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MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT USNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY TAXILA

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Goal
Describe the basic types of compressors and their typical applications used in industry.

Definition of Compressor
Compressors are described as mechanical device that takes in a gas and increases its pressure by squeezing volume of it into a smaller volume

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A Brief History of Compressors

Compressor History
1933 Danfoss founded 1952 "Pancake" compressor 1956 PW compressor 1956 Danfoss Flensburg founded 1958 Start of production in Flensburg 1960 Synthetic materials and oils 1970 SC compressor and PTC starting device 1972 FR compressor 1977 TL and BD compressor 1988 Concentration of production in Flensburg 1989 100,000,000 compressors produced 1990 NL and TLES compressor 1992 PL compressor 1992 Compressors for R134a 1993 Compressors for R600a 1993 Danfoss Compressors d.o.o (Slovenia)

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1995 Danfoss Compressors S.A. de C.V. (Mexico) 1996 NLY compressor 1997 150,000,000 compressors 1998 Introduction BD35F (DC) 1998 Variable speed drive compressor TLV 1999 Introduction BD50F (DC) 1999 Compressors for R290 2000 Variable speed drive compressor NLV 2000 TLX compressor 2001 ePTC-Electronically controlled PTC starting device 2001 200,000,000 compressors produced 2002 Danfoss Compressors spol. s.r.o. 2002 Compressor for mobile refrigeration BD150F 2003 BD35F & BD35K (DC) for solar applications 2003 CO2 compressor (carbon dioxide) 2003 X-treme Series: NLX-KK & TLX-KK.3 compressors 2004 Introduction BD80F (DC) 2005 GS compressor 2006 TN (CO2) compressor 2006 SLV variable speed drive compressor

transport gases such as hydrogen. nitrogen. etc.5 Introduction Compressors used to increase the pressure of a gas (compressible fluid) Examples Increase the pressure for instrument air systems (to get control valves to operate). in a chemical plant OR Working fluid enters compressor  as a low pressure gas near room temperature Compressor does work on fluid  Pushes gas inward as the gas moves inward  Gas temperature rises (first law)  Ordered energy becomes disordered energy Fluid leaves compressor  as hot. fuel gas. high pressure gas Compressors used to compress air from inlet pressure (atm) to a higher pressure (PV       R T) Classified according to: Type of displacement Staging Type of Drive (prime mover) Operating Pressure Capacity .

6 Types of Compressors Compressors Positive Displacement Dynamic Ejector Reciprocating Rotary Centrifugal (Radial Flow) Mixed Flow Axial Flow Mechanical Piston Sliding Vane Liquid Piston Helical Lobe Straight Lobe Scroll Types of Compressors  Positive Displacement (PD) : Operate by trapping a specific volume of gas and forcing it into a smaller volume  2 Basic Designs for PD Compressors   Rotary  Reciprocating Centrifugal : Operate by accelerating the gas and converting the energy to pressure  2 Basic Designs for Centrifugal Compressors  Centrifugal  Axial .

7 Positive Displacement Compressors: Rotary Design   Rotary compressors (get their name from the rotating motion of the transfer element) compress gases with lobes. the right rotor rotates counterclockwise. lower noise and vibration  Cylinder rotating eccentrically in side housing  “Double-acting” Rotary Screw Compressors Commonly used in industry. 4 Primary Types of Rotary Compressors:  Rotary Screw  Scroll  Sliding Vane  Lobe  Liquid Ring Rotary Compressors  Higher efficiency. causing the teeth to mesh. screws.  As the left rotor turns clockwise. and vanes into smaller volumes. Have an inlet suction line and outlet discharge port   .  The 2 rotors are attached to a drive shaft and drive that provide energy to operate the compressor. This forces the gases to become trapped in the central cavity. It operates with 2 helical rotors that rotate toward each other.

The lobes of the male rotor engage and drive the female rotor. so that the two parts counter-rotate. This particular screw compressor design uses two mating screw-like rotors (male and female rotors) to perform the compression process. Only the male rotor is driven by the compressor motor. .8     Very common in plants Good mid-range size (25 hp – 300 hp) Models include oil flooded or oil free Oil flooded units offer best efficiency Example: Screw compressor traps the refrigerant vapor and compresses it by gradually shrinking the volume of the refrigerant.

9  Rotating meshed screws  One or two screws .

    Constant displacement Higher efficiency. The stationary scroll contains a discharge port. The scroll compressor uses two scrolls to perform this compression process. The driven scroll is connected to a motor by a shaft and bearing assembly.10 Screw Compressor Advantages / Disadvantages Advantages      Good efficiency for oil flooded models (continuous intercooling) Low maintenance costs Not usually noisy Can run fully loaded for extended periods of time Good for heat recovery for space heating Disadvantages  Can use 40%-90% of full load power when unloaded  Not good for very small or very large loads Scroll compressors It works on the principle of trapping the refrigerant vapor and compressing it by gradually shrinking the volume of the refrigerant. but harder to manufacture Close tolerance between scrolls Ugly to analyze – see text for details .

11 Sliding Vane Compressors  Uses a slightly off-center rotor with sliding vanes to compress gas. the pressure increases until maximum compression is achieved.  As the volume decreases. Then the gas is discharged out the compressor. As the vanes turn toward the discharge port. .  Inlet gas flows into the vanes when they are fully extended and form the largest pocket. the gases are compressed.

.  Lobe Compressors can be used as compressors or vacuum pumps.  The lobes do not touch each other.  Compressed gases are released into the discharge line.  Designed to have constant volume discharge pressures and constant speed drivers. A few thousands of an inch clearing exists between the casing and lobes.12 Lobe Compressors  Characterized by 2 kidney-bean shaped impellers used to trap and transfer gases.  The 2 impellers move in opposite directions on parallel mounted shafts as the lobes sweep across the suction port.

 As the rotor turns. Make up water or seal liquid is added to the compressor during operation.  As the liquid ring compressor rotates.13 Liquid Ring Compressors  It has one moving transfer element and a casing that is filled with water or seal liquid. The liquid helps cool the compressed gases  Used to compress hazardous and toxic gases as well as hot gases. An air pocket is formed in the center of the casing. a small % of the liquid escapes out the discharge port. the fluid is centrifugally forced to the outer wall of the elliptical casing. .

HEAD END CRANK END CROSSHEAD Typical double acting reciprocating Compressor cylinder schematic .  Spring-loaded suction and discharge valves open/close automatically as the piston moves up and down in the cylinder chamber.  The back and forth motion incorporated by a reciprocating compressor pulls gas in on the suction (or intake) stroke and discharges it on the other.14 Reciprocating piston compressors     Low flow rates High compression ratios Most common type of compressors. What is “Sequence of Events”? It is a step by step basic approach to allow a better understanding of how a reciprocating compressor cylinder works under ideal conditions. Work by trapping and compressing specific volumes of gas between a piston and a cylinder wall.

CYLINDER PRESSURE PV Diagram STROKE OR VOLUME SUCTION DRUM SUCTION VALVE DISCHARGE VALVE DISCHARGE DRUM .15 When compressing a gas its volume is reduced. along with an increase in pressure and temperature.

16 300 CYLINDER PRESSURE 100 STROKE OR VOLUME • 300 CYLINDER PRESSURE 100 STROKE OR VOLUME • .

17 What’s going on at the discharge valve? IN THE CYLINDER 300 PSIG DISCHARGE PRESSURE AT THE DRUM Area Springs TO OPEN THE VALVE IN THE CYLINDER 320 PSIG 300 PSIG 300 PSIG DISCHARGE PRESSURE AT THE DRUM .

IN THE CYLINDER 18 300 PSIG 300 PSIG DISCHARGE PRESSURE AT THE DRUM 300 CYLINDER PRESSURE • • STROKE OR VOLUME 100 .

25 ) 100 CLEARANCE VOLUME 300 CYLINDER PRESSURE 100 • • STROKE OR VOLUME • .19 ACTUAL STROKE PORTION OF STROKE DISCHARGE VALVE OPEN 300 AIR ( K = 1.4 ) HELIUM ( K = 1.6 ) NATURAL GAS ( K = 1.

20 300 CYLINDER PRESSURE • • STROKE OR VOLUME 100 • 300 CYLINDER PRESSURE • • • STROKE OR VOLUME 100 • .

21 ACTUAL STROKE FIXED CLEARANCE 300 CYLINDER PRESSURE EFFECTIVE STROKE • • • STROKE OR VOLUME 100 • FIXED CLEARANCE ACTUAL STROKE FIXED CLEARANCE CYLINDER PRESSURE 300 EFFECTIVE STROKE • • • VALVE LOSS 100 • EFFECTIVE STROKE ACTUAL STROKE STROKE OR VOLUME VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY = .

22 300 NATURAL GAS ( K = 1.25 ) AIR ( K = 1.6 ) 100 EFFECTIVE STROKE EFFECTIVE STROKE EFFECTIVE STROKE EFFECT OF CLEARANCE VARIATIONS 300 CYLINDER PRESSURE • • • STROKE OR VOLUME 100 • FIXED CLEARANCE .4 ) HELIUM ( K = 1.

23 VOLUME REDUCTION CYLINDER PRESSURE 300 • • • • • STROKE OR VOLUME 100 • CLEARANCE POCKET OPENED ADDITIONAL INFO • Unloading also accomplished with suction valve .

As the crankshaft rotates. The piston is connected to the crankshaft by a rod.24 Basic Parts Of Positive Displacement Reciprocating Compressors – – – – – – – – Piston Connecting Rod Crankshaft Diver Piston Rings Suction Line Discharge Line Spring -Loaded Suction and Discharge Valves Example: The refrigerant vapor is compressed by a piston that is located inside a cylinder. are used to trap the refrigerant vapor within the cylinder during this process. Suction valve and the discharge valve. . it causes the piston to travel back and forth inside the cylinder.

. The discharge valve is forced open and the compressed refrigerant vapor leaves the cylinder. As the piston continues to travel toward the discharge valve. Reciprocating Compressor Compression stroke & discharge The piston reverses its direction and travels toward the discharge valve.25 Reciprocating Compressor Intake stroke The piston travels away from the discharge valve and creates a vacuum effect Reduction in the pressure within the cylinder to below suction pressure forces the suction valve to open and the refrigerant vapor is drawn into the cylinder. trapping the refrigerant vapor inside the cylinder. the refrigerant vapor is compressed. compressing the refrigerant vapor The suction valve is then closed.

26 Reciprocating Piston – Piston assembly with valves to control flow – Can either be single stage or multi-stage .

27 Shown only one cylinder .

28 Can have 1 to 4 cylinders shown only two cylinder Multistage Compressors Discharge from Stage 1 is suction for Stage 2 – Utilizes piston / cylinder – Usually two stages with an intercooler (MAE302) .

29 – Uses oil to seal piston and for some cooling Reciprocating Compressor Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages: • • • • Good for small application Uses no / little power when unloaded Cheap and simple to operate Operates over a wide range of pressures Disadvantages • • • • Noisy Maintenance can be an issue Not good for larger applications Oil-free air units are expensive Non-Positive Displacement • Centrifugal compressor – Radial flow • Axial Compressor – Axial Flow .

30 Centrifugal compressors – High flow rates – Low compression ratios – Several centrifugal stages may be used to obtain higher compression ratios • Centrifugal compressors accelerate the velocity of the gases (increases kinetic energy) which is then converted into pressure as the gas flow leaves the volute and enters the discharge pipe.Stage : Compress the gas once • Use for high gas flow rates. • Usually operate at speeds > 3. low discharge pressures . • Deliver much higher flow rates than positive displacement compressors • 2 Types of Centrifugal Compressors • – Single.000 rpm.

Discharge lines. Diffuser Plates. high discharge pressures Basic Components – Impellers. Casing – Suction Vane Tips = Part of the impeller vane that comes into contact with gas first. Suction Eyes. Shaft. Vanes.Stage : Take the discharge of one stage and pass it to the suction of another stage • Use for high gas flow rates.31 – Multi. Volutes. Seals. – Discharge Vane Tips = Part of the impeller vane that comes into contact with gas last Radial Flow (Centrifugal) Compressor .

• In industry. • Stator blades are attached to the casing. • Gas flow is moves along the shaft. axial compressors are used allot high flows and pressures are needed. • Rotating blades attached to a shaft push gases over stationary blades called stators.32 Centrifugal Compressor • Fluid flow is perpendicular to the axis of rotation • Used in first jet turbine engines Centrifugal Compressor: Axial Design • Composed of a rotor that has rows of fanlike blades. .

• Multi-Stage axial compressors can generate very high flow rates and discharge pressures. kinetic energy is converted into pressure. • Axial compressors are usually limited to 16 stages (due to temperature/material limitations) • Pound for pound.33 • As the gas velocity is increased by the rotating blades. the stator blades slow it down. axial compressors are lighter. and smaller than centrifugal compressors Axial Compressors • Fluid flow is parallel to axis of rotation • Used in modern aircraftHave several stages to increase compression pressure ratio. As the gas slows. more efficient. • Gas velocity increases as it moves from stage to stage until it reaches the discharge. • Used in modern gas turbine engines .

34 Compression • Radial/centrifugal flow – Adv: simple design. good for low compression ratios (5:1) – Disadv: Difficult to stage. less efficient • Axial flow – Good for high compression ratios (20:1) – Most commonly .

500 hp or larger Low maintenance Part load performance is adequate (close off inlet) Disadvantages • Intercooling must be provided for higher pressures • Not as efficient as screws Disadvantages • Intercooling must be provided for higher pressures • Not as efficient as screws Two-Stage Single-Shaft Centrifugal Compressor Advanced Design LPC Design Impeller .35 Centrifugal Compressor Advantages / Disadvantages Advantages • • • • • Can be staged for high pressure applications Typically used for loads greater than 200 hp Can be 1.

36 HPC Design Impeller LPC and HPC Subassembly .

Compressors are very noisy. • Silencers are mounted on the inlet and outlet of a compressor to ‘reduce’ the noise.37 Compressors Application Compressor’s Application Typical Compressor System • Safety valves and pressure relief valves used to remove excess pressure that could damage equipment and people. Exxon had one for a refinery light ends stream nicknamed “Old Snort” by the technicians. .

38 • Demister removes moisture (liquid) from the gas stream. • Dryer sometimes used on the compressor discharge line to remove any liquids (moisture).500 Compressors 0 Compressors . The liquid falls to the bottom of the demister and is removed. The clean gases goes out the top of the demister. Silica gel and molecular sieves (3A mole sieve) often used • Check valve line up on the compressor and associated equipment.000 Compressors 5. • Be sure all the compressor controls are set correctly.000 Compressors 8. • Check compressor oil levels and bearing cooling water systems. • Turn on the compressor. • Monitor equipment and process until conditions ‘steady’ out Location and Types of Compressors Compressor Station Compressor Station Compressor Station Production Processing Transmission & Storage Distribution 32.

39 Booster Station Gathering Centre LPG/Refinery .

40 Oil-free refrigerant compressor technology Turbocor oil-free compressor reducing costs to 50% This revolutionary compressor technology provides efficiencies up to 30% better than any other compressor in its size range in addition to being extraordinarily quiet and virtually vibration free 2003 AHR Expo Innovation Awards .

30-40% energy savings over reciprocating air-cooled compressor technologies are realistic.41 Oil-free refrigerant compressor technology Oil-free compressor with VFD and magnetic bearings Based on test results. Beam Type Coaxial and Non-Coaxial Flanges One to Three Impellers High Pressure Ratio Axial Thrust Balance Sizes 300 to 1000 .

Low Pressure Ratio Hydrostatic Lift Size 800 to 1000 Assembly .42 Overhung Type • • • • • • Axial Inlet Single Impeller High Volumes.

000 psi (80MPa).000 psi to 120. we . • Our initial experience was the design and manufacture of ultra high-pressure hydrogen compressors for pressures of 30.000 psi (200 to 825 MPa). Hydro-Pac has manufactured compressors for high-pressure hydrogen applications. 40 hp (30 KW) High Pressure Hydrogen Compressors • Since the 1980s.43 Hydrogen Compressor Hydro-Pac Hydrogen Compressor Model C12-40-7000LX 12. We have developed the techniques to safely and reliably compress this difficult gas. • The recent interest in hydrogen gas as an energy source has prompted us to expand our product offerings for this important application. In addition to the ultra-high pressure machines.

• Today. and backup power systems. slow operating speeds and in-line loads. • Full stroke length distance pieces isolate the hydraulic drive from the gas cylinders. • Hydraulically driven intensifiers allow control of both discharge pressure and gas flow rate by controlling the hydraulic drive. research and development facilities. • Hydro-Pac gas compressors work over a wide range of inlet pressures.000 psi to 15.44 • manufacture units for pressures of 1. which increases packing life. Hydro-Pac hydrogen compressors feature: • Oil-free nonlubricated gas pistons and cylinders protect against oil contamination of the process gas. • Water-cooled gas cylinders lower operating temperatures.000 psi (7 to 100 MPa) and flow rates of 1 scfm to 350 scfm (3 to 1200 kg/day). • Intensifiers are ideally suited for high-pressures due to the simple geometry. industrial sites. our hydrogen compressors are in use at fixed and mobile fueling stations. In many cases inlet pressure regulators are not required. This may be important when matching the flow rate of the compressor to that of a reformer or electrolyzer. This prevents contamination of the gas by the hydraulic drive oil. • Straightforward arrangement and patented free piston design of Hydro-Pac compressors simplifies maintenance. • Gas pressure assists in the compression stroke improving the overall efficiency of the machine . • Long slow stroke and small dead volume in the compressor cylinders result in a high volumetric efficiency.

45 Compressor Control System Compressor Control Equipment .

46 Compressor Test Cell .

47 Example(Air Conditioners) Compressor Working fluid enters compressor as low pressure gas near room temperature Compressor does work on fluid: Pushes gas so gas temperature rises (first law and ideal gas law) Ordered energy becomes disordered .

UHAI Publishing. 1997.48 Fluid leaves compressor as hot. by Charles E. Summary: Air conditioner • Evaporator: located in room air – transfers heat from room air to fluid • Condenser: located in outside air – transfers heat from fluid to outside air • Compressor: located in outside air – does work on fluid and creates entropy A heat pump does work to transfer heat from cold to hot Reference • The Process Technology Handbook”. Thomas. Berne. NY. high pressure gas. Many compressors available – ASHRAE Handbook is good source of more detailed information .

Axial motion is (circular/straight line) motion.49 Objestives(MCQs) 1. Ans: Maximum 3. Ans: Straight line 4. Ans: Both types 5. An axial compressor has (stator/rotor/or both types) of blades. For large capacities and high heads (an axial/a centrifugal) compressor is used. When the gas is at tips of impeller blades. Ans: A Centrifugal . Ans: is not 2. it is at (maximum/minimum) velocity. When the gas enters the diffuser. the impeller (is/is not) acting directly on the gas.