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CONTENTS

BOILERS, EVAPORATORS AND CONDENSERS


1. Introduction
S. Kakaç

2. Basic Design Methods of Heat Exchangers


S. Kakaç and E. Paykoq

3. Forced Convection Correlations for Single-Phase Side of


Heat Exchangers
S. Kakaç and R. Oskay

4. Heat Exchanger Fouling


A. K. Agrawal and S. Kakaq

5. Industrial Heat Exchanger Design Practices


J. Taborek

6. Fossil-Fuel-Fired Boilers: Fundamentals and Elements


J. B. Kitto, Jr. and M. J. Albrecht

7. Once-Through Boilers
R. Leithner

8. Thermohydraulic Design of Fossil-Fuel-Fired Boiler


Components
Z. H. Lin

9. Nuclear Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers


J. G. Collier

10. Heat Transfer in Condensation


P. J. Marto

11. Steam Power Plant and Process Condensers


D. Butterworth

12. Evaporators and Condensers for Refrigeration and Air-


Conditioning Systems
M. B. Pate

13. Evaporators and Reboilers in the Process and Chemical


Industries
P. B. Whalley

Appendix A. Thermophysical Properties


P. E. Liley

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CONTENTS
Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 01 Contents
1. Introduction
S. Kakaç

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 02 Contents
2. Basic Design Methods of Heat Exchangers
S. Kakaç and E. Paykoq

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Arrangement of Flow Path in Heat Exchangers
2.3 Basic Equations in Design
2.4 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
2.4.1 Order of Magnitude of Thermal Resistances
2.5 The LMTD Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis
2.5.1 Multipass and Crossflow Heat Exchangers
2.6 The ε-NTU Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis
2.7 The P-NTUC Method
2.8 The ψ-P Method
2.9 Heat Exchanger Design Calculation
2.10 Variable Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
2.11 Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop and Pumping Power
2.11.1 Tube-Side Pressure Drop
2.11.2 Noncircular Cross-Sectional Ducts
2.11.3 Shell-Side Pressure Drop
2.11.4 Heat Transfer and Pumping-Power Relationship
2.12 Summary
Nomenclature
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 03 Contents
3. Forced Convection Correlations for Single-Phase Side of Heat Exchangers
S. Kakaç and R. Oskay

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Laminar Forced Convection
3.2.1 Hydrodynamically Developed and Thermally Developing
Laminar Flow in Smooth Circular Ducts
3.2.2 Simultaneously Developing Laminar Flow in Smooth Ducts
3.2.3 Laminar Flow Through Concentric Smooth Ducts
3.3 The Effect of Variable Physical Properties
3.3.1 Laminar Flow of Liquids
3.3.2 Laminar Flow of Gases
3.4 Turbulent Forced Convection
3.4.1 Turbulent Flow in Circular Ducts with Constant Properties
3.5 Turbulent Flow in Smooth Straight Noncircular Ducts
3.6 The Effect of Variable Physical Properties in Turbulent Forced
Convection
3.6.1 Turbulent Liquid Flow in Ducts
3.6.2 Turbulent Gas Flow in Ducts
3.7 Summary
Nomenclature
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 04 Contents
4. Heat Exchanger Fouling
A. K. Agrawal and S. Kakaç

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Effects of Fouling
4.2.1 Basic Equations
4.2.2 Effect of Fouling on Heat Transfer
4.2.3 Effect of Fouling on Pressure Drop
4.2.4 Cost of Fouling
4.3 Aspects of Fouling
4.3.1 Categories of Fouling
4.3.2 Fundamental Processes of Fouling
4.3.3 Prediction of Fouling
4.4 Design of Heat Exchangers Subject to Fouling
4.4.1 Providing a Fouling Allowance
4.4.2 Design Features to Minimize Fouling
4.4.3 Design Features to Facilitate Fouling Control
4.5 Operation of Heat Exchangers Subject to Fouling
4.6 Techniques to Control Fouling
4.6.1 Surface Cleaning Techniques
4.6.2 Additives
Nomenclature
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 05 Contents
5. Industrial Heat Exchanger Design Practices
J. Taborek

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Heat Exchanger Types, Their Characteristics and Selection
5.2.1 Shell and Tube
5.2.2 Double Pipe or Multitube Hairpin
5.2.3 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
5.2.4 Gasketed Plate Exchangers
5.2.5 Matrix and Plate Fin-Tube Exchangers
5.2.6 Conclusion
5.3 The Strategy of Overall Design Optimization
5.3.1 Process Specifications
5.3.2 Preliminary Problem Analysis
5.3.3 Detailed Thermohydraulic Design
5.3.4 Mechanical-Metallurgical Design Aspects
5.3.5 Architectural Considerations
5.3.6 Maintenance, Operation, and Control Considerations
5.4 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: Characteristics of Constructional
Components
5.4.1 Shell Types
5.4.2 Tube Bundle Types
5.4.3 Tube Passes
5.4.4 Baffle Types and Geometry
5.4.5 Tube Diameter and Tube Length
5.4.6 Tube Layout
5.5 Comments on Condenser Design
5.6 Comments on Reboiler Design
5.7 Calculated Example: Butane Cooler
5.7.1 Process Specifications
5.7.2 Heat Exchanger Type and Fluid Allocation
5.7.3 Thermal Profile Analysis: Possible Configurations
5.7.4 Selection of Construction Elements
5.7.5 Preliminary Estimation of Unit Size
5.7.6 Design and Results Evaluation
5.8 Design by Computer Programs
5.9 Optimization and Expert Systems Nomenclature
Nomenclature
Appendix 5.1: Step-by-Step Calculations
Acknowledgment
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 06 Contents
6. Fossil-Fuel-Fired Boilers: Fundamentals and Elements
J. B. Kitto, Jr. and M. J. Albrecht

6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Background
6.1.2 Current Practice
6.1.3 Objectives and Overview
6.2 Fossil Boiler System
6.2.1 Input Requirements and Operating Pressure
6.2.2 Power Cycle
6.2.3 Types of Boilers
6.2.4 System Approach
6.3 Major Steam-Water Boiler Components
6.3.1 Enclosure Surfaces
6.3.2 Superheaters and Reheaters
6.3.3 Economizers
6.3.4 Steam Temperature Control
6.3.5 Steam Drum
6.4 Steam-Water System
6.4.1 Circulation Methods
6.4.2 Boiler Circulation and Flow
6.4.3 Furnace Heat Flux Evaluation
6.4.4 Circulation Evaluation
6.5 Two-Phase Flow Circulation Limiting Criteria
6.5.1 Flow Instabilities and General Velocity Limits
6.5.2 Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux
6.5.3 Steam-Water Separation and Drum Capacity
6.6 Other Evaluation Factors
6.7 Summary
Nomenclature
References
Appendix 6.1: Key Heat Transfer Parameters—Superheater, Reheater, and
Economizer
Appendix 6.2: Sample Correlations for Two-Phase Multipliers and Void
Fraction in Steam-Water Flows
Appendix 6.3: Sample Critical Heat Flux (CHF) Correlation

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 07 Contents
7. Once-Through Boilers
R. Leithner
7.1 Introduction (Historical Review)
7.2 Important Design Criteria in Comparison to Other Systems
7.2.1 Main Characteristic Features
7.2.2 Pressure Range
7.2.3 Operating Modes and Start-Up Period
7.2.4 Start-Up Equipment and Problems
7.2.5 Evaporator Tube Design
7.2.6 Heat Pickup of the Heating Surfaces
7.2.7 Differences in Heat Absorption and Flow Resistance in
Individual Evaporator Tubes
7.2.8 Furnace Wall Design
7.2.9 Feed-Water Quality
7.2.10 Disturbances
7.2.11 Storage Capacity, Load Changes, and Control
7.2.12 Unit Capacity, Dimensions, and Design
7.3 Special Design Considerations
7.3.1 Water Wall Design
7.3.2 Steam Preheating Equipment
7.3.3 Water Separation
7.4 Start-Up Systems and Feed-Water Control
7.4.1 Start-Up Systems
7.4.2 Feed-Water Control
7.5 Examples and Operating Experiences
7.5.1 Lignite Fired 600-MW Once-Through Steam Generator
7.5.2 Bituminous Coal-Fired 740-MW Once-Through Steam
Generator
7.5.3 Power Boiler for Supercritical 475-MW Unit
7.5.4 Steam Generator Unit for Steam Soak or Steam Drive in Oil
Fields
7.6 Summary
Acknowledgments
Nomenclature
References
Appendix 7.1: Example for Calculating Power Generation Costs
Appendix 7.2: Optimal Design of a Recirculation Pump Suction Pipe
Appendix 7.3: Steam Generator Energy Balance

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 08 Contents
8. Thermohydraulic Design of Fossil-Fuel-Fired Boiler Components
Z. H. Lin
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Working Principle of a Steam Boiler
8.1.2 Main Characteristics of Steam Boilers
8.2 Types of Boilers and Construction of Boiler Components
8.2.1 Classification of Boilers
8.2.2 Construction and Design Problems of Furnaces
8.2.3 Construction and Design Problems of Superheaters and
Reheaters
8.2.4 Construction and Design Problems of Economizers
8.2.5 Construction and Design Problems of Air Heaters
8.2.6 Construction and Design Problems of Steam Drums
8.3 Heat Transfer Calculations of Boiler Components
8.3.1 Boiler Efficiency and Weight of Fuel Fired
8.3.2 Heat Transfer Calculation of Water-Cooled Furnace
8.3.3 Heat Transfer Calculation of Convection Heating Surfaces
8.3.4 Procedure for Heat Transfer Calculation of a Boiler
8.4 A Numerical Example of the Heat Transfer Calculations of Boiler
Components
8.5 Steam-Water Systems of Boilers and Circulation Calculations
8.5.1 Steam-Water System of Natural-Circulation Boiler and
Design Problems
8.5.2 Steam-Water System of Controlled-Circulation Boilers and
Design Problems
8.5.3 Steam-Water System of Once-Through Boilers
8.6 A Numerical Example of Boiler Circulation Calculations Nomenclature
Nomenclature
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 09 Contents
9. Nuclear Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers
J. G. Collier

9.1 Abstract
9.2 Introduction
9.3 The Principal Types of Boiler
9.3.1 Nuclear Power Plants
9.3.2 Waste Heat Boilers
9.4 The Thermal and Mechanical Design of Boilers
9.4.1 General
9.4.2 Primary Side (Unfired Boiler) Design
9.4.3 Water-Side (Evaporator) Design
9.4.4 An Example: PWR Inverted U-Tube Recirculating Steam
Generator
9.5 Common Problems in the Operation of Boilers
9.5.1 Causes of Steam Generator Problems
9.5.2 Worked Solutions
9.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgment
Nomenclature
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 10 Contents
10. Heat Transfer in Condensation
P. J. Marto

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Film Condensation on a Single Horizontal Tube
10.2.1 Natural Convection
10.2.2 Forced Convection
10.3 Film Condensation in Tube Bundles
10.3.1 Effect of Condensate Inundation
10.3.2 Effect of Vapor Shear
10.3.3 Combined Effects of Inundation and Vapor Shear
10.3.4 Computer Modeling
10.4 Film Condensation Inside Tubes
10.4.1 Flow Patterns
10.4.2 Condensation in Horizontal Tubes
10.4.3 Condensation in Vertical Tubes
10.4.4 Condensation in Noncircular Passages
10.5 Pressure Drop During Condensation
10.5.1 Shell-Side Pressure Drop
10.5.2 Pressure Drop Inside Tubes
10.6 Condensation Heat Transfer Augmentation
10.6.1 Shell-Side Film Condensation Using Integral-Fin Tubes
10.6.2 Dropwise Condensation
10.7 Condensation of Vapor Mixtures
10.7.1 Equilibrium Methods
10.7.2 Nonequilibrium Methods
Nomenclature
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 11 Contents
11. Steam Power Plant and Process Condensers
D. Butterworth

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Shell-and-Tube Condensers for Process Plant
11.2.1 Horizontal Shell-Side Condensers
11.2.2 Vertical Shell-Side Condensers
11.2.3 Tube-Side Condensers
11.2.4 Subcooling in Shell-and-Tube Condensers
11.2.5 Choice Between Types
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Condensers for Power Plant
11.3.1 Steam Turbine Exhaust Condensers
11.3.2 Feed-Water Heaters
11.4 Plate Exchangers
11.5 Spiral Exchangers
11.6 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
11.7 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
11.8 Direct-Contact Condensers
11.9 Thermal Evaluation Methods for Shell-and-Tube Condensers
11.9.1 Introduction and Definition of Terms
11.9.2 Co-current and Countercurrent Condensers
11.9.3 Shell-Side, E-Type Condenser with Two Tube-Side Passes
11.9.4 Shell-Side, E-Type Condenser with Four or More Tube
Passes
11.9.5 Crossflow Condensers
11.9.6 Nonequilibrium Calculation Methods
11.9.7 Multidimensional Shell-Side Flows
11.10 Thermal Evaluation Method for Direct-Contact Condensers
11.10.1 Spray Condensers
11.10.2 Tray Condensers
11.11 Reasons for Failure of Condenser Operation
11.12 Examples
11.12.1 Process Condenser
11.12.2 Power Condenser
Acknowledgment
Nomenclature
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 12 Contents
12. Evaporators and Condensers for Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems
M. B. Pate

12.1 Introduction
12.1.1 Background
12.1.2 Typical Evaporator Behavior
12.1.3 Typical Condenser Behavior
12.1.4 Types of Heat Exchangers in Refrigeration and Air-
Conditioning Applications
12.2 Heat Exchanger Analysis
12.2.1 General Equations
12.2.2 Lumped Heat Exchanger Analysis Approach
12.2.3 Local Heat Transfer Integration Approach
12.3 Evaporator Coils
12.3.1 Description and Special Considerations
12.3.2 In-Tube Refrigerant Evaporation Heat Transfer
12.3.3 In-Tube Heat Transfer Augmentation
12.3.4 Air-Side Heat Transfer
12.3.5 Wet-Coil Heat Transfer
12.3.6 Frosted-Coil Heat Transfer
12.3.7 Fin Bonding and Thermal Contact Resistance
12.4 Condenser Coils
12.4.1 Description and Special Considerations
12.4.2 Similarities between Condenser and Evaporator Coils
12.4.3 In-Tube Refrigerant Condensation Heat Transfer
12.4.4 In-Tube Heat Transfer Augmentation
12.5 Flooded Evaporators
12.5.1 Description and Special Considerations
12.5.2 Shell-Side Refrigerant Heat Transfer
12.5.3 Shell-Side Heat Transfer Augmentation
12.6 Shell-and-Tube Direct Expansion Evaporators
12.6.1 Description and Special Considerations
12.6.2 In-Tube and Shell-Side Heat Transfer
12.7 Shell-and-Tube Condensers
12.7.1 Description and Special Considerations
12.7.2 Shell-Side Refrigerant Condensation Heat Transfer
12.7.3 Shell-Side Heat Transfer Augmentation
12.8 Heat Exchanger Design with Alternative Refrigerants
Nomenclature
References

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CONTENTS
Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 13 Contents
13. Evaporators and Reboilers in the Process and Chemical Industries
P. B. Whalley

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Relevance of Upflow and Downflow in Vertical Units
13.3 Evaporator Types
13.3.1 Horizontal Shell-Side Evaporator
13.3.2 Horizontal Falling-Film Evaporator
13.3.3 Horizontal Tube-Side Evaporator
13.3.4 Short-Tube Vertical Evaporator
13.3.5 Long-Tube Vertical Evaporator
13.3.6 Climbing-Film Evaporator
13.3.7 Vertical Falling-Film Evaporator
13.3.8 Agitated Thin Film Evaporator
13.3.9 Plate-Type Evaporator
13.3.10 Submerged-Combustion Evaporator
13.4 Reboiler Types
13.4.1 Internal Reboiler
13.4.2 Kettle Reboiler
13.4.3 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler
13.4.4 Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler
13.5 Energy Efficiency in Evaporation
13.5.1 Introduction
13.5.2 Multiple-Effect Evaporators
13.5.3 Vapor Recompression in Evaporation
13.5.4 Multistage Flash Evaporator
13.6 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Problems
13.6.1 Initial Sizing of the Unit
13.6.2 Two-Phase Vapor-Liquid Pressure Drop
13.6.3 Calculation of Natural-Circulation Units
13.6.4 Heat Transfer Rates
13.6.5 Heat Transfer on the Heating Side
13.6.6 Fouling
13.6.7 Boiling inside Tubes
13.6.8 Boiling outside Tubes
13.6.9 Falling-Film Evaporation
13.6.10 Agitated-Film Evaporation
13.6.11 Mixture Effects
13.6.12 Enhanced Surfaces
13.7 Possible Problems in the Operation of Evaporators and Reboilers
13.7.1 Introduction
13.7.2 Corrosion and Erosion
13.7.3 Maldistribution

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Chapter 13 (Contents Contd….)

13.7.4 Fouling
13.7.5 Flow Instability
13.7.6 Tube Vibration
13.7.7 Flooding
13.8 Design Example
13.8.1 Further Refinements in the Design
Nomenclature
References

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Appendix & Table Contents
Appendix A. Thermophysical Properties
P. E. Liley

Nomenclature
List of Sources of Tables
References
Table A1. Thermophysical Properties of 113 Fluids at 1 bar, 300 K
Table A2. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid and Saturated-Vapor Air
Table A3. Thermophysical Properties of Gaseous Air at Atmospheric
Pressure
Table A4. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Ammonia (R717)
Table A5. Thermophysical Properties of Ammonia (R717) at 1-bar
Pressure
Table A6. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Normal Butane (R600)
Table A7. Thermophysical Properties of Normal Butane (R600) at
Atmospheric Pressure
Table A8. Thermophysical Properties of Solid, Saturated-Liquid and
Saturated-Vapor Carbon Dioxide
Table A9. Thermophysical Properties of Gaseous Carbon Dioxide at 1-bar
Pressure
Table A10. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Ethane (R170)
Table A11. Thermophysical Properties of Ethane at Atmospheric Pressure
Table A12. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Ethylene (R1150)
Table A13. Thermophysical Properties of Ethylene (R1150) at Atmospheric
Pressure
Table A14. Thermophysical Properties of n-Hydrogen (R702) at
Atmospheric Pressure
Table A15. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Methane (R50)
Table A16. Thermophysical Properties of Methane (R50) at Atmospheric
Pressure
Table A17. Thermophysical Properties of Nitrogen (R728) at Atmospheric
Pressure
Table A18. Thermophysical Properties of Oxygen (R732) at Atmospheric
Pressure
Table A19. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Normal Propane (R290)
Table A20. Thermophysical Properties of Propane (R290) at Atmospheric
Pressure
Table A21. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 12
Table A22. Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerant 12 at 1-bar Pressure
Table A23. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 22
Table A24. Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerant 22 at Atmospheric
Pressure
Table A25. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated R134a
Table A26. Properties of Refrigerant 134a at Atmospheric Pressure

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Boilers, Evaporators and Condensers
Contents
Table A27. Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Ice-Water-Steam
Table A28. Thermophysical Properties of Steam at 1-bar Pressure
Table A29. Thermophysical Properties of Water-Steam at High Pressures
Table A30. Thermal Expansion Coefficient α of Water
Table A31. Isothermal Compressibility Coefficient βT of Water
Table A32. Thermophysical Properties of Unused Engine Oil
Table A33. Conversion Factors

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