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Corporate History"

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION MAP


Crisis Prevention" Frame " Crisis Management" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Situational Publics"

short"

Period of time"

Issue Curve"

conscious"

Effect of communication "

unconscious"

Decision"

cognitive change" affective change"

long" term"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems"

Image"

media institutions"

media effects"

Corporate " Corporate" Imagery" Credit"

conative change" perception"

Sucess"

Involvement"

short term"

Sales"

Prot"

media statements"

Legal"

media actors"

Environment"

External Stakeholder"

Court"

Gatekeeper"

Individual Stakeholder"

Environmental Organisations"

Needs"

Media"

News values" Recentness" Proximity" Importness" Big names" Oddity" Controversity" Etc."

Interests" Values"

Social"

NGOs"

Technology"

Organisations"

Politics"

Mindset"

Milieus"

Government"

Point of view" Roles"

Scientic Institutions"

Economics"

Behaviour"

Motives for employing agencies"

Shareholder"

Competitors"

Alliances"

Partners"

Description"

Target Groups"

Communication" Controlling"

AGENCIES"

Network Analysis"

Expectations"

Types

" Strategical "

Roles

Organizational " Emotional "

Networks"

Characteristics

Tru st"

Input"

"

Competitive Advantage"

"

Public Relations
Stability"

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"

Organization" Media"

Stakeholder"

Org"

Marketing"

Personaliy traits individual employee"

Solutions"

Extroversion" Neuroticism"

time"

budget"

Prole & Personality" Strategy"

Power balance"

increase in turnover"

Agenda Setting"

Ressources"

Issue Management"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

Additional benets "

openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness" Roles"

" Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Campaign"

Brand(s)"

manpower" intellectual property"

Integration"

Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Performance Indicators"

Planning" Positioning"

Storytelling

Institutional Identity"

" Institution" ""

Core Story

Inside"

Strategic Apex" CEO"

Vision

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Leitbild "

Mission Values

Version Pre-Beta 1.0


Operating Core" Past

Middle" Line"

CP"

CB"

CC" CI

CD"

Shareholder vs. Stakeholder orientation"

" " " "

Level of Communication Aims "


Economical Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Effekt Level"

Ethics

Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)"

Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims"

Organizing Change "


Unfreeze" Move"

Tactical Aims" Time Horizon"

Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Present

Future

Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

Outow"

Core Assets"

Output"

Segmentation"

Structure

Outcome"

Competences"

" " Evaluation"

Analysis of relevant groups"

Forms

Agency"

Listening"

Internal Communication"

t" por Sup aff" St

Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Refreeze"

Preface
Making communica6ons theories applicable
Theore6cal approaches to corporate communica6ons are versa6le the eld appears to be divided into dierent schools, perspec6ves and language areas. Aim of this map is to ll a gap. In a 6me in which in corporate communica6ons key words and new terms().are almost ina6onary circulated (Mast, 2010) the following work is an aMempt to organize the Babylonian jumble of terms within the eld of corporate communica6on by crea6ng a visual summary, a corporate communica6on framework. It provides an overview and contextualizes theories in rela6on to another. This corporate communica6on map is an aMempt to provide a comprehensive overview and is navigable via mouse clicks in the pdf. The models and sources are embedded in the document and lead via links to further informa6on on the internet. However, it remains a living document and open invita6on for further dialogue and delibera6on. Therefore, it neither claims to be complete nor nal. It is designed to be a constantly developing communica6on overview. The Corporate Communica6on Map (CCM) should be seen as a naviga6on tool for those, who already work in the area of corporate communica6ons or aspire to do so in future a visual toolbox for the counseling prac6ce. The present version of the map is the result of an experiment conducted during the winter semester 2012/2013 of the Master of Arts in Business Communica6ons Management program of Hochschule fr Technik und WirtschaY (University of Applied Sciences) in Berlin. The idea and prototype of the map were developed by Lars M. Heitmller MA PR Int., MBA, Head of Business Development at scherAppelt AG, who taught the course. The following Master students contributed to the composi6on of the Corporate Communica6on Map: Robin Ahle, Robert Deutsch, Pamela Hnniger, Tobias Raspe, Chris6an Rietz, Elena Starmhler, Sebas6an Schellenberger, Daniela Voigt-Schmidt and Bianca Weyer. Special thanks goes to Lars Fischer, Silvia Grtz, Prof. Dr. Dr. habil. Claudia Mast, Prof. Dr. Miriam Meckel, Prof. Dr. Stefanie Molthagen- Schnring, Prof. Danny Moss and Alexander Schaper for their advice and support. This map is meant to be the start of a dialogue not its end. We are curious to get your feedback! Please send it to: CCM@LMH.de or visit the projects website hMp://CCM.LMH.info Thank you in advance.

March, 2013

Lars M. Heitmller et al. (2013), Corporate Communica6on Map, Version Pre-Beta 1.0

Publics"

Stakeholder/ Publics/" Target groups"

"
Inside"

Institution"

" " " "


Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Publics"

Media"

Stakeholder/ Publics/" Target groups"

Networks" Channels"

Internal Communication"

"
Inside"

Institution"

" " " "

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Media"

Stakeholder/ Publics/" Target groups"


" " Evaluation"
Internal Communication"
Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Inside"

Agency"

Networks" Channels"

"
Institution"

" " "

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Media"

Stakeholder/ Publics/" Target groups"


" " Evaluation"
Internal Communication"
Change"
Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

Inside"

Agency"

Networks" Channels"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

"
Structure" Identity"

Institution"

" " " "


Future" Aims" Past"

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Media"

Stakeholder/ Publics/" Target groups"


" " Evaluation"
Internal Communication"
Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

Dialogue"

Ressources"

Individual employee"

Roles"

"
Inside"
Structure" Identity"

Institution"

Brands"

" " " "

"

"
Change"

Agency"

Networks"
Public Relations"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Future" Aims" Past"

Channels"
Behavior"

Marketing"

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Media"

Stakeholder/ Publics/" Target groups"


" " Evaluation"
Internal Communication"
Sales Unfreeze"

Personaliy traits individual employee"

Extroversion"
Ressources"

Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

budget" manpower" intellectual property" power " network" knowledge"

Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Dialogue"

time"

Prole & Personality" Strategy"

Power balance"

Institutional Identity"
Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

"

Institution"

Storytelling

Roles"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Campaign"

Measure"

Core Story

Inside"

Vision Leitbild "


Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Middle" Line"


CB"

CP"

CD"

CC" CI

" " " "

Level of Communication Aims "


Economical Aims" Effekt Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

USP

Ethics

Agency"

Networks"
Public Relations
Stability"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Operating Core"
t" por Sup aff" St
Tactical Aims" Time Horizon"

Shareholder vs. Stakeholder orientation"


Strategic Aims"

Past Present Future

Channels"
Behavior"
Listening"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Organizing Change "


Refreeze" Move"

Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Legal" Environment"
Environmental Organisations" Court"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour"

Social" Technology"
Scientic Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types Structure Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Public Relations
Personaliy traits individual employee"

Channels"
Power balance"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Extroversion"
Ressources"

Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

budget" manpower" intellectual property" power " network" knowledge"

Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Dialogue"

time"

Stability" Prole & Personality" Strategy"

Campaign"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Storytelling

Roles"

Institutional Identity"

"

Institution"

Core Story

Inside"

Strategic Apex" CEO"


Corporate History"

Vision Leitbild "


Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Middle" Line"


CB"

CP"

CD"

" " "

Level of Communication Aims "


Economical Aims" Effekt Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Organizing Change "


Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

Ethics

CC" CI

Tactical Aims"

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs. Stakeholder orientation"

Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

" " Evaluation"


Internal Communication"

Agency"

t" por Sup aff" St

Behavior"

Listening"

Crisis Prevention" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Frame "

Crisis Management" Issue Curve" Situational Publics"

short"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems" media institutions" media effects"

Effect"

media statements" Legal" media actors" Gatekeeper"


News values" Recentness" Proximity" Importness" Big names" Oddity" Controversity" Etc."

Environment"
Environmental Organisations"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Court" Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour"

Social" Technology"
Scientic Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types Structure Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Tru st"

Public Relations
Power balance"
Stability" Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"
Listening"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Personaliy traits individual employee"

Extroversion"
Ressources"

time" budget"
Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness" Roles"

Prole & Personality" Strategy"

Campaign"

"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

manpower" intellectual property"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Institutional Identity"
Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

Institution"

Core Story

Inside"

Vision Leitbild "


Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Ethics

Middle" Line"


CB"

CP"

" " " "

Storytelling

Level of Communication Aims "


Economical Aims" Effekt Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Organizing Change "


Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

CD"

CC" CI

Tactical Aims"

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs. Stakeholder orientation"

Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

" " Evaluation"


Internal Communication"

Agency"

t" por Sup aff" St

Crisis Prevention" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Frame "

Crisis Management" Issue Curve" Situational Publics"

short"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems" media institutions" media effects"

Effect"

media statements" Legal" media actors" Gatekeeper"


News values" Recentness" Proximity" Importness" Big names" Oddity" Controversity" Etc."

Environment"
Environmental Organisations"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Court" Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour"

Social" Technology"
Scientic Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Motives for employing agencies" Expectations" AGENCIES" Competences" Core Assets" " " Strategical " Organizational "

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types Structure Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Tru st"

Emotional " Competitive Advantage" "


Personaliy traits individual employee"

Public Relations
Power balance"
Stability" Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"
Listening"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Solutions" Additional benets "

Extroversion"
Ressources"

time" budget"
Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

Prole & Personality" Strategy"

Campaign"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

manpower" intellectual property"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Storytelling

Roles"

Institutional Identity"

"

Institution"

Core Story

Inside"

Strategic Apex" CEO"


Corporate History"

Vision Leitbild "


Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Middle" Line"


CB"

CP"

CD"

" " "

Level of Communication Aims "


Economical Aims" Effekt Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Organizing Change "


Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

Ethics

CC" CI

Tactical Aims"

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs. Stakeholder orientation"

Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

" " Evaluation"


Internal Communication"

Agency"

t" por Sup aff" St

Crisis Prevention" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Frame "

Crisis Management" Issue Curve" Situational Publics" conscious" Effect of communication " unconscious" long" term"

short"
Image"
Corporate " Corporate" Imagery" Credit"

Period of time"

Decision"

cognitive change" affective change" conative change"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems" media institutions" media effects"

Sucess"
Sales" Prot"

Involvement"

perception"

short term"

media statements" Legal" media actors" Gatekeeper"


News values" Recentness" Proximity" Importness" Big names" Oddity" Controversity" Etc."

Environment"
Environmental Organisations"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Court" Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour"

Social" Technology"
Scientic Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Motives for employing agencies" Expectations" AGENCIES" Competences" Core Assets" " " Strategical " Organizational "

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types Structure Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Tru st"

Emotional " Competitive Advantage" "


Personaliy traits individual employee"

Public Relations
Power balance"
Stability" Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"
Listening"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Solutions" Additional benets "

Extroversion"
Ressources"

time" budget"
Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

Prole & Personality" Strategy"

Campaign"

Storytelling

Roles"

Institutional Identity"
Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

Institution"

Core Story

Inside"

Vision Leitbild "


Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Middle" Line"


CB"

CP"

CD"

" " " "

Level of Communication Aims "


Economical Aims" Effekt Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Organizing Change "


Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

Ethics

CC" CI

Tactical Aims"

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs. Stakeholder orientation"

Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

manpower" intellectual property"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

" " Evaluation"


Internal Communication"

Agency"

t" por Sup aff" St

Crisis Prevention" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Frame "

Crisis Management" Issue Curve" Situational Publics" conscious" Effect of communication " unconscious" long" term"

short"
Image"
Corporate " Corporate" Imagery" Credit"

Period of time"

Decision"

cognitive change" affective change" conative change"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems" media institutions" media effects"

Sucess"
Sales" Prot"

Involvement"

perception"

short term"

media statements" Legal" media actors" Gatekeeper"


News values" Recentness" Proximity" Importness" Big names" Oddity" Controversity" Etc."

Environment"
Environmental Organisations"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Court" Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour" Communication" Controlling"

Social" Technology"
Scientic Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Motives for employing agencies" Expectations" AGENCIES" Competences" Core Assets" " " Strategical " Organizational "

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types
Input" Output"

Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Tru st"

Emotional " Competitive Advantage" "


Personaliy traits individual employee"

Public Relations
Power balance"
Stability" Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"
Listening"

Organization" Media"

Stakeholder"

Org"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Solutions" Additional benets "

Extroversion"
Ressources"

time" budget"
Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

Prole & Personality" Strategy"

Performance Indicators" Planning" Positioning"

Campaign"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

manpower" intellectual property"

Integration"

Storytelling

Roles"

Institutional Identity"
Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

" Institution" ""


Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Core Story

Inside"

Vision Leitbild " Mission Values

Middle" Line"


CB"

CP"

CD"

CC" CI

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs. Stakeholder orientation"

" " " "

Level of Communication Aims "


Economical Aims" Effekt Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Organizing Change "


Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

Ethics

Tactical Aims" Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate Communication Map Lars M. Heitmller et al., (2013)"

Outow"

Structure

" " Evaluation"


Outcome"

Agency"

Internal Communication"

t" por Sup aff" St

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CORPORATE COMMUNICATION MAP


EXPERIMENT OF THE SEMINAR MAPPING CORPORATE COMMUNICATION BY LARS M. HEITMLLER AT HOCHSCHULE FR TECHNIK UND WIRTSCHAFT (HTW), BERLIN. COURSE: WIRTSCHAFTSKOMMUNIKATION/MARKETING COMMUNICATION

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AGENDA

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

InsStuSons Stakeholder CommunicaSon from a PR & MarkeSng PerspecSve ComunicaSon aims and addiSonal benets of agencies Measurement and evaluaSon of communicaSon AddiSonal content

Lars M. Heitmller et al. (2013), Corporate CommunicaSon Map, Version Pre-Beta 1.0

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1. InsStuSons

The organisaSonal communicaSon consider communicaSon in context with organisaSonal structures and leadership, management strategies and change processes as well as the corporate basis. The represented models deal with internal and external impacts of an organisaSon in associaSon with its environmental spheres, stakeholders, issues and values. All models serve as a framework for managers and consultants to understand specic processes and to nd soluSons for explicit issues.

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1.1 OrganisaSonal Structure by Henry Mintzberg (1980)


ExplanaSon to be found on the next page

StrateSc Apex

ructu

re

Supp ort St

Tech

no St

Middle Line

OperaSng Core

Further informaSon: hip://www.ebbemunk.dk/technostructure/technostructurep3.html Lars M. Heitmller et al. (2013), Corporate CommunicaSon Map, Version Pre-Beta 1.0 3

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1.1 OrganisaSonal Structure OperaSng condiSons and added value


Mintzberg created ve organisaSonal levels to show the coordinaSon among disSnct tasks They funcSon as a framework for managers and consultants to understand and design organisaSonal structures The organisaSons structure depends on the organisaSon itself, e.g. sta members, leadership, the environments and the use of technology Mintzberg denes ve conguraSons: 1. Simple Structure (Entrepreneural se3ngs): relies on direct supervision from the CEO (StrateSc Apex) 2. Machine Bureaucracy (Large organisa>ons): relies on standardisaSon of work processes by the techno structure 3. Expertocracy (professional services rms): relies on the professionals' standardisaSon of skills and knowledge in the operaSng core 4. Divisionalised Form (Mul>-divisional organisa>ons): relies on standardisaSon of outputs; middle-line managers run independent divisions 5. Adhocracy (Project organisa>ons): highly organic structure with liile formalisaSon; relies on the coordinaSng mechanism within and between project teams

Lars M. Heitmller et al. (2013), Corporate CommunicaSon Map, Version Pre-Beta 1.0

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1.1 OrganisaSonal Structure - Limits and CriScism


In terms of globalisaSon organisaSonal structures have changed Hierarchy makes way for low organisaSonal structures OrganisaSons become more complex and establish new networks within the organisaSon The ideology of an organisaSon gets more important for the organisaSon itself, e.g. sta members, leadership and external partners as well as the organisaSons environment

Lars M. Heitmller et al. (2013), Corporate CommunicaSon Map, Version Pre-Beta 1.0

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1.2 The Ten Management Roles by Mintzberg


Social Role Figurehead
Leader

Liaison

Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator NegoSator


Further informaSon: hip://www.mindtools.com/pages/arScle/management-roles.htm Lars M. Heitmller et al. (2013), Corporate CommunicaSon Map, Version Pre-Beta 1.0 6

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1.2 Management Roles OperaSng condiSons and added value


Mintzberg's Ten Management Roles are a guideline for managers and the leadership of behaviours within a business environment. Each role is dierent, when collected together as an integrated concept, the capabiliSes and competencies of a manager can be further evaluated in a role-specic way Figurehead: The manager is seen as a symbol of status and authority Leader: Promotes and encourages the development of his employees, overseeing their progress Liaison: Networks and engages in informaSon exchange to gain access to knowledge bases Monitor: Stores and maintains all informaSon about the internal operaSons, a department's success and the problems and opportuniSes which may arise Disseminator: Highlights factual or value based external views to the organisaSon and to subordinates Spokesman: Keeps key stakeholders updated about the operaSons of the organisaSon Entrepreneur: Roles encourage managers to create improvement projects and work to delegate, empower and supervise teams in the development process Disturbance handler: A generalist role that takes charge when an organisaSon is unexpectedly upset or transformed and requires calming and support Resource Allocator: Describes the responsibility of allocaSng and overseeing nancial, material and personnel resources Nego>ator: Is a specic task which is integral for the spokesman, gurehead and resource allocator roles

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1.2 Managerial Roles - Limits and CriScism


Mintzbergs model indicates that every manager has to perform all of these ten roles for a successful leadership. Otherwise the manager will fail in its role, thus failing the organisaSon itself

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1.3 St. Gallen Management Concept by Bleicher (1991)


Iden>ty/Ethos Vision Structures Norma>ve Management = FoundaSon Strategic Management = OrientaSon Opera>ve Management = RealizaSon Governance Ac>vi>es Policy Mission Programs Behaviour OrganisaSonal Culture Ver>cal Integra>on

Design of Structures, Processes, Systems Process Control (Steering and RegulaSon)

InnovaSon Behaviour and Higher-Order Learning OperaSonal Learning, CooperaSons and Performance

AcSon

Corporate Development

Horizontal Integra>on

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1.3 St. Galler Concept - OperaSng condiSons and added value


The model by Bleicher is focused on the corporate development, especially on evoluSonary condiSons of management It is a framework that picks up the three management levels by Hans Ulrich and combines them with specic St.Gallen demands of successful management: the harmonisaSon of acSviSes, structure and behaviour to a common chord. Bleicher's concept expresses the challenges of normaSve and strategic management as a variety of specic tensions: Norma>ve management: deals with the overall objecSves of the organisaSon such as rules, norms and principles, it is the basis for all organisaSonal acSviSes Strate>c management: the aim is to crate, maintain and maximise the strateSc success factors and value potenSals, it acts as a regulator for the organisaSonal acSviSes Opera>ve management: it combines the normaSve and strategic level and converts them into performance and processes, it has an execuSng funcSon All of these stages have to be taken into account when making decisions Any execuSve is able to locate a problem within this framework and will nd possible soluSons by using this concept

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1.3 St. Galler Concept - Limits and CriScism


It does not take account for the organisaSons environment It does not show how stakeholders stay in correlaSon to the organisaSon It is only a framework to detect problems and to nd soluSons for them in dierent stages

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1.4 New St. Gallen Management Model by Ulrich (2002)


Society Nature Technology CompeStors Economy Investors
Stakeholders

InteracSon Issues

Environmental Spheres

Management Processes Suppliers Business Processes Support Processes Customers

Resources Norms & Values Concerns & Interests Government Public/Media/ NGOs Employees

Processes

Structuring Forces

Modes of Development

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1.4 New St. Galler Model OperaSng condiSons and added value
The new St. Gallen Management model by Ulrich supports the management by taking the correct decisions and to lead the organisaSon successful in a globalised market It is similar to a guidance for making dicult decisions It supports structured thinking It helps to set prioriSes The new model is a holisSc view on management processes, strategies and the organisaSons culture as well as its development in associaSon with its environmental spheres and stakeholders The New St. Gallen model puts more emphasis on the process dimensions and focuses on issues of interacSons (resources, norms and values, concerns and interests) in a new way The model shows that management is very much about interpreSng certain facts and giving meaning to them

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1.4 New St. Galler Model - Limits and CriScism


The model is a theory how processes, strategies, stakeholders, develeopments and environments are related to an organisaSon It is barely a concrete example what impact those spheres have in reality to an organisaSon It represents only the approaches to the idenScaSon and soluSon of management problems

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1.5 The Dimensions of Corporate IdenSty by Melewar


Controlled Corporate CommunicaSon Uncontrolled CommunicaSon Indirect CommunicaSon Corporate Visual IdenSty System (CVIS) ApplicaSons of CVIS Corporate Philosophy Corporate Values Corporate Mission Corporate Principles Corporate Guidelines Corporate History Founder of the Company Country of Origin Subculture Corporate Bahviour Employee Bahviour Management Behaviour Brand Structure OrganisaSonal Structure

Corporate CommunicaSon

Corporate Design

Corporate Culture Corporate IdenSty

Behaviour

Corporate Structure Industry IdenSty

DierenSaSon Strategy PosiSoning Strategy

Corporate Strategy

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1.5 CI Dimensions OperaSng condiSons and added value


Corporate idenSty is about how an organisaSon presents, posiSons and dierenSates itself visually and verbally at corporate, business, and product levels It is what makes an organisaSon unique and it incorporates the organisaSons communicaSon, design, culture, behaviour, structure, industry idenSty, and strategy The aim of corporate idenSty management is to acquire a favorable corporate image among key internal and external stakeholders In the long run, this image can result in the acquisiSon of a favorable corporate reputaSon Managers envision a set of characterisScs they want their organisaSon to be associated with Those characterisScs get transmiied to employees through a complex and congruent system of communicaSon, behaviour and design Employees implement strategies and call upon their skills and competences to perform them

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1.6 Mission Statement by Dr. K. Baldin


Vision

Mission

Values

- Why does the company exist? - What is the purpose of the company? - How does the company earn money? - What are the losses, if the company does not exist anymore? Ac>on Orienta>on

Corporate Aims Department Aims Employee Aims

System of Aims

Poten>als of Corporate Culture

Leadership Employees Clients/Partner Products/Services Company Prole

Corporate Strategies Department Strategies

Strategic System

Measurement System

InnovaSon Added Value

Daily Ac>ons
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Ac>on Eect

- ... that the company internalises - ... that shape and inuence posiSvely the employees - ... that venture partners can build on

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1.6 Mission Statement - OperaSng condiSons and added value


The organisaSons strategy ensures a livlihood of the company It is important to detect and abolish future shortages as well as the opSmal use of successful potenSals by improving producSvity, increasing eciency, improving protability and increasing market share Appropriate measures ensure the systemaSc implementaSon of acSviSes in daily acSons The mindset, as well as the the energy and resources of the enSre organisaSon get focused on the mission statement The mission statement provides guidance on the organisaSons way to its aims It consists of the elements of mission, vision and values: The mission (purpose of organisaSon) reects the subject of the transacSon The vision is an obvious picture of the future and is the tendancy of long-term developments The system of aims describes concrete and measurable goals, which the organisaSon wants to achieve in the upcoming years The strategy system sets how the goals get achieved The measurement system ensures that strategies get implemented by launching specic steps The daily ac>ons show each individual acSviSes that help the vision becomes reality The values specify the organisaSons convicSon and show what is expected of every employee The poten>als of the corporate culture represent the respecyul and value-added handling with each other

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1.6 Change Management Model by Lewin

Unfreeze

Change

Refreeze

System:: Stable

System:: Unstable

System:: Stable

Further informaSon: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm

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1.6 Lewin Model - OperaSng condiSons and added value


Lewin's change model is a simple framework for managing change OperarSng elds are: Mergers & acquisiSons, restructuring of a company, new types of compensaSon systems, personnel transfer, disinvestment or cultural change within the organisaSon The model is based around a 3-step process (Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze) that provides a high-level approach to change: Unfreeze: Habits and rouSne have naturally seiled in; now the organisaSon is ready to change by open up to new ways of reaching their objecSves Moving: The change process will take some Sme to be eecSve and ecient,; people must open their mind for new tasks and responsibiliSes Refreeze: The change only reaches its full eect, when it is made permanent

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1.6 Lewin Model - Limits and CriScism


It is a relaSvely staSc model and not appropriate for quick responses The environment today is very dynamic and requires organisaSons to rapid responses Therefore it is based on a greater stability and environmental organisaSons

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1.7 Change Management Model by Koier (1996)


1 Establish a Sense of Urgency

Irrita>on Phase

CreaSng the Guiding CoaliSon

Developing a Vision and Strategy

Communicate the Change Vision

5 Change Phase

Remove Obstacles Empowering Broad-Based AcSon GeneraSng Short-term Wins

ConsolidaSng Gains and Producing More Change

Stabilisa>on Phase

Anchoring New Approaches in the (Corporate) Culture

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1.7 Koier Model OperaSng condiSons and added value


A proper foundaSon helps to successfully change an organisaSon Koiers model can be applied to any change that is iniSated by the top level management of an organisaSon It is like a checklist to help idenSfy any areas the organisaSon may have overlooked in managing the change

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1.7 Koier Model - Limits and CriScism


Koiers model indicates to change peoples behaviour within the organisaSon, not the strategy, system or culture of the organisaSon It is a top-down model, so opportuniSes can be missed because not everyone is involved in co-creaSon of the vision or mission statement

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1.8 The 4 PR Models by Grunig & Hunt (1984)

Characteris>c Purpose Nature of communica>on Philosophical worldview Mono/dialogic Example of current prac>ce

Publicity Propaganda One way, truth inessenSal asymmetric monologic Sports, theatre, product promoSon

Public Informa>on DisseminaSon of informaSon One-way, truth important PluralisSc/asymmetrical monologic Government, non-prot associaSons, business

Two-way asymmetric ScienSc persuasion Two-way, imbalanced eects asymmetrical Unbalanced monologic CompeSSve business, agencies

Two-way symmetric Mututal understanding Two-way, balanced eects symmetrical dialogic Regulated business agencies

Further informaSon: hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_E._Grunig

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1.8 The 4 PR Models - OperaSng CondiSons & Added Value


In 1984 Grunig and Hunt created their model in order to describe Public RelaSons an various stages They dene PR as an organised communicaSon, which is used to communicate between an organisaSon and ist publics Depending on the communicaSon aim PR gets dierently performed in various stages: One-way communica>on: Only the organisaSon shares informaSon with ist publics, not the other way around. They use this way of communicaSon to get the publics intentenSon and to inuence their opinion. Engaged instruments, such as radio spot, press conferences or broschures are only used on short term. Two-way communica>on: In the beginning the communcaSon is asymmetrical. The organisaSon only needs simple feedbacks on its shared informaSon. The aim is to achieve a posSve a|tude from ist publics. In the end the communicaSon shi}s from asymmetrical to a symmetrical two-way communicaSon. At this stage transmiier and receiver enter into a dialogue with each other. The purpose is to get a mutually comprehension on both sides.

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1.8 The 4 PR Models - Limits and CriScism


None of these models will be exclusively adaptable several models get combined These models are not for certain type of organsisaSon nor for specic internal issues All four models are more of an idealised way of communicaSon, they are not 100 per cent converSble Therefore Grunig calls his models mixed moSve models Successful Public RelaSons is guaranteed when mixing these models

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1.9 Mixed MoSve CommunicaSon Model by Murphy (1991)


Dominant CoaliSons PosiSon Publics PosiSon

1
Win-Win Zone

OrganisaSons posiSon dominates (asymmetric)

Mixed mo>ve (symmetric)

Publicss posiSon dominates (asymmetric)

Pure Asymmetric Model

Communica>on used to dominate public, accept dominant coali>ons posi>on

Pure Coopera>on Model

Communica>on used to convince dominant coali>on to cave in to publics posi>on

Two-Way Model

Communica>on used to move public, dominant coali>on, or both to acceptable win-win zone

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1.9 Mixed MoSve Model - OperaSng CondiSons & Added Value


The mixed moSve model is a framework of communicaSon with publics and organisaSons that try to get the most out of their posiSons OrganisaSons and publics have seperate and someSmes conicSng interests To nd a common ground both parSes negoSate and copromise about specic interests (win-win zone) The model suggests several outcomes outside and within the win-win zone: To the le} of the win-win zone, the organisaSons posiSon dominates to the publics disadvantage To the right, the publics posiSon dominates to the organisaSons disadvantage Arrow 1: communicaSon is used by communicators of an organsaSon to take advantage of publics outside the win-win zone Arrow 2: publics try to persuade the organisSon to accept the publics undesirable posSon outside the win-win zone Arrow 3: communicators negoSate with both publics and dominant coaliSons to reach an outcome/relaSonship within the win-win zone Two-way model The two-way model means treaSng dominant coaliSons as another public inuenced by communicaSon programs

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1.9 Mixed MoSve Model - Limits and CriScism


Asymmetrical tacScs are someSmes used to gain the best posiSon for organisaSons within the win-win zone The two-way model is a persuasive intent of communcaSon strategies It changes percepSons

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1.10 Corporate CommunicaSons Model by Paum & Linxweiler


Company
Corporate IdenSty (CI) Level of InteracSon and Development Corporate Culture

Publics Internal and External Stakeholders

Corporate

Corporate Design Level of Object (CD)

Corporate Behaviour Level of Behaviour (CB)

Corporate Philosophy

C-Imagery

Corporate Core Values (CV)

Corporate Communica>ons Public Rela>ons

Level of Purpose Corporate PosiSoning Corporate Strategy

C-Credit

Image

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1.10 Corporate CommunicaSons Model: OperaSng CondiSons & Added Value


The Corporate IdenSty is essenSal for every organisaSon It forms not only their internal members, but also has a posiSve eect on ist publics There is no way for corporate communicaSon or such thing as an image without a corporate idenSty The corporate idenSty consists of ve levels: Corporate Core Values: They are the deeply ingrained priniciples that guide all of a companys acSons and decisions. Corporate Philosophy: Incorporate the basic a|tudes and beliefs of a company, which inuence the thoughts and acSons of all employees. Corporate Behaviour: Is a companys internal and external behaviour. Corporate Design: Is a companys internal and external visual appearance to support their aims. Corporate Culture: It is the totality of a companys values, tradiSons, tradiSons, norms and a|tudes that shape the behaviour of its employees.

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Sources Chapter 1
Graphics/Models Baldin, K.-M. (2006): Das Unternehmensleitbild (PDF Script) Bleicher, K. (2008): Das Konzept Integriertes Management (Eights EdiSon) Doppler K. und Lauterburg C. (2002): Change Management Den Unternehmenswandel gestalten (Tenth EdiSon) Dozier, D., Grunig, L. A. & Grunig, J. E. (1995): Managers Guide to Excellence in Public RelaSons (First EdiSon) Koier, J. P. (1996): Leading Change (First EdiSon) Kunczik, M. (2010): Public RelaSons Konzepte und Theorien (Fi}h EdiSon) Lies, J. Hrsg. (2008): Public RelaSons Ein Handbuch (First EdiSon) Melewar, T. C. (2008): Facets of Corporate IdenSty, CommunicaSon and ReputaSon (First EdiSon) Mintzberg, H. (2009): Managen (First EdiSon) Paum, D. & Linxweiler, R. (1998): Public RelaSons der Unternehmung (First EdiSon) Print Apelt, M. & Tacke, V. (2012): Handbuch OrganisaSonstypen (First EdiSon) Archie, B. C. & Buchholtz, A. K. (2008): Business & Society Ethics and Stakeholder Management (Seventh EdiSon) Baldin, K.-M. (2006): Das Unternehmensleitbild (PDF Script) Dozier, D., Grunig, L. A. & Grunig, J. E. (1995): Managers Guide to Excellence in Public RelaSons (First EdiSon) Flaschak, M. (1996): The St. Gallen Management Concept (First EdiSon) Kissling, W. & Babel, F. (2010) : Corporate IdenSty Strategie nachhalSger Unternehmensfhrung (First EdiSon) Koier, J. P. (1996): Leading Change (First EdiSon) Lies, J. Hrsg. (2008): Public RelaSons Ein Handbuch (First EdiSon) Melewar, T. C. (2008): Facets of Corporate IdenSty, CommunicaSon and ReputaSon (First EdiSon) Ph. Petrescu, R. D. (2010): OrganisaSonal Change Process Steps to a Successful Change (PDF: hip://feaa.ucv.ro/AUCSSE/0038v3-025.pdf) Regg-Strm, Johannes (2004): Einfhrung in die Managementlehre (PDF: hip://www.ing-pk.de/images/Das-neue-St.Galler-Management-Modell.pdf) Neue Zrcher Zeitung (2004): Ethisches von der Universitt St."Gallen Das weiterentwickelte Management-Modell (PDF: hip://www.sgbs.ch/sgbs/down_doc/Neues%20SG-Modell.pdf) Lars M. Heitmller et al. (2013), Corporate CommunicaSon Map, Version Pre-Beta 1.0 33

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Sources Chapter 1
Web hip://www.change-management-coach.com/kurt_lewin.html (Stand: 23.01.2013) hip://rosariolongo.blogspot.de/2011/05/is-lewins-change-management-model-sSll.html (Stand: 23.01.2013) hip://www.lmcuk.com/management-tool/mintzberg-s-ten-management-roles (Stand: 23.01.2013) hip://www.provenmodels.com/22 (Stand: 23.01.2013) hip://www.mindtools.com/pages/arScle/newPPM_94.htm (Stand: 23.01.2013) hip://www.scheidtweiler-pr.de/public-relaSons/oeentlichkeitsarbeit/grunighunt/ (Stand: 29.01.2013) hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/DeniSon/corporate-behavior.html (Stand: 29.01.2013) hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/DeniSon/corporate-design.html (Stand: 29.01.2013)

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2. Stakeholder
A rst step towards systemaSc approach is the exact deniSon of those to whom the organizaSonal communicaSon is directed. Stakeholders are those people who are aected by decisions of an organizaSon or are able to inuence the acSons of the organizaSon with their own acSons. A widely used approach for structuring communicaSon elds is the division into target groups as those communicaSon partners of an organizaSon. There is also the concept of publics, which are composed of individuals or groups that discuss a common issue.

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2.1 Stakeholder theory


Is based on the concept of shareholder value Dierence: An organisaSon is now also accounted for its socioeconomic environment The Stakeholder theory was establishd by Freeman (1984) Stakeholder are groups that: 1. Are aected by the decisions an organisaSon makes 2. Can inuence decisions, made by organisaSons, with their own acSons

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2.2 Contact panel by Avenarius (2000)


Capital markets Media and cultural scenes

Sales markets

Sociiopolitical environment

Organisation

Buying markets

Political environment

Competition

Labor markets

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2.3 Stakeholder theory


Iden>ca>on of stakeholder groups Formally By topic By assumed interest By opinion leaders

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2.4 Stakeholder analysis by Savage, Nix (1991)


An analyScal scheme to esSmate the relevance of stakeholder groups and to derive specic norm strategies. Assesment is ensued by a value matrix varying between high and low RelaSve threatening potenSal RelaSve cooperaSve potenSal

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2.4 Stakeholder analysis by Savage, Nix (1991)


high RelaSve threatening potenSal low Suppor>ve Strategy: Involve

RelaSve cooperaSve potenSal high

Mixed blessing Strategy: Collaborate

Non-supporive Strategy: Defend

Marginal group Strategy: Monitor

low
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2.4 Model Savage, Nix Limits and CriScism


Value Besides the idenScaSon of potenSal risks and opportuniSes, this analysis oers specic strategic guidance. Cri>cs This analysis costs Sme and money It is necessary to update the results regulary Analysts are forced to place every stakeholder into one specic group

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2.5 Stakeholder analysis by Janisch (1993)


Will to exercise of power Low High Strategic stakeholder

Power

high

Stakeholder

Groups with interests

Low
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2.5 Model Janisch OperaSng condiSons and added value


An analyScal scheme to esSmate the relevance of stakeholder groups. Assesment is ensued by a value matrix varying between high and low Power Will to exercise of power Value It is possible to idenSfy strategic stakeholder very fast

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2.5 Model Janisch Limits and CriScism


Value It is possible to idenSfy strategic stakeholder very fast Cri>cs The derivaSon of potenSal relevance is restricted to just one criterion (power)

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2.6 Stakeholder analysis by Mller-Stewens, Lechner (2005)

Inuence low Sobersides high Playmaker

SuggesSbility

high

Marginal gure low

Joker

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2.6 Model Mller-Stewens, Lechner OperaSng condiSons and added value


An analyScal scheme to esSmate the relevance of stakeholder groups and to derive specic norm strategies Assesment is ensued by a value matrix varying between high and low SuggesSbility Inuence

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2.7 Stakeholder analysis by Mitchell, Agle, Wood (1997)


Power
1. Dormant stakeholder 4. Dominant stakeholder 5. Dangerous stakeholder

Legi>macy

7. DeniSve stakeholder

6. DiscreSonary stakeholder

3. Demanding stakeholder

6. Dependent stakeholder

Urgency
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2.7 Model Mitchell, Agle, Wood OperaSng condiSons and added value
An analyScal scheme to esSmate the relevance of stakeholder groups. Assesment is ensued by three dimensions at their overlappings Power LegiSmacy Urgency

Value An extensive analysis of stakeholder by several criterions

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2.7 Model Mitchell, Agle, Wood (1997) Limits and CriScism


Cri>cs - This analysis costs Sme and money - You have to ask yourself: Is the analysts view equal to that of the organisaSon? - Are the criterions sucient to dierenSate and to describe stakeholder?

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2.8 Sinus-Milieus

Quelle: http://www.saatkorn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/sinus-milieus-2012.jpg


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2.8 Sinus-Milieus OperaSng condiSons and limits


Sinus-Milieu is a term from the market and social research. It describes the geographical, socio-demographic, behavioral and psychographic segmentaSon. Milieus are not overlapping and changing. Field of applica>on Market research with the focus on lifestyles and value orientaSons Cri>cs rapid obsolescence of the milieus due to dynamic changes in the realiSes of life Gender are not considered individually homogeneity within the milieu can be quesSoned

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2.9 GfK Roper Consumer Styles


Need: to have Dreamers Homebodies Settled Need: peace and security

Need: to live passionate Life

Adventurers

RationalRealists

Open-Minded

Organics

Demanding

GfK Roper Consumer Styles (2011)

Need: to be
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2.9 GfK Roper Consumer Styles OperaSng condiSons and added value
InternaSonal instrument designed to consumer segmentaSon Lifestyle typology of GfK Group based on extensive consumer research enables targeSng and supports the MarkeSng process

Value PosiSoning of brands and companies target group-specic opSmizaSon of communicaSons and media planning

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2.10 Semiometrie

Semiometrie nach TNS Infratest, Begriffe und Wertefelder (2010)


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2.10 Semiometrie OperaSng condiSons and criScism


Serves not as target delineaSon but rather thought as descripSon Value orientaSons are the focus EmoSonal evaluaSon, according to pleasant and unpleasant, of 210 words and output in form of 14 Semiometrie value elds By comparing dierent value elds recommendaSons of appropriate measures (f.e. media planning) can be derived

Cri>cs Very young model Not suitable for the target group deniSon Must be conSnuously adapted

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2.11 SituaSonal Publics (Grunig/Hunt 1984)


AssumpSon: There is no "general public" because "publics are always specic". ParSal publics consists of individuals or groups discussing common facts Dis>nc>on in: Non-parSal public Deferred parSal public Conscious segments of the public AcSve segments of the public Value OrganisaSonal environment can be captured by problem areas Useful starSng points for further systemaSzaSon

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2.11 SituaSonal Publics Limits and CriScism


Cri>cs Clear deniSon dicult Limited interacSon on conict-prone situaSons

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3. CommunicaSon Aims and AddiSonal Benets of Agencies

In the following chapter communicaSon aims and the benets of working with an agency will be described. What are the expectaSons of a client and what exactly are agencies oering? Finally the addiSonal benets besides the usual competencies of an agency are examined.

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3.1 Corporate CommunicaSons

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3.1 Corporate CommunicaSons


Deni>on: Integrated Corporate CommunicaSons enfolds all internal and external aimed communicaSon processes, that want to take inuence on selected recipients (stake holder) on an equal level in order to reach certain aims. Those aims can either be economical or noneconomical. Thereby it is important, to adjust and integrate means of communicaSon and communicaSon tools according to >me, content and form. Necessary communicaSon acSviSes can either be executed by members of an organisa>on (execuSves, internal communicaSon specialists) itself or by instrucSng an external agent (agencies). Corporate communicaSons can be subdivided into internal communica>ons, market communica>ons and public rela>ons.

Source: Gabler Wirtscha}slexikon, Bruhn, M. / Aerni, M. (2008), Integrierte KommunikaSon (1. Auage)

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3.1 Corporate CommunicaSons

Market CommunicaSons

Internal CommunicaSons

Public RelaSons

Stakeholder of an OrganisaSon

Superior aim: Homogenous internal and external communicaSon, that imediately reveals the sender to the stakeholder.
Source: Gabler Wirtscha}slexikon, Chart: replica by author

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims


FuncSon of Aims for CommunicaSons Strategies
Decision and Alloca>ve Func>on
Aims = SelecSon and evaluaSon criteria for communicaSon acSviSes DeniSon of communicaSons direcSon CommunicaSon decisions are to be made and evaluated regarding the aim

Coordina>ng Func>on

Mo>va>on and Fulllment Func>on


Everyone involved knows about the aim and which acSons have to be taken IdenScaSon with the aim is possible contribuSon of moSvaSon for realizaSon of the aim Level of aim achievement = IndicaSon level of saSsfacSon of parSes involved

Control Func>on
FormulaSon of aims to control communicaSon acSviSes

Aims facilitate behavioral adjustments among everyone involved (departments, freelancers, agencies etc.)

Source: Bruhn, M. (2007), KommunikaSonspoliSk (4. berarbeitete Auage), Chart: replica by author

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims


SMART criteria Dis>nc>ve deni>on of aims

specic

DisSncSve deniSon

measurable

Measuring of aims

accepted

Acceptance by receiver

reasonable

Possibility of realizaSon

Smely

Time schedule for aims achievement

Source: Neubarth, A. (2011), Fhrungskompetenz auauen (2. Auage), Chart: Replica by author

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims


Level of Communica>on Aims

Eect Level

Economic Aims Psychological Aims (noneconomical) CogniSve Aims ConaSve Aims AecSve Aims

Contribute to the superior economical aim

Time Horizon

TacScal Aims

Short-term Aims

Strategic Aims

Medium-term Aims Long-term Aims

Source: see page 87, Chart: replica by author

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims


Aims under considera>on of the eect level

Economical Aims

Increase of prot, turnover, sale Increase of market shares Increase of cost eecSveness Monetary parameter

Economical aims as superior aims All means of communicaSon can be discharged from them

Source: see page 87, Chart: replica by author

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims


Aims under considera>on of the eect level

Psycological Aims CogniSve Aims Rising of awareness level Increase of social acceptance CreaSng preferences To disSnguish from compeStors Improvement / transfer / support of image Transferring knowledge about brands and quality Brand posiSoning Stabilizing of brand Increase of raSo of repeated purchases
Source: see page 87, chart: replica by author

ConaSve Aims

AecSve Aims

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims


Use of psychological communica>on aims Cogni>v Aims Regarding awareness Transferring / expanding knowledge INFORMATION informaSon about basic characterisScs of a product informaSon as a aim in mainly high specialized elds (IT, nancial services, chemical industry)

Cona>ve Aims Regarding behavior behavioral caused changes TOPICALITY

all informaSon that are important for the purchase are already known, less interesSng (low involvement) topicality can cause insSncSve purchases topicality as aim towards all-day products

Aec>ve Aims Regarding emoSon Change of emoSon EMOTION

every informaSon about the communicaSon object are known and trivial link of emoSon dierenSates from objects / brands unique world of experience emoSon as aim in saturated markets (e. g. chocolade or cigarreie market)
Source: Meert, H. / Burmann, C. / Kirchgeorg, M. (2012), MarkeSng (11. Auage), Chart: replica by author

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims


Aims under considera>on of the >me horizon

TacScal Aims
Reach awareness Transfer knowledge about new facts Short-term aims Psycological Aims

quickly achieved by communicaSon acSviSes and have a short life-span

Source: see page 87, Chart: Replica by author

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3.2 CommunicaSon Aims


Aims under considera>on of the >me horizon

Strategic Aims

Change of a|tude Change of behavior Social and cultural alteraSon Permanent customer retenSon

Short-term aims Psycological Aims Long-term Aims

takes a long Sme to be established, but remains comparaSvely stable

Source: see page 87 Chart: replica by author

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3.3 Agencies

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3.3 Field of AcSviSes


Agencies oer solu>ons in the following elds:

Communica>on CommunicaSon Concepts, Investor RelaSons, MarkeSng, AdverSsing, Brands Concepts Public Rela>ons Agenda Se|ng, Social Networking, Crisis CommunicaSon , Issues Management Design Corporate Design, Web Design, Screen-Design, Layout

Digital Online-MarkeSng, Social Media, eCommerce, Mobile, SEO Event Sponsoring, PromoSon, ExhibiSons, Product PresentaSon

Pictures Photography, Graphics, IllustraSons

Strategy ConcepSon and ProducSon

Other elds

Source: Author

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3.3 MoSves
When to entrust an agency: Mo>ves Market Changes changing market requirements increased compeSSve pressure new trends / market developments altered target group behavior intensied communicaSon condiSons

E X T E R N

Unternehmerische A Company Environment nlsse


globalizaSon technology dynamics ecological dynamics social changes poliScal changes

Sources: Giler, A./Klewes, J. (2002), Drama Beratung (1. Auage) / Bruhn, M. / MarSn, S. (2009), Zur Rolle von Agenturen in der Integrierten KommunikaSon in Der Markt - Journal fr MarkeSng, Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage), Chart: replica by author

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3.3 MoSves
When to entrust an agency: Mo>ves Lacking ressources (structure, technical, knowledge) own capaciSes are fully uSlized outsourcing of tasks Manpower + Sme Aiming high cost exibility Aiming high sta exibility Contacts / knowledge / experience increasing complexity of entrepreneurial tasks technical Requirements Status social recogniSon reputaSon Entrepreneurial Anlsse tacScal events (jubilee, relaunch, leadership changes, expansion) see CommunicaSon Aims External Input lack of creaSve potenSal fresh ideas, new impulses entrepreneurial curiosity rouSne Analysis of business processes + measures implementaSon internal organisaSonal blindness external perspecSve

I N T E R N

Sources: Giler, A./Klewes, J. (2002), Drama Beratung (1. Auage) / Bruhn, M. / MarSn, S. (2009), Zur Rolle von Agenturen in der Integrierten KommunikaSon in Der Markt - Journal fr MarkeSng, Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage); Chart: replica by author

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3.3 ExpectaSons

Expecta>ons from Agencies

Level of performance requierements

Level of organisaSonal requirements

Level of personal requirements

Source: Bruhn, M. / MarSn, S. (2009), Zur Rolle von Agenturen in der Integrierten KommunikaSon in Der Markt - Journal fr MarkeSng, eigene; Chart: replica by author

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3.3 Competences / Core Assets


Organisa>onal competencies Agencies perform operaSonal tasks Full service from a single source Manpower Ad-hoc resource

Source: Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage), Author

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3.3 Competences / Core Assets


Strategic competences decision aid strategic know-how industry / market knowledge advice orchestraSon orientaSon evaluaSon thinking ahead

Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage), eigene

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3.3 Competences / Core Assets


Emo>onal competences sensiSvity in cooperaSon integraSon capability adequate care perceive signals in the team empathy Teamwork organisaSon Agency

Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage), eigene

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3.3 Competencies/Core Assets


Core Assets CreaSvity Know-How Experience Obstacles + factor of succes Growing network Employees Flexibility contenswise, personnel, skills, Sme References

Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage), eigene

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3.4 AddiSonal Benets of Agencies

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3.4 AddiSonal Benets


What are addi>onal benets?

Company commissioned an agency to create a brand strategy

Agencies deliver

Brand Strategy

The customer addiSonally receives

Knowledge of planning process insights expanding network

Source: Author, Chart: Replica by author

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3.4 AddiSonal Benets


What are addi>onal benets?

Company commissioned an agency to create a brand strategy

Agencies deliver

Brand Strategy

The customer addiSonally receives

Added Value Addi>onal benets: A


benet that goes beyond the actual basic benet (services). The added value of services rendered by an agency , may either be regarding the service itself or can eect a social level.

Source: Author, Chart: Replica by author

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3.4 AddiSonal Benet

Addi>onal Benet of an Agency

AddiSonal Benet Of Service

Social AddiSonal Benet

Personal Level

Company Level

Source: Author, Chart: Replica by author

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3.4 AddiSonal Benet


Addi>onal benet of service Image Transfer reducSon of complexity reducing the risk potenSal of decisions industry overview on actual industry itself best-pracSce overview topics are tangible / intangible grown employee base imaginaSon

Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage), eigene

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3.4 AddiSonal Benet


Social addi>onal benet ( personal + company level) understanding / trust insights + enlargement of the horizon agency = interpersonal control in the company strengthen the company's internal hierarchical posiSon of the client presSge / reputaSon feedback development and development of a network

Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage), eigene

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3.4 AddiSonal Benet


Social addi>onal benet ( personal + company level) sparring partner support personality building exchange with professional people sense of security entertainment emoSonal AddiSonal Benet

Allguer, J. / Larisch, M. (2011), PR von FinanzorganisaSonen (1. Auage), eigene

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Sources Chapter 3
LITERATURE CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS (SLIDE 4) Aerni, Markus / Bruhn, Manfred (2008): Integrierte KommunikaSon, 1. EdiSon, Zrich: Compendio Bildungsmedien LITERATURE COMMUNICATION AIMS (SLIDES 6 15): Bruhn, Manfred (2007): KommunikaSonspoliSk, 4. revised ediSon, Mnchen: Franz Vahlen Bruhn, Manfred/Esch, Franz-Rudolf/Langner, Tobias (2009): Handbuch KommunikaSon, 1. ediSon, Wiesbaden: Gabler Homburg, ChrisSan/Krohmer, Harley (2009): MarkeSngmanagement Strategie, Instrumente, Umsetzung, Unternehmensfhrung, 3. revised and extended ediSon, Wiesbaden: Gabler Mast, Claudia (2008): UnternehmenskommunikaSon, 3. revised and extended ediSon, Stuigart: Lucius & Lucius Meckel, Miriam/Beat, F. Schmid (2008): UnternehmenskommunikaSon KommunikaSonsmanagement aus Sicht der Unternehmensfhrung, 2. ediSon, Wiesbaden: Gabler Meert, Heribert/Burmann, Christoph/Kirchgeorg, Manfred (2012): MarkeSng Grundlagen marktorienSerter Unternehmensfhrung, 11. ediSon, Wiesbaden: Gabler Neubarth, Achim (2011): Fhrungskompetenz auauen Wie Sie Ressourcen klug nutzen und Ziele sSmmig erreichen, 2. ediSon, Wiesbaden: Gabler LITERATURE Allguer, Jrg E./Larisch, Maihias (2011): PR von FinanzorganisaSonen Ein Praxishandbuch fr die externe und interne KommunikaSon, 1. ediSon, Wiesbaden: Gabler Bruhn, Manfred/MarSn, Sieglinde (2009): Zur Rolle von Agenturen in der Integrierten KommunikaSon Empirische Befunde zu Anforderungen an Leistungsfhigkeit, Zusammenarbeit und Umsetzungsbeitrag von Agenturen in sterreichischen Grounternehmen in Der Markt - Journal fr MarkeSng, Springer-Verlag Giler, Alexander/Klewes, Joachim (2002): Drama Beratung, 1. ediSon, Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
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Sources Chapter 3
WEB: hip://www.existxchange.de/werbung/die-vor-und-nachteile-einer-werbeagentur.html; Stand: 21.12.2012 hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/326741/unternehmenskommunikaSon-v5.html; Stand: 05.11.2012 hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/54937/kommunikaSon-v6.html; Stand 05.11.2012 hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/1446/mehrweriheorie-v6.html; Stand: 19.12.2012 hip://www.zaw.de/doc/Erwartungen-Berlin-5-04.pdf; Stand: 19.12.2012 hip://www.bvdw.org/medien/?topic=138&type=&year=&search; Stand: 05.11.2012 hip://www.gwa.de/agentur-kunde/uebersicht/; Stand: 05.11.2012

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4. CommunicaSon from a PR & MarkeSng perspecSve


The ght between markeSng and public relaSon is one of the oldest in the eld of corporate communicaSons. Its a story of might, decision power and dierent aims. In the last years these departments grew more and more together and learned from each other to match the demands of the market. People recognized that their aims are not that dierent they thought. In the following part we show dierent models that can be used seperated for tasks in both elds. But they also expose the intersecSon and changeable parameters where both need to complement each other.

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4.1 3i Model by P. Kotler

brand ntegrity
POSITIONING DIFFERENTIATION

3i
BRAND
Kotler, Kartajaya, SeSawan, 2010, p. 55

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4.1 3i Model OperaSng condiSons and added value


Brand Iden>ty/Posi>oning
PosiSoning your brand in consumers mind Relevant to raSonal needs of the consumers Target is consumers head

Brand Image/Dieren>a>on

Brand Integrity

Aquire consumers mind share with Fullling the promise of idenSty posiSve acts and image Relevant to emoSonal needs of the Establishes consumers trust in the consumers brand Target is consumers heart Target is consumers spirit

can help to establish a value based markeSng respects consumers as mulSdimensional beings higher integrity can protect the brand from modern phenomena like shitstorms in social media

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4.1 3i Model Limits and CriScism


just descripSve shows a relaSon but without a recommended proceedure

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4.2 Brand-Envelope-Model by T. Gad


dierenSaSon to a compeSSve brand

competence

func>onal

social

BRAND CODE central message

mental

spiritual

future idea of the brand


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4.2 Brand-Envelope-Model OperaSng condiSons and added Value


The 4 dimensions of a brand are: func>onal: concerns the percepSon of benet of the product or service associated with the brand mental: is the ability to support the individual mentally spiritual: is the percepSon of global or local responsibility social: concerns the ability to create idenScaSon with a group

shows the screws for evolving/enhancing a brand can be used for an internal or an external view at the brand

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4.3 Brand Personality by J. L. Aaker

BRAND PERSONALITY

Sincerity

Excitement

Competence

SophisScaSon

Ruggedness

down to earth honest wholesome cheerful

daring spirited imaginaSve up to date

reliable intelligent sucessful

Upper Class charming

outdoorsy tough

D. Aaker, 1997, p. 352

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4.3 Brand Personality OperaSng CondiSons and Added Value


Brand personality the set of human characterisScs associated with a brand based on the Big Five-Model of human personality rst three of them matches each other the task of the brand is to match the personality of its target group (their self-concept)

get to know the self-concept of your target group to evolve the brands personality preference for brand will increase or relaSonship will be strengthened

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4.3 Brand Personality Limits and CriScism


has to be dierenSated in other countries (as J.L. Aaker et. al showed) its a study from 1997 is it sSll valid?

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4.4 Archetypes by M. Mark and C. Pearson


Archetypes and MoSvaSon

Stability & Control

Belonging & Enjoyment

Risk & Mastery

Independence & Fulllment

Archetypes

Creator Caregiver Ruler nancial ruin ill heath uncontrolled chaos

Jester Regular Guy/Gal Lover exile, orphaning abandonment engulfment

Hero Outlaw Magician ineectuality impotence powerlessness

Innocent Explorer Sage entrapment selling out empSness

Customer fear

Helps to

feel safe

have love/ community

achieve

nd happiness

M. Mark, C. Pearson (2001, p.18)

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4.4 Archetypes OperaSng CondiSons and Added Value


an archetype is a generic but consistent version of a personality that mostly is understood as a symbol for a special behavior archetypes can be used in storytelling for public relaSons, internal communicaSons or product markeSng with products and persons they help or even force the consumer to idenSfy a meaning in an intuiSve way

adresses basic stereotypes in consumers mind creaSng an emoSonal anity that alleviates the management of meaning

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4.4 Archetypes Limits and CriScism


in comparison to C. G. Jung or other authors archetypes dier what about hybrids?

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4.5 Elements of Storytelling a}er D. Herbst


stage
place country, internaSonal, oce, producSon, nature etc. staging of meaning stage props using symbols like cars, logos, buildings, etc audience should the meaning

Character age, relaSons, social standing Personality experience, emoSons, qualiSes ac>ng level business, private, public Appearance airacSvity, movement, language, style

central elements & structures

main/minor actors

Conicts stakeholders, compeStors, generaSon, society, values etc. explain strategies to make a change in a chronological, meaningul and thrilling story

plot
101

Herbst, 2001, p. 93-116, own version


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4.6 Storytelling - OperaSng CondiSons and Added Value


Internal Communica>ons
communicate tradiSons, values and culture get informaSon about the real culture/ micropoliScs -> solve problems explore ressources idenSfy weaknesses

External Communica>ons
communicate tradiSons, values and culture charge products and brands with meaning develop and improve customer relaSonship

easier to understand and to keep in mind than facts usable for research meaningful endows idenSty

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4.6 Storytelling Limits and CriScism


elaborate process that is: Sme-consuming

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4.7 Shareholder Value Model vs. Stakeholder Value

Shareholder Value

Results in short Term

Financial Measures

VerScal Control

Eciency (Doing same things beier)

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4.7 Shareholder Value OperaSng condiSons and added Value


Shareholder Value

value of the company from shareholders point of view cash equivalent to saSsfy the requirements of th sharholders shares as an instrument for nancial earnings business policy to increase shareholder value

increasing shareholder value requires:


ecient company high quality producSon at low costs matching the interests of consumers

increasing shareholder value leads to:


new techniques and products more jobs

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4.7 Shareholder Value Limits and CriScism


unidirecSonal development to shareholder interests can lead to: inadequate business policy (monopol, contempt of ecological, safety and human rights standards) redundancies neglect of social responsibiliSes asymmetric informaSon between shareholders and managers are disregared Outside-In perspecSve is disregard

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4.8 CommunicaSon Theories


Lasswell-Formel: Who says what in which channel to whom with what eect?

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4.9 Overview CommunicaSon Ways

1:1

1:n

Mediaprovider

Mediaprovider

n:n n:n
IllustraSons downloaded from: hip://netzwerSg.com/2008/12/18/werbung-das-komplexitaetsproblem-von- social-media-markeSng/ ; downloaded ,Dec.4th 2012

IllustraSon n:n according to Fieseler/Homann/Meckel (2010) p.25

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4.10 CommuniaSon modell according to Maletzke (1963)


Public Enforcement
( e.g. Issues)

(self-percepSon of personality in a team)

Communicator

Message Communi- caSon Channel

(self-percepSon of personality, - as member of the audience.)

Receiver


IllustraSon by author, based on communicaSon modell of Maletzke 1:1
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4.11 Issue Management - Vita of an issue


number of interested people

Variable period, o}en smooth transiSon - but period can also be skipped
single event public concerns potenSel. claim tangible claim claim saSs- facSon resSng claim

>me Increasing formalisa>on and decreasing inuence

trends

concerns

direct concerned person/company highbrows, scienSsts, acSvist massmedia, poliScians stakeholder


IllustraSon by author, based on a modied modell of Ingenho/Riger (2008) p.330
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4.11 Issue Management - OperaSng condiSons and added Value


MarkeSng Campaign strategy and controlling exhibiSons product/ brandpresentaSon PR Issues Management (stakeholder communicaSon)

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4.11 Issue Management LimitaSons and criScs


Not even all can be inuenced Unaccounted for communcaSon interrupSons To avoid communcaSon interrupSons the communicaSon channel needs special aienSon

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4.12 One to many communicaSon according to Homan/Novak

massmedium adverSsing, messages, e.g.

Individual
IllustraSon by author

1:n

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4.13 Gatekeepermodell Katz/Lazarsfeld (1955) Two-Step-Flow of CommunicaSon

massmedium 1957 (TV, Radio, Print)

Opinionleader Individual with personal contact to opinionleader


IllustraSon by author

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4.13 Many to Many communicaSon according to Homan/Novak

Massmedium 2012 (TV, Radio?, Print?, Internet, Web 2.0, Facebook, weblog, intenet playorm, Twiier, video portal)

Opinionleader
Mediaprovider

Mediaprovider

Individual with personal contact to opinionleader


IllustraSon by author

n:n

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4.14 MulS-way communicaSon - OperaSng condiSons and added value


MarkeSng SelecSve adverSsing Moderators of discussion playorms can be inuenced -> SEO MarkeSng Scanning for future trends Campaign controlling/ media response analyses Inuencing Blogger and Social Media Playorms PR Moderator of discussion playorms Scanning and idenSfying of relevant topics Discover important stakeholder Social Media Playorms

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4.14 MulS-way communicaSon - OperaSng condiSons and added value


Statement of opinion leader (ankerman and journalists) is more reliable Internet playorms and blogs apply to be independent and are not inuenced by companies -> User are seeking serious sources -> inuencing the gatekeeper becomes more important

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4.15 Agenda Se|ng according to Rogers/Dearing (1988)

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Sources Chapter 4
Maletzke, Gerhard (1963): Psychologie der MassenkommunikaSon. Theorie und SystemaSk. Hamburg Ingenho, Diana/Riger Ulrike (2008): Issues Management. Ein zentrales Verfahren der UnternehmenskommunikaSon. In: Meckel,Miriam /Schmidt, Beate F.: UnternehmenskommunikaSon. Gabler Homan, Donna L./Novak, Thomas P. (1996): The Journal of MarkeSng, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Jul., 1996), pp. 50-68 Published by: American MarkeSng AssociaSon hip://elabresearch.ucr.edu/blog/uploads/publicaSons/Homan_Novak_1996_JM.pdf Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. (1955): Personal Inuence, New York: The Free Press. Rogers, Everei M. / Dearing, James W. (1988): Agenda-Se|ng Research: Where Has It Been? Where Is It Going? In: Anderson, James A: (Eds.): CommunicaSon Yearbook 11, Newbury Park , S. 555-594 Fieseler, ChrisSan/Homann, ChrisSan P./Meckel, Miriam (2010): CSR 2.0 Die KommunikaSon von NachhalSgkeit in Sozialen Medien. In: MarkeSng Review St. Gallen, o.Jg, H. 5, S. 22-26 hip://netzwerSg.com/2008/12/18/werbung-das-komplexitaetsproblem-von-social-media-markeSng/

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5. Measurement and evaluaSon of communicaSons

Measurement and evluaSon of communicaSons is yet not a well investgated eld, which aliates to its complexity. Each tool can be measured easier on ist own and therefore a task force leaded by Prof Ansgar Zerfa invented the DPRG/IVC-frame. It is a tool, that helps companies to get an overview of dierent possibiliSes to measure communicaSons.

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5.1 Measurement and EvaluaSon of CommunicaSon

CommunicaSon controlling is a support and control mechanism that creates transparency in terms of strategy, processes, results and nances for the division-of-labor-based process of communicaSon management, and provides suitable methods, structures and indicators for the planning, performance and monitoring of corporate communicaSon and public relaSons (Ansgar Zerfa, 2006)

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5.1 Measurement and EvaluaSon of CommunicaSon


ConSnuaSon DeniSon Three areas of CommunicaSon Controlling
Controlling for management and monitoring of communicaSon measures Measurement of individual communicaSon acSviSes IdenScaSon of impact, targets and appropriate deniSons Methods are the common measurement incl. media analysis, pretests, surveys, ect. Controlling for management and monitoring of communicaSon strategy CommunicaSon is seen as an valued contribuSon to an organisaSons overall strategic goals Strategy congruence and calue through communicaSon Methods are Scorecards or integrated, individual systems

Controlling process and quality of communicaSon management EvaluaSon of the quality of the acSviSes EvaluaSon of the processes Methods are audits, process analysis or organisaSonal maiers within the departments
Further informaSon: hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de
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5.2 DPRG/ICV Framework


Deni>on of the Framework ObjecSve: Set a standard for controlling and evaluaSon of communicaSon Obstacle: Measurement of communicaSon is a mulS-dimensional process and each phase and acSvity is individual. Therefore it seeks for an individual approach of evaluaSon.

The DPRG/ICV framework is not a "fully calculable and predictable" model. Rather, it is a discussion tool that seeks to provide orientaSon on a meta level and provide a workable context for the plethora of exisSng evaluaSon methods and parameters. The eect levels reference framework is a complex input-output scheme with a ve-stage eect side.

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5.3 DPRG/ICV Framework

Further informaSon: hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de


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5.3 DPRG/ICV Framework


Explana>on of each phase
Investment/Eort, that is put into communicaSon Investment of human and nancial capital Both these kinds of capital can be measured in cost categories

Internal Output Process eciency (eg. Budget compliance, error rates or throughput Sme) Focus lies sSll on the organisaSon Important benchmark at this stage is the saSsfacSon of internal clients External Output Range and content of communicaSon oers accessible to reference groups Necessary criteria but yet not value contribuSon to companys success
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5.3 DPRG/ICV Framework


Explana>on of each phase

Direct outcome EecSveness in terms of raising percepSon levels and knowledge Demonstrate informaSon generaSon Indirect Outcome Extent of impact on opinions/intenSons GeneraSon of opinions, emoSons, behavioral disposiSon, ect.

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5.3 DPRG/ICV Framework


Explana>on of each phase

Value-adding objecSves enhanced by communicaSon Impact on strategic and nancial goal Eect on tangible and/or in-tangible capital-building resources

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5.4 ImplementaSon

Further informaSon: hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de/en/knowledge/pu|ng-it-into-pracSce.html


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5.4 ImplementaSon

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5.5 Methods
Basic methods QuanStaSve and qualitaSve data Standardized Print media analysis Internet media analysis Weblogs media analysis Radio media analysis Surveys/quesSonnaires Focus groups Pretests Posiests Usability tests

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5.5 Methods
Basic methods Performance Indicators (Extract)
PIs Print Anity value Acceptance quoSent PenetraSon index Fairness value IniSaSve quoSent Presence index Response quoSent Text-image quoSent Issues quoSent Transfer quoSent DistribuSon value AdverSsing equivalent value PIs Online Cost-per-1000 (CPM, TKP) Cost-per-AcSon (CPA, CPX) Cost-per-click (CPC) Cost-per-Lead (CPL) Cost-per-Order (CPO) Degree of linage Click-depth FluctuaSon of content Accessibility Statements Rate of disseminaSon PIs Weblogs PosiSve/negaSve/neutral statements Range/trac staSsScs DuraSon of presence Degree of linkage Number of comments Number of trackbacks Tags/tag clouds KPs Radio Anity Acceptance PenetraSon Fairness IniSaSve Presence Response Topics Transfer quoSent DistribuSon value AdverSsing equivalent value

Further informaSon: hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de/methoden/basismethoden.html

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5.5 Methods
Evalua>on EvaluaSon of individual communicaSon acSviSes Enables the review of impact Media releaSons Corporate publishing Online communicaSon Email communicaSon Events AdverSsing

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5.5 Methods
Eg. Evalua>on of Public Rela>ons-Ac>vi>es (Int. AssociaSon for Measurement and EvaluaSon of CommunicaSon)
Further informaSon: hip://www.amecorg.com

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5.5 Methods
Eg. Evalua>on of Public Rela>ons-Ac>vi>es Brand/Product Marke>ng (Int. AssociaSon for Measurement and EvaluaSon of CommunicaSon)
Further informaSon: hip://www.amecorg.com

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5.5 Methods
Eg. Evalua>on of Public Rela>ons-Ac>vi>es Employee Engagement (Int. AssociaSon for Measurement and EvaluaSon of CommunicaSon)
Further informaSon: hip://www.amecorg.com

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5.5 Methods
Value crea>on Determining the value creaSon through communicaSon Brand evaluaSon ReputaSon measurement CommunicaSon Due Diligence Scorecards/Strategy Maps

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5.5 Methods
Example Strategy Map/Communica>on Scorecard

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5.5 Methods
Processes and quality Eciency and eecSveness Establish and reinforce quality in the medium to long term Concept evaluaSon Process evaluaSon Quality management

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5.5 Methods
Integrated systems MulSdimensional control and/or evaluaSon CombinaSon of a range of basic methods, evaluaSon and value addiSon approaches O}en organisaSon-specic CommunicaSons Value System Index Internal CommunicaSon TRIM-Index Corporate InformaSon System CommunicaSonControlCockpit CommunicaSon performance management WebQM - Procedures

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Sources Chapter 5
LITERATURE Pfannenberg, Jrg (2009): Die Balanced Scorecard im strategischen KommunikaSons-Controlling Zerfa, Ansgar (2004): Die Corporate CommunicaSons Scorecard Kennzahlensystem,

OpSmierungstool oder strategisches Steuerungsinstrument?, PR Digest Huhn, Julia und Dr. Sass, Jan (2011), PosiSonspapier KommunikaSonscontrolling AMEC (2011), Valid Metrics for PR Measurement Pu|ng The Principles into AcSon
WEB:

hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de DPRG/ICV Frame: hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de/index.php?id=280&L=3

hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de/leadmin/communicaSoncontrolling/sonst_les/DPRG-ICV-Bezugsrahmen- Sept2009.pdf hip://www.amecorg.com



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AddiSonal content

FURTHER MODELS

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MarkeSng Plan

Chart: hip://www.aistrupconsulSng.com/MarkeSngStrategic.aspx

Further informaSon also on: hip://www.businessplans.org/market.html

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Crisis management
PotenSal level of crisis Latent level of crisis Acute level of crisis Post- level of crisis

Time

PotenSal level of crisis

AnScipaSve crisis management (PrevenSon of a crisis)

Latent level of crisis Time Acute level of crisis

PrevenSve crisis management (DetecSon and prevenSon of a crisis)

Repulsive crisis management (Mastering the crisis)

Post- level of crisis

AnScipaSve crisis management (PrevenSon of a crisis)

Source and further informaSon hip://www.krisenkommunikaSon.info/Fruehwarnsysteme-in-der-UnternehmenskommunikaSon.378.0.html

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Decision making process

Source and further informaSon: hip://www.robustdecisions.com/decision-making-tools/decision-making-process-steps.php

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Decision making process

Source and further informaSon: hip://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640/opre640.htm

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Decision making process

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BCG-Matrix

Source: hip://www.quickmba.com/strategy/matrix/bcg/

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Customer LifeSme Value


GC is the (expected) yearly gross contribuSon margin per customer. It is, therefore, equal to revenues minus cost of sales. M is the (relevant) promoSon costs per customer per year. n is the length, in years, of the period over which cash ows are to be projected. r is the yearly retenSon rate, i.e., the proporSon of customers expected to conSnue buying the companys goods or services in the subsequent year. d is the yearly discount rate (appropriate for markeSng investments).

Source: hip://download.clib.psu.ac.th/datawebclib/e_resource/trial_database/WileyInterScienceCD/pdf/DIR/DIR_2.pdf Lars M. Heitmller et al. (2013), Corporate CommunicaSon Map, Version Pre-Beta 1.0 148

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Growth Strategy
Anso Product-Market-Matrix (1966) Exis>ng Products New Products

Exis>ng Markets

Market PenetraSon

Product Development

New Markets

Market Development

DiversicaSon

Source: hip://www.quickmba.com/strategy/matrix/anso/

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Weischenbergs Zwiebelmodell
Media Systems Context of Standards
Social Circumstances Historical and Legal Principles CommunicaSons Policy Professional and Ethical Standards

Media InsStuSons Context of Structures


Economical ImperaSve PoliScal ImperaSve OrganisaSonal ImperaSve Technological ImperaSve

Media Statements Context of FuncSon


Source of InformaSon and Peer Group Covergae Model and Forms of Expression

Media Player Context of Roles


Demogracal Token Social and PoliScal A|tude Understanding of Role and Public Image ProfessionalisaSons and Sozializing
Further informaSon: hip://luhmann.uni-trier.de/index.php?Stle=Zwiebel-Modell

Weischenberg, S. (1995): JournalisSk.Theorie und Praxis aktueller MedienkommunikaSon (Second EdiSon)

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Modern Approaches on Media Eects by Bonfadelli

Dimensions of Evalua>on

Dimensions of Media Eects Segmenta>on Homogeniza>on Uses and GraScaSon Theory (Jay Blumler/Elihu Katz) Agenda Se|ng Theory (Maxwell McCombs/Donald Shaw) CulSvaSon Theory (George Gerbner) Spiral of Silence Model (Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann)

FuncSonality

DysfuncSonality

Knowledge Gap Hypothesis (Philipp Tichenor/George Donohue/ Clarice Olien)

Print Bonfadelli, H., Jarren, O. & Siegert, G. (2005): Einfhrung in die PublizisSkwissenscha} (Second EdiSon) Links to: Uses and GraScaSon Further informaSon: hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uses_and_graScaSons_theory Gap in Knowledge Further informaSon: hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_gap_hypothesis Agenda Se|ng Further informaSon: hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agenda-se|ng_theory CulSvaSon Theory Further informaSon: hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CulSvaSon_theory Spiral of Silence Further informaSon: hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiral_of_silence

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The Big Five Personality Traits

Source: hip://www.belbin.com/content/page/5596/A%20Comprehensive%20Review.pdf

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The Big Five Personality Traits

Source: hip://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/NC/B0/B58/010MB58.html&docid=1FIimSY2XpePaM&img (05.02.2013)

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News factors
Galtung & Ruge (1965) Frequency Threshold Unambiguity Meaningfulness Consonance Unexpectedness ConSnuity ComposiSon Reference to elite people Reference to elite naSons PersonicaSon NegaSvity
Galtung,J. & Ruge, Mari H. : The Structure of Foreign News; in Jeremy Tunstall (ed.), Media Sociology: A Reader (London Constable, 1970) pp. 259-98

Harcup & O'Neill (2001) The power of elite Celebrity Entertainment Surprise Bad News Good news Magnitude Relevance Follow up Media agenda
Harcup,T. & ONeill, D.: What is news? In Galtung and Ruge Revisited Journalism Studies, Vol.2, no.2

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Contact
Making communica6ons theories applicable
This map is meant to be the start of a dialogue not its end. Therefore, we are very thankful about your feedback! Please send an email to Lars M. Heitmller at CCM@LMH.de or visit the projects website: hMp://CCM.LMH.de

March, 2013

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