) - 10 (4) = 0

A
FCA 4m FCA

C
10 KN

AX (3) = 10 (4) 3 AX = 40 FY = 0 BY - 10 = 0 BY = 10 KN

AX =

40 = 13,33KN 3

AX = 13,33 KN MA = 0

BX (3) - 10 (4) = 0

BX (3) = 10 (4) 3 BX = 40

BX =

40 = 13,33KN 3

BX = 13,33 KN

10

NUDO C
FCB 10 KN FCA 3 5 4 FCA FCB

C
10 KN

FCB FCA 10 = = 5 4 3
Hallar FCB

Hallar FCA

FCB 10 = 5 3 (5)10 = 16,66 KN FCB = 3


FCB = 16,66 kN (Tensin) NUDO A FY = 0 FX = 0 AX - FCA = 0 AX = FCA Pero: FCA = 13,33 kN AX = FCA =13,33 kN FAB = 0
AX

FCA 10 = 4 3 FCA =

(4)10 = 13,33 KN
3

FCA = 13,33 kN (compresin)

AX = 13,33 KN
FAB

=0

BY = 10 KN BX = 13,33 KN

A
FCA

FCB = 16,66 kN (Tensin) FCA = 13,33 kN (compresin) FAB = 0

11

Problema 6.4 ESTATICA BEDFORD edic 5 The members of the truss are all of lenght L. Determine the axial forces in the members and indicate whether they are in tension (T) or compression (C) F B D F B
FBA FBD FBD

D
FBC FCD

C A
AX = 0 L

FBA

A
FAC AY L

FBC FAC

FCD

CY

NUDO D

F D F
FBD
600

F B
FBD FBD

FBD

D
FDC

FCD

FDC (Y)

FDC
AX = 0

A
L AY

FDC

MC = 0

AY (L) F (L/2) = 0

FDC (X)

CY

L/2

AY (L) = F (L/2) AY = F MA = 0

CY (L) F ( L + L/2) = 0

CY (L) - F ( 3/2 L) = 0 CY (L) = F ( 3/2 L) CY = F ( 3/2) CY = 3/2 F

cos 60 =

FDC(X ) FDC

Para abreviar los clculos

FDC (X) = FDC cos 60

sen 60 =

1 FDC(X ) = FDC 2

3 2

cos 60 =

1 2

sen 60 =

FDC(Y ) FDC
12

FDC (Y) = FDC sen 60

3 FDC(Y ) = FDC 2 3 FDC(Y ) = 2 FDC


FY = 0 - F + FDC (Y) = 0 F = FDC (Y) Pero: FDC (Y) = FDC sen 60 F = FDC sen 60 DESPEJANDO FDC

FDC =

1 (F) = 1,154 F sen 60


FX = 0 FY = 0 AY + EY 400 - 800 = 0 AX = 0

FDC = 1,154 F (Compresion) FX = 0 - FBD + FDC (X) = 0 FBD = FDC (X) Pero: FDC (X) = FDC cos 60 FBD = FDC cos 60 Pero: FDC = 1,154 F FBD = (1,154 F) cos 60 FBD = 0,577 F (tensin) NUDO B B
FBD
FBA

F B
FBA FBC FBA FBD FBD

D
FBC

FBA

FBC

FBD
AX = 0

A
L AY

FBC

CY

13

sen 60 =

FBA(Y ) TAB cos 60 = FBA(X ) FBA


FBA (Y) FBD
60
0

FBA (Y) = TBA sen 60

3 FBA(Y ) = FBA 2 3 FBA(Y ) = 2 FBA

FBA (X) = FBA cos 60

600

sen 60 =

FBC(Y ) FBC

1 FBA(X ) = FBA 2 1 FBA(X ) = FBA 2

FBC FBA FBA (X)

FBC (Y)

FBC (X)

FBC (Y) = TBC sen 60

3 FBC(Y ) = FBC 2 3 FBC(Y ) = 2 FBC


FX = 0 FBD - FBC (X) - FBA (X) = 0

cos 60 =

FBC(x ) FBC

FBC (X) = FBC cos 60

1 FBC (X ) = FBC 2

FBD - FBC(X ) - FBA (X ) = 0 FBC(X ) + FBA (X ) = FBD


PERO: FBD = 0,577 F

Para abreviar los clculos

sen 60 =

3 2

cos 60 =

1 2

FBC(X ) + FBA (X ) = 0,577 F 1 1 FBC + FBA = 0,577 F (ECUACIN 1) 2 2


FY = 0 FBC (Y) - FBA (Y) = 0

3 3 FBC 2 2 FBA = 0 (ECUACIN 2)


resolver ecuacin 1 y ecuacin 2

1 1 FBC + FBA = 0,577 F multiplicar por 2 2

[ 3]
14

3 3 FBC - 2 2 FBA = 0 3 3 FBC + 2 FBA = 3 2 3 3 FBC - 2 FBA = 0 2

( ) (0,577 F)

3 2 2 FBC = F 3 FBC = F

1 FBC = F 3
FBC = 0,577 F (compresin) Reemplazando en la ecuacin 2

3 3 FBC 2 FBA = 0 (ECUACIN 2) 2 3 3 (0,577 F ) 2 FBA = 0 2 3 3 (0,577 F ) = 2 FBA 2


F B
L FBA FBD FBD

Cancelando terminos semejantes

(0,577 F) = FBA

FBA = 0,577 F (tensin) NUDO A


FBA
L

D
FBC FCD

FBA

A
L/2 AY AY FAC L/2 L

FBC FAC

FCD

A
FAC
AY

FBA

CY

FAC

15

FBA FAC = L L2
FBA 2 FAC = L L
Cancelando trminos semejantes FBA = 2 FAC Pero: FBA = 0,577 F

AY = F CY = 3/2 F FDC = 1,154 F (Compresion) FBD = 0,577 F (tensin) FBC = 0,577 F (compresin) FBA = 0,577 F (tensin)

0,577 F = 2 FAC

FAC =

FAC = 0,288 F (Compresin)

0,577 F 2

Problema 6.13 bedford edic 4 La armadura recibe cargas en C y E. Si F = 3 KN, cuales son las fuerzas axiales BC y BE?
1m FDB FEB FCB FCA FDB FDE FEB FDE FEC FGD

AX=0

AY

1m

A FAB
FCA

FAB

1m

D
FGD

1m FCB FEC

G E
6 kN FGE FGE

C
3 kN

GY

MG = 0

6 (1) + 3 (1 +1) - AY (1+1+1) = 0

16

6 (1) + 3 (2) - AY (3) = 0 6 + 6 3 AY = 0 6 + 6 = 3 AY 12 = 3 AY FX = 0 AX = 0

AY =

12 = 4 KN 3

AY = 4 KN MA = 0

- 3 (1) - 6 (1 +1) + GY (1+1+1) = 0

- 3 - 6 (2) + GY (3) = 0 - 3 - 12 + 3 GY = 0 - 15 + 3 GY = 0 3 GY = 15

GY =

15 = 5 KN 3

AX

AY

1m

1m

1m

D
FGD

GY = 5 KN NUDO G
FGD 1m

FGD

G G
FGE FGE

C
3 kN 1

E
6 kN

FGE

FGE

GY

GY
FGD

GY = 5 KN Hallar FGE

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta G son:

FGD FGE 5 = = 1 1 2
Hallar FGD

FGE 5 = 1 1
FGE = 5 KN (Tensin)

FGD =5 2

17

FGD = 2 (5)
FGD = 7,071 KN (compresin)

NUDO D D
FDB

AX

AY

1m

B
FDB

1m

1m

D
FDB FDE FGD

FDE FDB FGD 1

FGD 1m

FGD FDE

G
1 FDE

C
3 kN

E
6 kN

FGE

FGE

GY

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta D son:

FGD FDE FDB = = 1 1 2


PERO: FGD = 7,071 KN

Hallar FDB

5 = FDB
FDB = 5 KN (compresion)

F F = DE = DB 1 1 2 5 = FDE = FDB 7,071


Hallar FDE

5 = FDE

AX

AY

1m

1m FDB FEB FDB FDE

1m

D
FGD

FDE = 5 KN (TENSION) NUDO E


FEB FDE 1m

FEB FDE FEC FEC

FGD

G E
6 kN FGE FGE

FEC

C E
6 kN FGE 3 kN

GY

18

sen 45 =

FEB(Y ) FEB

FEB (Y) = FEB sen 45

cos 45 =

FEB(X ) FEB
FEB(X) FEB(Y) FEB 450 FEC

2 FEB(Y ) = FEB 2 2 FEB(Y ) = 2 FEB


FY = 0 FDE - 6 + FEB(Y) = 0 PERO: FDE = 5 kN 5 - 6 + FEB(Y) = 0 - 1 + FEB(Y) = 0 FEB(Y) = 1 KN

FEB (X) = FEB cos 45

FDE = 5 KN

2 FEB(X ) = FEB 2 2 FEB(X ) = 2 FEB

FGE = 5 KN 6 kN

FEB =

FEB(Y ) 1 = = 1,414 kN sen45 sen 45

FEB = 1,414 KN (tension) FEB (X) = FEB cos 45 FEB (X) = (1,414) cos 45 FEB (X) = 1 KN FX = 0 FGE - FEC - FEB (X) = 0 PERO: FGE = 5 kN FEB (X) = 1 KN FGE - FEC - FEB (X) = 0 5 - FEC - 1 = 0 4 - FEC = 0 FEC = 4 KN (tension)

19

NUDO C
FCB FCA

AX=0

AY

1m

A
FCA

1m FDB FEB FDB FDE FEB FDE FEC

1m

D
FGD

FEC

FCB FCA

C
3 kN

1m FCB FEC

FGD

G E
6 kN FGE FGE

FCA(Y ) sen 45 = FCA


FCA (Y) = FCA sen 45

C
3 kN

GY

2 FCA (Y ) = FCA 2 2 FCA (Y ) = 2 FCA


FX = 0 FEC - FAC (X) = 0 FEC = FAC (X) PERO: FEC = 4 kN FAC (X) = 4 kN FCA (X) = FCA cos 45

cos 45 =

FCA(X ) FCA
FCA(Y)

FCA(X) FCA 450

FCB

FCA (X) = FCA cos 45

2 FCA (X ) = FCA 2 2 FCA (X ) = 2 FCA

FEC = 4 KN 3 kN

FY = 0 - FCB - 3 + FCA(Y) = 0 PERO: FCA (Y) = 4 kN - FCB - 3 + 4 = 0 - FCB + 1 = 0 FCB = 1 KN (compresin)

FCA =

FCA (X ) 4 = = 5,656kN cos 45 0,7071 2 FCA 2 2 5,656 = 4 KN 2

FCA = 5,656 KN (tension)

FCA (Y ) = FCA (Y ) =

FCA (Y) = 4 kN

20

NUDO A AX=0 AY = 4 KN AX=0 A


FAB

AY

1m

FAB FCA

FAB

1m FDB FEB FDB FDE FEB FDE FEC

1m

D
FGD

FCB FCA

1m FCB FEC

FGD

FCA

G E
6 kN FGE FGE

C Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta A son:


3 kN

GY

FCA FAB A Y = = 1 1 2
PERO: AY = 4 KN
FCA

FAB 1

FAB A Y = 1 1
FAB = 4 KN (compresin)

AY = 4 KN

Problema 6.14 bedford edic 4 If you don't want the members of the truss to be subjected to an axial load (tension or compression) greater than 20 kn, what is the largest acceptable magnitude of the downward force F?

A
12 m F 12 m

4m

D
3m

C
5m 4m

13 m

tg =

5 = 0,4166 12

= arc tg (0,4166) = 22,610


3m

21

tg =

4 = 1,3333 3

+ = 900 = 90 - = 90 - 53,12 = 36,870


0 0 0

= arc tg (1,3333) = 53,120

+ + = 900 pero: = 36,870 = 22,610 + + = 900 36,87 + 22,61 + = 900 = 900 - 36,87 - 22,61

NUDO A FAB(X) =36,870 FAB(Y) FAB FAC FAC(X)


F

= 30,520

FAC(Y)

sen 36,87 =

FAB(Y ) FAB

FAB (Y) = FAB sen 36,87

cos 36,87 =

FAB(X ) FAB

FAB(Y ) = (0,6 ) FAB

FAB (X) = FAB cos 36,87

sen =

FAC(X ) FAC FAC(X ) sen 30,52 = FAC

FAB(X ) = (0,8) FAB

cos 30,52 =

FAC(Y ) FAC

FAC (Y) = FAC cos 30,52

FAC (X) = FAC sen 30,52

FAC(Y ) = (0,8614 ) FAC

FAC(X ) = (0,507 ) FAC


FX = 0 FAC(X) - FAB (X) = 0 0,507 FAC - 0,8 FAB = 0 ECUACION 1 FY = 0 FAC (Y) - F - FAB (Y) = 0

22

0,8614 FAC - F - 0,6 FAB = 0 ECUACION 2 NUDO C FCB FAC FCB (Y) FCB(X) FAC(X) FAC(Y) FCD C FCB = 53,120 FCD FAC

sen 53,12 =

FCB(Y ) FCB

cos 53,12 =

FCB (Y) = FCB sen 53,12

FCB(X ) FCB

FCB (X) = FCB cos 53,12

FCB(Y ) = (0,7998 ) FCB


FX = 0 FCD - FAC(X) - FCB (X) = 0

FAC(X ) = (0,507 ) FAC FAC(Y ) = (0,8614 ) FAC

FCB(X ) = (0,6 ) FCB

FCD 0,507FAC - 0,6 FCB = 0 ECUACION 3 FY = 0 FCB (Y) - FAC (Y) = 0 0,7998 FCB - 0,8614 FAC = 0 ECUACION 4 NUDO D
DX

A FCD
12 m BY F

FX = 0 DX - FCD = 0 ECUACION 5 0,507 FAC - 0,8 FAB = 0 ECUACION 1 0,8614 FAC - F - 0,6 FAB = 0 ECUACION 2 FCD 0,507FAC - 0,6 FCB = 0 ECUACION 3 0,7998 FCB - 0,8614 FAC = 0 ECUACION 4 DX - FCD = 0 ECUACION 5 DESPEJAMOS F en la ecuacin 2 0,8614 FAC - F - 0,6 FAB = 0 ECUACION 2 0,8614 FAC - 0,6 FAB = F ECUACION 6
BX

FAC

B
FDB 4m FDB DX

FCB FCB C FAC

D FCD FCD
3m

23

Resolver la ecuacin 1 0,507 FAC - 0,8 FAB = 0 0,507 FAC = 0,8 FAB Despejando FAC

0,8 FAC = FAB = 1,577 FAB 0,507 FAC = 1,577 FAB


Reemplazar FAC en la ecuacin 6 0,8614 FAC - 0,6 FAB = F ECUACION 6 0,8614 (1,577 FAB ) - 0,6 FAB = F 1,3592 FAB - 0,6 FAB = F 0,7592 FAB = F Despejando FAB

1 F = 1,317 F 0,7592 FAB = 1,317 F FAB =


Reemplazar FAB en la ecuacin 6 0,8614 FAC - 0,6 FAB = F ECUACION 6 0,8614 FAC - 0,6 (1,317 F) = F 0,8614 FAC - 0,79 F = F 0,8614 FAC = F + 0,79 F 0,8614 FAC = 1,79 F

1,79 F = 2,078 F 0,8614 FAC = 2,078 F FAC =


Reemplazar FAC en la ecuacin 4 0,7998 FCB - 0,8614 FAC = 0 ECUACION 4 0,7998 FCB - 0,8614 (2,078 F) = 0 0,7998 FCB - 1,79 F = 0 0,7998 FCB = 1,79 F FAB = 1,317 F FAC = 2,078 F FCB = 2,238 F FCD = 2,395 F FDB = 0

FCB =

1,79 F = 2,238 F 0,7998

FCB = 2,238 F Reemplazar FAC y FCB en la ecuacin 3

24

FCD 0,507FAC - 0,6 FCB = 0 ECUACION 3 FCD 0,507 (2,078 F ) - 0,6 (2,238 F) = 0 FCD 1,053 F FCD = 1,053 F FCD = 2,395 F LA ESTRUCTURA MAS CRITICA ES FCD 2,395 F = 20 - 1,342 F = 0 + 1,342 F

F=

20 = 8,35 KN 2,395

F = 8,35 KN Problema 6.1 beer edic 6 Por el mtodo de los nudos, halla la fuerza en todas las barras de la armadura representada indicar en cada caso si es traccin o compresin.
A A

4m

1,92 N

1,92 N

B 3m

B BY

C CY

4,5 m A

MB = 0

1,92 ( 3) - CY (4,5) = 0
4m 1,92 N

la reaccin en B? FY = 0 BY 1,92 - CY = 0
B BY 3m 4,5 m C CY

5,76 - CY (4,5 ) = 0 CY (4,5 ) = 5,76 5,76 CY = = 1,28 N 4,5 CY = 1,28 N

BY 1,92 1,28 = 0 BY = 3,2 Newton

25

Nudo B
FAB FAB
B BY BY = 3,2 N 4 5 3 B B BY

FBC

FBC

FAB FBC 3,2 = = 5 3 4

Hallar FAB FAB 3,2 = 4 5

Hallar FBC FBC 3,2 = 3 4 (3) 3,2 = 9,6 = 2,4 N FBC = 4 4 FBc = 2,4 Newton (compresin)

4 4 FAB = 4 Newton(compresin)
Nudo C
C 8,5 4 7,5 C CY CY 4 8,5 7,5

FAB =

(5) 3,2 = 16 = 4 N

FCA (Y)

FCA
C x

FCA (X) FCA

FBC

7,5 cos = 8,5 FCA (X) = cos (FCA)

sen =

4 8,5

FX = 0 FBC FCA (X) = 0

FCA (Y) = sen (FCA)

FCA (X ) =

7,5 FCA 8,5

FCA (Y ) =

4 FCA 8,5

FBC FBC =

7,5 FCA = 0 8,5

7,5 FCA 8,5 7,5 2,4 = FCA 8,5 (2,4) 8,5 = 20,4 = 2,72 Newton FCA = 7,5 7,5 FCA = 2,72 Newton (traccin)

26

Problema 6.1 Beer edic 8 Utilice el mtodo de los nodos para determinar la fuerza presente en cada elemento de las armaduras. Establezca si los elementos estn en tensin o en compresin.

800 lb

AY AX

7,5 pies

800 lb

FAB
A

FAB tensin FCB


B

4 pies 4 pies C 7,5 pies

FAC

tensin FAC

compresin

MA = 0

FCB
C

CX

CX ( 4) - 800 (7,5) = 0

4 CX - 6000 = 0 4 CX = 6000

Fx= 0 CX AX = 0 CX = AX AX = 1500 lb.

CX =

6000 = 1500 lb 4

CX = 1500 lb. Nudo B


AY A

FBA B FBA FBC

800 lb

FBA B FBC

800 lb 4 pies

AX

FBA
CX C

FBC
7,5 pies 800 lb 4 7,5 8,5

FBA 800 FBC = = 8,5 7,5 4 F FBA = 200 = BC 8,5 7,5


Hallar FBA Hallar FBC

FBC

F 200 = BC 8,5
FBC = 8,5 (200) FBC = 1700 N (compresin)

FBA = 200 7,5


FBA = 1500 N (tensin)

27

NUDO C
FCA
AY AX A FBA

FBA B FBC

800 lb

FBC
CX C CX

FCA
4 pies

FCA
C

FCA
4

7,5 8,5

FBC

CX

FBC
7,5 pies

FCA CX FBC = = 8,5 7,5 4


Pero: FBC = 1700 N (compresin)

FBC = 1700 N (compresin) FBA = 1500 N (tensin) FCA = 200 (4) = 800 N (tensin)

FCA CX 1700 = = 7,5 8,5 4 FCA CX = = 200 7,5 4


Hallar FcA

FCA = 200 4
FCA = 200 (4) = 800 N (tensin)

28

Problema 6.2 beer edic 6 Por el mtodo de los nudos, halla la fuerza en todas las barras de la armadura representada indicar en cada caso si es traccin o compresin.
A 0,75 m

0,4 m B 1,4 m 2,8 KN 0,75 m

AY AX C

FAB
A

FAC

tensin FAB FCB

0,4 m B

MA = 0

CX ( 1,4) - 2,8 (0,75) = 0


1,4 m

tensin
2,8 KN

CX ( 1,4) = 2,8 (0,75) 1,4 CX = 2,1 2,1 CX = = 1,5 N 1,4 CX = 1,5 KNewton MC = 0

compresin FAC
CX C

FY= 0 AY 2,8 = 0 AY = 2,8 KNewton

FCB

- AX ( 1,4) - 2,8 (0,75) = 0


AY AX A B 1,4 m 2,8 N 0,75 m

- AX ( 1,4) = 2,8 (0,75) -1,4 AX = 2,1 2,1 AX = = - 1,5 N 1,4 AX = - 1,5 KNewton (significa que la fuerza AX esta direccionada hacia la izquierda) MC = 0

0,4 m

AX ( 1,4) - 2,8 (0,75) = 0


CX C

AX ( 1,4) = 2,8 (0,75) 1,4 AX = 2,1 2,1 AX = = 1,5 N 1,4

29

AX = 1,5 KNewton Nudo A


AY AY AX AX A A A 0,4 0,85 0,75 0,85 0,75

FAB

FAB (Y) FAB

0,4

FAB

FAC

FAB (X)

FAC
AY AX A

0,75 cos = 0,85 FAB (X) = cos (FAB) FAB (X ) =


FX = 0 - AX + FAB (X) = 0 0,75 - AX + FAB = 0 0,85 0,75 AX = FAB 0,85

FAB FAC

sen =

0,4 0,85

0,75 FAB 0,85

FAB (Y) = sen (FAB)

FAB (Y ) =

0,4 FAB 0,85

AX

FY= 0 AY FAC FAB (Y) = 0 0,4 A Y - FAC FAB = 0 0,85 0,4 (1,7 ) = 0 2,8 - FAC 0,85 2,8 0,8 = FAC FAC = 2 KNewton (Traccin)

FAC FAB

AY

0,85 AX 0,75 0,85 (1,5) FAB = 0,75 FAB = 1,7 KNewton (traccin) FAB =
Nudo C
FAC FCB

sen =

1 1,25

cos =

0,75 1,25
FCB

1,25 0,75

CX CX C

FCB (Y) = sen (FCB)

FCB (X) = sen (FCB)

FCB (Y)

FAC
C

FCB

1 FCB (Y ) = FCB 1,25

F 0,75 CB(X ) = FCB 1,25

FCB (X)

30

FX = 0 CX - FCB (X) = 0 CX = FCB (X)

AY AX A

0,75 m

0,4 m

0,75 FCB 1,25 FAC 1,25 FCB FCB = CX 0,75 C CX CX = 1,5 KNewton 1,25 (1,5) = 2,5 KN FCB = 0,75 FCB = 2,5 KNewton (compresin) CX =

B 1,4 m 1m 0,75

2,8 N

FAC

FCB
CX C

Problema 6.2 beer edic 8 Utilice el mtodo de los nodos para determinar la fuerza presente en cada elemento de las armaduras. Establezca si los elementos estn en tensin o en compresin.
4,2 KN 4,2 KN

B
FBA
1,5 m 4m

FBC FBC
1,5 m

C
FBA
CY 3m

4m

A A
4m AX BY 2m 4m 2m

MA = 0

FY = 0 BY + CY 4,2 = 0 Pero: CY = 2,8 KN BY + 2,8 4,2 = 0 BY 1,4 = 0 BY = 1,4 kN

CY ( 4 + 2) - 4,2 (4) = 0

CY ( 6) - 16,8 = 0 6 CY = 16,8

CY =

16,8 = 2.8 KN 6

CY = 2,8 KN

31

Nudo B B
FBA
4m

4,2 KN

FBC FBC
1,5 m 4,2 KN

C
FBA
CY 3m

B
4,2 KN

FBC FBC FBA

A
AX BY 4m 2m

FBA

cos =

2 = 0,8 2,5
FBC(X ) FBC

sen =

cos =

sen =

1,5 = 0,6 2,5 FBC(Y )

FBC
FBC(X)
1,5 2,5 2

FBC (X) = cos (FBC)

FBC (Y) = sen (FBC)

FBC (X ) = (0,8) FBC

FBC (Y ) = (0,6 ) FBC

FBC(Y)

FBC

cos =

4 = 0,7079 5,65 FBA(X ) FBA

cos =

4 sen = = 0,7079 5,65 FBA(Y ) sen = FBA


FBA (Y) = sen (FBA)

FBA FBA(Y)
5,65 4 4

4,2 KN

FBA (X) = cos (FBA)

FBA(X)

FBA (X ) = (0,7079 ) FBA


FY = 0 FBC(Y) + FBA (Y) 4,2 = 0 FBC(Y) + FBA (Y) = 4,2

FBA (Y ) = (0,7079 ) FBA

FX = 0 FBA(X) FBC (X) = 0

0,6 FBC + 0,7079 FBA = 4,2 (Ecuacin 2) Resolver las ecuaciones

0,7079 FBA - (0,8) FBC = 0 (Ecuacin 1)

32

0,7079 FBA - 0,8 FBC = 0 (-1) 0,6 FBC + 0,7079 FBA = 4,2 - 0,7079 FBA + 0,8 FBC = 0 0,6 FBC + 0,7079 FBA = 4,2 0,8 FBC + 0,6 FBC = 4,2 1,4 FBC = 4,2 Reemplazando en la ecuacin 1 0,7079 FBA - 0,8 FBC = 0 Pero: FBC = 3 KN 0,7079 FBA - 0,8 (3) = 0 0,7079 FBA 2,4 = 0 0,7079 FBA = 2,4

FBC =

4,2 = 3 KN 1,4

FBA =

FBC = 3 KN (compresin)

2,4 = 3,39 KN 0,7079

FBC = 3,39 KN (compresin)

NUDO C
FBC

4,2 KN

B
FBA
4m

FBC FBC
1,5 m

C
FCA
CY

FBC(X)
1,5 2,5 2 6,7 3 6 CY

FBC(Y)

C
FBA FCA FCA
4m CY 3m

FBC

A
AX BY

FCA(Y)

FCA

FCA(X)
2m

sen = sen =

cos =

2 = 0,8 2,5

cos =

FBC(X ) FBC

1,5 = 0,6 2,5 FBC(Y ) FBC

FBC (X) = cos (FBC)

FBC (Y) = sen (FBC)

FBC (X ) = (0,8) FBC

FBC (Y ) = (0,6 ) FBC

33

cos =

6 = 0,8955 6,7

cos =

FCA(X ) FCA

sen = sen =

FCA (X) = cos (FCA)

3 = 0,4477 6,7 FCA(Y ) FCA

FCA (X ) = (0,8955) FCA

FCA (Y) = sen (FCA)

FX = 0 FBC(X) FCA (X) = 0

FCA (Y ) = (0,4477 ) FCA

(0,8) FBC - (0,8955) FCA

= 0 (Ecuacin 1)

PERO: FBC = 3 KN (compresin)

(0,8) FBC - (0,8955) FCA = 0 (0,8)(3) - (0,8955) FCA = 0 2,4 - (0,8955) FCA = 0
0,8955 FCA = 2,4

FBC = 3,39 KN (compresin) FBC = 3 KN (compresin) FCA = 3 KN (tension)

2,4 = 2,68 KN 0,8955 FCA = 3 KN (tension) FCA =

Problema 6.3 beer edic 6 Por el mtodo de los nudos, halla la fuerza en todas las barras de la armadura representada indicar en cada caso si es traccin o compresin. FX = 0 BX = 0 MB = 0
945 lb

CY ( 12 + 3,75) - 945 (12) = 0


9 pies B

CY (15,75) - 945 (12) = 0 CY (15,75) = 945 (12) 15,75 CY = 11340


12 pies C

11340 CY = = 720 lb 15,75

3,75 pies

34

CY = 720 lb MC = 0
945 lb

945 (3,75) - BY ( 12+ 3,75) = 0


FBA
A

945 (3,75) = BY ( 15,75) 3543,75 = 15,75 BY

FCA

945 lb

3543,75 BY = = 225 lb 15,75 BY = 225 lb.

BX BY

FBA FBC FBC

FCA
C CY BX BY

9 pies

B
12 pies

C CY 3,75 pies

NUDO B

sen =

9 15

cos =

12 15
FBA
BX

FBA
BY

FBA (X) = sen (FBA)


F 9 BA(X ) = FBA 15

FBA (Y) = sen (FBA) B


BY

FBC FBC

BX

F 12 BA(Y ) = FBA 15

FBA FBC B Y = = 15 12 9 FBA FBC 225 = = 15 12 9


Hallar FBA FBA 225 = 15 9 (15) 225 = 375 lb. FBA = 9 FBA = 375 lb. (compresin)

Hallar FBC FBC 225 = 12 9

FBC =

(12) 225 = 300 lb.


9

FBC = 300 lb. (traccin)

35

Nudo C
FCA FCA (X) FBC
3,75 9,75 9

C
FBC
CY

FCA (Y) FBC

FCA

FCA

CY

FCA

C
CY

FCA FBC C Y = = 9,75 3,75 9 FCA FBC = 9,75 3,75


Hallar FCA (9,75)300 = 780 lb FCA = 3,75 FCA = 780 lb. (compresin)

CY = 720 lb BY = 225 lb. FBA = 375 lb. (compresin) FBC = 300 lb. (traccin) FCA = 780 lb. (compresin)

Problema 6.3 Beer edic 8 Utilice el mtodo de los nodos para determinar la fuerza presente en cada elemento de las armaduras. Establezca si los elementos estn en tensin o en compresin.
B 450 lb AX AY A 10 pies C 24 pies 7,5 pie 450 lb

FBA FCA tensin compresin FCA


CY 24 pies

FBA FBC compresin

10 pies

FBC
C

7,5 pie

MA = 0

CY ( 7,5) - 450 (7,5 + 24) = 0

7,5 CY - 450 (31,5 ) = 0 7,5 CY - 14175 = 0 7,5 CY = 14175

CY =

14175 = 1890 lb 7.5

CY = 1890 lb.

36

NUDO B
A A AY

AX

FBA

FBA

450 lb

FBC
26 10 pies 24 10 450 lb

FBC
C CY

FBC

FBA

FBC 450 FBA = = 26 10 24

7,5 pie

24 pies

Hallar FBA

Cancelando trminos semejantes

FBC 450 FBA = = 13 5 12 FBC F = 90 = BA 13 12


Hallar FBC

F 90 = BA 12 FBA = 90 (12) = 1080 lb (tensin)

AY AX A

FBA FCA FCA


C CY

FBA

450 lb

FBC = 90 13 FBC = 90 (13) = 1170 lb (compresin)


NUDO C
FCA

FBC FBC

10 pies

C CY

FBC

7,5 pie

24 pies

cos =
cos =

7,5 = 0,6 12,5 FCA (X )


FCA

sen =

sen =

10 = 0,8 12,5 FCA (Y )

FCA(X)
10 12,5 FCA(Y) 7,5 FCA

FCA (X) = cos (FCA)

FCA

FBC(X) FBC
26 24 10 FBC(Y)

FCA (X ) = (0,6) FCA

FCA (Y) = sen (FCA)

FCA (Y ) = (0,8) FCA

CY

37

24 = 0,923 26 FBC(X ) cos = FBC cos =


FBC (X) = cos (FBC)

sen =

10 = 0,3846 26

sen =

FBC (X ) = (0,923) FBC

FBC(Y ) FBC

FBC (Y) = sen (FBC)

FBC (Y ) = (0,3846 ) FBC


FY = 0 CY - FCA(Y) - FBC (Y) = 0 Pero: CY = 1890 lb. 1890 - FCA(Y) - FBC (Y) = 0 FCA(Y) + FBC (Y) = 1890 0,8 FCA + 0,3846 FBC = 1890 (Ecuacin 2) Resolver las ecuaciones 0,6 FCA - 0,923 FBC = 0 (0,3846) 0,8 FCA + 0,3846 FBC = 1890 (0,923) 0,23 FCA - 0,354 FBC = 0 0,7384 FCA + 0,354 FBC = 1744,47 0,23 FCA + 0,7384 FCA = 1744,47 0,9684 FCA = 1744,47 FBA = 90 (12) = 1080 lb (tensin) FBC = 90 (13) = 1170 lb (compresin) FCA = 1801,39 KN (compresin) FCA (X) - FBC(X) = 0 FX = 0

(0,6) FCA - (0,923) FBC = 0

(Ecuacin 1)

FCA =

1744,47 = 1801,39 KN 0,9684

FCA = 1801,39 KN (compresin)

38

Problema 6.4 beer edic 6 Por el mtodo de los nudos, halla la fuerza en todas las barras de la armadura representada indicar en cada caso si es traccin o compresin.
10,8 Kips 10,8 Kips 35 pies

22,5 pies

C
12 pies

B D FX = 0 AX = 0 MA = 0

D (22,5) - 10,8 (22,5) -10,8 (22,5 + 35) = 0 A FAB


FAD
AY

10,8 Kips

10,8 Kips

D (22,5) - 10,8 (22,5) -10,8 (57,5) = 0 22,5 D - 243 - 621 = 0 22,5 D = 864

B
FAB

FBC FBD

FBC

864 = 38,4 Kips 22,5 D = 38,4 Kips D=


MC = 0

D
D

AY (22,5 + 35) + 10,8 (35) D (35) = 0

AY (57,5) + 10,8 (35) (38,4) (35) = 0 57,5 AY + 378 1344 = 0 57,5 AY = 966 966 AY = = 16,8 Kips 57,5 AY = 16,8 Kips
10,8 Kips 10,8 Kips 35 pies

A
AX AY

22,5 pies

C
12 pies

B D
D

39

Nudo A A
AY

FAB FAD FAD(Y)


AY 12 25,5 22,5 12 25,5 22,5

FAD FAB A Y = = 25,5 22,5 12


AY = 16,8 Kips FAD FAB 16,8 = = 25,5 22,5 12 Hallar FAB FAB 16,8 = 22,5 12 (22,5)16,8 = 31,5 Kips FAB = 12 FAB = 35,7 Kips (tensin)

FAD

FAD FAB FAD


AY

FAD(X)

FAB A

Hallar FAD FAD 16,8 = 25,5 12 (25,5)16,8 = 35,7 Kips FAD = 12 FAD = 35,7 Kips (compresin)

Nudo B
10,8 Kips

FAB FBC
10,8 Kips

10,8 Kips

FAB

FBD FBC

B
FAB

FBC FBD

FBD

FX = 0 FBC FAB = 0 FAB = 35,7 Kips FBC = FAB FBC = 35,7 Kips (tensin)

FY = 0 FBD 10,8 = 0 FBD = 10,8 Kips (compresin)

40

Nudo C
10,8 Kips 10,8 Kips 37 35

FBC FCD

FCD

12

10,8 Kips

FBC FCD

FBC

FCD FBC 10,8 = = 37 35 12

AX = 0 D = 38,4 Kips AY = 16,8 Kips

Hallar FCD FCD 10,8 = 37 12 (37 )10,8 = 33,3 Kips FCD = 12 FCD = 33,3 Kips (compresin)

FAB = 35,7 Kips (tensin) FAD = 35,7 Kips (compresin) FBC = 35,7 Kips (tensin) FBD = 10,8 Kips (compresin) FCD = 33,3 Kips (compresin)

Problema 6.1 Esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Determine la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura y establezca si los miembros estn en tensin o en compresin. Considere P1 = 800 lb. y P2 = 400 lb.
AY 6 pies 8 pies

A
AX

TCA TCA TBA TBC

CY 8 pies

tensin

tensin

TBA
P2 = 400 lb

TBC

MA = 0

P1 = 800 lb

- 400 (8) - 800 (6) + CY (6 + 8) = 0

FX = 0 AX 400 = 0 AX = 400 lb.

- 400 (8) - 800 (6) + CY (14) = 0 - 3200 - 4800 + CY (14) = 0

41

- 8000 + CY (14) = 0 CY (14) = 8000

CY =

8000 = 571,42 lb 14

CY = 571,42 lb MC = 0

- AY (6 + 8) - 400 (8) + 800 (8) = 0

- AY (14) - 400 (8) + 800 (8) = 0 - 14 AY - 3200 = 0 14 AY = 3200

AY =

3200 = 228,57 lb 14

AY = 228,57 lb NUDO B
TBC TBA
P2 = 400 lb

TBC TBA

TBA (X) 8 10 T 6 BA

TBC

8 2

B
P2 = 400 lb

TBA (Y)

8 TBC (X)

TBC (Y)

P2 = 400 lb

P1 = 800 lb P1 = 800 lb P1 = 800 lb

sen =

8 4 = 10 5

sen =

8 8 2
8 8 2

2 2
2 2

cos =

6 3 = 10 5

cos =

sen =

TBA(Y ) TBA(Y )= sen (TBA ) TBA

4 TBA(Y )= (TBA ) 5
42

cos =

TBA(X ) TBA(X )= cos (TBA ) TBA sen = TBC(Y ) TBC(Y )= sen (TBC ) TBC

3 TBA(X )= (TBA ) 5
FX = 0 - 400 + TBC (X) - TBA (X) = 0 TBC (X) - TBA (X) = 400

2 TBC(Y )= 2 (TBC ) TBC(X ) cos = TBC(X )= cos (TBC ) TBC 2 TBC(X )= 2 (TBC )

2 (TBC ) - 3 TBA = 400 (Ecuacin 1) 2 5


FY = 0 - 800 + TBC (Y) + TBA (Y) = 0 TBC (Y) + TBA (Y) = 800

2 (TBC ) + 4 TBA = 800 (Ecuacin 2) 2 5


resolver ecuacin 1 y ecuacin 2 Reemplazando en la ecuacin 1

2 (TBC ) - 3 TBA = 400 ( -1) 2 5 2 (TBC ) + 4 TBA = 800 2 5 2 (TBC ) + 3 TBA = - 400 5 2 2 (TBC ) + 4 TBA = 800 5 2

2 (TBC ) - 3 TBA = 400 (Ecuacin 1) 2 5 2 (TBC ) - 3 (285,71) = 400 2 5 2 (TBC ) - 171,42 = 400 2 2 (TBC ) = 571,42 2 2 TBC = 571,42 2
TBC = 808,12 lb. (Tensin)

7 TBA = 400 5 (400)5 TBA = 7


TBA = 285,71 lb. (Tensin)

43

NUDO C
TCA

TBC

8 2
TBC
CY

8 TCA

CY

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para el nudo C son:

TCA TBC C Y = = 8 8 8 2
Hallar TCA

TCA TBC = 8 8 2
Pero: TBC = 808,12 lb.

TCA 808,12 = 8 8 2 TCA = 808,12 = 571,42 lb 2

TCA = 571,42 lb (Compresin) Problema 6.2 Esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Determine la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura y establezca si los miembros estn en tensin o en compresin. Considere P1 = 500 lb. y P2 = 100 lb.
AY 6 pies 8 pies

A
AX

TCA TCA TBA TBC

CY 8 pies

tensin

tensin

TBA
P2 = 100 lb

TBC

MA = 0

P1 = 500 lb

44

- 100 (8) - 500 (6) + CY (6 + 8) = 0 FX = 0 AX 400 = 0 AX = 400 lb.

- 100 (8) - 500 (6) + CY (14) = 0 - 800 - 3000 + CY (14) = 0 - 3800 + CY (14) = 0 CY (14) = 3800

CY =

3800 = 271,42 lb 14

CY = 271,42 lb MC = 0

- AY (6 + 8) - 100 (8) + 500 (8) = 0

- AY (14) - 100 (8) + 500 (8) = 0 - AY (14) - 800 + 4000 = 0 - 14 AY + 3200 = 0 14 AY = 3200

AY =

3200 = 228,57 lb 14
TBA (Y) TBC TBC TBA

AY = 228,57 lb NUDO B
TBA
P2 = 100 lb

TBA (X) 8 10 T 6 BA

TBC

8 2

8 TBC (X)

TBC (Y)

P2 = 400 100 lb

B
P2 = 100 lb

P1 = 800 500 lb

P1 = 500 lb P1 = 500 lb

sen =

8 8 2 8 8 2

8 4 sen = = 10 5 cos = 6 3 = 10 5

2 2 2 2

cos =

45

sen =

TBA(Y ) TBA(Y )= sen (TBA ) TBA

4 TBA(Y )= (TBA ) 5 cos = TBA(X ) TBA(X )= cos (TBA ) TBA sen = TBC(Y ) TBC(Y )= sen (TBC ) TBC

3 TBA(X )= (TBA ) 5
FX = 0 - 100 + TBC (X) - TBA (X) = 0 TBC (X) - TBA (X) = 100

2 TBC(Y )= 2 (TBC ) cos = TBC(X ) TBC(X )= cos (TBC ) TBC

2 (TBC ) - 3 TBA = 100 (Ecuacin 1) 2 5


FY = 0 - 500 + TBC (Y) + TBA (Y) = 0 TBC (Y) + TBA (Y) = 500

2 TBC(X )= 2 (TBC )

2 (TBC ) + 4 TBA = 500 (Ecuacin 2) 2 5


resolver ecuacin 1 y ecuacin 2

Reemplazando en la ecuacin 1

2 (TBC ) - 3 TBA = 100 ( -1) 2 5 2 (TBC ) + 4 TBA = 500 2 5 2 (TBC ) + 3 TBA = - 100 5 2 2 (TBC ) + 4 TBA = 500 5 2

2 (TBC ) - 3 TBA = 100 (Ecuacin 1) 2 5 2 (TBC ) - 3 (285,71) = 100 2 5 2 (TBC ) - 171,42 = 100 2 2 (TBC ) = 271,42 2 2 TBC = 271,42 2
TBC = 383,84 lb. (Tensin)

7 TBA = 400 5

46

TBA =

(400)5
7

TBA = 285,71 lb. (Tensin) NUDO C Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para el nudo C son: C
TBC

TCA TBC C Y = = 8 8 8 2
Hallar TCA

TCA

8 2
TBC
CY

8 TCA

CY

TCA TBC = 8 8 2
Pero: TBC = 383,84 lb. TBA = 285,71 lb. (Tensin) TBC = 383,84 lb. (Tensin)

TCA 383,84 = 8 8 2 TCA = 383,84 = 271,42 lb 2

TCA = 271,42 lb (Compresin)

TCA = 271,42 lb (Compresin) Problema 6.3 Esttica Hibbeler edic 10 La armadura, usada para soportar un balcn, esta sometida a la carga mostrada. Aproxime cada nudo como un pasador y determine la fuerza en cada miembro. Establezca si los miembros estn en tensin o en compresin. Considere P1 = 600 lb P2 = 400 lb.
P1 = 600 lb P2 = 400 lb

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

4 pies FBD FAD FDC

E
FED

EX EY = 0

D FED
4 pies 4 pies

MC = 0

P1 (4 + 4) + P2 (4) EX (4) = 0

47

600 (4 + 4) + 400 (4) EX (4) = 0 600 (8) + 400 (4) 4 EX = 0 4800 + 1600 4 EX = 0 6400 4 EX = 0 4 EX = 6400
4 pies FBD FAD FDC P1 = 600 lb P2 = 400 lb

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

6400 EX = = 1600 lb 4
EX = 1600 lb
4 pies

E
FED

EX EY = 0

D FED
4 pies P1 = 600 lb

NUDO A

FAB FAD

FAB 4

4 2
Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para el nudo A son:

4 FAD

P1 = 600 lb

FAB FAD 600 = = 4 4 4 2


Cancelar trminos semejantes Hallar FAD

F FAB = AD = 600 2
Hallar FAB

FAD = 600 2 FAD =

( 2 ) 600 = 848,52 lb

FAB = 600 lb

FAD = 848,52 lb (compresin)

FAB = 600 lb (Tension)

48

NUDO E E
FED P1 = 600 lb EX EY = 0 P2 = 400 lb

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

FX = 0 FED - EX = 0 FED = EX

4 pies FBD FAD FDC

PERO: EX = 1600 lb
FED = 1600 lb (compresin) FY = 0 EY = 0 NUDO B
P2 = 400 lb FAB 4 pies

E
FED

EX EY = 0

D FED
4 pies

B FBC
FAB FBD P2 = 400 lb FBC FBD

P1 = 600 lb

P2 = 400 lb

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

FX = 0 FBC - FAB = 0 FBC = FAB

4 pies FBD FAD FDC

E
FED

EX EY = 0

PERO: FAB = 600 lb (Tensin)


FBC = 600 lb (Tensin) FY = 0 FBD - 400 = 0 FBD = 400 lb (compresin) FY = 0 CY - 600 - 400 = 0 CY - 1000 = 0 CY = 1000 lb. FX = 0 CX - EX = 0 CX = EX

D FED
4 pies 4 pies

PERO: EX = 1600 lb
CX = 1600 lb

49

NUDO C
P1 = 600 lb

P2 = 400 lb

FY = 0 CY FDC(Y) = 0 CY = FDC(Y)
FBC

C CY
CX FDC

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

PERO: CY = 1000 lb.


FDC(Y) = 1000 lb

4 pies FBD FAD FDC

E
FED

EX EY = 0

sen =

4 4 2

1 = 0,7071 2
FDC

D FED
4 pies 4 pies

sen =

FDC(Y ) FDC FDC(Y ) sen 1000 = 1414,22 lb 0,7071

4 2
4

FDC (Y)
FDC

FBC

FDC = FDC =

FDC (X)

FDC (Y)
CX

CY

FBD = 400 lb (compresin) FBC = 600 lb (Tensin) FAB = 600 lb (Tensin) FED = 1600 lb (compresin) FAD = 848,52 lb (compresin) FDC = 1414,22 lb (tensin)

FDC = 1414,22 lb (tensin) EX = 1600 lb EY = 0 CX = 1600 lb CY = 1000 lb.

50

Problema 6.4 Esttica Hibbeler edic 10 La armadura, usada para soportar un balcn, esta sometida a la carga mostrada. Aproxime cada nudo como un pasador y determine la fuerza en cada miembro. Establezca si los miembros estn en tensin o en compresin. Considere P1 = 800 lb P2 = 0 lb.
P1 = 800 lb FUERZA CERO

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD = 0 FBD = 0 FDC

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

4 pies

FAD

E
FED

EX EY = 0

D FED MC = 0
4 pies 4 pies

P1 (4 + 4) EX (4) = 0

800 (4 + 4) EX (4) = 0 800 (8) 4 EX = 0 6400 4 EX = 0 4 EX = 6400

EX =

6400 = 1600 lb 4
P1 = 800 lb FAB

EX = 1600 lb NUDO A
P1 = 800 lb 4 FAB FAD

A
P1 = 800 lb 4 pies

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD = 0 FBD = 0 FDC

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

4 2

4 FAD

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para el nudo A son:

FAD

E
FED

EX EY = 0

FAB FAD 800 = = 4 4 4 2


Cancelar trminos semejantes

D FED
4 pies 4 pies

51

F FAB = AD = 800 2
Hallar FAB

Hallar FAD

FAB = 800 lb

FAD = 800 2 FAD = 2 800 = 1131,37 lb

( )

FAB = 800 lb (Tensin) NUDO E FX = 0 FED - EX = 0 FED = EX E


FED

FAD = 1131,37 lb (compresin)


P1 = 800 lb

EX EY = 0

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD = 0 FBD = 0 FDC

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

PERO: EX = 1600 lb
FED = 1600 lb (compresin)

4 pies

FAD

E
FED

EX EY = 0

FY = 0 EY = 0

D FED
4 pies 4 pies

NUDO B FUERZA CERO Si tres miembros forman un nudo de armadura en el cual dos de los miembros son colineales, el tercer miembro es un miembro de fuerza cero siempre que ninguna fuerza exterior o reaccin de soporte este aplicada al nudo. FX = 0 FBC - FAB = 0 FBC = FAB B FBC
FAB FBD P1 = 800 lb FUERZA CERO

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD = 0 FBD = 0 FDC

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

Pero: FAB = 800 lb (Tensin)


FBC = 800 lb (Tensin) FY = 0 FBD = 0

4 pies

FAD

E
FED

EX EY = 0

D FED
4 pies 4 pies

52

FY = 0 CY - 800 = 0 CY = 800 lb.

FX = 0 CX = EX

CX - EX = 0

PERO: EX = 1600 lb
CX = 1600 lb
FBC FDC FBC

FDC

4 2
4 CY

FDC (Y)

NUDO C FY = 0 CY FDC(Y) = 0 CY = FDC(Y)


FDC

FDC (Y)
CX

FDC (X)

C CY
CX P1 = 800 lb

PERO: CY = 800 lb.


FDC(Y) = 800 lb

FAB FAD FAB

B FBC
FBD = 0 FBD = 0 FDC

FBC

C CY
CX FDC

4 2 FDC(Y ) sen = FDC FDC = FDC = FDC(Y ) sen

sen =

1 = 0,7071 2

4 pies

FAD

E
FED

EX EY = 0

D FED
4 pies 4 pies

FBD = 0 lb FBC = 800 lb (Tensin) FAB = 800 lb (Tensin) FED = 1600 lb (compresin) FAD = 1131,37 lb (compresin) FDC = 1131,38 lb (tensin)

800 = 1131,38 lb 0,7071

FDC = 1131,38 lb (tensin) EX = 1600 lb CX = 1600 lb CY = 800 lb. EY = 0

53

Problema c-34 esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Determine la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura. Establezca si los miembros estn en tensin o en compresin.
BY FUERZA CERO

FCB

BX

FCB

FAB
3 pies

C
FDC FDC FCA FCA FAB

FDA
2 pies 2 pies

FDA A AX

300 lb

NUDO D

FDC FDC
5 3 4

300 lb

FDC 300 FDA = = 5 3 4


FDC F = 100 = DA 5 4
Hallar FDA

FDA

300 lb

FDA

FDA = 100 4
FDA = (4) 100 = 400 lb (compresin)

Hallar FCD

FDC = 100 5
FDC = (5) 100 = 500 lb (Tensin)

FUERZA CERO Si tres miembros forman un nudo de armadura en el cual dos de los miembros son colineales, el tercer miembro es un miembro de fuerza cero siempre que ninguna fuerza exterior o reaccin de soporte este aplicada al nudo.
FUERZA CERO

FCA = 0 FDC = FCB Pero: FDC = 500 lb FCB = 500 lb (Tensin)


FDC

FCB

C
FCA = 0

54

NUDO A
FCA = 0 FAB = 0

FCA = 0

FAB = 0 FCB FCB

BY

FDA A AX

BX

FX = 0 FDA - AX = 0 FY = 0 FAB = 0

FDA

AX

FCA = 0 FAB = 0 FCB = 500 lb (Tensin)


FDC FDC

3 pies

(compresin) (Tensin)

FDA = (4) 100 = 400 lb FDC = (5) 100 = 500 lb

FDA
2 pies 2 pies

FDA A AX

300 lb

Problema C-35 esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Determine la fuerza en los miembros AE y DC. Establezca si los miembros estn en tensin o en compresin. E D F
FAB 3 pies FAF = 0

=0

FAE

FCD

A
AX = 0 AY

FAE FAB 4 pies 800 lb FAB

FCB = 0

FCD

B FCB = 0
4 pies

C
CY

FY = 0 AY 800 + CY = 0 Pero: CY = 400 lb AY 800 + 400 = 0 AY 400 = 0 AY = 400 lb

55

MA = 0

- 800 (4 ) + CY (4 + 4) = 0

- 3200 + CY (8) = 0 CY (8) = 3200

CY =

3200 = 400 lb 8

CY = 400 lb FX = 0 AX = 0 NUDO C FY = 0 CY FCD = 0 Pero: CY = 400 lb CY = FCD FCD = 400 lb (compresin) FX = 0 FCB = 0
3 pies FAF = 0 CY FCD

FCB = 0

F
FAB

D
FCD

=0

FAE

A
AX = 0 AY

FAE FAB 4 pies 800 lb FAB

FCB = 0

FCD

B FCB = 0
4 pies

C
CY

56

NUDO A
FAF = 0 FAE FAB 5 4 FAB FAE 3 AY

A
AX = 0 AY

F
FAB 3 pies FAF = 0

D
FCD

FAE A Y FAB = = 5 3 4
Pero: AY = 400 lb

=0

FAE

FAE 400 FAB = = 5 3 4

A
AX = 0 AY

FAE FAB 4 pies 800 lb FAB

FCB = 0

FCD

B FCB = 0
4 pies

C
CY

Hallar FAE

FAE 400 = 5 3 400(5) F AE = 3


FAE = 666,66 lb (compresin)

Hallar FCD

FAB 400 = 4 3
FAB = 533,33 lb (Tensin)

Problema 6.8 esttica Hibbeler edic 10 Determine la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura y establezca si los miembros estn a tensin o en compresin. Considere P1 = 2 KN y P2 = 1,5 kN.
AY

A
AX FBA FBA

Y = 3,464
FBE EX CY

B
FBE FDB FCB

E
FDE
3m

FDB FDE

Y = 1,732 F 1DB
D
FCD

FCB
30
0

FCD
3m 1,5 KN

2 KN

57

ME = 0

- 2 (3) 1,5 (3 + 3) + AX (3,464) = 0

- 6 1,5 (6) + 3,464 AX = 0 - 6 9 + 3,464 AX = 0 - 15 + 3,464 AX = 0 3,464 AX = 15

tg 30 =

Y 6

AX =

15 = 4,33 kN 3,464

Y = 6 tg 30 = 6 (0,5773) = 3,464 m

AX = 500 N NUDO C
FCB
300

Y tg 30 = 1 3
Y1 = 3 tg 30 = 3 (0,5773) = 1,732 m
AY

A
AX

FCD
1,5 KN

B
FCB FDB

FCB
1,5 KN

Y1 = 1,732
FCD

3,464 3m

EX

E
CY FDE FDE

FDB

FCB
300

D
2 KN

FCD

FCD
1,5 KN

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta C son:

FCB F 1,5 = = CD 3,464 1,732 3


Hallar FCB

Hallar FCD

F 1,5 = CD 1,732 3 FCD = 1,5 (3) = 2,598 kN 1,732

FCB 1,5 = 3,464 1,732 1,5 (3,464) FCB = = 3 kN 1,732


FCB = 3 kN (tensin)

FCD = 2,598 kN (compresin)

58

NUDO D

FDB

FDE AY

D
2 KN

FCD FDB

FDE
2 KN

FY = 0 FX = 0 FDE - FCD = 0 FDE = FCD Pero: FCD = 2,598 kN (compresin) FDE = 2,598 kN (compresin) FDB - 2 = 0 FDB = 2 kN (tensin)

A
AX

FCD

B
FCB FDB EX

E
CY FDE FDE

FDB

FCB
300

D
2 KN

FCD

FCD
1,5 KN

NUDO B
FBA

B
FCB FBA(Y) FBA(X) FBA
300 300

AY

FBE

A
AX FBA FBA

FDB

300

B
FBE FDB FBE EX FCB

FBE(Y)

FBE FBE(X) FDB

FCB FCB(X)

FCB(Y)

E
CY FDE FDE

FDB

FCB
30
0

D
2 KN

FCD

FCD
1,5 KN

Para abreviar los clculos

sen 30 =

FBA(Y ) FBA

sen 30 =

3 2

sen 60 =

1 2

FBA (Y) = FBA sen 30

1 FBA(Y ) = FBA 2
59

sen 30 =

FBE(Y ) FBE

cos 30 =

FBA(X ) FBA

cos 30 =

FBE (Y) = FBE sen 30

FBA (X) = FBA cos 30

FCB(X ) FCB

1 FBE(Y ) = FBE 2

3 FBA(X ) = FBA 2

FCB (X) = FCB cos 30

3 FCB(X ) = FCB 2

sen 30 =

FCB(Y ) FCB

cos 30 =

FCB (Y) = FCB sen 30

FBE(X ) FBE

1 FCB(Y ) = FCB 2
FY = 0

FBE (X) = FBE cos 30

3 FBE(X ) = FBE 2

FBA (Y) + FBE (Y) - FCB (Y) - FDB = 0

1 1 1 FBA + FBE - FCB - FDB = 0 2 2 2


Pero: FDB = 2 kN (tensin) FCB = 3 kN (tensin)

1 1 FBA + FBE 2 2 1 1 FBA + FBE 2 2 1 1 FBA + FBE 2 2

1 - (3) - 2 = 0 2 1 = (3) + 2 2 = 1,5 + 2 = 3,5

0,5 FBA + 0,5 FBE = 3,5 dividiendo por 0,5 (para simplificar) FBA + FBE = 7 (Ecuacin 1) FX = 0 - FBA (X) + FBE (X) + FCB (X) = 0

3 3 3 FBA + FBE + - 2 2 2 FCB = 0


- FBA + FBE + FCB = 0

60

Pero: FCB = 3 kN (tensin) - FBA + FBE + 3 = 0 - FBA + FBE = - 3 (- 1) FBA - FBE = 3 (Ecuacin 2)

Resolver la ecuacin 1 y 2 FBA + FBE = 7 (Ecuacin 1) FBA - FBE = 3 2 FBA = 10 (Ecuacin 2) AX = 500 N FCB = 3 kN (tensin)

FBA =

10 = 5 kN 2

FCD = 2,598 kN (compresin) FDE = 2,598 kN (compresin) FDB = 2 kN (tensin) FBA = 5 kN (tensin) FBE = 2 kN (compresin)

FBA = 5 kN (tensin) Reemplazando en la ecuacin 1 FBA + FBE = 7 (Ecuacin 1) Pero: FBA = 5 kN (tensin) 5 + FBE = 7 FBE = 7 - 5 FBE = 2 kN (compresin)

61

PROBLEMA RESUELTO ESTATICA MERIAM Edic 3. Calcular, por el mtodo de los nudos, la fuerza en los miembros del entramado en voladizo B
FBD
5m

5m

D
FBD

FAB FAB

FBC

5m

FBC

FCD

FAC
5m

FAC

FCE
5m

E
5m 600 60
0

TX

30 kN

20 kN

T 600

300

TY 5m

A C
5m 30 kN 20 kN 5m

EX

E
EY

ME = 0

- T (5) + 30 (5 + 5) + 20 (5) = 0

- 5 T + 30 (10) + 20 (5) = 0 - 5 T + 300 + 100 = 0 - 5 T + 400 = 0 5 T = 400

62

T=

400 = 80 N 5

T = 80 N

T cos 30 = X T
TX = T cos 30 Pero: T = 80 N TX = 80 (0,866) TX = 69,28 N FY = 0 TY + EY - 30 - 20 = 0 TY + EY - 50 = 0 Pero: TY = 40 N 40 + EY - 50 = 0 EY - 10 = 0 EY = 10 KN

T sen 30 = Y T
TY = T sen 30 Pero: T = 80 N TY = 80 (0,5) TY = 40 N FX = 0 TX - EX = 0 Pero: TX = 69,28 N TX = EX EX = 69,28 N

A continuacin, dibujamos los diagramas de slido libre que muestren las fuerzas actuantes en cada nudo. La exactitud de los sentidos asignados a las fuerzas se comprueba al considerar cada nudo en el orden asignado. No debe haber dudas acerca de la exactitud del sentido asignado a las fuerzas actuantes en el nudo A. El equilibrio exige NUDO A
FAB FAB 5

FAB 30 FAC = = 5 4,33 2,5


Hallar FAB

30 kN

FAC

4,33 2,5

Se halla FAC

FAB 30 = 5 4,33 FAB =

30 kN

FAC

4,33 FAB = 34,64 kN (tensin)

(30) 5 = 34,64 KN

30 FAC = 4,33 2,5 (30) 2,5 = 17,32 KN FAC = 4,33


FAC = 17,32 kN (compresion)

63

NUDO B B
FBD FBC FBC (Y) FAB FBD

FAB

FBC FAB (Y) 600 FAB (X)

FBC(Y ) sen 60 = FBC


FBC(Y) = FBC sen 60

Para abreviar los clculos

600 FBC (X)

sen 60 =

3 FBC(Y ) = FBC 2 3 FBC(Y ) = 2 FBC

3 1 cos 60 = 2 2

cos 60 =

FBC(X ) FBC

cos 60 =

FAB(X ) FAB

FBC(X) = FBC cos 60

FAB(X) = FAB cos 60

sen 60 =

FAB(Y ) FAB

FAB(Y) = FAB sen 60

1 FAB(x ) = FAB 2 1 FAB(x ) = FAB 2

1 FBC(x ) = FBC 2 1 FBC(x ) = FBC 2

3 FAB(Y ) = FAB 2 3 FAB(Y ) = 2 FAB


FY = 0 FBC(Y) - FAB(Y) = 0 FBC(Y) = FAB(Y)

3 3 FBC = 2 2 FAB
FBC = FAB

PERO: FAB = 34,64 kN


FBC = 34,64 kN (compresin)

1 FAB(x ) = FAB 2
64

PERO: FAB = 34,64 kN 1 FAB(x ) = (34,64) = 17,32 KN 2 FAB(x) = 17,32 KN


FX = 0 - FAB(x) - FBC(x) + FBD = 0

3 FBC(x ) = 2 FBC PERO: FBC = 34,64 kN 1 FBC(x ) = (34,64) = 17,32 KN 2 FBC(x) = 17,32 KN

PERO: FAB(x) = 17,32 KN FBC(x) = 17,32 KN


- FAB(x) - FBC(x) + FBD = 0 -17,32 17,32 + FBD = 0 - 34,64 + FBD = 0

FBD = 34,64 KN (tensin)

B
FBD

5m

D
FBD FCD FED

NUDO C
5m

FAB FAB

FBC

5m

FBC

FCD

FBC

FCD

FED
EX

FAC

FCE

FAC
5m

FAC

FCE
5m

FCE

E
EY

20 kN 30 kN 20 kN

FBC (X)

FCD (X)

PERO:
FAC = 17,32 kN (compresion) FBC = 34,64 kN (compresin) FBC(x) = 17,32 KN
FBC FBC (Y) FCD FCD(Y) 600 FCE

3 FBC(Y ) = 2 FBC 3 FBC(Y ) = 2 (34,64) = 30 KN FBC(Y) = 30 KN

600 FAC

20 kN

65

cos 60 =

FCD(X ) FCD

sen 60 =

FCD(X) = FCD cos 60

FCD(Y ) FCD

FCD(Y) = FCD sen 60

1 FCD(x ) = FCD 2
FX = 0 FCD(x) + FBC(x) + FAC FCE = 0

3 FCD(Y ) = FCD 2 3 FCD(Y ) = 2 FCD

PERO:
FAC = 17,32 kN (compresin) FBC(x) = 17,32 KN FCD(x) + 17,32 + 17,32 FCE = 0 FCD(x) + 34,64 FCE = 0

1 FCD - FCE = - 34,64 (Ecuacin 1) 2 3 FCD(Y ) = 2 FCD 2 FCD = FCD(Y ) 3 PERO: FCD(Y) = 50 KN 2 FCD = 50 = 57,73 KN 3 FCD = 57,73 kN (Tensin)
Reemplazar en la ecuacin 1

FY = 0 - FBC(Y) + FCD(Y) 20 = 0

PERO: FBC(Y) = 30 KN
- 30 + FCD(Y) 20 = 0 - 50 + FCD(Y) = 0 FCD(Y) = 50 KN

1 FCD - FCE = - 34,64 (Ecuacin 1) 2 1 57,73 - FCE = - 34,64 2


28,86 FCE = - 34,64 FCE = - 34,64 - 28,86 FCE = - 63,5 (-1) FCE = 63,5 KN (compresin)

66

NUDO E
FED
EX

B
FBD
5m EY

5m

D
FBD FCD FED

FCE

E
FAB FAB

FBC

5m

FBC

FCD

FED
EX

FY = 0 EY - FED (Y) = 0 FED (Y) = EY A


FAC
5m 30 kN 20 kN

FAC

FCE
5m

FCE

E
EY

PERO:
EY = 10 KN FED (Y) = 10 KN

FED(Y ) sen 60 = FED


FED (Y) = FED sen 60
FED (Y)

FED (X)

FED

FED =

FED(Y ) 10 = = 11,54 kN sen 60 0,866

600 FCE EX

FED = 11,54 KN (compresin)

EY

T = 80 N

EX = 69,28 N

EY = 10 KN FAC = 17,32 kN (compresin)

FAB = 34,64 kN (tensin) FBC = 34,64 kN (compresin) FCD = 57,73 kN (Tensin) FED = 11,54 KN (compresin)

FBD = 34,64 KN (tensin)


FCE = 63,5 KN (compresin)

67

Problema 4.1 Esttica Meriam edicin tres Hallar la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura cargada B
600N 1,25 m 1,25 m

600N

A A
3m

C
3m

C B
FBA
600N

AX AY FBC CY

MA = 0

CY (3) 600 (1,25) = 0


FBA AX AY

3 CY 750 = 0 3 CY = 750

A
FCA

FBC FCA

C
CY

CY =

750 = 250 N 3

CY = 250 N MC = 0

AY (3) 600 (1,25) = 0

FX = 0 600 AX = 0 600 = AX AX = 600 Newton


FBA

3 AY 750 = 0 3 AY = 750

750 AY = = 250 N 3
AY = 250 N Nudo B B
600N

B
FBC

600N

B
FBC

FBA AX AY
3,25 3 600N

A
FCA

FBC FCA

C
CY

FBC
1,25

FBA

FBA

Hallar FBC

FBC FBA 600 = = 3,25 1,25 3 FBC FBA = = 200 3,25 1,25

FBC = 200 3,25


FBC = 200 (3,25) FBC = 650 Newton (compresin)

68

Hallar FAB

FBA = 200 1,25


FAB = 200 (1,25) FAB = 250 Newton (traccin) Nudo C
FBC

B C
CY = 250 N

FCA CY

FBC
1,25 3,25 3

FBA

600N

FBC

FBC C Y FCA = = 3,25 1,25 3


FBC = 650 Newton (compresin)

FBA

A
FCA

FBC FCA

FCA

AX AY

C
CY

650 C Y FCA = = 3,25 1,25 3


Hallar FCA

CY = 250 N AX = 600 Newton AY = 250 N FAB = 250 Newton (traccin) FBC = 650 Newton (compresin) FCA = 600 Newton (traccin)

650 FCA = 3,25 3 (650) 3 FCA = 3,25


FCA = 600 Newton (traccin)

69

Problema 4.1 Esttica Meriam edicin cinco; Problema 4.2 Esttica Meriam edicin tres Hallar la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura simple equiltera AY AX A
1,732 m

2m

2m

B
2m

C MA = 0 CX

735,75 N

CX (2) - 735,75 ( 1,732) = 0

CX (2) = 1274,31

CX =

1274,31 = 637,15 N 2

W=mxg m = 735,75 Newton w = 75 kg 9,81 2 seg W = 735,75 Newton

CX = 637,15 Newton FX = 0 CX - AX = 0 CX = AX AX = 637,15 Newton Nudo B


FBA

FY = 0 AY 735,75 = 0 AY = 735,75 Newton

D
30
0

B
FBC 735,75 N 735,75 N 367,87 N 367,87 N

2 1,732

FBA 367,87 = 2 1
FBA

FBA = 2 X 367,87 FBA = 735,75 Newton

1,732 1 FBC 2

FBC 367,87 = 2 1
FBC = 2 X 367,87 FBC = 735,75 Newton

70

Nudo C

FBC FCA C X = = 2 1 1,732


FBC = 735,75 Newton (compresin)

735,75 FCA = 2 1 735,75 FCA = 2


FCA = 367,87 Newton (tensin)

FCA

FBC
300

CX
FCA
1,732 1 2

CX C

FBC

Problema 4.3 Esttica Meriam edicin tres Hallar la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura cargada. Explicar por que no hace falta saber las longitudes de los miembros.
2,4 kN 2,4 kN

300

600

C
AX AY

300

600

C
CY

Nudo B
2,4 kN

FBA

2,4 kN

B
2,4 kN

300

600

FBA (Y)

FBA

FBC

FBC

FBA FBA (X) FBC (Y) FBC

FBA(Y ) sen 30 = FBA


FBA(Y) = FBA sen 30

1 FBA(Y ) = FBA 2 1 FBA(Y ) = FBA 2

FBC (X)

Para abreviar los clculos

sen 30 =

1 2

sen 60 =

3 2

cos 60 =

1 2

cos 30 =

3 2

71

sen 60 =

FBC(Y ) FBC
cos 60 =

cos 30 = FBC(X ) FBC

FBC(Y) = FBC sen 60

FBA(X ) FBA

3 FBC(Y ) = FBC 2 3 FBC(Y ) = 2 FBC


FX = 0 FBA(X) - FBC(X) = 0

FBA(X) = FBA cos 30

FBC(X) = FBC cos 60

1 FBc(x ) = FBC 2 1 FBc(x ) = FBC 2

3 FBA(x ) = FBA 2 3 FBA(x ) = 2 FBA

3 1 FBA - FBC = 0 (ECUACIN 1) 2 2


Resolver las ecuaciones

FY = 0 FBA(Y) + FBC(Y) - 2,4 = 0

3 1 FBC = 0 3 2 FBA - 2 3 1 FBA + 2 FBC = 2,4 2

( )

3 1 FBA + 2 FBC = 2,4 (ECUACIN 2) 2

3 FBA 2

3 - 2 FBC = 0 3 1 FBA + 2 FBC = 2,4 2

3 1 FBA + FBA = 2,4 2 2


2 FBA = 2,4

FBA =

2,4 = 1,2 kN 2

FBA = 1,2 kN (compresin)

72

3 1 FBA - FBC = 0 (ECUACIN 1) 2 2 3 1 FBA = FBC 2 2 3 FBA = FBC


FBA = 1,2 kN

3 (1,2 ) = FBC
FBC = 2,078 kN (compresin) Nudo C
FBC FBC
60
0

FCA(X ) cos 60 = FCA


FCA (X) = (cos 60) FCA FX = 0 FCA (X) - FBC = 0 (cos 60) FCA - FBC = 0 (cos 60) FCA = FBC

C
CY

600

FCA FCA

FCA (X) CY
600

FCA

FCA (Y)

FCA =

FBC 2,078 = = 1,039 kN cos 60 0,5

FBA = 1,039 kN (traccin)

73

Problema 4.3 Esttica Meriam edicin cinco Determine the force in each member of the truss. Note the presence of any zero-force members.

5 kN

AY Ax A FBC MA = 0
1m

3m

FAB FCA

FAB

B FBC

FBC FCD FCD


2m

DX (1) - 5 (3) = 0 Dx D

FCA C
5 kN

FBC

DX - 15 = 0 DX = 15 KN FX = 0 DX AX = 0 DX = AX
1m

AY Ax A FBC FBC D Dx
2m =26,560

b=3m

c= 5

a=2 2

C ley de cosenos

PERO: DX = 15 KN AX = 15 KN
FY = 0 AY 5 = 0 AY = 5 KN

a2 = b2 + c2 2 b c sen

a 2 = (3)2 +

( 5 )2 - 2 (3) ( 5 )sen 26,56

a2 = 9 + 5- 6

( 5 )(0,4471) ( 5)

a 2 = 14 - 2,68

tg =

2 1

= arc tg (2) = 63,430

a 2 = 14 - 6 a 2 = 8

a= 8 =2 2

74

+ = 900 = 900 - = 900 63,43 = 26,560 NUDO B


5 kN

FAB FBC(X) FBC


=450

FAB

B FBC

5 kN

FBC(Y)

FBC

ley de cosenos c2 = a2 + b2 2 a b sen = arc tg 0,7071 = 450 cos = cos 45 = 0,7071 sen = sen 45 = 0,7071

( 5 )2 = (2 2 )2 + (3)2 - 2 (2 2 )(3) sen 5 = 8 + 9 - 12 ( 2 ) sen

5 = 8 + 9 - 16,97 sen
FBC(X) = FBC cos 45 Pero:

5 = 17 - 16,97 sen

16,97 sen = 17 - 5 = 12 12 sen = = 0,7071 16,97

FBC = 7,071 KN
FBC(X) = FBC cos 45

75

FBC(X ) cos 45 = FBC FBC(X) = FBC cos 45


FY = 0 FBC(Y) 5 = 0 FBC(Y) = 5 kN

FBC(X) = FBC cos 45 Pero:

FBC = 7,071 KN
FBC(X) = FBC cos 45 FBC(X) = (7,071) (0,7071) FBC(X) = 5 kN FX = 0 FBC(X) FAB = 0

FBC(Y ) 5 = = 7,071 kN sen 45 0,7071 FBC = 7,071 KN FBC =

FAB = FBC(X) FAB = 5 kN

NUDO C
5 kN

FCA FCD C

FBC Ax

AY A FBC
1m

3m

FAB FCA

FAB
=450

B FBC

FCA(X ) cos 26,56 = FCA FCA(X) = FCA cos 26,56


FCA(X) = 0,8944 FCA

FBC FCD FCD


2m

FCA C

FBC

Dx

FBC(X)
FY = 0 FCA(Y) FBC(Y) = 0 FCA(Y) = FBC(Y) FBC
=450 =26,56
0

FBC(Y)
FCD FCA

Pero: FBC (Y) = 5 kN


FCA(Y) = 5 kN

FCA(Y)

sen 26,56 =

FCA(Y ) FCA

FCA(X)

76

FCA =

FCA(Y ) 5 = = 11,18 kN sen 26,56 0,4471

FCA = 11,18 kN (tensin)

Reemplazando la ecuacin 1 FCD 0,8944 FCA = 5 (Ecuacin 1) Pero: FCA = 11,18 kN FCD 0,8944 (11,18) = 5 FCD 10 = 5 FCD = 5 + 10 = 15 kN FCD = 15 Kn (compresin) NUDO D
Ax FX = 0 DX - FCD = 0 DX = FCD Pero:
1m

FX = 0 - FBC(X) + FCD FCA(X) = 0 Pero: FBC(X) = 5 kN - 5 + FCD FCA(X) = 0

FCD FCA(X) = 5
FCA(X) = 0,8944 FCA

FCD 0,8944 FCA = 5 (Ecuacin 1)


5 kN

AY A FBC FBC FCD Dx D


2m

3m

FAB FCA

FAB
=450

B FBC

FCA FCD C

FBC

FCD = 15 Kn
Fy = 0 FBC = 0

77

Problema 4.4 Esttica Meriam edicin tres; Problema 4.6 Esttica Meriam edicin cinco; Hallar la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura cargada E
FAE FEB FED
3m

D
FED FBD FCD

2 kN

FEB

FCD FBD FBC

MC = 0

FAE

- AY (6) + 2 (3) = 0

B
FAB FAB
6m

C
FBC

A
AY

CX CY

6 AY = 2 (3) AY = 1 kN MA = 0

FX = 0 CX 2 = 0 CX = 2 kN

2 (3) - CY (6) = 0

2 (3) = CY (6) CY = 1 kN Nudo A


FAE FAE 4,24 3 3

CY

A
AY

FAB FAB

C Y FAB FAE = = 4,24 3 3


CY = 1 kN

Se halla FAB

Se halla FAE

1 FAB FAE = = 4,24 3 3

1 FAB = 3 3
FAB = 1 kN (tension)

1 FAE = 3 4,24

FAE =

4,24 = 1,41kN 3

FAE = 1,413 Kn (compresin)

78

Nudo E E
FED FAE FEB FAE 4,24 3 FED 3 FEB

FEB FED FAE = = 4,24 3 3


FAE = 1,413 kN

Se halla FEB

Se halla FED

FEB = 0,3332 3
FEB = 3 (0,3332) = 1 kN (tensin)

FED = 0,3332 3
FED = 3 (0,3332) = 1 kN (compresin)

FEB FED 1,413 = = 3 3 4,24 FEB FED = = 0,3332 3 3


Nudo B
FEB FBD

FBC 4,24 3 FBD (Y) FEB = 1 kn FAB = 1 kN FBD (X) FBD

B
FAB FBC

FBD

= arc tg (1) = 450

3 tg = = 1 3

FY = 0 FEB - FBD(Y) = 0 FEB = FBD(Y) FEB = 3 (0,3332) = 1 kN 1 = FBD(Y) 1 = FBD (sen 45)

FBD(Y ) sen = FBD FBD(Y ) sen 45 = FBD

FBD (sen 45) = FBD(Y)

FBD(X ) cos = FBD FBD(X ) cos 45 = FBD

FBD =

1 1 = = 1,414 kN sen 45 0,7071

FBD = 1,414 kN

79

FBD (X) = FBD (cos 45) FBD = 1,414 kN FBD (X) = 1,414 (cos 45)

FX = 0 FBC - FBD (X) FAB = 0 FBC = FBD (X) + FAB FBC = 1 + 1 Pero: FAB = 1 kN Pero: FBD (X) = 1 kN

FBD (X) = 1,414 (0,7071) FBD (X) = 1 kN Nudo C


FCD CX

FBC = 2 kN

FX = 0 CX - FBC = 0
CY

FY = 0 FCD - CY = 0 FCD = CY CY = 1 kN FCD = CY = 1 kN (traccin)

C
FBC

FCD CX CY

CX = FBC FBC = 2 kN (traccin) CX = FBC = 2 kN

FBC

Problema 4.4 Esttica Meriam edicin cinco Calculate the forces in members BE and BD of the loaded truss.
8 pulg.

8 pulg.

CY C Cx
8 pulg. 2

FBC FBD

FBC

FAB FEB

FEB FAB

FBD FED

A MC = 0

FAE

FAE

FED

D DY

Dx

1000 lb

1000 (8 + 8) - DX (8) = 0

1000 (16) - 8 DX = 0 16000 - 8 DX = 0

80

8 DX = 16000

DX =

16000 = 2000 lb. 8


C
2 2 2 2

FX = 0 CX - DX = 0 CX = DX CY PERO: DX = 2000 lb. CX = 2000 lb.

DX = 2000 lb. C CY Cx

Cx

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la fuerza C son:

CY CX = 2 2
Cancelando trminos semejantes CY = CX PERO: CX = 2000 lb. CY = 2000 lb.
8 pulg.

CY C Cx
2

NUDO A
FAB FAB

8 pulg.

FAB 8 pulg. 1000 lb FAB

FAE

8 2
8

1000 lb FAE

FAE

FAE

D DY

Dx

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio son:

1000 lb

FAB 1000 FAE = = 8 8 8 2


Cancelando trminos semejantes

Hallar FAE

1000 = FAE
FAE = 1000 lb. (Compresin)

FAB = 1000 = FAE 2

81

Hallar FAB

FAB = 1000 2 FAB = 1000

( 2)
8 pulg.

FAB = 1414,21libras (tensin) CY C Cx


8 pulg. 2 2

NUDO E
FEB

8 pulg.

FBC FBD

FBC

FAB FEB FED FAE

FEB FAB

E A

FBD FED

FY = 0 FEB = 0 FX = 0 FAE - FED = 0 FAE = FED PERO: FAE = 1000 lb.

FAE

FAE

FED

D DY

Dx

1000 lb

FBD(X)

FAB(X)

FBD(Y)

8 2
8 FBD

8 2
FAB 8

FED = 1000 lb. (Compresin) NUDO B


FAB

FAB(Y) FBC

FBC FBC FBD FBD FAB

Hallar FAB(X)

FEB

=0

FAB = FAB(X ) 2 1414,2 2 = FAB(X )

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta B son:

FAB FAB(Y ) FAB(X ) = = 8 8 8 2


Cancelando trminos semejantes

FAB(X) = 1000 lb.

FAB = FAB(Y ) = FAB(X ) 2 82

PERO: FAB = 1414,21libras Hallar FAB(Y)

FAB = FAB(Y ) 2 1414,2 2 = FAB(Y )


FX = 0 FBC - FBD(X) - FAB(X) = 0 PERO: FAB(X) = 1000 lb. FBC - FBD(X) = FAB(X) FBC - FBD(X) = 1000 ECUACION 1

FAB(Y) = 1000 lb. FY = 0 FBD (Y) FAB (Y) = 0 FBD (Y) = FAB (Y)

Pero: FAB (Y) = 1000 lb.


FBD (Y) = 1000 lb. Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta B son: Hallar FBC FBC - FBD(X) = 1000 ECUACION 1 PERO: FBD (X) = 1000 lb. FBC - 1000 = 1000 FBC = 1000 + 1000 FBC = 2000 lb. (traccin) DX = 2000 lb. FAB = 1414,21libras (tensin) FAE = 1000 lb. (Compresin) FED = 1000 lb. (Compresin) FEB = 0 FBC = 2000 lb. (traccin)

FBD FBD(Y ) FBD(X ) = = 8 8 8 2


Cancelando trminos semejantes

FBD = FBD(Y ) = FBD(X ) 2 Pero: FBD (Y) = 1000 lb.


FBD(Y ) = FBD(X ) FBD (X) = 1000 lb.

FBD = FBD(Y ) 2 Pero: FBD (Y) = 1000 lb.


FBD =

( 2 ) FBD(Y ) FBD = ( 2 )1000

FBD = 1414,2 libras (compresin)

83

Problema 4.5 Esttica Meriam edicin tres; Hallar la fuerza en cada miembro de la armadura cargada. Influye la carga de 6 kN en los resultados.
3 4 10 kN 6 kN BX = 6 kN

4m

4m

C
5

3 4 BY =8 kN

10 kN 4m

4m

BX = 6 kN

AY

10 kN 4m

BY =8 kN

6 kN 4m

B X 10 B Y = = 5 4 3
C Hallar BX

A
AX FAB FAE
4m F AE

FAB FBE

FCB FBD

FCB FCD CY

BX =2 3
BX = 3 (2) = 6 KN BX = 6 KN

FBE FED FED


4m

FCD

MA = 0

Hallar BY

- BY (4) + CY (4 + 4) - 6 (4 + 4) = 0 FX = 0 BX - AX = 0 = 6 KN BX = AX AX = 6 KN PERO: BX

BY =2 4
BY = 4 (2) = 6 KN BY = 8 KN

- 8 (4) + CY (8) - 6 (8) = 0 - 4 + CY - 6 = 0 CY - 10 = 0 CY = 10 KN

84

MC = 0

- AY (4 + 4) + BY (4) = 0

PERO: BY = 8 KN

- AY (8) + 8 (4) = 0 - AY + 4 = 0 AY = 4 kN NUDO A


FAE(X) 2 4 AY AX AY

2m

2m

sen = sen =

FAE(Y ) FAE 2 3 3 = 4 2

FAB FAE

FAB FBE

2 3
FAE(Y) FAE

AX

FAB FAE

4m F AE

FAE(Y) = sen FAE

3 FAE(Y ) = FAE 2 FAE(X ) cos = FAE 2 1 cos = = 4 2


FAE(X) = cos FAE FX = 0 FAE(X) AX + FAB = 0 PERO: AX = 6 KN FAE(X) + FAB = AX FAE(X) + FAB = 6

FAE(Y) = sen FAE

1 FAE(X ) = FAE 2
FY = 0 AY FAE (Y) = 0 PERO: AY = 4 kN FAE (Y) = AY FAE (Y) = 4 kN

FAE(Y ) = FAE = 2 3

3 FAE 2 FAE(Y )

1 FAE + FAB = 6 (ECUACION 1) 2

PERO: FAE (Y) = 4 Kn

FAE =

2 3

(4) = 4,618

kN

FAE = 4,618 KN (tensin)

1 FAE + FAB = 6 (ECUACION 1) 2


PERO: FAE = 4,618 KN

85

1 FAE 2 1 FAB = 6 - (4,618) = 6 - 2,309 = 3,691 kN 2 FAB = 3,691 KN (tensin) FAB = 6 NUDO C
AY
6 kN BX = 6 kN 10 kN 4m BY =8 kN 6 kN 4m

A C
CY
4m F AE

C
FCB FCD CY

AX

FAB FAE

FAB FBE

FCB FBD FBD FED


4m

FCB FCD

FY = 0 CY 6 - FCD (Y) = 0 PERO: CY = 10 kN 10 6 - FCD (Y) = 0 4 - FCD (Y) = 0 FCD (Y) = 4 KN FX = 0


6 kN

FBE FED

FCD

FCB
600

FCD(Y ) FCD FCD (Y) = FCD sen 60 FCD(Y ) 4 FCD = = = 4,618 kN sen 60 0,866 sen 60 =
FCD = 4,618 KN (tensin)
CY = 10 KN

FCB - FCD(X) = 0 FCB = FCD(X)

FCD (Y)

FCD FCD (X)

cos 60 =

FCB = 2,309 kN (compresin)

FCD(x ) FCD

FCD (X) = FCD cos 60 PERO: FCD = 4,618 KN (tensin) FCD (X) = 4,618 (0,5) = 2,309 kN

86

NUDO B FX = 0

6 - FAB - FCB + FBE(X) FBD(X) = 0


PERO: FAB = 3,691 KN FCB = 2,309 kN
BX = 6 kN 10 kN BY =8 kN BX = 6 kN BY = 8 kN

6 - 3,691 - 2,309 + FBE(X) FBD(X) = 0


FBE(X) FBD(X) = 0
FAB FBE

B
FCB FBD FAB
600

FCB
600

FBE cos 60 - FBD cos 60 = 0 0,5 FBE 0,5 FBD = 0 (ECUACION 1)


FY = 0 FBE (Y) + FBD (Y) - 8 = 0 FBE (Y) + FBD (Y) = 8

FBE (Y)

FBE FBE (X)

FBD FBD (Y) FBD (X)

FBE(Y ) sen 60 = FBE FBE(Y) = FBE sen 60 FBE(x ) FBE FBE(X) = FBE cos 60 cos 60 =

FBE sen 60 + FBD sen 60 = 8 0,866 FBE + 0,866 FBD = 8 (ECUACION 2)


Resolver las ecuaciones 1 y 2

FBD(Y ) FBD FBD(Y) = FBD sen 60 sen 60 = FBD(x ) FBD FBD(X) = FBD cos 60 cos 60 =

0,5 FBE 0,5 FBD = 0 (0,866) 0,866 FBE + 0,866 FBD = 8 (0,5)

0,433 FBE 0,433 FBD = 0 0,433 FBE + 0,433 FBD = 4 0,866 FBE = 4 4 FBE = 4,618 KN 0,866 FBE = 4,618 kN (compresion)
NUDO E
FAE FBE FED

BX = 6 kN

AY

10 kN 4m

BY =8 kN

6 kN 4m

A
AX FAB FAE
4m F AE

C
FCB FCD CY

FAB FBE

FCB FBD FBD FED


4m

FBE FED

FCD

87

FED

FAE (Y)

FAE
600

FBE
600

FBE (Y)

FAE(Y ) FAE FAE(Y) = FAE sen 60 sen 60 = FAE(x ) FAE FAE(X) = FAE cos 60 cos 60 =

FBE(Y ) FBE FBE(Y) = FBE sen 60 sen 60 = FBE(x ) FBE FBE(X) = FBE cos 60 cos 60 =

FAE (X)

FBE (X)

FX = 0

FED - FAE (X) FBE (X) = 0 FED - FAE cos 60 FBE cos 60 = 0 PERO: FBE = 4,618 kN FAE = 4,618 KN FED = FAE cos 60 + FBE cos 60 FED = 4,618 (0,5) + 4,618 (0,5) FED = 2,309 + 2,309 = 4,618 KN (Tension) FED = 4,618 KN (Tension)
CY = 10 KN AY = 4 kN AX = 6 KN FAE = 4,618 KN (tensin) FAB = 3,691 KN (tensin) FCD = 4,618 KN (tensin)

FCB = 2,309 kN (compresion) FBE = 4,618 kN (compresion) FED = 4,618 KN (Tension)

Problema 4.7 Esttica Meriam edicin tres; Problema 4.12 Esttica Meriam edicin cinco Calcular las fuerzas en los miembros CG y CF de la armadura representada

ME = 0

FX = 0 DX EX = 0 EX = DX EX =10,666 KN

4 (2 + 2 + 2) + 2 (2 + 2) DX (3) = 0

4 (6) + 2 (4) DX (3) = 0 24 + 8 3 DX = 0 32 3 DX = 0

88

3 DX = 32

DX =

32 = 10,666 KN 3
FAB FAG
3 4 KN 4 KN

DX = 10,666 KN NUDO A A FAB FAG


4 KN

2m

2 KN 2m

2m

DY FCD D Dx
3m

FAB

FAB FAG
6 6,7

B FBC FBC C FCD FBG FGC FCF FCF

FAG G

FGC FGF FGF

Las ecuaciones de equilibrio para la junta A son:

F E CY Ex

FAB FAG 4 = = 6 6,7 3


Hallar FAB

Hallar FAG

FAB 4 = 3 6 ( 4) 6 FAB = = 8 KN 3
FAB = 8 KN (tensin) NUDO B
2 KN

FAB FAG 4 = = 6 6,7 3 FAG 4 = 6,7 3 (6,7 ) 4 = 8,94 KN FAG = 3


FAG = 8,94 KN (compresion)

2m

2 KN 2m

2m

DY D Dx
3m

FAB

FBC A

FAB FAG
4 KN

FAB

B FBC FBC C FBG

FAG G F

FBG FX = 0 FBC - FAB = 0 FBC = FAB PERO: FAB = 8 KN (tensin) FBC = 8 KN (tensin) FY = 0 FBG - 2 = 0

E CY

Ex

FBG = 2 KN (compresin)

89

NUDO G FBG FGC FAG G FGF A FAB FAG


4 KN 2m 2 KN 2m 2m

DY D Dx

FAB

B FBC FBC C FBG FGC

FAG G

FGC FGF FGF

3m

3 tg = = 0,5 6
= arc tg (0,5) = 26,56
0

F E Ex

FGC(X) FAG(X) FAG(Y) FAG


26.56
0

FGC
26.56 26.560
0

FGC(Y)

CY

FGF(Y ) sen 26,56 = FGF


FGF(Y) = FGF sen 26,56

FGF FBG FGF(X)

FGF(Y)

sen 26,56 =

FGC(Y ) FGC FAG(Y ) FAG

FGC(Y) = FGC sen 26,56

cos 26,56 =
FGF (X)

sen 26,56 =

FGF(X ) FGF = FGF cos 26,56

FAG(Y) = FAG sen 26,56 FX = 0 FGC (X) + FAG (X) - FGF (X) = 0 PERO: FGC (X) = FGC cos 26,56 FGF (X) = FGF cos 26,56 FAG (X) = FAG cos 26,56 FAG = 8,94 KN (compresion) FAG (X) = FAG cos 26,56 FAG (X) = (8,94) cos 26,56 FGC (X) + FAG (X) - FGF (X) = 0 FGC cos 26,56 + (8,94) cos 26,56 - FGF cos 26,56 = 0

cos 26,56 =
FGC (X)

FGC(X ) FGC = FGC cos 26,56

cos 26,56 =
FAG (X)

FAG(X ) FAG = FAG cos 26,56

90

FGC + 8,94 - FGF = 0 FGC - FGF = - 8,94 (Ecuacin 1) Resolver las ecuaciones FGC - FGF = - 8,94 (-0,4471) 0,4471 FGC + 0,4471 FGF = 6 -0,4471 FGC + 0,4471 FGF = 4 0,4471 FGC + 0,4471 FGF = 6 0,4471 FGF + 0,4471 FGF = 4 + 6 0,8942 FGF = 10 FY = 0 FGC (Y) + FGF (Y) - FAG (Y) - FBG = 0 PERO: FGC(Y) = FGC sen 26,56 FGF(Y) = FGF sen 26,56 FBG = 2 KN (compresin) FAG(Y) = FAG sen 26,56 FAG = 8,94 KN (compresion) FAG (Y) = (8,94) sen 26,56 FAG (Y) = (8,94) (0,4471) FAG (Y) = 4 KN FGC (Y) + FGF (Y) FGC (Y) + FGF (Y) FGC (Y) + FGF (Y) FGC (Y) + FGF (Y) - FAG (Y) - FBG = 0 -4 -2=0 -6=0 =6

FGF =

10 = 11,18 KN 0,8942

FGF = 11,18 KN (compresion) Reemplazar la ecuacin 1 FGC - FGF = - 8,94 (Ecuacin 1) Pero: FGF = 11,18 KN FGC 11,18 = - 8,94 FGC = 11,18 - 8,94 FGC = 2,24 KN (tensin) NUDO C FBC C FCD FAB FAG
4 KN

0,4471 FGC + 0,4471 FGF = 6 (Ecuacin 2) FBC FGC(Y)


26.560

FCD

FGC FGC(X)
2m

FCF
2 KN 2m 2m

DY FCD D Dx
3m

FAB

FGC FCF PERO: FBC = 8 KN FGC = 2,24 KN

B FBC FBC C FCD FBG FGC FCF FCF

FAG G

FGC FGF FGF

F E CY Ex

cos 26,56 =
FGC (X) FGC (X) FGC (X)

FGC(X ) FGC = FGC cos 26,56 = (2,24) cos 26,56 = (2,24) 0,8944

91

FGC (X) = 2 KN FX = 0 FCD - FBC - FGC (X) = 0 PERO: FBC = 8 KN FGC (X) = 2 KN FCD - FBC - FGC (X) = 0 FCD - 8 - 2 = 0 FCD - 10 = 0 FCD = 10 kN (tensin) Determinar la fuerza que soporta el elemento KN de la armadura.
1m 0,7 m 0,7 m 0,7 m 0,7 m

sen 26,56 =
FGC (Y) FGC (Y) FGC (Y) FGC (Y)

FGC(Y ) FGC

FY = 0 FCF - FGC (Y) = 0 FCF = FGC (Y) PERO: FGC (Y) = 1 KN FCF = 1 KN (compresin)

= FGC sen 26,56 = (2,24) sen 26,56 = (2,24) 0,4471 = 1 KN

E
0,5 m

1200 N

G
0,5 m

C D F I
700 N

L
700 N

O
700 N

2,5 m

92

NUDO Q
FQN 1200 N 0,7 m 0,7 m

K FX = 0
FQP 0,5 m

N
FQN FQN

Q
FQP FQP

1200 N

1200 - FQN = 0 FQN = 1200 N (tension) FY = 0 FQP = 0


700 N 0,5 m

L
700 N 0,7 m 0,7 m

O
700 N

NUDO O
FOP 0,5 m

N
FQN FQN

Q
FQP FQP

1200 N

FX = 0 FOL = 0 FY = 0 FOP - 700 = 0 FOP = 700 NUDO P

FOL

=0
700 N 0,5 m

P
FOP FOP

I
700 N

FOL

FOL

N (tensin)

700 N

700 N

0,7 m FPN(X) 0,86 0,7 0,86 FPL FPN 0,5 0,7 FOP 0,5 m FQP

0,7 m

N FQN
FQN FPN

Q
FQP FQP

1200 N

FPN(Y) 0,5

=0

0,5 m

FPN FPL FPL

P
FOP FOP

FPL(Y)

0,5 sen = = 0,581 0,86 cos = 0,7 = 0,813 0,86 FPN(X ) = 0,813 FPN

FPL(X)

= 700 N

I
700 N

FOL

FOL

700 N

700 N

cos =

93

FPN(X) = 0,813 FPN

sen =
FPN(Y)

FPN(Y ) = 0,581 FPN = 0,581 FPN

FX = 0 FPL(X) - FPN(X) = 0 0,813 FPL - 0,813 FPN = 0 cancelando trminos semejantes FPL - FPN = 0 (ECUACION 1) FY = 0 FQP + FPN(Y) + FPL(Y) - FOP = 0 PERO: FQP = 0 KN FOP = 700 KN FPN(Y) - FPL(Y) - 700 = 0 FPN(Y) - FPL(Y) = 700 0,581 FPN + 0,581 FPL = 700 (ECUACION 2) Resolver las ecuaciones FPL - FPN = 0 (ECUACION 1)

cos =
FPL(X)

FPL(X ) = 0,813 FPL = 0,813 FPL FPL(Y ) = 0,581 FPL = 0,581 FPL

sen =
FPL(Y)

0,581 FPN + 0,581 FPL = 700 (ECUACION 2) FPL - FPN = 0 (0,581) 0,581 FPN + 0,581 FPL = 700 0,581 FPL 0,581 FPN = 0 0,581 FPN + 0,581 FPL = 700 (2) 0,581 FPL = 700 1,162 FPL = 700

FPL =

700 = 602,4 N 1,162

94

FPL = 602,4 N (compresin) FPL = FPN (ECUACION 1) FPN = 602,4 N (tensin) NUDO N Pero: FPN = 602,4 N (tensin) K
0,5 m 0,7 m FNK FNK FNM 0,7 m

N FQN
FPN FQN FNM FPN FPL FPL

Q
FQP FQP

1200 N

0,5 sen = = 0,581 0,86


0,5 m

P
FOP FOP

0,7 cos = = 0,813 0,86


cos =
FPN(X)

I
FPN(X) 0,86 0,7 FNK FPN FQN 700 N

FOL

FOL

FPN (X ) = 0,813 FPN = 0,813 FPN

700 N

700 N

FPN(Y) 0,5

FPN(X) = 0,813 (602,4) FPN(X) = 489,75 N

= 1200 N

sen =

FPN (Y ) = 0,581 FPN


FNM

FY = 0 FNM - FPN(Y) = 0 PERO: FPN(Y) = 350 N FNM = FPN(Y) FNM = 350 N (compresin)

FPN(Y) = 0,581 FPN FPN(Y) = 0,581 (602,4) FPN(Y) = 350 N FX = 0 FQN + FPN(X) FNK = 0 Pero: FQN = 1200 N FPN(X) = 489,75 N FQN + FPN(X) FNK = 0 1200 + 489,75 - FNK = 0 1689,75 - FNK = 0

FQN = 1200 N (tensin) FOP = 700 N (tensin)

FQP = 0 FOL = 0 FPN = 602,4 N (tensin)

FPL = 602,4 N (compresin)

FNK = 1689,75 N (tensin) FNM = 350 N (compresin)

FNK = 1689,75 N (tensin)

95