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HowtoWriteanEssay

A good essay is: Focused -The essay gets straight to the point and utilizes clear arguments. The writing doesn't deviate from the given topic. -Never write something down without explaining its signicance. Organized The most successful writers don't make up the essay as they go along. They consider the structure and the order in which they will present their points before they start to write. Supported Good essays include points that can be supported by facts or by statements within the text that is being analyzed. Lucid Good essays use proper grammar, spelling and punctuation. General Avoid writing statements about yourself. For instance, don't write "I think" or "The point I will make today is..." Title: ____________________ I. ! Introduction A. ! Introductory statement B. ! Thesis statement: _____ I. ! Body A. ! First Supporting Idea (Topic Sentence) 1. ! ____________________ 2. ! ____________________ 3. ! ____________________ B. ! Second Supporting Idea (Topic Sentence) 1. ! ____________________ 2. ! ____________________ 3. ! ____________________ A. ! 1. ! 2. ! 3. ! Third Supporting Idea (Topic Sentence) ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Step 1: Read the question Read the question and try to understand important parameters: - Type. Decide what kind of essay is, opinion, compare/contrast, problem I. ! Conclusion and solution, cause and effect, or a mixture. A. ! Closing statement - Topic. B. ! Restate thesis: _______ Sometimes, your teacher or professor will give you a prompt that you're required to use. If you do get an option to pick your own topic, then choose something that you genuinely want to become an expert about or something you feel passionate about discussing. - Format. The length of the essay, the way the pages are put together and the presentation all matter. Follow the rules exactly as your teacher gives them to you so that you don't lose points. - Audience. With whom are you trying to communicate? Do you want to persuade your teacher, your peers or a college admissions committee? You'll need to tailor your writing to the correct audience.

Step 2: Underline key words Underline key vocabulary in the question and look for words like "explain," "identify," "analyze" or "dene." Break down the prompt into components. If you are to "identify" something and then "analyze" it, then write 1 paragraph identifying what's requested and a second paragraph analyzing what you identied. Write synonyms of the key words that you have underlined. This will really save you a lot of time later on. It will also help you to avoid repeating words and show that you understand the question. Step 3: Get Ideas - Decide if you are for or against the idea. Usually it is best to give both sides (for and against one paragraph each) and then to give your opinion in the conclusion. - Write a thesis statement for the entire essay. This statement should identify the point that you will make in your essay. Make the thesis statement specic. Write "Ronald Reagan will always be remembered as a great president because he ended the Cold War." Avoid writing "Everyone thinks Ronald Reagan is the best president in history." - Remember: you dont have to use ALL your ideas, discard ideas that dont support your main points. Adding additional ideas will make your writing unfocused. - Do not apologize for what you are saying. An essay is about your opinion. Step 4: Decide Layout You should decide on a layout. The easiest is 3773. That means four paragraphs: introduction (3 sentences) one side (7 sentences), the other side (7 sentences) and the conclusion (3 sentences). This will give you 20 sentences. An average of about 12 words each, that is 240 words. Perfect! Step 5: Write! After you have written your plan, write your essay. Check for fragments, run-ons and comma splices.

HowtoWriteanEssay TheIntroduction
One easy way to write the introduction for an argument or opinion essay is to write THREE sentences: two about the topic one thesis sentence You can write either Situation or Opinion introductions. Theres not much difference between them. Situation Introductions Write two sentences to describe the two sides of the present situation. The third sentence the Thesis sentence will describe what you are going do in your essay. - Sentence 1: One side of the present situation - Sentence 2: The other side of the present situation - Sentence 3: Thesis: What you are going to do in your essay
Situation Who should take care of our old people? Sentence 1 In my country, most old people live happily with their children Sentence 2 Increasingly, however, many families cannot take care of their parents Thesis This essay will describe some of the problems involved with taking care of old people, and discuss who should be responsible.

Does Aid to Poor Countries Work?

For the last fifty years, poor countries have been receiving huge sums of money from rich donor countries.

Some of this money has improved lives, while much of it has disappeared or made no difference.

In this essay, I will discuss some arguments for and against foreign aid.

Should dangerous sports be banned?

Every year, thousands of people are injured or killed in sports such as boxing or motor-racing.

Because of this, many people are opposed to such sports, and want them to be stopped or controlled.

This essay will look at some of the arguments for and against banning dangerous sports.

Opinion Introductions In this kind you give two opposite opinions in the rst two sentences. The third sentence says what you are going to do.
Situation Does space exploration benefit mankind? Sentence for Many people are excited about space exploration. Sentence against However, others feel it is a massive waste of money Thesis This essay will look at some of the arguments for and against space exploration.

Do Athletes Deserve Their High Salaries?

Everyday, we read about new record contracts and salaries earned by sportsmen and women. Some people do not agree with these huge payments

Others believe that our sports heroes deserve every penny.

This essay will look at some of the arguments for and against the high salaries of athletes.

Should dangerous sports be banned?

Every year, thousands of people are injured or killed in sports such as boxing or motor-racing.

Because of this, many people are opposed to such sports, and want them to be stopped or controlled.

This essay will look at some of the arguments for and against banning dangerous sports.

As well as situation or opinion introductions, you can use the following variations: Past and Present: One sentence about the situation in the past, one about the situation today. Here and Elsewhere: One sentence about the situation in one place, one sentence about the situation or problem in another place. You and Other People: One sentence about what most people do or think, one sentence about what you believe, or do, or feel. Finally, if you are having problem thinking about an introduction, leave some space (enough for three or four sentences) and write or type it later AFTER you write the body or conclusion.

HowtoWriteanEssay TheBody
-While youre writing the body think about length: don't write pages if 5 paragraphs are required. -Avoid sweeping generalizations. Statements such as "Sth is the most important problem facing the world today," can cause your reader to dismiss your position out of hand if he/she disagrees with you. On the other hand, "Sth is a signicant global problem" is more accurate. -Don't use "I" statements such as "I think." Likewise, avoid the personal pronouns "you," "we," "my," "your" or "our". Simply stating your argument with supporting facts makes you sound much more authoritative. Instead of writing, "I found Frum to have a conservative bias," tell the reader why your statement is true: "Frum displays a conservative bias when he writes..." Use paragraphs! Students who dont have paragraphs fail! The body of the essay should ALWAYS be divided into paragraphs. Never write just one long paragraph. - Why? The white space makes your essay easier to read. Having paragraphs shows that you have (probably) put related ideas together. - How many paragraphs in the body? Either two paragraphs (3773) or three (35553). Use TWO paragraphs (3773) if you are giving both sides of the argument or situation one paragraph for, and one against (or the opposite). Use THREE paragraphs if you are only giving one side, this means that you have to agree or disagree in all three paragraphs. Write a topic sentences for each paragraph Write a sentence that gives your point of view for each paragraphs and make sure the sentences directly relate to the paragraph's topic sentence. State the supporting point. Then, state why the point is important. Never write something down without explaining its signicance. Write the concluding statements for each paragraph. Restate the argument that you made in your topic sentence.

TheConclusion
The Conclusion is the end of the essay. It is a short paragraph about THREE sentences. It often has the same idea as the Introduction, only in different words. A good conclusion will: rephrase the question summarise the main ideas give your opinion, if you havent given it already look to the future (say what will happen if the situation continues or changes) The conclusion will NEVER add new information.
Situation Should we test products on animals? Conclusion Statement I agree that we need to make sure that animals who are used for testing new products have the minimum of suffering. However, I am convinced that animal testing is necessary, and that it will continue to benefit humans in new and wonderful ways.

Should we beat children?

In conclusion, physical punishment can be a useful method of discipline. However it should be the last choice for parents. If we want to build a world with less violence we must begin at home, and we must teach our children to be responsible.

Who are the better parents men or women?

I think this is not an either/or question. Both men and women have strengths and skills that are important for childrens psychological growth. We need to ensure that both parents play an important role in the family in order to give children a good start in life.

Who learns quicker adults or children?

Finally, I feel that we cannot generalize about children or adults being better learners. It depends on the situation and the motivation of the person, and the level of enthusiasm he or she has for learning.

Should dangerous sports be banned?

In summary, our society would be healthier if more people took part in sports of all kinds. We should continue to try to prevent accidents and injuries. However, we should also ensure that sports are challenging, exciting, and, above all, fun.

HowtoWriteanEssay RevisingYourEssay
1) -Correct errors related to grammar, punctuation and spelling. Consult a style book if you are unsure how to properly use quotation marks, colons, semicolons, apostrophes or commas. Avoid using exclamation points to emphasize your statements. -Look for mistakes involving than/then, your/you're, its/it's, etc. Make sure you know how to use apostrophes correctly. -Look for mistakes involving general punctuation. Check for run-on sentences, commas and periods inside quotation marks, as well as sparely-used dashes, colons, and semi-colons. 2)-Remove any repetitive or unnecessary words. Vary your language with the help of a thesaurus. Also, consult a dictionary to make sure that you're using unfamiliar words correctly. -At the same time, try to keep your language short, sweet, and to the point. A thesaurus is a great tool, but don't just use big words to sound fancy. The best essays are clear, concise, and easily understood by a wide audience. -Focus on writing killer verbs for sentences. Verbs communicate the action in a sentence and drive the action. A great verb can be the difference between a bland sentence and a beautiful one. -Use adjectives lightly. Adjectives are great descriptive words, but when used indiscriminately, they can burden an essay and make it less readable. Try to let the verbs and nouns do most of the heavy lifting before you focus on adjectives. 3)-Avoid colloquial (informal) writing. Do not use contractions or abbreviations (e.g., don't, can't, won't, shouldn't, could've, or haven't). Your essay should have a serious tone, even if it's written in a light or lyrical style. 4)-Analyze how your essay ows. Does each sentence lead smoothly to the next? Does each paragraph ow logically to the next? Good connections will help your ideas to ow: When events happen in sequence: I rst started to realize that I was in the minority when I was in middle school...My realization was conrmed when I proceeded to high school. If sentences elaborate on each other: Plants need water to survive...A plant's ability to absorb water depends on the nutrition of the soil. When an idea contrasts with another idea: Vegetarians argue that land is unnecessarily wasted by feeding animals to be eaten as food...Opponents argue that land being used for grazing would not be able to be used to create any other kind of food. If you're relaying a cause and effect relationship: I will be the rst person in my family to graduate from college...I am inspired to continue my family's progress through the generations. When connecting similar ideas: Organic food is thought to be better for the environment...Local food is believed to achieve the same goals. 5)-Cut out information that's not specically related to your topic. You don't want your essay to ramble off topic. Any information that doesn't directly or indirectly support your thesis should be cut out. 6)-Rewrite any problematic body passages. If needed, rearrange sentences and paragraphs into a different order. Make sure that both your conclusion and introduction match the changes that you make to the body.
Writing an Essay: linkers Listing points Firstly, In the rst place, To begin/start with, On the one hand, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally, Last but not least, One advantage of.. is, One disadvantage ofis In addition to this, Furthermore, moreover, What is more, also, Apart from this, besides, Another point worth mentioning is, On the other hand, Besides, both and, A further advantage ofis For example, such as, particularly, especially, take for instance. Contrary to what most people believe, As opposed to the above ideas, Some people argue/believe, claim that, Many people consider, In fact, As a matter of fact Therefore, In this case, For this reason, Consequently, As a result In conclusion, To sum up, All in all, On the whole, All things considered, Taking everything into account In my opinion/view, Personally, From my point of view, I am in favour of, My belief is that , I (strongly) believe, I think, It seems to me that, etc.

Adding more points

Giving an example Presenting the other side of the argument Emphasizing Expressing result or consequence Summing up Giving your opinion

HowtowriteanArticle Whatisanarticle?
An article is a piece of writing usually intended for publication in a newspaper, magazine or journal is written for a wide audience, so it is essential to attract and retain the readers attention may include amusing stories, reported speech and descriptions can be formal or informal, depending on the target audience should be written in an interesting or entertaining manner should give opinions and thoughts, as well as facts is in a less formal style than a report An article can describe an experience, event, person or place present an opinion or balanced argument compare and contrast provide information offer suggestions offer advice A realistic article should consist of 1. an eye-catching title which attracts the readers attention and suggests the theme of the article. (Think about why you read a magazine or newspaper article recently - what made you read it?) Articles can also have subheadings before each paragraph. 2. an introduction which clearly denes the topic to be covered and keeps the readers attention. 3. the main body of two to ve paragraphs in which the topic is further developed in detail. 4. the conclusion - summarising the topic or a nal opinion, recommendation or comment. REMEMBER Before you begin writing it is important to consider: where is the article going to appear - in a newspaper or magazine? who are the intended readers - a specic group such as students or teenagers, or adults in general? Know your audience. Are you writing for a beginner, an intermediate, or an advanced audience? For example, if you are writing an article about "Creating PowerPoint Slides," are your readers new to PowerPoint, or business people looking for advanced tips? Having a good grasp on who will be reading your article can help you orient the information and the tone so that it's as useful as possible. what is the aim of the article - to advise, suggest, inform, compare and contrast, describe, etc.? These three points are the deciding factors in the layout of your article, its style, language and level of formality. Determine the information you are going to use and organize your ideas carefully into paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a clear topic sentence. The article could be formal, semi-formal or informal, depending on your intended audience. Use vocabulary and descriptive language appropriate for the article. Linking words and expressions, and a variety of vocabulary will only improve your work and make it more interesting. DO NOT use over-personal or over-emotional language or simplistic vocabulary. DO NOT talk about yourself. You are writing for the general public, not a close circle of friends. Your opinions are only interesting to other people if you can make them amusing, justify them or explain them.

Titles
A title is absolutely necessary when writing an article, and should be a concise summary of the information which is going to follow in the article. In other words, the main topic of the article should be stated in the title. Stimulating the readers interest is also essential - if the title looks uninteresting, why would anyone read it? There are various ways to achieve this. For example, if you are writing a description of a place, using adjectives can enhance the attractiveness of the place, before the reader begins reading the article, e.g. The Tranquillity and Peace of an Island that Time Forgot. If the task involves proposing a solution to a problem or your opinion, and so on, you can address your audience directly, e.g. What You Need to Do to Be Successful, or use a question such as Is Learning English Really Necessary Today? for the title. In more formal articles, it is more common to just summarise the topic in a short statement, e.g. Laughter Can Improve Our Health. The title should not be too long and should mirror the style of the article - formal or informal.

HowtowriteanArticle TopicSentences
To ensure unity in a paragraph, it is necessary to group sentences around a main idea. This means that it is necessary to begin by nding a theme or Topic Sentence which sums up the main idea of the whole paragraph. The best position for this sentence is normally at the beginning of the paragraph, but it need not always be there. Sometimes there is no Topic Sentence, but only a topic or main idea around which the paragraph is written. However, it is preferable when writing an article to place the Topic Sentence at the beginning to help the reader to quickly comprehend the topic of the whole paragraph and minimise the likelihood of losing the theme altogether.

PlanninganArticle
It can now be seen that in order to write a good article you need rst to nd the theme or topic sentence which summarises what you are going to write about, and then make a plan. This strategy will enable you to write quickly and clearly, help you think of a title more easily and your work will have cohesion. Using this method gives the topic sentence of each paragraph and connects it to the other paragraphs. These topic sentences can be made into one paragraph and then developed to form a whole article. Conversely, these topic sentences, when taken together, can be used to cut down the entire article into a one-paragraph summary of the whole piece.

YouMust..
1- Decide on the length of the article. Keeping a length in mind can help you decide what needs to be included in your article and what can be left out. 2- Write an outline (optional). Not everyone writes an outline, but it can be helpful for organizing your thoughts. Start with an introduction that leads to the main point, at least 3 body paragraphs, and a conclusion. 3- Write the rough draft of the article as follows: Tell your readers what you are going to tell them. This is your introduction. For example: This article explains how to create a PowerPoint slide presentation. It covers the following information: choosing a theme, creating a title slide, and creating topic slides. The information in this article is written for a beginner. The author assumes that you have never used PowerPoint. Tell your readers what you promised to tell them. In this section you tell them how to choose a theme, create a title slide, and how to create topic slides. Recap for your readers what you just told them. For example: This article taught you how to create a PowerPoint slide presentation. You learned how to choose a template, how to create a title slide, and how to create topic slides. 4- Proofread your article. Read over your article aloud to make sure what you've written makes sense. Keep an eye out for misspellings or poor grammar, and double-check your facts. 5- Proofread your article again. This time, delete any unnecessary or contradictory information. The only time you should have information that doesn't support your topic is if you're doing a "point-counterpoint" piece. Eliminate anything that is just taking up space. Don't ll your work with uff. 6- Rewrite the article as often as it takes. Once you've rewritten it, ask a trusted friend or family member to read the piece and offer you constructive feedback. Rewrite again. 7- Make sure your article answers ve "w" and one "h" questions: who, why, where, when, what and how.

HowtowriteaLetter FormalLetter
- Rules for Writing Formal Letters in English In English there are a number of conventions that should be used when writing a formal or business letter. Furthermore, you try to write as simply and as clearly as possible, and not to make the letter longer than necessary. Remember not to use informal language like contractions. Addresses Your Address 1) Your Address In The Top Your address, but not your name, usually goes in the top right hand corner. You Right Corner The Address would not Of The Person usually include your telephone number or email address here, but this would be You Are Writing permissible. To 2) The Address of the person you are writing to Just Beneath Yours The name and address of the person youre writing to goes below this, on the left. If Date you dont have a specic name, always at least try to put some sort of title. You should always, however, address the letter to a particular person if at all Greeting possible. M B 3) Date: A O The position of the date is more exible. It can go on the left or the right, usually I D below N Y the addressee details. The format of the date is usually 5th April 2003. Salutation or greeting 1) Dear Sir or Madam, Yours faithfully, If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, use this. It is always advisable to try to nd out a name. Your Name 2) Dear Mr Jenkins, If you know the name, use the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc.) and the surname only. If you are writing to a woman and do not know if she uses Mrs or Miss, you can use Ms, which is for married and single women. Content of a Formal Letter The Introductory Paragraph The rst paragraph and will generally outline the purpose for the letter and the reason that the letter is being sent. This can address any issues that are outstanding and is used to set the tone for the entire rest of the letter. In this rst paragraph, the summary of the letter can be found and the intentions which will be displayed through the rest of the letter should be outlined. From the rst paragraph of the letter, the introductory paragraph, the individual should be able to note the tone of the letter. The Body The body of the letter will expand upon the introductory paragraph and the individual can extend their thoughts and feelings further when it comes to the letter. The body of the letter can be anywhere from multiple pages for personal letters, to one page or two pages for most business letters and other types of proposals. Most letters in English are not very long, so keep the information to the essentials and concentrate on organising it in a clear and logical manner rather than expanding too much. The Closing In the closing of the letter, the individual will close the letter and nish any thoughts that have been mentioned or state what action the recipient is expected to take- to refund, send you information, etc. Ending a letter 1) Yours faithfully, if you do not know the name of the person, end the letter this way. 2) Yours sincerely, if you know the name of the person, end the letter this way. 3) Your signature. Sign your name, then print it underneath the signature. Use the right tone of language Its important to use the right type of language, the right register. If youre writing a formal letter you should: - avoid everyday, colloquial language or slang - avoid contractions (Im; it// etc) - avoid emotive, subjective language (terrible, rubbish etc) - avoid vague words such as nice, good, get, etc. You should always be polite and respectful, even if complaining. One way of doing this in English, which is common in formal letter writing, is to use modal verbs such as would, could and should. Instead of simply writing Please send me, you could express this more formally as I would be grateful if you could send me ... Dont overdo it though, and make your language too formal or maybe old fashioned.

HowtowriteaLetter InformalLetter
- Purpose of an Informal Letter A friendly letter (or informal letter) is a way of communicating between two people (sometimes more) who are usually well acquainted. There are many uses and reasons for writing a friendly letter but friendly letters will usually consist of topics on a personal level. - Friendly Letter Writing The friendly letter is typically less formal than that of a business letter. Usually the rst paragraph of the body will consist of an introduction which will give the recipient an idea about why you're writing to them with a short summary of the main topic of your letter. If you don't know the person you are writing to, you may want to introduce yourself in this introductory paragraph as well. The next few paragraphs will usually consist of the message you want to get across along with any details you may want to convey. The last paragraph will usually be the conclusion where you wrap everything up. You can sum up your main idea in this paragraph, thank the recipient for their time, wish the recipient well, and/or ask any questions. Since friendly letters are less formal, you can feel free to write it however you like, but the above format is fairly common. In the friendly letter format, your address, date, the closing, signature, and printed name are all indented to the right half of the AReturn Address Line page (how far you indent in is up to you as long as the heading and Return Address Line 2 closing is lined up, use your own discretion and make sure it looks BDate (Month Day, Year) presentable). Also the rst line of each paragraph is indented. A) Your Address -All that is needed is your street address on the CDear Name of Recipient, rst line and the city, state and zip on the second line. (Not needed DBody Paragraph if the letter is printed on paper with a letterhead already on it.) 1................................ B) Date -Put the date on which the letter was written in the format ................................. Month Day Year e.g. August 30, 2003. Skip a line between the date .................... and the salutation. Body Paragraph C) Salutation -Usually starts out with Dear so and so, or Hi so and 2................................ so. Note: There is a comma after the end of the salutation (you can ................................. use an exclamation point also if there is a need for some .................... emphasis). Body Paragraph D) Body -The body is where you write the content of the letter; the 3................................ paragraphs should be single spaced with a skipped line between ................................. each paragraph. Skip 2 lines between the end of the body and the .................... closing. E) Closing -Let's the reader know that you are nished with your letter; usually ends with Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Thank you, and EClosing (Sincerely...), 5 so on. Note that there is a comma after the end of the closing and FSignature 6 only the rst word in the closing is capitalized. F) Signature -Your signature will go in this section, usually signed in black or blue ink with a pen. Skip a line after your signature and the GP.S. P.S. G) P.S. If you want to add anything additional to the letter you write a P.S. (post script) and the message after that. You can also add a P.P.S after that and a P.P.P.S. after that and so on.
Greetings Dear Tom Dearest Jane Hi/hello, Karen! Set phrases for opening paragraphs Just thought Id drop you a line I hope you are ne What have you been up to? I havent heard from you for ages It was nice to hear from you Thank you for your letter Sorry I havent written for so long Set phrases for closing paragraphs Well, I think thats about it Well, thats all for now Well, Id better nish off here I must go now Write soon Waiting for your letter I look forward to hearing from you Endings Yours Love All my love Best wishes All the best Lots of kisses Take care

HowtowriteaReview
Begin your review with an introduction appropriate to your assignment If your assignment asks you to review only one book or article and not to use outside sources, your introduction will focus on identifying the author, the title, the main topic or issue presented in the book or article, and the author's purpose for writing. If your assignment asks you to review the book or article as it relates to issues or themes discussed in the course, or to review two or more writings on the same topic, your introduction must also encompass those expectations. For example, before you can review two writings on a topic, you must explain to your reader in your introduction how they are related to one another. Within this shared context (or under this "umbrella") you can then review comparable aspects of both writings, pointing out where the authors agree and differ. In other words, the more complicated your assignment is, the more your introduction must accomplish. Finally, the introduction to a book or article review is always the place for you to establish your position as the reviewer (your thesis about the author's thesis). Consider the following questions: - Is the piece a memoir, a treatise, a collection of facts, an extended argument, etc.? - Is the article a documentary, a write-up of primary research, a position paper, etc.? - Who is the author? What does the preface or foreword tell you about the author's purpose, background, and credentials? - What is the author's approach to the topic (as a journalist, a historian, a researcher)? - What is the main topic or problem addressed? - How does the work relate to a discipline, to a profession, to a particular audience, or to other works on the topic? - What is your critical evaluation of the work (your thesis)? Why have you taken that position? - What criteria are you basing your position on? Provide an overview An overview supplies your reader with certain general information not appropriate for including in the introduction but necessary to understanding the body of the review. Generally, an overview describes your book or article's division into chapters, sections, or points of discussion. An overview may also include background information about the topic, about your stand, or about the criteria you will use for evaluation. The overview and the introduction work together to provide a comprehensive beginning for (a "springboard" into) your review. Consider the following questions: - What are the author's basic premises? - What issues are raised, or what themes emerge? - What situation (i.e., racism on college campuses) provides a basis for the author's assertions? - How informed is my reader? - What background information is relevant to the entire piece and should be placed here rather than in a body paragraph? Organize the body of your review according to a logical plan Here are two options: First, summarize, in a series of paragraphs, those major points from the piece that you plan to discuss; incorporating each major point into a topic sentence for a paragraph is an effective organizational strategy. Second, discuss and evaluate these points in a following group of paragraphs. (There are two dangers lurking in this pattern you may allot too many paragraphs to summary and too few to evaluation, or you may re-summarize too many points from the piece in your evaluation section.) Summarize and evaluate the major points you have chosen from the piece in a point-by-point schema That means you will discuss and evaluate point one within the same paragraph (or in several if the point is signicant and warrants extended discussion) before you summarize and evaluate point two, point three, etc., moving in a logical sequence from point to point to point. Here again, it is effective to use the topic sentence of each paragraph to identify the point from the book or article that you plan to summarize or evaluate With either pattern, consider the following questions: - What are the author's most important points? - How do these relate to one another? (Make relationships clear by using transitions: "In contrast," "an equally strong argument," "moreover," "a nal conclusion," etc.). - What types of evidence or information does the author present to support his or her points? - Is this evidence convincing, controversial, factual, one-sided, etc.? (Consider the use of primary historical material, case studies, narratives, recent scientic ndings, statistics.) - Where does the author do a good job of conveying factual material as well as personal perspective? Where does the author fail to do so? If solutions to a problem are offered, are they believable, misguided, or promising? - Which parts of the work (particular arguments, descriptions, chapters, etc.) are most effective and which parts are least effective? Why? Where (if at all) does the author convey personal prejudice, support illogical relationships, or present evidence out of its appropriate context?

HowtowriteaReview
Use the conclusion to state your overall critical evaluation You have already discussed the major points the author makes, examined how the author supports arguments, and evaluated the quality or effectiveness of specic aspects of the book or article. Now you must make an evaluation of the work as a whole, determining such things as whether or not the author achieves the stated or implied purpose and if the work makes a signicant contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Consider the following questions: - Is the work appropriately subjective or objective according to the author's purpose? - How well does the work maintain its stated or implied focus? - Does the author present extraneous material? Does the author exclude or ignore relevant information? - How well has the author achieved the overall purpose of the book or article? - What contribution does the work make to an existing body of knowledge or to a specic group of readers? - Can you justify the use of this work in a particular course? - What is the most important nal comment you wish to make about the book or article? - Do you have any suggestions for the direction of future research in the area? - What has reading this work done for you or demonstrated to you? Note that the length of your introduction and overview, the number of points you choose to review, and the length of your conclusion should be proportionate to the page limit stated in your assignment and should reect the complexity of the material being reviewed as well as the expectations of your reader. Remember foremost that an analytic or critical review of a book or article is not primarily a summary; rather, it comments on and evaluates the work. This is especially important to remember when doing academic research. A literature review (as a kind of paper or as a section of a longer research paper) strings together a set of such commentaries to map out the current range of positions on a subject. The writer can then dene his or her own position in the rest of the research paper. Often it is useful to keep questions like these in mind as you read your research materials analytically: - What overall purpose of the book or article? (Reading the preface, acknowledgments, bibliography, and index can be helpful in answering this question. Also consider the author's background and the publisher when thinking about a book's purpose.) - What is the author's thesis? What are the author's assumptions? Are the assumptions discussed explicitly? How well does the author's content support the thesis? (Here you can quote from your source to show not only the author's overall structure and plan, but also to show the author's style and tone, as well as the author's ability to use materials to make an argument in support of the thesis.) How does the author present the work? (Does he/she present primary documents or secondary material, literary analyses, personal observations, statistical data, biographical or historical information?) Does the author present alternative approaches (alternative theses) to his subject or topic? Does the author present counter-arguments to alternative theses? What exactly does the book or article contribute to your subject or academic discipline? What general problems and concepts in your discipline and course does this book or article discuss? - What theoretical issues are raised for further discussion? - What are your own reactions toward the work? Compare your reactions to the book or article to the reviews reactions of others. Look at journals in your academic discipline or general publications such as New York Review of Books or London Review of Books. Finally, remember that a review's goal is to discuss the book's or article's approach to the subject, not to discuss the subject itself.

ExampleofaReview
Your college magazine has asked for contributions from students for a special feature entitled Television at its Best. Write a review of a television programme that you think is worthy of inclusion in such a feature. Mad Men an ironic look at the Sixties The popularity of Mad Men is not hard to fathom. Nor is the almost hysterical reaction of critics, who have almost to a man hailed this story of 1960s Madison Avenue advertising executives as the best American series since The Sopranos. To begin with, it is visually stunning, with its faithful recreation of early-sixties fashions when all men wore hats and suits and the women dressed to please the men. The cast is composed of rm-jawed men and hourglass-shaped women, almost universally easy on the eye. The dialogue is snappy and witty and cleverly reveals the hidden depths of pain beneath the characters' elegant veneer. This is an era at once recent and remote from our own, and the show does a wonderful job of drawing us into its world. Then there is the guilty pleasure we experience at watching these people who are so blissfully oblivious to our modern hang-ups, whether it is the way they smoke and drink incessantly, with never a thought for the hazards of liver disease or passive smoking, or their unrepentantly Neanderthal views on race and sex. It is these opportunities for dramatic irony inherent in such a setting that the show seizes with both hands. A couple of examples will sufce. In the rst the main characters drive out into the country for a picnic, at the end of which they leave their rubbish to litter the beautiful spot without a second thought. In the second, the small daughter of perfect mother Betty Draper rushes to her mother swathed in polythene to announce that she is playing spacemen. Without blinking her mother, rather than fainting on the spot at the prospect of her precious child suffocating, calmly tells her that she'll catch it if her mother's dresses have been crumpled. Although some of the more carping critics have slated the show's stately pace and incredible plot devices, it remains true that few TV shows offer the variety of pleasures of Mad Men and I am sure it will long be remembered as a classic piece of TV.

HowtowriteaReport FocusingontheAim
Before you write one word of your article, you should dene the aim of why you are writing. Put it into a concrete statement, called the thesis statement, and prepare the reader for it. Typically, an article begins with an introduction, and the introduction begins with an attention grabber--a motivation step that tells the reader why he should want to read further. Then background material introducing the topic is laid out. The introduction should nish with two nal steps. The penultimate step is setting forth the thesis statement. It is the point you are trying to make in the article. The ultimate step of the introduction is to lay out the organisation of the paper. What will be found in each section? The organisation should clarify how you intend to argue in support of the thesis statement. To help you dene your thesis statement, here are ve questions you should try to answer while you are penning your introduction: Why am I writing this report? (To persuade, to inform, to sell, to warn, to instigate an action, to give instructions?) Who are my readers? (Can one report reach them all? Sometimes a non-technical "executive summary" or a technical abstract at the beginning of a report is sufcient for many readers). What does the reader already know, and what does he need to know? What reaction do you expect from the reader? (Anticipate barriers that prevent readers from understanding or accepting the report?) How and when will this report be used? It is good practise to keep the answers to these questions in mind as you write, and as you progress through the report writing process. Many writers concentrate solely on putting words on papers to get the ideas out. If the structure of the article is logical and orderly, the arguments that need to be made are easier to put forth. If the thesis statement is focused enough, structuring the article becomes straightforward. If you have the answers about your aims in writing identied from the above ve questions as your report progresses, you are more likely to achieve the aims.

ReportStructure
The structure you adopt usually depends on the length of the report; for a long report, the structure given below is typical. Title A title should be informative rather than brief. If it needs three lines, then use three lines! Try, however, to arrange them so that each line conveys a complete message and so the reader is led from the general to the particular. For example: "Viscous ngering instabilities in porous media ows: Unication of the effects of viscosity contrast, permeability, and dispersion through dynamical coupling." Identication This tells the reader about the origin of the report, so will include the author's name, department, reference number and date. It may also include the name of the person approving the report. Abstract A short description of the contents and purpose of the report. In technical reports, the abstract may be as much as two hundred words. It should include key words that describe the programme area of the report, so that search engines can nd the report when novice users do a search. It should include the highlights of the results, with concrete and quantitative measures where possible of the important results. Table of Contents This gives the headings of main sections and sub-sections of the report, along with the page numbers where the reader can nd them. It also gives the reader a sense of the structure of the report. In short reports, a Table of Contents may be frivolous. Summary A vital part of all but the very shortest reports. This is an outline of the complete report, detailed so that readers will be able to understand it more readily. It also helps the busy reader who does not have the time to read the complete report. It tells the non-specialist, using language appropriate for his level of knowledge, all that he will probably need. It should precise the conclusions and recommendations--many managers will not read more of the report! Introduction An introduction is not a summary. It tells the reader what motivated the work, the background needed to understand where the report ts in the "scheme of things." This may be historical--why the work was done; what the focus was; who authorized the work; what the terms of reference were for the project; what similar work have others done.

HowtowriteaReport
The Body of the Report Remember that reports should address a target audience, should be read easily and not be too verbose, should be as concise as possible without risking ambiguity. The body of the report tells what was done, what the results were, what is the context of the results and a discussion of what it all means. Conclusions This section is almost wholly extracted from the body of the work, using the same words and phrases. It is separate because readers need to nd the important conclusions all in one place, especially if they do not have the time to study the whole report in detail. Recommendations Again, this will repeat parts of the body of the report, but it deals with the future implications of the work. By contrast, conclusions deal with the current work and its repercussions on the present. For example: Conclusion The control system overshoots the set point for 3-5 seconds after a change of set point in the thermostat. Recommendation We should reprogramme the controller with proportional control which will anticipate how much control action is still need to achieve the set point and reduce overshoot tenfold in duration and cut the absolute overshoot by 50%. Reference list References are bulky if they are to be complete. Thus, the citation in the text can be brief, and the full reference given in the reference list. The distinction between a reference list and a bibliography should be made clear. A reference list is for citations made in the text. A bibliography just tells the reader what sources you read to inform yourself on the background material. No specic points are lifted from this material and used in the text. Otherwise, they should be cited fully. The reference list tells the reader exactly where you got your facts, in case they wish to assure themselves that you have interpreted the facts correctly. A bibliography tells the reader what he should read to improve his general knowledge of the subject area. Language and Structure The language and structure determine how readable the report will be. Although a report that "sounds good" gives a good impression, the important thing is to convey information. If it sounds good, but is utterly meaningless, nothing is accomplished. So express yourself in a readable, unambiguous, concise and accurate way.

ReportWriting:TheProcess
Dene and focus on the Aim: be clear about your objectives and the audience before you start. Who are you writing for? What do they already know? What do they need to know? How will they use your report? Why are they reading your report? Collect your data and collect your thoughts: collect all the information that may be relevant. Do literature searches in the library, on-line citations, and on the internet. Gather all the les and working papers you will need. Collect your thoughts on the subject by jotting down notes on the report content and references to working papers. Do not worry about the overall structure or exact wording at this stage. Select the material for the report: evaluate the information you have collected. Is everything pertinent? If not, toss it out. Reconsider the aim and ensure that you give your readers only that information that is vial, important, or helpful to them. Structure the report carefully: develop logical arguments within a series of headings and subheadings. Write the report: be simple and clear. You can tackle one section at a time, but with a logical classication and outline, you need not be so prescriptive. Write from the inside out if it suits you, or have several sections going at once. If you have trouble expressing an idea, try imagining a conversation with a target reader. How would you explain it verbally? Avoid: specialist jargon, long sentences, abstract nouns, passive style Check and Polish the report: read the article putting yourself in the place of a target reader. Does the report meet the aim? Are the key points highlighted? Does the summary give the whole picture at a glance? Look again to the structure. Is the logic sound? Are the headings helpful and specic with the facts in the right places? Are the paragraphs sign-posted and structured? Examine the language and style: spell check and proofread carefully. If you can nd a condante who will read you work critically, avail yourself of them and their constructive criticism. If a reader hasn't understood the point you made, it is probably because it was poorly expressed, not because the critic was stupid. INTERNATIONAL HOUSE LA SPEZIA & SARZANA

HowtowriteaReport ExampleofaReport
You and a number of students from different countries have been working in an international company for a month as part of a work experience programme. The human resources manager of the company has asked you to write a report saying how useful the programme has been for the participants and including recommendations for future programmes. Write a report on the programme using the comments below which you collected from the students feedback forms. Teamwork Working in different departments In general ! Great international mix ! Very interesting. Staff very helpful ! Well organized ! Some of the students need more and friendly ! Not enough time for us to language training ! Would like more time in fewer compare ideas and experiences ! Pity we couldnt nish the project! departments ! Made some really good ! Not enough time ! I learnt a lot about ofce work friends ! I didnt always understand everything Write your report. Write between 180 and 220 words. Here is an example of a good answer to this question. Notice how the writer has organized the information into clear sections, each with a sub-heading. Notice too how this answer shows evidence of register transfer, that is, the writers ability to move from the informal style of the notes to a more formal style appropriate for this type of writing. INTERNATIONAL HOUSE LA SPEZIA & SARZANA Report on the Spring 2010 Work Experience Programme Introduction This report is based on feedback collected from participants in the Spring 2010 work experience programme. I will summarise these comments and offer some recommendations for future programmes. Organisation of the team Most participants commented favourably on the international avor of the team and enjoyed the opportunity of working closely with people from other cultures. Several people mentioned that they had forged close relationships with their co-workers. It was widely felt however that a number of students would have benetted from a specialized language course before beginning the programme, as some communication problems were experienced. It was also felt that more time was needed in order to complete the project. Organisation of the work In general, students appreciated the opportunity given to experience the work of the company at rst hand, and commented on the helpfulness of the permanent staff. It was felt by some, however, that the experience would have been more productive if students had been given more time in each department, as this would have enabled them to gain a deeper insight into the workings of individual departments. It was also felt that more time was needed for the exchange of ideas and experiences. Conclusion Feedback was overwhelmingly positive and it is hoped that a similar programme can be put into place in future, taking into account the suggestions made above.

Formal&Informal cosanoneaccettabilenellaScritturaFormale
Usare la punteggiatura in modo appropriato Nella scrittura formale cerca di limitare l'utilizzo di parentesi e trattini (usa piuttosto i due punti) ed evita i punti esclamativi. Evita il simbolo che corrisponde alla "e" commerciale (&); sostituiscilo con la congiunzione and (e). Evita parole comuni colloquiali ed espressioni informali (colloquialismi) "Cute" (carino) (usa "adorable"), "yeah," "how-do-you-do" (come te la passi) e "movie" (usa "lm"), "cool" (go), "dude" (amico) e "humongous" (gigantesco). Due espressioni che meglio eliminare sono "you know" (sai) e you might be thinking (potresti pensare che). L'avverbio pretty (piuttosto/quasi), inteso come relatively," "fairly," o "quite, inaccettabile in qualsiasi scrittura formale e il pi delle volte inutile. Non usare le forme contratte Ricorda che la forma completa pi usata di "can't" "cannot". Cerca di evitare la prima e la seconda persona Espressioni come "I think that" (penso che) possono essere omesse da una frase quando ovvio che si tratti dell'opinione dell'autore. Nella maggior parte degli scritti formali, il pronome I pu essere sostituito dal pronome we (noi); La scrittura formale solitamente evita l'utilizzo del pronome you quando si riferisce alle persone in generale. - You should sleep eight hours each night. (informale) (Dovresti dormire otto ore a notte). - One should sleep eight hours each night. (formale) (Bisognerebbe dormire otto ore a notte). - Most people should sleep at least eight hours each night. (utilizzo formale per ammettere delle eccezioni) (La maggior parte delle persone dovrebbe dormire almeno otto ore a notte). Non iniziare una frase con una congiunzione coordinante Nella lingua scritta, non usare congiunzioni coordinante come "and (e), "but" (ma), so (cos) o or (o), per iniziare una frase. Puoi utilizzare avverbi transizionali come additionally (o moreover) (inoltre), nevertheless (o however) (tuttavia), therefore (o thus) (perci) e alternatively (o instead o otherwise) (invece), though (nonostante/per) Per essere formale evita i clich Rischiano di rendere banale il tuo scritto. Evita di iniziare dando istruzioni Non cominciare una lettera scrivendo al destinatario quello di cui tratter la lettera o un tema scrivendo al lettore qual' l'argomento del tema. "I am writing to you to ask you to. . . ." (Scrivo per domandarle) "This paper is going to talk about how. . . ." (Questo elaborato tratter di..) Evita di utilizzare parole generiche Le parole generiche sono poco formali e lasciano spazio all'interpretazione; non esprimono le tue opinioni bene come lo farebbero delle parole pi speciche.

CosaeaccettabilenellaScritturaFormale
Non aver paura di separare il verbo ausiliare dal verbo principale Sappi quando terminare una frase con una preposizione (persino nell'inglese pi formale) Includi sempre il pronome relativo Nell'inglese formale dovresti sempre assicurarti di includere "whom" (del quale, riferito a persona) o "which" (che, riferito a cosa), anche se non sono essenziali dal punto di vista del signicato. Il pronome relativo pu essere omesso quando viene usato solo un participio; in tal caso non si tratta pi di una proposizione relativa. Inoltre, evita di usare 'that' (che) come pronome relativo e sostituiscilo con 'which', 'whom' or 'who'. - This is the paper I wrote. (informale) (Questo l'elaborato che ho scritto). - This is the paper which I wrote. (formale) (Questo l'elaborato che ho scritto). - That was the paper written by me. (formale) (Quello era l'elaborato scritto da me)

Formal&Informal ParoleedEspressioniComunieColloquiali
- Anybody, anyone (Nessuno) - "Anyone" e le sue varianti, sono pi formali di "anybody" e le sue varianti. - As spesso usato nella scrittura formale con il signicato di because (poich). Mettere una virgola dopo la parola as ti permette di evitare qualsiasi ambiguit, dato che potrebbe anche essere inteso con il signicato di when (quando) o where (dove). - Big, large, great (grande) - Tutte e tre queste parole sono accettabili nell'inglese formale, ma "large" pi formale di "big," e "great" pi formale di "large." - For sure (di certo) - Nella scrittura formale sostituisci "for sure" con "with certainty", come in "I know with certainty" (so con certezza). Puoi anche scrivere "I am positive" o "I am sure." - Get - Evita qualsiasi forma di questo verbo nella scrittura formale. - Got un colloquialismo. Sostituiscilo con "have," come in "Do you have [senza "got"] an extra pen?" (Hai una penna in pi?) - Introduce, present (presentare) - "Present" pi formale di "introduce." - Kind of, sort of - "Kind of" e "sort of" sono inaccettabili nella scrittura formale quando utilizzati con il signicato di "somewhat" (in qualche modo) e "rather" (piuttosto). Quando utilizzati per classicare qualcosa, "kind of" e "sort of" sono accettabili, ma "type of" pi formale: "The parakeet is a type of bird" (il pappagallino un tipo di uccello). Nota che informale includere un articolo dopo la preposizione "of": "The parakeet is a type of a bird." - Let - Quando utilizzato al posto di "allow" (consentire) o "permit" (permettere), "let" un colloquialismo. - Most - Nell'inglese formale, non usare "most" per "almost." Dovresti scrivere: "Almost everyone likes pizza" (Quasi tutti amano la pizza), non "Most everyone likes pizza." - On the other hand (dall'altra parte) - "On the other hand" un'espressione molto comune, ma pu essere considerata un clich e sarebbe meglio, perci, evitarla nell'inglese molto formale. Usa invece "conversely" o "by contrast." "On the other hand" particolarmente utile negli scritti di ogni giorno e pu eliminare la tentazione di iniziare con "but." - So - Evita di utilizzare "so" come sinonimo di "very" (molto) nella scrittura molto formale. Nella scrittura formale corretta dovresti evitare anche di usare "so" come congiunzione coordinante. Puoi evitare questo colloquialismo eliminando il "so" e cominciando la frase con "because." - Thus, thusly - Solitamente, le parole che terminano per "-ly" sono pi formali. Per esempio, "rstly" (per prima cosa) pi formale di "rst." In particolare, l'inglese formale ricorre a rstly, secondly, eccetera per esporre gli argomenti uno per volta. Nonostante ci, non questo il caso di "thus"; nella scrittura formale, usa "thus," non "thusly." - Yours truly - Ironicamente, rmare una lettera con "Yours truly" formale, ma riferirsi a s stessi con "yours truly" informale. Ad ogni modo, "Sincerely" una rma pi formale rispetto a "Yours truly" perch evita la seconda persona. "Yours truly" pu essere molto utile nell'inglese informale, perch il pronome personale a volte suona sbagliato. Puoi dire "Its yours truly!" invece di "Its me!" perch "yours truly" pu essere usato al posto di "I" e "me."

PRESENTCONTINUOUS
temporary state action in progress I am working SUBJECT + TO BE + -ING

PRESENTSIMPLE
I have / He has permanent state habit or regular event

PASTCONTINUOUS
I was travelling SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE OF BE + -ING action in progress at a past point

PASTSIMPLE
I had / I did / I lived completed past action past situation that doesnt exist now repeated past action

PRESENTPERFECT
I have lived in Spain SUBJECT + HAVE + PAST SIMPLE past situation relevant to the present recent action with consequences for the present situation continuing until the present

PASTPERFECT
He told me that he had been abroad PAST EVENT + SUB + PAST SIMPLE OF HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF THE VERB past event before another event

PRESENTPERFECTCONTINUOUS
I have been working at home.. SUB + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF BE + -ING action in progress in the past for a period until now (still in progress or recently nished)

PASTPERFECTCONTINUOUS
I had been waiting over an hour.. SUB + PAST SIMPLE OF HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF BE + ING action in progress over a period up to a particular past point in time

FUTURE
I think I will fly to Los Angeles SUBJECT + WILL + PRESENT SIMPLE a decision made without planning a prediction based on opinion or experience a fact about the future willingness

BEGOINGTO+INFINITIVE
I am going to stay with my parents SUBJECT + BE GOING TO + INFINITIVE a decision already made a prediction based on outside evidence

PRESENTCONTINUOUS&PRESENTSIMPLE
I am spending a few days sightseeing / Lectures start on 27th July event intended or arranged event as part of ofcial schedule

BETO+INFINITIVE
Extra lifeguards are to be posted at the beach after a shark.. news reports to talk about ofcial plans, rules or instructions in if-clauses when mean in order to

FUTURECONTINUOUS
Ill be studying really hard during the semesters SUBJECT + WILL + BE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE something predicted to happen at a particular time or over a particular period in the future

FUTUREPERFECT
By the time you come Im sure Ill have got to know the city SUBJECT+ WILL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE to make a prediction about an action we expect to be completed by a particular time in the future

FUTUREPERFECTCONTINUOUS
When I come to see you, youll have been living there for six months SUB + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF BE + -ING to emphasise the duration of an activity in progress at a particular point in the future N.B. We can also use the future continuous, perfect and perfect continuous to say what we believe or imagine to be true. Theyll have forgotten what I look like

FUTUREINTHEPAST
I was going to see an aunt../I knew I would be feeling awful.. a plan that didnt happen a prediction made in the past We can use was/were to + inf and was/were to have + past part to talk about the future in the past (formal contexts). Was to+inf is used when we dont know weather the event happened or not, the other one is for things that were expected bud didnt happen.