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NAIL DISEASES & DISORDERS

BEAUS LINES

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Single horizontal ridge caused by a severe, short term illness, such as a heart attack, measles, etc. ACTIONS: Mild cases treat with gentle buffing and refer more severe cases to medical practitioner. NON CONTAGIOUS

BRUISED NAIL

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Dark, congealed spots of blood between nail plate and bed ACTION: Gentle manicure. May need to refer to a medical practitioner NON CONTAGIOUS

BUNIONS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: A projection of the medial metatarsal and phalanges of the big toe causing the big toe to turn towards the others. This is caused by joint weakness and ill fitting shoes. ACTION: Normal pedicare, no rasping/callus smoothing and gentle massage over area. NON CONTAGIOUS

CHILBLAINS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An itchy, sore, tingly, red area resulting in broken skin caused by prolonged exposure to cold and poor circulation. ACTION: Area may be infectious so should be covered. Gentle massage in area may improve circulation. NON CONTAGIOUS

VERRUCA VULGARIS
(COMMON WARTS)

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: A viral infection which causes raised lumps of horny tissue in areas of pressure, the warts are caused by the human papilloma virus. ACTION: Do not manicure. Refer client to medical practitioner. CONTAGIOUS

VERRUCA PLANTARIS
(PLANTAR WARTS)

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Plantar warts are warts caused by the human Papilloma virus. They are small lesions that appear on the sole of the foot and are cauliflower in appearance and may have small black specks within them. Due to pressure on the soles of the feet, a layer of hard skin forms over the wart. A plantar wart may or may not be painful. It can be spread in communal showers, around swimming pools, sharing shoes etc. ACTION: Do not pedicure. Refer client to medical practitioner CONTAGIOUS

CORNS & CALLUSES

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Corns are nodules of hard skin. Calluses are plaques of hard skin, on an area of pressure or constant friction. ACTION: Regular manicure or pedicure with exfoliation and moisturiser on affected areas. Refer to podiatrist for removal. NON CONTAGIOUS

DERMATITIS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction or contact with an irritant. Typical symptoms of dermatitis include redness and itching. ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure infected, inflamed, broken or swollen skin. NON CONTAGIOUS

DIABETES

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Inability to produce to insulin form the pancreas. Can have poor healing qualities. May have concerns with circulation in the extremities and sensations of heat and cold. Ulcers and Gangrene are a regular concern for Diabetics. ACTION: Perform treatment with care, check heat levels and no sharp metal implements to be used. Any broken skin, eg. ulcers refer to medical practitioner, do not perform treatments. NON CONTAGIOUS

ECZEMA OF THE NAIL

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Can affect the eponychium, nail plate and bed, causing pitting and onycholysis. This is rare.

ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure. Refer to medical practitioner. NON CONTAGIOUS

EGGSHELL NAIL

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Nail plate is thin and abnormally flexible. It curves at the free edge and the nail plate can separate from the nail bed. This is caused by chronic illness of systematic or nervous origin. ACTION: Gentle manicure may help. NON CONTAGIOUS

HANG NAILS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Usually caused by minor injury or constant irritation through biting. The cuticle splits and appears as a small spike or hard nail growing alongside the nail plate. Dry cuticles or careless cutting away of cuticles can also cause this condition. Hot oil manicures and regular use of a cuticle oil will help. The spike can be clipped so it does not catch on things. ACTION: Gentle manicure with emphasis on cuticle work. Give homecare routine. NON CONTAGIOUS

HEEL FISSURES

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Dry skin build up from calluses. Deep cracks sometime appear in these and become red and sore. These made bleed if the client removes the callus once body weight is applied. ACTION: Pedicure rasping/Callus smoothing must be very careful and must not be performed on directly over fissures. Daily use of heal remedial products may help. Refer to pharmacist NON CONTAGIOUS

KOILONYCHIA
(SPOON NAIL)

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Flat or spoon shaped nail often thin and soft and is caused by iron deficiency (anaemia), excessive exposure to harsh chemicals etc, or is a congenital condition. ACTION: Manicure with care. NON CONTAGIOUS

LEUCONYCHIA SPOTS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Small white spots are groups of whitish nail cells trapped inside the nail plate These spots are caused by minor trauma to the Matrix. Pseudoleukonychia/False Leukonychia surface layers develop a whitish flaky appearance due to a lack of moisture in the nail plate sometimes caused by picking off or removal of nail polish. ACTION: The white area grows out so there is no special treatment required. Conduct manicure and pedicure service as usual nail polish will disguise the problem. Surface dryness can be gently buffed away. Recommend cuticle oil. NON CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHATROPHIA

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: The wasting away of the nail, causing it to lose its lustre and become smaller. The nail can also shed completely. This condition is mainly caused by injury or disease. ACTION: Manicure gently, if the condition is not severe. NON CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHAUXIS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An overgrowth of the nail, in thickness rather than in length. Usually caused by an internal disturbance, such as a local infection.

ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure .


CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHIA

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Inflammation of the nail matrix, accompanied by pus formation. Inflammation within the nail plate. ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure. CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHOCRYPTOSIS
(INGROWN NAILS)

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Also known as ingrown nails. May affect either the fingers or toes. The nail grows into the sides of the flesh and may cause infection. Filing the nails too much in the corners and failing to correct hang nails can cause the condition as well. ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure if infection is present. Refer to medical practitioner. CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHOLYSIS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Most commonly associated with external trauma to the nail. Nail plate separates from the nail bed. Can also be associated with an internal disorder. ACTION: If possible, keep the nail short to avoid the free edge catching on things and resulting in further separation. Can be permanent if condition is long term. If so, refer to a medical practitioner. NON CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHOMYCOSIS
(TINEA UNGUIUM)

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An infectious fungal disease mainly seen as white spots that can be scraped off the surface, or long yellowish streaks within the nail substance. The disease attacks the free edge and moves its way to the matrix. The infected portion is thick and discoloured. ACTION: Do not perform manicure or pedicure seek medical advice. CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHOPHAGY

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Bitten nails, often no free edge is visible. Nails look ragged and distorted, skin and nail bed can be exposed and raw.

ACTION: Regular manicure or apply nail enhancements to discourage the client from biting their nails. NON CONTAGIOUS

ONYCOPHOSIS
DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Refers to the growth of the horny epithelium in the nail bed. In other words a callus like growth on the nail plate.

ACTION: Buff nail to reduce any thickness


NON CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHOPTOSIS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Periodic shedding of one or more nails, either in whole or parts. This condition may follow certain diseases such as syphilis. ACTION: Do not work on the area - refer the client to their medical practitioner. NON CONTAGIOUS

ONYCHORRHEXIS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Split or brittle nails. Caused by injury to the finger or exposure to harsh chemicals ACTION: Hot oil manicures will improve the condition. Homecare advice needs to be given. NON CONTAGIOUS

PARONYCHIA

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An infectious and inflammatory condition of nail folds. Infection is bacterial. Chronic paronychia may weaken defences and increase the risk of developing a fungal infection of the nail or may permanently deform the nail plate. ACTION: Do not work on the area - refer the client to their medical practitioner. CONTAGIOUS

PSORIASIS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: A skin disease which can affect the nail. It appears as silvery scales that build up to form a plaque which, when removed, leave a raw, red patch of skin. Plaques which form around the nail plate can cause pitting. Those which form beneath the nail plate can cause onycholysis. ACTION: Do not work on the area - refer the client to their medical practitioner NON CONTAGIOUS

PTERIGIUM

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An abnormal winged like growth of skin (living tissue) on the nail plate. The skin is slowly stretched and dragged along the bed. Most commonly caused by severe trauma such as warts, burns & blood circulation disorders. ACTION: Do not attempt to remove the wing of skin as it is quite possible that there is no nail plate growth under the wing. NOTE: PTERIGIUM SHOULD NOT BE USED TO DESCRIBE THE CUTICLE (NON LIVING TISSUE). NON CONTAGIOUS

RIDGES, FURROWS, CORREGATIONS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Multiple shallow/ deep ridges due to illness or injury, excessive dieting, incorrect removal of nail enhancements, pregnancy, etc. ACTION: Gently manicure, if severe refer to a medical practitioner. Can sometimes be buffed smoother or can use a ridgefiller base coat. NON CONTAGIOUS

TINEA PEDIS
(ATHLETES FOOT)

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Fungal infection, in acute conditions, small blisters form and spread over the sole of the foot and between the toes. Where they rupture, the skin becomes red and oozes. Feet can be itchy and smell. Can be caught from bathroom floors, gyms etc. ACTION: In extreme cases DO NOT TOUCH, highly contagious, seek medical advice. CONTAGIOUS

DISCOLOURED NAILS
DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Exposure to chemicals including dyes & nicotine. Some medications, bacterial infections and systemic disorders may also cause nail discolouration . ACTION: Application of coloured polish or nail enhancements can hide this condition but lifestyle changes or medical advice may be required to fix the problem. NON CONTAGIOUS