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DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Single horizontal ridge caused by a severe, short term illness, such as a heart attack, measles, etc. ACTIONS: Mild cases treat with gentle buffing and refer more severe cases to medical practitioner. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Dark, congealed spots of blood between nail plate and bed ACTION: Gentle manicure. May need to refer to a medical practitioner NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: A projection of the medial metatarsal and phalanges of the big toe causing the big toe to turn towards the others. This is caused by joint weakness and ill fitting shoes. ACTION: Normal pedicare, no rasping/callus smoothing and gentle massage over area. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An itchy, sore, tingly, red area resulting in broken skin caused by prolonged exposure to cold and poor circulation. ACTION: Area may be infectious so should be covered. Gentle massage in area may improve circulation. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: A viral infection which causes raised lumps of horny tissue in areas of pressure, the warts are caused by the human papilloma virus. ACTION: Do not manicure. Refer client to medical practitioner. CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Plantar warts are warts caused by the human Papilloma virus. They are small lesions that appear on the sole of the foot and are cauliflower in appearance and may have small black specks within them. Due to pressure on the soles of the feet, a layer of hard skin forms over the wart. A plantar wart may or may not be painful. It can be spread in communal showers, around swimming pools, sharing shoes etc. ACTION: Do not pedicure. Refer client to medical practitioner CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Corns are nodules of hard skin. Calluses are plaques of hard skin, on an area of pressure or constant friction. ACTION: Regular manicure or pedicure with exfoliation and moisturiser on affected areas. Refer to podiatrist for removal. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction or contact with an irritant. Typical symptoms of dermatitis include redness and itching. ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure infected, inflamed, broken or swollen skin. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Inability to produce to insulin form the pancreas. Can have poor healing qualities. May have concerns with circulation in the extremities and sensations of heat and cold. Ulcers and Gangrene are a regular concern for Diabetics. ACTION: Perform treatment with care, check heat levels and no sharp metal implements to be used. Any broken skin, eg. ulcers refer to medical practitioner, do not perform treatments. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Can affect the eponychium, nail plate and bed, causing pitting and onycholysis. This is rare.

ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure. Refer to medical practitioner. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Nail plate is thin and abnormally flexible. It curves at the free edge and the nail plate can separate from the nail bed. This is caused by chronic illness of systematic or nervous origin. ACTION: Gentle manicure may help. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Usually caused by minor injury or constant irritation through biting. The cuticle splits and appears as a small spike or hard nail growing alongside the nail plate. Dry cuticles or careless cutting away of cuticles can also cause this condition. Hot oil manicures and regular use of a cuticle oil will help. The spike can be clipped so it does not catch on things. ACTION: Gentle manicure with emphasis on cuticle work. Give homecare routine. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Dry skin build up from calluses. Deep cracks sometime appear in these and become red and sore. These made bleed if the client removes the callus once body weight is applied. ACTION: Pedicure rasping/Callus smoothing must be very careful and must not be performed on directly over fissures. Daily use of heal remedial products may help. Refer to pharmacist NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Flat or spoon shaped nail often thin and soft and is caused by iron deficiency (anaemia), excessive exposure to harsh chemicals etc, or is a congenital condition. ACTION: Manicure with care. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Small white spots are groups of whitish nail cells trapped inside the nail plate These spots are caused by minor trauma to the Matrix. Pseudoleukonychia/False Leukonychia surface layers develop a whitish flaky appearance due to a lack of moisture in the nail plate sometimes caused by picking off or removal of nail polish. ACTION: The white area grows out so there is no special treatment required. Conduct manicure and pedicure service as usual nail polish will disguise the problem. Surface dryness can be gently buffed away. Recommend cuticle oil. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: The wasting away of the nail, causing it to lose its lustre and become smaller. The nail can also shed completely. This condition is mainly caused by injury or disease. ACTION: Manicure gently, if the condition is not severe. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An overgrowth of the nail, in thickness rather than in length. Usually caused by an internal disturbance, such as a local infection.

ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure .



DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Inflammation of the nail matrix, accompanied by pus formation. Inflammation within the nail plate. ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure. CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Also known as ingrown nails. May affect either the fingers or toes. The nail grows into the sides of the flesh and may cause infection. Filing the nails too much in the corners and failing to correct hang nails can cause the condition as well. ACTION: Do not manicure or pedicure if infection is present. Refer to medical practitioner. CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Most commonly associated with external trauma to the nail. Nail plate separates from the nail bed. Can also be associated with an internal disorder. ACTION: If possible, keep the nail short to avoid the free edge catching on things and resulting in further separation. Can be permanent if condition is long term. If so, refer to a medical practitioner. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An infectious fungal disease mainly seen as white spots that can be scraped off the surface, or long yellowish streaks within the nail substance. The disease attacks the free edge and moves its way to the matrix. The infected portion is thick and discoloured. ACTION: Do not perform manicure or pedicure seek medical advice. CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Bitten nails, often no free edge is visible. Nails look ragged and distorted, skin and nail bed can be exposed and raw.

ACTION: Regular manicure or apply nail enhancements to discourage the client from biting their nails. NON CONTAGIOUS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Refers to the growth of the horny epithelium in the nail bed. In other words a callus like growth on the nail plate.

ACTION: Buff nail to reduce any thickness



DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Periodic shedding of one or more nails, either in whole or parts. This condition may follow certain diseases such as syphilis. ACTION: Do not work on the area - refer the client to their medical practitioner. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Split or brittle nails. Caused by injury to the finger or exposure to harsh chemicals ACTION: Hot oil manicures will improve the condition. Homecare advice needs to be given. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An infectious and inflammatory condition of nail folds. Infection is bacterial. Chronic paronychia may weaken defences and increase the risk of developing a fungal infection of the nail or may permanently deform the nail plate. ACTION: Do not work on the area - refer the client to their medical practitioner. CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: A skin disease which can affect the nail. It appears as silvery scales that build up to form a plaque which, when removed, leave a raw, red patch of skin. Plaques which form around the nail plate can cause pitting. Those which form beneath the nail plate can cause onycholysis. ACTION: Do not work on the area - refer the client to their medical practitioner NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: An abnormal winged like growth of skin (living tissue) on the nail plate. The skin is slowly stretched and dragged along the bed. Most commonly caused by severe trauma such as warts, burns & blood circulation disorders. ACTION: Do not attempt to remove the wing of skin as it is quite possible that there is no nail plate growth under the wing. NOTE: PTERIGIUM SHOULD NOT BE USED TO DESCRIBE THE CUTICLE (NON LIVING TISSUE). NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Multiple shallow/ deep ridges due to illness or injury, excessive dieting, incorrect removal of nail enhancements, pregnancy, etc. ACTION: Gently manicure, if severe refer to a medical practitioner. Can sometimes be buffed smoother or can use a ridgefiller base coat. NON CONTAGIOUS


DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Fungal infection, in acute conditions, small blisters form and spread over the sole of the foot and between the toes. Where they rupture, the skin becomes red and oozes. Feet can be itchy and smell. Can be caught from bathroom floors, gyms etc. ACTION: In extreme cases DO NOT TOUCH, highly contagious, seek medical advice. CONTAGIOUS

DESCRIPTION/ CAUSE: Exposure to chemicals including dyes & nicotine. Some medications, bacterial infections and systemic disorders may also cause nail discolouration . ACTION: Application of coloured polish or nail enhancements can hide this condition but lifestyle changes or medical advice may be required to fix the problem. NON CONTAGIOUS