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Corporate Communication Map (CCM), (Landkarte der Unternehmenskommunikation)

Corporate Communication Map (CCM), (Landkarte der Unternehmenskommunikation)

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Aim of this map is to provide a visual overview about the corporate communication, a kind of ‘Corporate Communication Framework’. Via mouse click on page 13, the map jumps to the embedded models and sources.

The Pre-Beta release is the result of an “experiment” conducted during the winter semester 2012/2013 of the Master of Arts in Business Communications Management program of Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (University of Applied Sciences) in Berlin.

The Corporate Communication Map is meant as a living document. Therefore, we are happy about your feedback.


Aim of this map is to provide a visual overview about the corporate communication, a kind of ‘Corporate Communication Framework’. Via mouse click on page 13, the map jumps to the embedded models and sources.

The Pre-Beta release is the result of an “experiment” conducted during the winter semester 2012/2013 of the Master of Arts in Business Communications Management program of Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (University of Applied Sciences) in Berlin.

The Corporate Communication Map is meant as a living document. Therefore, we are happy about your feedback.


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Categories:Types, Maps
Published by: Heitmueller on Mar 31, 2013
Urheberrecht:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/23/2015

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Corporate History

"

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION MAP
Crisis Prevention" Frame
 " Crisis Management" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Situational Publics"

short"

Period of time"

Issue Curve"

conscious"

Effect of communication "

unconscious"

Decision"

cognitive change" affective change"

long" term"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems"

Image"

media institutions"

media effects"

Corporate " Corporate" Imagery" Credit"

conative change" perception"

Sucess"

Involvement"

short term"

Sales"

Profit"

media statements"

Legal"

media actors"

Environment"

External Stakeholder"

Court"

Gatekeeper"

Individual Stakeholder"

Environmental Organisations"

Needs"

Media"

News values" •  Recentness" •  Proximity" •  Importness" •  Big names" •  Oddity" •  Controversity" •  Etc."

Interests" Values"

Social"

NGOs"

Technology"

Organisations"

Politics"

Mindset"

Milieus"

Government"

Point of view" Roles"

Scientific Institutions"

Economics"

Behaviour"

Motives for employing agencies"

Shareholder"

Competitors"

Alliances"

Partners"

Description"

Target Groups"

Communication" Controlling"

AGENCIES"

Network Analysis"

Expectations"

Types

" Strategical "

Roles

Organizational " Emotional "

Networks"

Characteristics

Tru st"

Input"

"

Competitive Advantage"

"

Public Relations
Stability"

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"

Organization" Media"

Stakeholder"

Org"

Marketing"

Personaliy traits individual employee"

Solutions"

Extroversion" Neuroticism"

time"

budget"

Profile &
 Personality" Strategy"

Power balance"

increase in turnover"

Agenda Setting"

Ressources"

Issue Management"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

Additional benefits "

openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness" Roles"

" Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Campaign"

Brand(s)"

manpower" intellectual property"

Integration"

Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Performance Indicators"

Planning" Positioning"

Storytelling

Institutional Identity"

"
 Institution" ""

Core Story

Inside"

Strategic Apex" CEO"

Vision

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Leitbild "

Mission Values

Version Pre-Beta 1.0
Operating Core" Past

Middle" Line"

   

CP"

CB"


CC" CI

CD"

Shareholder vs.
 Stakeholder orientation"

" " " "

Level of Communication Aims "
Economical Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Effekt
 Level"

Ethics

Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)"

Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims"

Organizing Change "
Unfreeze" Move"

Tactical Aims" Time Horizon"

Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Present

Future

Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

Outflow"

Core Assets"

Output"

Segmentation"

Structure

Outcome"

Competences"

" " 
 Evaluation"

Analysis of 
 relevant groups"

Forms

Agency"

Listening"

Internal Communication"

t" por Sup aff" St

Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Refreeze"

Preface  
Making  communica6ons  theories  applicable  
Theore6cal  approaches  to  corporate  communica6ons  are   versa6le  –  the  field  appears  to  be  divided  into  different  schools,   perspec6ves  and  language  areas.       Aim  of  this  map  is  to  fill  a  gap.  In  a  6me  in  which  in  corporate   communica6ons  “key  words  and  new  terms…(…)….are  almost   infla6onary  circulated”  (Mast,  2010)  the  following  work  is  an   aMempt  to  organize  the  Babylonian  jumble  of  terms  within  the   field  of  corporate  communica6on  by  crea6ng  a  visual  summary,   a  ‘corporate  communica6on  framework’.       It  provides  an  overview  and  contextualizes  theories  in  rela6on   to  another.  This  corporate  communica6on  map  is  an  aMempt  to   provide  a  comprehensive  overview  and  is  navigable  via  mouse   clicks  in  the  pdf.  The  models  and  sources  are  embedded  in  the   document  and  lead  via  links  to  further  informa6on  on  the   internet.       However,  it  remains  a  living  document  and  open  invita6on  for   further  dialogue  and  delibera6on.  Therefore,  it  neither  claims  to   be  complete  nor  final.  It  is  designed  to  be  a  constantly   developing  communica6on  overview.       The  Corporate  Communica6on  Map  (CCM)  should  be  seen  as  a   naviga6on  tool  for  those,  who  already  work  in  the  area  of   corporate  communica6ons  or  aspire  to  do  so  in  future  –  a  visual   toolbox  for  the  counseling  prac6ce.     The  present  version  of  the  map  is  the  result  of  an  “experiment”   conducted  during  the  winter  semester  2012/2013  of  the  Master  of   Arts  in  Business  Communica6ons  Management  program  of   Hochschule  für  Technik  und  WirtschaY  (University  of  Applied   Sciences)  in  Berlin.     The  idea  and  prototype  of  the  map  were  developed  by     Lars  M.  Heitmüller  MA  PR  Int.,  MBA,  Head  of  Business  Development   at  fischerAppelt  AG,  who  taught  the  course.       The  following  Master  students  contributed  to  the  composi6on  of   the  Corporate  Communica6on  Map:  Robin  Ahle,  Robert  Deutsch,   Pamela  Hönniger,  Tobias  Raspe,  Chris6an  Rietz,  Elena  Starmühler,   Sebas6an  Schellenberger,  Daniela  Voigt-­‐Schmidt  and  Bianca  Weyer.       Special  thanks  goes  to  Lars  Fischer,  Silvia  Grätz,  Prof.  Dr.  Dr.  habil.   Claudia  Mast,  Prof.  Dr.  Miriam  Meckel,  Prof.  Dr.  Stefanie  Molthagen-­‐ Schnöring,  Prof.  Danny  Moss  and  Alexander  Schaper  for  their  advice   and  support.     This  map  is  meant  to  be  the  start  of  a  dialogue  –  not  its  end.   We  are  curious  to  get  your  feedback!   Please  send  it  to:  CCM@LMH.de  or  visit  the  projects’  website     hMp://CCM.LMH.info       Thank  you  in  advance.  

March,  2013  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  Communica6on  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

Publics"

Stakeholder/
 Publics/" Target groups"


 
 "
Inside"

Institution"

" " " "
Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Publics"

Media"

Stakeholder/
 Publics/" Target groups"

Networks" Channels"

Internal Communication"


 
 "
Inside"

Institution"

" " " "

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Media"

Stakeholder/
 Publics/" Target groups"
" " 
 Evaluation"
Internal Communication"
Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Inside"

Agency"

Networks" Channels"



 
 "
Institution"


" " "

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Media"

Stakeholder/
 Publics/" Target groups"
" " 
 Evaluation"
Internal Communication"
Change"
Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

Inside"

Agency"

Networks" Channels"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"



 
 "
Structure" Identity"


Institution"


" " " "
Future" Aims" Past"

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Media"

Stakeholder/
 Publics/" Target groups"
" " 
 Evaluation"
Internal Communication"
Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

Dialogue"

Ressources"

Individual employee"


 


Roles"

"
Inside"
Structure" Identity"

Institution"

Brands"

" " " "

"

"
Change"

Agency"

Networks"
Public Relations"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"


Future" Aims" Past"

Channels"
Behavior"

Marketing"

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Media"

Stakeholder/
 Publics/" Target groups"
" " 
 Evaluation"
Internal Communication"
Sales Unfreeze"

Personaliy traits individual employee"

Extroversion"
Ressources"

Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

budget" manpower" intellectual property" power " network" knowledge"

Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Dialogue"

time"

Profile &
 Personality" Strategy"

Power balance"

Institutional Identity"
Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

"

Institution"

Storytelling

Roles"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Campaign"

Measure"

Core Story

Inside"

Vision Leitbild "
Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Middle" Line"

   
CB"

CP"


CD"


CC" CI

" " " "

Level of Communication Aims "
Economical Aims" Effekt
 Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

USP

Ethics

Agency"

Networks"
Public Relations
Stability"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"


Operating Core"
t" por Sup aff" St
Tactical Aims" Time Horizon"



Shareholder vs.
 Stakeholder orientation"
Strategic Aims"


Past Present Future

Channels"
Behavior"
Listening"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Organizing Change "
Refreeze" Move"

Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

Issue Curve"

short"

Publics"

long"

Effect"

Legal" Environment"
Environmental Organisations" Court"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour"

Social" Technology"
Scientific Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of 
 relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types Structure Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Public Relations
Personaliy traits individual employee"

Channels"
Power balance"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Extroversion"
Ressources"

Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

budget" manpower" intellectual property" power " network" knowledge"

Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Dialogue"

time"

Stability" Profile &
 Personality" Strategy"

Campaign"


 


Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Storytelling

Roles"

Institutional Identity"

"

Institution"

Core Story

Inside"

Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

Vision Leitbild "
Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Middle" Line"

   
CB"

CP"


CD"

" " "

Level of Communication Aims "
Economical Aims" Effekt
 Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Organizing Change "
Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

Ethics


CC" CI

Tactical Aims"

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs.
 Stakeholder orientation"

Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

" " 
 Evaluation"
Internal Communication"

Agency"


t" por Sup aff" St

Behavior"

Listening"

Crisis Prevention" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Frame
 "

Crisis Management" Issue Curve" Situational Publics"

short"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems" media institutions" media effects"

Effect"

media statements" Legal" media actors" Gatekeeper"
News values" •  Recentness" •  Proximity" •  Importness" •  Big names" •  Oddity" •  Controversity" •  Etc."

Environment"
Environmental Organisations"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Court" Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour"

Social" Technology"
Scientific Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of 
 relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types Structure Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Tru st"

Public Relations
Power balance"
Stability" Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"
Listening"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Personaliy traits individual employee"

Extroversion"
Ressources"

time" budget"
Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness" Roles"

Profile &
 Personality" Strategy"

Campaign"

"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

manpower" intellectual property"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Institutional Identity"
Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

Institution"

Core Story

Inside"

Vision Leitbild "
Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Ethics

Middle" Line"

   
CB"

CP"

" " " "

Storytelling

Level of Communication Aims "
Economical Aims" Effekt
 Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Organizing Change "
Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"


CD"


CC" CI

Tactical Aims"

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs.
 Stakeholder orientation"

Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

" " 
 Evaluation"
Internal Communication"

Agency"


t" por Sup aff" St

Crisis Prevention" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Frame
 "

Crisis Management" Issue Curve" Situational Publics"

short"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems" media institutions" media effects"

Effect"

media statements" Legal" media actors" Gatekeeper"
News values" •  Recentness" •  Proximity" •  Importness" •  Big names" •  Oddity" •  Controversity" •  Etc."

Environment"
Environmental Organisations"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Court" Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour"

Social" Technology"
Scientific Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Motives for employing agencies" Expectations" AGENCIES" Competences" Core Assets" " " Strategical " Organizational "

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of 
 relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types Structure Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Tru st"

Emotional " Competitive Advantage" "
Personaliy traits individual employee"

Public Relations
Power balance"
Stability" Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"
Listening"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Solutions" Additional benefits "

Extroversion"
Ressources"

time" budget"
Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

Profile &
 Personality" Strategy"

Campaign"


 


power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

manpower" intellectual property"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Storytelling

Roles"

Institutional Identity"

"

Institution"

Core Story

Inside"

Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

Vision Leitbild "
Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Middle" Line"

   
CB"

CP"


CD"

" " "

Level of Communication Aims "
Economical Aims" Effekt
 Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Organizing Change "
Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

Ethics


CC" CI

Tactical Aims"

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs.
 Stakeholder orientation"

Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

" " 
 Evaluation"
Internal Communication"

Agency"

t" por Sup aff" St

Crisis Prevention" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Frame
 "

Crisis Management" Issue Curve" Situational Publics" conscious" Effect of communication " unconscious" long" term"

short"
Image"
Corporate " Corporate" Imagery" Credit"

Period of time"

Decision"

cognitive change" affective change" conative change"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems" media institutions" media effects"

Sucess"
Sales" Profit"

Involvement"

perception"

short term"

media statements" Legal" media actors" Gatekeeper"
News values" •  Recentness" •  Proximity" •  Importness" •  Big names" •  Oddity" •  Controversity" •  Etc."

Environment"
Environmental Organisations"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Court" Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour"

Social" Technology"
Scientific Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Motives for employing agencies" Expectations" AGENCIES" Competences" Core Assets" " " Strategical " Organizational "

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of 
 relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types Structure Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Tru st"

Emotional " Competitive Advantage" "
Personaliy traits individual employee"

Public Relations
Power balance"
Stability" Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"
Listening"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Solutions" Additional benefits "

Extroversion"
Ressources"

time" budget"
Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

Profile &
 Personality" Strategy"

Campaign"

Storytelling

Roles"

Institutional Identity"
Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

Institution"

Core Story

Inside"

Vision Leitbild "
Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Mission Values

Middle" Line"

   
CB"

CP"


CD"

" " " "

Level of Communication Aims "
Economical Aims" Effekt
 Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Organizing Change "
Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

Ethics


CC" CI

Tactical Aims"

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs.
 Stakeholder orientation"

Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

manpower" intellectual property"

Planning" Positioning"

Integration"

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

" " 
 Evaluation"
Internal Communication"

Agency"

t" por Sup aff" St

Crisis Prevention" Axioms" Stabilities" Trends" Styles" Public Agenda" Frame
 "

Crisis Management" Issue Curve" Situational Publics" conscious" Effect of communication " unconscious" long" term"

short"
Image"
Corporate " Corporate" Imagery" Credit"

Period of time"

Decision"

cognitive change" affective change" conative change"

Publics"

long"

forecast"

media systems" media institutions" media effects"

Sucess"
Sales" Profit"

Involvement"

perception"

short term"

media statements" Legal" media actors" Gatekeeper"
News values" •  Recentness" •  Proximity" •  Importness" •  Big names" •  Oddity" •  Controversity" •  Etc."

Environment"
Environmental Organisations"

External Stakeholder"
Individual Stakeholder"

Court" Needs" Interests" Values" Mindset" Point of view" Roles" Behaviour" Communication" Controlling"

Social" Technology"
Scientific Institutions" Organisations"

NGOs"

Politics"
Government"

Milieus"

Media"

Economics"
Shareholder" Competitors"

Motives for employing agencies" Expectations" AGENCIES" Competences" Core Assets" " " Strategical " Organizational "

Alliances"

Partners"

Description" Analysis of 
 relevant groups" Segmentation"

Target Groups"
Network Analysis"
Forms Types
Input" Output"

Roles Characteristics

Networks"
Tru st"

Emotional " Competitive Advantage" "
Personaliy traits individual employee"

Public Relations
Power balance"
Stability" Agenda Setting" Issue Management" " Arguments Archetypes " " " Structure" " & Elements" Messages "

Channels"
Dialogue" Behavior"
Listening"

Organization" Media"

Stakeholder"

Org"

Marketing"
increase in turnover" Product" Promotion" Price" Place" " Personnel" Process" Physical"

Solutions" Additional benefits "

Extroversion"
Ressources"

time" budget"
Brand(s)"

Neuroticism" openness to experience" agreeable-" ness" conscientiousness"

Profile &
 Personality" Strategy"

Performance Indicators" Planning" Positioning"

Campaign"

power " network" knowledge"

Brand Architecture" Value"

Ideas"

Positioning"

Measure"

manpower" intellectual property"

Integration"

Storytelling

Roles"

Institutional Identity"
Strategic Apex" CEO"
Corporate History"

"
 Institution" ""
Tasks" " Strategies" " Objectives"

Core Story

Inside"

Vision Leitbild " Mission Values

Middle" Line"

   
CB"

CP"


CD"


CC" CI

Operating Core"

Shareholder vs.
 Stakeholder orientation"

" " " "

Level of Communication Aims "
Economical Aims" Effekt
 Level" Psychological Aims (nonerconomical)" Cognitive Aims" Conative Aims" Affective Aims" Short-term Aims" Medium-term Aims" Long-term Aims"

Internal " Stakeholder"

Te Stru chno" ctu re"

Organizing Change "
Refreeze" Unfreeze" Move"

Ethics

Tactical Aims" Time Horizon"

Strategic Aims"

Sales

USP

Version Pre-Beta 1.0"

Past

Present

Future

Corporate 
 Communication Map
 Lars M. Heitmüller et al., (2013)"

Outflow"

Structure

" " 
 Evaluation"
Outcome"

Agency"

Internal Communication"

t" por Sup aff" St

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CORPORATE  COMMUNICATION  MAP  
EXPERIMENT  OF  THE  SEMINAR  „MAPPING  CORPORATE  COMMUNICATION“  BY  LARS  M.  HEITMÜLLER     AT  HOCHSCHULE  FÜR  TECHNIK  UND  WIRTSCHAFT  (HTW),  BERLIN.     COURSE:  WIRTSCHAFTSKOMMUNIKATION/MARKETING  COMMUNICATION  

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AGENDA  

1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6. 

InsStuSons   Stakeholder   CommunicaSon  from  a  PR  &  MarkeSng  PerspecSve   ComunicaSon  aims  and  addiSonal  benefits  of  agencies   Measurement  and  evaluaSon  of  communicaSon   AddiSonal  content  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.  InsStuSons  

The  organisaSonal  communicaSon  consider  communicaSon  in  context  with  organisaSonal  structures   and  leadership,  management  strategies  and  change  processes  as  well  as  the  corporate  basis.  The   represented  models  deal  with  internal  and  external  impacts  of  an  organisaSon  in  associaSon  with  its   environmental  spheres,  stakeholders,  issues  and  values.  All  models  serve  as  a  framework  for  managers   and  consultants  to  understand  specific  processes  and  to  find  soluSons  for  explicit  issues.    

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1.1  OrganisaSonal  Structure  by  Henry  Mintzberg  (1980)  
ExplanaSon  to  be  found   on  the  next  page  

StrateSc  Apex  

ructu

re  

Supp ort  St

Tech

no  St

aff  

Middle  Line  

OperaSng  Core  

Further  informaSon:  hip://www.ebbemunk.dk/technostructure/technostructurep3.html   Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     3  

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1.1  OrganisaSonal  Structure  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  Mintzberg  created  five  organisaSonal  levels  to  show  the  coordinaSon  among  disSnct  tasks   •  They  funcSon  as  a  framework  for  managers  and  consultants  to  understand  and  design  organisaSonal   structures     •  The  organisaSon‘s  structure  depends  on  the  organisaSon  itself,  e.g.  staff  members,  leadership,  the   environments  and  the  use  of  technology   Mintzberg  defines  five  configuraSons:     1.  Simple  Structure  (Entrepreneural  se3ngs):  relies  on  direct  supervision  from  the  CEO  (StrateSc  Apex)   2.  Machine  Bureaucracy  (Large  organisa>ons):  relies  on  standardisaSon  of  work  processes  by  the  techno   structure   3.  Expertocracy  (professional  services  firms):  relies  on  the  professionals'  standardisaSon  of  skills  and   knowledge  in  the  operaSng  core   4.  Divisionalised  Form  (Mul>-­‐divisional  organisa>ons):  relies  on  standardisaSon  of  outputs;     middle-­‐line  managers  run  independent  divisions   5.  Adhocracy  (Project  organisa>ons):  highly  organic  structure  with  liile  formalisaSon;     relies  on  the  coordinaSng  mechanism  within  and  between  project  teams    

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.1  OrganisaSonal  Structure  -­‐  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  •  •  In  terms  of  globalisaSon  organisaSonal  structures  have  changed   Hierarchy  makes  way  for  low  organisaSonal  structures   OrganisaSons  become  more  complex  and  establish  new  networks  within  the  organisaSon   The  ideology  of  an  organisaSon  gets  more  important  for  the  organisaSon  itself,  e.g.  staff  members,     leadership  and  external  partners  as  well  as  the  organisaSon‘s  environment  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.2  The  Ten  Management  Roles  by  Mintzberg  
Social  Role   Figurehead  
Leader  

Liaison  

Monitor   Disseminator   Spokesperson   Entrepreneur   Disturbance  Handler   Resource  Allocator   NegoSator  
Further  informaSon:  hip://www.mindtools.com/pages/arScle/management-­‐roles.htm   Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     6  

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1.2  Management  Roles  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
Mintzberg's  Ten  Management  Roles  are  a  guideline  for  managers  and  the  leadership  of  behaviours  within  a   business  environment.  Each  role  is  different,  when  collected  together  as  an  integrated  concept,  the  capabiliSes  and   competencies  of  a  manager  can  be  further  evaluated  in  a  role-­‐specific  way     Figurehead:  The  manager  is  seen  as  a  symbol  of  status  and  authority   Leader:  Promotes  and  encourages  the  development  of  his  employees,  overseeing  their  progress   Liaison:  Networks  and  engages  in  informaSon  exchange  to  gain  access  to  knowledge  bases   Monitor:  Stores  and  maintains  all  informaSon  about  the  internal  operaSons,  a  department's  success  and  the   problems  and  opportuniSes  which  may  arise   Disseminator:  Highlights  factual  or  value  based  external  views  to  the  organisaSon  and  to  subordinates   Spokesman:  Keeps  key  stakeholders  updated  about  the  operaSons  of  the  organisaSon   Entrepreneur:  Roles  encourage  managers  to  create  improvement  projects  and  work  to  delegate,  empower  and   supervise  teams  in  the  development  process   Disturbance  handler:  A  generalist  role  that  takes  charge  when  an  organisaSon  is  unexpectedly  upset  or   transformed  and  requires  calming  and  support   Resource  Allocator:  Describes  the  responsibility  of  allocaSng  and  overseeing  financial,  material  and  personnel   resources   Nego>ator:  Is  a  specific  task  which  is  integral  for  the  spokesman,  figurehead  and  resource  allocator  roles  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.2  Managerial  Roles  -­‐  Limits  and  CriScism  
•    Mintzberg‘s  model  indicates  that  every  manager  has  to  perform  all  of  these  ten  roles  for  a  successful   leadership.  Otherwise  the  manager  will  fail  in  its  role,  thus  failing  the  organisaSon  itself  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.3  St.  Gallen  Management  Concept  by  Bleicher  (1991)  
Iden>ty/Ethos   Vision   Structures   Norma>ve   Management   =  FoundaSon   Strategic   Management   =  OrientaSon   Opera>ve   Management   =  RealizaSon   Governance   Ac>vi>es   Policy     Mission   Programs   Behaviour   OrganisaSonal  Culture   Ver>cal  Integra>on  

Design  of  Structures,   Processes,  Systems   Process  Control   (Steering  and   RegulaSon)  

InnovaSon  Behaviour   and  Higher-­‐Order   Learning   OperaSonal  Learning,   CooperaSons  and   Performance  

AcSon  

Corporate  Development  

Horizontal  Integra>on  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.3  St.  Galler  Concept  -­‐  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  •  The  model  by  Bleicher  is  focused  on  the  corporate  development,  especially  on  evoluSonary  condiSons  of   management   It  is  a  framework  that  picks  up  the  three  management  levels  by  Hans  Ulrich  and  combines  them  with  specific   «St.Gallen»  demands  of  successful  management:  the  harmonisaSon  of  acSviSes,  structure  and  behaviour  to  a   common  chord.     Bleicher's  concept  expresses  the  challenges  of  normaSve  and  strategic  management  as  a  variety  of  specific   tensions:     Norma>ve  management:  deals  with  the  overall  objecSves  of  the  organisaSon  such  as  rules,  norms  and   principles,  it  is  the  basis  for  all  organisaSonal  acSviSes   Strate>c  management:  the  aim  is  to  crate,  maintain  and  maximise  the  strateSc  success  factors  and  value   potenSals,  it  acts  as  a  regulator  for  the  organisaSonal  acSviSes   Opera>ve  management:  it  combines  the  normaSve  and  strategic  level  and  converts  them  into  performance   and  processes,  it  has  an  execuSng  funcSon   All  of  these  stages  have  to  be  taken  into  account  when  making  decisions   Any  execuSve  is  able  to  locate  a  problem  within  this  framework  and  will  find  possible  soluSons  by  using  this   concept  

• 

•  •   

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.3  St.  Galler  Concept  -­‐  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  •  It  does  not  take  account  for  the  organisaSon‘s  environment   It  does  not  show  how  stakeholders  stay  in  correlaSon  to  the  organisaSon   It  is  only  a  framework  to  detect  problems  and  to  find  soluSons  for  them  in  different  stages  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.4  New  St.  Gallen  Management  Model  by  Ulrich  (2002)  
Society   Nature   Technology   CompeStors   Economy   Investors  
Stakeholders  

InteracSon     Issues  

Environmental     Spheres  

Management  Processes   Suppliers   Business  Processes   Support  Processes   Customers  

Resources   Norms  &  Values   Concerns  &  Interests   Government   Public/Media/   NGOs   Employees  

Processes  

Structuring   Forces  

Modes  of   Development  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.4  New  St.  Galler  Model  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  •  •  •  •  •  •  The  new  St.  Gallen  Management  model  by  Ulrich  supports  the  management  by  taking  the  correct  decisions   and  to  lead  the  organisaSon  successful  in  a  globalised  market   It  is  similar  to  a  guidance  for  making  difficult  decisions   It  supports  structured  thinking   It  helps  to  set  prioriSes   The  new  model  is  a  holisSc  view  on  management  processes,  strategies  and  the  organisaSon’s  culture  as  well   as  its  development  in  associaSon  with  its  environmental  spheres  and  stakeholders   The  New  St.  Gallen  model  puts  more  emphasis  on  the  process  dimensions  and  focuses  on  issues  of   interacSons  (resources,  norms  and  values,  concerns  and  interests)  in  a  new  way   The  model  shows  that  management  is  very  much  about  interpreSng  certain  facts  and  giving  meaning  to  them  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.4  New  St.  Galler  Model  -­‐  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  •  The  model  is  a  theory  how  processes,  strategies,  stakeholders,  develeopments  and  environments  are  related   to  an  organisaSon   It  is  barely  a  concrete  example  what  impact  those  spheres  have  in  reality  to  an  organisaSon   It  represents  only  the  approaches  to  the  idenSficaSon  and  soluSon  of  management  problems  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.5  The  Dimensions  of  Corporate  IdenSty  by  Melewar  
Controlled  Corporate  CommunicaSon   Uncontrolled  CommunicaSon   Indirect  CommunicaSon   Corporate  Visual  IdenSty  System  (CVIS)   ApplicaSons  of  CVIS   Corporate  Philosophy   Corporate  Values   Corporate  Mission   Corporate  Principles   Corporate  Guidelines   Corporate  History   Founder  of  the  Company   Country  of  Origin   Subculture   Corporate  Bahviour   Employee  Bahviour   Management  Behaviour   Brand  Structure   OrganisaSonal  Structure  

Corporate  CommunicaSon  

Corporate  Design  

Corporate  Culture   Corporate  IdenSty  

Behaviour  

Corporate  Structure   Industry  IdenSty  

DifferenSaSon  Strategy   PosiSoning  Strategy  

Corporate  Strategy  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.5  CI  Dimensions  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  •  •  •  •  •  •  Corporate  idenSty  is  about  how  an  organisaSon  presents,  posiSons  and  differenSates  itself  visually  and   verbally  at  corporate,  business,  and  product  levels     It  is  what  makes  an  organisaSon  unique  and  it  incorporates  the  organisaSon’s  communicaSon,  design,   culture,  behaviour,  structure,  industry  idenSty,  and  strategy   The  aim  of  corporate  idenSty  management  is  to  acquire  a  favorable  corporate  image  among  key  internal  and   external  stakeholders   In  the  long  run,  this  image  can  result  in  the  acquisiSon  of  a  favorable  corporate  reputaSon   Managers  envision  a  set  of  characterisScs  they  want  their  organisaSon  to  be  associated  with     Those  characterisScs  get  transmiied  to  employees  through  a  complex  and  congruent  system  of   communicaSon,  behaviour  and  design   Employees  implement  strategies  and  call  upon  their  skills  and  competences  to  perform  them  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.6  Mission  Statement  by  Dr.  K.  Baldin  
Vision  

Mission  

Values  

-­‐  Why  does  the   company  exist?     -­‐  What  is  the   purpose  of  the   company?   -­‐  How  does  the   company  earn   money?     -­‐  What  are  the   losses,  if  the   company  does   not  exist   anymore?   Ac>on  Orienta>on  

Corporate  Aims   Department  Aims   Employee  Aims  

System  of  Aims  

Poten>als  of   Corporate  Culture  

Leadership     Employees   Clients/Partner   Products/Services   Company  Profile  

Corporate  Strategies   Department  Strategies    

Strategic  System  

Measurement   System  

InnovaSon   Added  Value  

Daily  Ac>ons  
Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     17  

Ac>on  Effect  

-­‐  ...  that  the   company   internalises     -­‐  ...  that  shape   and  influence   posiSvely  the   employees     -­‐  ...  that  venture   partners  can   build  on  

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1.6  Mission  Statement  -­‐  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  •  •  •  •  •  The  organisaSon‘s  strategy  ensures  a  livlihood  of  the  company   It  is  important  to  detect  and  abolish  future  shortages  as  well  as  the  opSmal  use  of  successful  potenSals  by   improving  producSvity,  increasing  efficiency,  improving  profitability  and  increasing  market  share   Appropriate  measures  ensure  the  systemaSc  implementaSon  of  acSviSes  in  daily  acSons   The  mindset,  as  well  as  the  the  energy  and  resources  of  the  enSre  organisaSon  get  focused  on  the  mission   statement     The  mission  statement  provides  guidance  on  the  organisaSon‘s  way  to  its  aims   It  consists  of  the  elements  of  mission,  vision  and  values:     The  mission  (purpose  of  organisaSon)  reflects  the  subject  of  the  transacSon     The  vision  is  an  obvious  picture  of  the  future  and  is  the  tendancy  of  long-­‐term  developments   The  system  of  aims  describes  concrete  and  measurable  goals,  which  the  organisaSon  wants  to  achieve  in  the   upcoming  years     The  strategy  system  sets  how  the  goals  get  achieved   The  measurement  system  ensures  that  strategies  get  implemented  by  launching  specific  steps   The  daily  ac>ons  show  each  individual  acSviSes  that  help  the  vision  becomes  reality     The  values  specify  the  organisaSons‘  convicSon  and  show  what  is  expected  of  every  employee   The  poten>als  of  the  corporate  culture  represent  the  respecyul  and  value-­‐added  handling  with  each  other  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.6  Change  Management  Model  by  Lewin  

Unfreeze  

Change  

Refreeze  

System::  Stable  

System::  Unstable  

System::  Stable  

Further  informaSon:  http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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1.6  Lewin  Model  -­‐  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  •  •  Lewin's  change  model  is  a  simple  framework  for  managing  change   OperarSng  fields  are:  Mergers  &  acquisiSons,  restructuring  of  a  company,  new  types  of  compensaSon   systems,  personnel  transfer,  disinvestment  or  cultural  change  within  the  organisaSon   The  model  is  based  around  a  3-­‐step  process  (Unfreeze-­‐Change-­‐Refreeze)  that  provides  a  high-­‐level   approach  to  change:     Unfreeze:  Habits  and  rouSne  have  naturally  seiled  in;  now  the  organisaSon  is  ready  to  change  by  open  up   to  new  ways  of  reaching  their  objecSves   Moving:  The  change  process  will  take  some  Sme  to  be  effecSve  and  efficient,;    people  must  open  their  mind   for  new  tasks  and  responsibiliSes   Refreeze:  The  change  only  reaches  its  full  effect,  when  it  is  made  permanent  

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1.6  Lewin  Model  -­‐  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  •  It  is  a  relaSvely  staSc  model  and  not  appropriate  for  quick  responses   The  environment  today  is  very  dynamic  and  requires  organisaSons  to  rapid  responses   Therefore  it  is  based  on  a  greater  stability  and  environmental  organisaSons  

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1.7  Change  Management  Model  by  Koier  (1996)  
1   Establish  a  Sense  of  Urgency  

Irrita>on  Phase  

2  

CreaSng  the  Guiding  CoaliSon  

3  

Developing  a  Vision  and  Strategy  

4  

Communicate  the  Change  Vision  

5   Change  Phase  

Remove  Obstacles   Empowering  Broad-­‐Based  AcSon   GeneraSng  Short-­‐term  Wins  

6  

7  

ConsolidaSng  Gains  and  Producing  More  Change  

Stabilisa>on  Phase  

8  

Anchoring  New  Approaches  in  the  (Corporate)  Culture  

Further  informaSon:  hip://www.koierinternaSonal.com   Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     22  

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1.7  Koier  Model  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  •  •  A  proper  foundaSon  helps  to  successfully  change  an  organisaSon   Koier‘s  model  can  be  applied  to  any  change  that  is  iniSated  by  the  top  level  management  of  an   organisaSon   It  is  like  a  checklist  to  help  idenSfy  any  areas  the  organisaSon  may  have  overlooked  in  managing  the   change  

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1.7  Koier  Model  -­‐  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  Koier‘s  model  indicates  to  change  people‘s  behaviour  within  the  organisaSon,  not  the  strategy,  system  or   culture  of  the  organisaSon   It  is  a  top-­‐down  model,  so  opportuniSes  can  be  missed  because  not  everyone  is  involved  in  co-­‐creaSon  of   the  vision  or  mission  statement  

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1.8  The  4  PR  Models  by  Grunig  &  Hunt  (1984)  

Characteris>c   Purpose   Nature  of   communica>on   Philosophical  worldview   Mono/dialogic   Example  of  current   prac>ce  

Publicity   Propaganda   One  way,  truth   inessenSal   asymmetric   monologic   Sports,  theatre,   product  promoSon  

Public  Informa>on   DisseminaSon  of   informaSon   One-­‐way,  truth   important     PluralisSc/asymmetrical   monologic   Government,  non-­‐profit   associaSons,  business  

Two-­‐way  asymmetric   ScienSfic  persuasion   Two-­‐way,  imbalanced   effects   asymmetrical   Unbalanced  monologic   CompeSSve  business,   agencies  

Two-­‐way  symmetric   Mututal  understanding   Two-­‐way,  balanced   effects   symmetrical   dialogic   Regulated  business   agencies  

Further  informaSon:  hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_E._Grunig  

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1.8  The  4  PR  Models  -­‐  OperaSng  CondiSons  &  Added  Value  
•  •  •  In  1984  Grunig  and  Hunt  created  their  model  in  order  to  describe  Public  RelaSons  an  various  stages   They  define  PR  as  an  organised  communicaSon,  which  is  used  to  communicate  between  an  organisaSon  and  ist   publics   Depending  on  the  communicaSon  aim  PR  gets  differently  performed  in  various  stages:     One-­‐way  communica>on:    Only  the  organisaSon  shares  informaSon  with  ist  publics,  not  the  other  way  around.   They  use  this  way  of  communicaSon  to  get  the  public‘s  intentenSon  and    to  influence  their  opinion.  Engaged   instruments,  such  as  radio  spot,  press  conferences  or  broschures  are  only  used  on  short  term.   Two-­‐way  communica>on:  In  the  beginning  the  communcaSon  is  asymmetrical.  The  organisaSon  only  needs   simple  feedbacks  on  its  shared  informaSon.  The  aim  is  to  achieve  a  posSve  a|tude  from  ist  publics.  In  the  end   the  communicaSon  shi}s  from  asymmetrical  to  a  symmetrical  two-­‐way  communicaSon.  At  this  stage  transmiier   and  receiver  enter  into  a  dialogue  with  each  other.  The  purpose  is  to  get  a  mutually  comprehension  on  both   sides.  

• 

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1.8  The  4  PR  Models  -­‐  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  •  •  •  None  of  these  models  will  be  exclusively  adaptable  à  several  models  get  combined   These  models  are  not  for  certain  type  of  organsisaSon  nor  for  specific  internal  issues   All  four  models  are  more  of  an  idealised  way  of  communicaSon,  they  are  not  100  per  cent  converSble   Therefore  Grunig  calls  his  models  „mixed  moSve  models“   Successful  Public  RelaSons  is  guaranteed  when  mixing  these  models  

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1.9  Mixed  MoSve  CommunicaSon  Model  by  Murphy  (1991)  
Dominant   CoaliSon‘s   PosiSon   Publics   PosiSon  

1  
„Win-­‐Win“   Zone  

2  

3  

3  

OrganisaSon‘s  posiSon    dominates  (asymmetric)  

Mixed  mo>ve   (symmetric)  

Publics‘s  posiSon    dominates  (asymmetric)  

1  

Pure  Asymmetric  Model  

Communica>on  used  to  dominate  public,  accept   dominant  coali>on‘s  posi>on  

2  

Pure  Coopera>on  Model  

Communica>on  used  to  convince  dominant  coali>on   to  cave  in  to  public‘s  posi>on  

3  

Two-­‐Way  Model  

Communica>on  used  to  move  public,  dominant   coali>on,  or  both  to  acceptable  „win-­‐win“  zone  

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1.9  Mixed  MoSve  Model  -­‐  OperaSng  CondiSons  &  Added  Value  
•  •  •  •  The  mixed  moSve  model  is  a  framework  of  communicaSon  with  publics  and  organisaSons  that  try     to  get  the  most  out  of  their  posiSons   OrganisaSons  and  publics  have  seperate  and  someSmes  conflicSng  interests   To  find  a  common  ground  both  parSes  negoSate  and  copromise  about  specific  interests  (win-­‐win  zone)   The  model  suggests  several  outcomes  outside  and  within  the  win-­‐win  zone:     To  the  le}  of  the  win-­‐win  zone,  the  organisaSon‘s  posiSon  dominates  to  the  public‘s  disadvantage   To  the  right,  the  public‘s  posiSon  dominates  to  the  organisaSon‘s  disadvantage     Arrow  1:  communicaSon  is  used  by  communicators  of  an  organsaSon  to  take  advantage  of  publics  outside  the   win-­‐win  zone     Arrow  2:  publics  try  to  persuade  the  organisSon  to  accept  the  public‘s  undesirable  posSon  outside  the  win-­‐win   zone   Arrow  3:  communicators  negoSate  with  both  publics  and  dominant  coaliSons  to  reach  an  outcome/relaSonship   within  the  win-­‐win  zone  à  Two-­‐way  model   The  two-­‐way  model  means  treaSng  dominant  coaliSons  as  another  public  influenced  by  communicaSon   programs  

• 

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1.9  Mixed  MoSve  Model  -­‐  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  •  Asymmetrical  tacScs  are  someSmes  used  to  gain  the  best  posiSon  for  organisaSons  within  the     win-­‐win  zone   The  two-­‐way  model  is  a  persuasive  intent  of  communcaSon  strategies   It  changes  percepSons  

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1.10  Corporate  CommunicaSons  Model  by  Pflaum  &  Linxweiler  
Company  
Corporate  IdenSty  (CI)   Level  of  InteracSon  and  Development   Corporate  Culture  

Publics   Internal  and  External  Stakeholders  

Corporate  

Corporate  Design     Level  of  Object  (CD)  

Corporate  Behaviour     Level  of  Behaviour  (CB)    

Corporate  Philosophy  

C-­‐Imagery  

Corporate  Core   Values  (CV)  

Corporate  Communica>ons   Public  Rela>ons  

Level  of  Purpose   Corporate  PosiSoning   Corporate  Strategy    

C-­‐Credit  

Image  

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1.10  Corporate  CommunicaSons  Model:  OperaSng  CondiSons  &  Added  Value  
•  •  •  •  The  Corporate  IdenSty  is  essenSal  for  every  organisaSon   It  forms  not  only  their  internal  members,  but  also  has  a  posiSve  effect  on  ist  publics   There  is  no  way  for  corporate  communicaSon  or  such  thing  as  an  image  without  a  corporate  idenSty   The  corporate  idenSty  consists  of  five  levels:     Corporate  Core  Values:  They  are  the  deeply  ingrained  priniciples  that  guide  all  of  a  company‘s  acSons  and   decisions.   Corporate  Philosophy:  Incorporate  the  basic  a|tudes  and  beliefs  of  a  company,  which  influence  the  thoughts   and  acSons  of  all  employees.   Corporate  Behaviour:  Is  a  company‘s  internal  and  external  behaviour.   Corporate  Design:  Is  a  company‘s  internal  and  external  visual  appearance  to  support  their  aims.   Corporate  Culture:  It  is  the  totality  of  a  company‘s  values,  tradiSons,  tradiSons,  norms  and  a|tudes  that  shape   the  behaviour  of  its  employees.  

 

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Sources  –  Chapter  1  
Graphics/Models   Baldin,  K.-­‐M.  (2006):  Das  Unternehmensleitbild  (PDF  Script)   Bleicher,  K.  (2008):  Das  Konzept  Integriertes  Management  (Eights  EdiSon)   Doppler  K.  und  Lauterburg  C.  (2002):  Change  Management  –  Den  Unternehmenswandel  gestalten  (Tenth  EdiSon)   Dozier,  D.,  Grunig,  L.  A.  &  Grunig,  J.  E.  (1995):  Managers  Guide  to  Excellence  in  Public  RelaSons  (First  EdiSon)   Koier,  J.  P.  (1996):  Leading  Change  (First  EdiSon)   Kunczik,  M.  (2010):  Public  RelaSons  –  Konzepte  und  Theorien  (Fi}h  EdiSon)   Lies,  J.  Hrsg.  (2008):  Public  RelaSons  –  Ein  Handbuch  (First  EdiSon)   Melewar,  T.  C.  (2008):  Facets  of  Corporate  IdenSty,  CommunicaSon  and  ReputaSon  (First  EdiSon)   Mintzberg,  H.  (2009):  Managen  (First  EdiSon)   Pflaum,  D.  &  Linxweiler,  R.  (1998):  Public  RelaSons  der  Unternehmung  (First  EdiSon)     Print   Apelt,  M.  &  Tacke,  V.  (2012):  Handbuch  OrganisaSonstypen  (First  EdiSon)   Archie,  B.  C.  &  Buchholtz,  A.  K.  (2008):  Business  &  Society  –  Ethics  and  Stakeholder  Management  (Seventh  EdiSon)   Baldin,  K.-­‐M.  (2006):  Das  Unternehmensleitbild  (PDF  Script)   Dozier,  D.,  Grunig,  L.  A.  &  Grunig,  J.  E.  (1995):  Managers  Guide  to  Excellence  in  Public  RelaSons  (First  EdiSon)   Flaschak,  M.  (1996):  The  St.  Gallen  Management  Concept  (First  EdiSon)   Kissling,  W.  &  Babel,  F.  (2010)  :  Corporate  IdenSty  –  Strategie  nachhalSger  Unternehmensführung  (First  EdiSon)   Koier,  J.  P.  (1996):  Leading  Change  (First  EdiSon)   Lies,  J.  Hrsg.  (2008):  Public  RelaSons  –  Ein  Handbuch  (First  EdiSon)   Melewar,  T.  C.  (2008):  Facets  of  Corporate  IdenSty,  CommunicaSon  and  ReputaSon  (First  EdiSon)   Ph.  Petrescu,  R.  D.  (2010):  OrganisaSonal  Change  Process  –  Steps  to  a  Successful  Change  (PDF:  hip://feaa.ucv.ro/AUCSSE/0038v3-­‐025.pdf)   Rüegg-­‐Stürm,  Johannes  (2004):  Einführung  in  die  Managementlehre  (PDF:  hip://www.ing-­‐pk.de/images/Das-­‐neue-­‐St.Galler-­‐Management-­‐Modell.pdf)   Neue  Zürcher  Zeitung  (2004):  Ethisches  von  der  Universität  St."Gallen“  –  Das  weiterentwickelte  Management-­‐Modell  (PDF:  hip://www.sgbs.ch/sgbs/down_doc/Neues%20SG-­‐Modell.pdf)                   Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     33  

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Sources  –  Chapter  1  
Web   hip://www.change-­‐management-­‐coach.com/kurt_lewin.html  (Stand:  23.01.2013)   hip://rosariolongo.blogspot.de/2011/05/is-­‐lewins-­‐change-­‐management-­‐model-­‐sSll.html  (Stand:  23.01.2013)   hip://www.lmcuk.com/management-­‐tool/mintzberg-­‐s-­‐ten-­‐management-­‐roles  (Stand:  23.01.2013)   hip://www.provenmodels.com/22  (Stand:  23.01.2013)   hip://www.mindtools.com/pages/arScle/newPPM_94.htm  (Stand:  23.01.2013)   hip://www.scheidtweiler-­‐pr.de/public-­‐relaSons/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/grunighunt/  (Stand:  29.01.2013)   hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/DefiniSon/corporate-­‐behavior.html  (Stand:  29.01.2013)   hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/DefiniSon/corporate-­‐design.html  (Stand:  29.01.2013)                  

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2.  Stakeholder  
A  first  step  towards  systemaSc  approach  is  the  exact  definiSon  of   those  to  whom  the  organizaSonal  communicaSon  is  directed.  Stakeholders   are  those  people  who  are  affected  by  decisions  of  an  organizaSon  or  are   able  to  influence  the  acSons  of  the  organizaSon  with  their  own   acSons.  A  widely  used  approach  for  structuring  communicaSon  fields  is   the  division  into  target  groups  as  those  communicaSon  partners  of  an   organizaSon.  There  is  also  the  concept  of  publics,  which  are  composed   of  individuals  or  groups  that  discuss  a  common  issue.    

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2.1  Stakeholder  theory  
•  •  •  •  Is  based  on  the  concept  of  shareholder  value   Difference:  An  organisaSon  is  now  also  accounted  for  it‘s  socioeconomic  environment   The  Stakeholder  theory  was  establishd  by  Freeman  (1984)   Stakeholder  are  groups  that:   1.  Are  affected  by  the  decisions  an  organisaSon  makes   2.  Can  influence  decisions,  made  by  organisaSons,  with  their  own  acSons  

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2.2 Contact panel by Avenarius (2000)
Capital markets Media and cultural scenes

Sales markets

Sociiopolitical environment

Organisation

Buying markets

Political environment

Competition

Labor markets

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2.3  Stakeholder  theory  
Iden>fica>on  of  stakeholder  groups   •  Formally   •  By  topic   •  By  assumed  interest   •  By  opinion  leaders  

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2.4  Stakeholder  analysis  by  Savage,  Nix  (1991)  
An  analyScal  scheme  to  esSmate  the  relevance  of  stakeholder  groups  and  to  derive  specific  norm  strategies.     Assesment  is  ensued  by  a  value  matrix  varying  between  high  and  low   •  RelaSve  threatening  potenSal   •  RelaSve  cooperaSve  potenSal  

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2.4  Stakeholder  analysis  by  Savage,  Nix  (1991)  
high   RelaSve  threatening  potenSal   low   Suppor>ve   Strategy:   Involve    

RelaSve  cooperaSve  potenSal     high  

Mixed  blessing   Strategy:   Collaborate  

Non-­‐supporive   Strategy:   Defend    

Marginal  group   Strategy:   Monitor  

low  
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2.4  Model  Savage,  Nix  –  Limits  and  CriScism  
Value   Besides  the  idenSficaSon  of  potenSal  risks  and  opportuniSes,  this  analysis  offers  specific  strategic  guidance.     Cri>cs   •  This  analysis  costs  Sme  and  money   •  It  is  necessary  to  update  the  results  regulary   •  Analysts  are  forced  to  place  every  stakeholder  into  one  specific  group  

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2.5  Stakeholder  analysis  by  Janisch  (1993)  
Will  to  exercise  of  power   Low   High   Strategic  stakeholder  

Power  

high  

Stakeholder  

Groups  with  interests  

Low  
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2.5  Model  Janisch  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
An  analyScal  scheme  to  esSmate  the  relevance  of  stakeholder  groups.   Assesment  is  ensued  by  a  value  matrix  varying  between  high  and  low   •  Power   •  Will  to  exercise  of  power   Value   It  is  possible  to  idenSfy  strategic  stakeholder  very  fast  

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2.5  Model  Janisch  –  Limits  and  CriScism  
Value   It  is  possible  to  idenSfy  strategic  stakeholder  very  fast     Cri>cs   The  derivaSon  of  potenSal  relevance  is  restricted  to  just  one  criterion  (power)  

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2.6  Stakeholder  analysis  by  Müller-­‐Stewens,  Lechner  (2005)  

Influence   low   Sobersides   high   Playmaker  

SuggesSbility  

high  

Marginal  figure   low  

Joker  

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2.6  Model  Müller-­‐Stewens,  Lechner  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
An  analyScal  scheme  to  esSmate  the  relevance  of  stakeholder  groups  and  to  derive  specific  norm  strategies     Assesment  is  ensued  by  a  value  matrix  varying  between  high  and  low   •  SuggesSbility   •  Influence  

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2.7  Stakeholder  analysis  by  Mitchell,  Agle,  Wood  (1997)  
Power  
1.  Dormant   stakeholder   4.  Dominant   stakeholder   5.     Dangerous   stakeholder  

Legi>macy  

7.  DefiniSve   stakeholder  

6.     DiscreSonary  stakeholder  

3.  Demanding   stakeholder  

6.  Dependent   stakeholder  

Urgency  
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2.7  Model  Mitchell,  Agle,  Wood  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
An  analyScal  scheme  to  esSmate  the  relevance  of  stakeholder  groups.     Assesment  is  ensued  by  three  dimensions  at  their  overlappings   •  Power   •  LegiSmacy   •  Urgency  

Value   An  extensive  analysis  of  stakeholder  by  several  criterions  

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2.7  Model  Mitchell,  Agle,  Wood  (1997)  –  Limits  and  CriScism  
  Cri>cs   -­‐  This  analysis  costs  Sme  and  money   -­‐  You  have  to  ask  yourself:  Is  the  analysts  view  equal  to  that  of  the  organisaSon?   -­‐  Are  the  criterions  sufficient  to  differenSate  and  to  describe  stakeholder?  

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2.8  Sinus-­‐Milieus  

Quelle: http://www.saatkorn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/sinus-milieus-2012.jpg

 
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2.8  Sinus-­‐Milieus  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  limits  
Sinus-­‐Milieu  is  a  term  from  the  market  and  social  research.  It  describes  the  geographical,  socio-­‐demographic,   behavioral  and  psychographic  segmentaSon.  Milieus  are  not  overlapping  and  changing.     Field  of  applica>on   •  Market  research  with  the  focus  on  lifestyles  and   •  value  orientaSons   Cri>cs   •  rapid  obsolescence  of  the  milieus  due  to  dynamic  changes  in  the  realiSes  of  life   •  Gender  are  not  considered  individually   •  homogeneity  within  the  milieu  can  be  quesSoned    

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2.9  GfK  Roper  Consumer  Styles  
Need: to have   Dreamers   Homebodies   Settled   Need: peace and security  

Need: to live passionate Life  

Adventurers  

RationalRealists  

Open-Minded  

Organics  

Demanding  

GfK Roper Consumer Styles (2011)

 

Need: to be  
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2.9  GfK  Roper  Consumer  Styles  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  •  •  •  •  •  InternaSonal  instrument  designed  to   consumer  segmentaSon   Lifestyle  typology  of  GfK  Group   based  on  extensive  consumer  research   enables  targeSng  and  supports  the   MarkeSng  process  

Value   •  PosiSoning  of  brands  and  companies   •  target  group-­‐specific  opSmizaSon  of  communicaSons  and  media  planning  

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2.10  Semiometrie  

Semiometrie nach TNS Infratest, Begriffe und Wertefelder (2010)  
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2.10  Semiometrie  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  criScism  
•  •  •  •  •  Serves  not  as  target  delineaSon  but  rather  thought  as   descripSon   Value  orientaSons  are  the  focus   EmoSonal  evaluaSon,  according  to  pleasant  and  unpleasant,  of  210  words  and  output  in  form  of  14   Semiometrie  value  fields   By  comparing  different  value  fields  recommendaSons  of  appropriate  measures  (f.e.  media  planning)  can  be   derived  

Cri>cs   •  Very  young  model   •  Not  suitable  for  the  target  group  definiSon   •  Must  be  conSnuously  adapted    

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2.11  SituaSonal  Publics  (Grunig/Hunt  1984)  
AssumpSon:  There  is  no  "general  public"  because  "publics  are  always  specific".  ParSal  publics  consists  of   individuals  or  groups  discussing  common  facts     Dis>nc>on  in:   •  Non-­‐parSal  public   •  Deferred  parSal  public   •  Conscious  segments  of  the  public   •  AcSve  segments  of  the  public     Value   •  OrganisaSonal  environment  can  be  captured  by  problem  areas   •  Useful  starSng  points  for  further  systemaSzaSon      

Grunig, James/Hunt, Todd (1984): Managing Public Relations. New York. Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     56  

 

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2.11  SituaSonal  Publics  –  Limits  and  CriScism  
Cri>cs   •  Clear  definiSon  difficult   •  Limited  interacSon  on  conflict-­‐prone  situaSons      

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3.  CommunicaSon  Aims  and  AddiSonal  Benefits  of  Agencies  

In  the  following  chapter  communicaSon  aims  and  the  benefits  of  working  with  an  agency  will  be   described.  What  are  the  expectaSons  of  a  client  and  what  exactly  are  agencies  offering?  Finally  the   addiSonal  benefits  besides  the  usual  competencies  of  an  agency  are  examined.        

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3.1  Corporate  CommunicaSons  

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3.1  Corporate  CommunicaSons  
 Defini>on:      Integrated  Corporate  CommunicaSons  enfolds  all  internal  and  external  aimed  communicaSon  processes,  that   want  to    take  influence    on  selected  recipients  (stake  holder)  on  an  equal  level  in  order  to  reach  certain  aims.   Those  aims  can  either  be  economical  or  noneconomical.  Thereby  it  is  important,  to  adjust  and  integrate  means   of  communicaSon  and  communicaSon  tools  according  to    >me,  content  and    form.        Necessary  communicaSon  acSviSes  can  either  be  executed  by  members  of  an  organisa>on  (execuSves,  internal   communicaSon  specialists)  itself  or  by  instrucSng  an  external  agent  (agencies).        Corporate  communicaSons  can  be  subdivided  into  internal  communica>ons,  market  communica>ons  and     public  rela>ons.    

Source:  Gabler  Wirtscha}slexikon,  Bruhn,  M.  /  Aerni,  M.  (2008),  Integrierte  KommunikaSon  (1.  Auflage)    

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3.1  Corporate  CommunicaSons  

Market   CommunicaSons  

Internal   CommunicaSons    

Public  RelaSons  

Stakeholder  of   an  OrganisaSon  

Superior  aim:  Homogenous  internal  and  external  communicaSon,  that  imediately  reveals  the  sender  to   the  stakeholder.      
Source:  Gabler  Wirtscha}slexikon,  Chart:  replica  by  author  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  
FuncSon  of  Aims     for  CommunicaSons  Strategies  
Decision  and  Alloca>ve   Func>on    
•   Aims  =  SelecSon  and   evaluaSon  criteria  for   communicaSon  acSviSes     •   DefiniSon  of   communicaSon´s  direcSon   •   CommunicaSon  decisions   are  to  be  made  and   evaluated  regarding  the  aim  

Coordina>ng  Func>on  

Mo>va>on  and   Fulfillment  Func>on  
•   Everyone  involved  knows   about  the  aim  and  which   acSons  have  to  be  taken   •   IdenSficaSon  with  the  aim   is  possible        à  contribuSon  of   moSvaSon  for  realizaSon  of   the  aim     •     Level  of  aim  achievement  =          IndicaSon  level  of   saSsfacSon  of  parSes   involved    

Control  Func>on  
•   FormulaSon  of  aims  to   control  communicaSon   acSviSes  

•     Aims  facilitate  behavioral   adjustments  among  everyone   involved  (departments,   freelancers,  agencies  etc.)  

Source:  Bruhn,  M.  (2007),  KommunikaSonspoliSk  (4.  überarbeitete  Auflage),  Chart:  replica  by  author  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  
SMART  criteria  –  Dis>nc>ve  defini>on  of  aims    

S  

specific  

DisSncSve  definiSon  

M  

measurable  

Measuring  of  aims    

A  

accepted  

Acceptance  by  receiver    

R  

reasonable  

Possibility  of  realizaSon  

T  

Smely  

Time  schedule  for  aims  achievement  

Source:  Neubarth,  A.  (2011),  Führungskompetenz  auƒauen  (2.  Auflage),  Chart:  Replica  by  author  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  
Level  of  Communica>on  Aims    

Effect  Level    

Economic  Aims   Psychological  Aims   (noneconomical)   CogniSve  Aims   ConaSve  Aims   AffecSve  Aims  

 Contribute  to  the      superior  economical      aim  

Time   Horizon    

TacScal  Aims  

Short-­‐term  Aims  

Strategic  Aims  

Medium-­‐term  Aims   Long-­‐term  Aims  

Source:  see  page  87,  Chart:  replica  by  author  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  
Aims  under  considera>on  of  the  effect  level  

Economical  Aims  

•   Increase  of  profit,  turnover,  sale   •   Increase  of  market  shares     •   Increase  of  cost  effecSveness     Monetary  parameter  

à     Economical  aims  as  superior  aims   à     All  means  of  communicaSon  can  be  discharged  from  them    

Source:  see  page  87,  Chart:  replica  by  author  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  
Aims  under  considera>on  of  the  effect  level  

Psycological  Aims   CogniSve  Aims   •   Rising  of  awareness  level     •   Increase  of  social  acceptance     •   CreaSng  preferences     •   To  disSnguish  from  compeStors     •   Improvement  /  transfer  /  support  of  image     •   Transferring  knowledge  about  brands  and  quality     •   Brand  posiSoning     •   Stabilizing  of  brand   •   Increase  of  raSo  of  repeated  purchases    
Source:  see  page  87,  chart:  replica  by  author  

ConaSve  Aims  

AffecSve  Aims  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  
Use  of  psychological  communica>on  aims     Cogni>v  Aims   •   Regarding  awareness   •   Transferring  /  expanding   knowledge     INFORMATION   •   informaSon  about  basic  characterisScs  of  a  product   •   informaSon  as  a  aim  in  mainly  high  specialized  fields   (IT,  financial  services,  chemical  industry)  

Cona>ve  Aims   •   Regarding  behavior     •   behavioral  caused  changes     TOPICALITY  

•   all  informaSon  that  are  important  for  the  purchase   are  already  known,  less  interesSng  (low  involvement)   •   topicality  can  cause  insSncSve  purchases   •   topicality  as  aim  towards  all-­‐day  products  

Affec>ve  Aims   •   Regarding  emoSon   •   Change  of  emoSon   EMOTION  

•   every  informaSon  about  the  communicaSon     object  are  known  and  trivial     •   link  of  emoSon  differenSates  from  objects  /  brands  à   unique  world  of  experience     •   emoSon  as  aim  in  saturated  markets  (e.  g.  chocolade  or   cigarreie  market)  
Source:  Meffert,  H.  /  Burmann,  C.  /  Kirchgeorg,  M.  (2012),  MarkeSng  (11.  Auflage),  Chart:  replica  by  author  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  
Aims  under  considera>on  of  the  >me  horizon  

TacScal  Aims  
• Reach  awareness   •   Transfer  knowledge  about  new  facts     Short-­‐term  aims   Psycological  Aims  

à     quickly  achieved  by  communicaSon  acSviSes  and  have  a  short   life-­‐span    

Source:  see  page  87,  Chart:  Replica  by  author  

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3.2  CommunicaSon  Aims  
Aims  under  considera>on  of  the  >me  horizon  

Strategic  Aims  

•   Change  of  a|tude     • Change  of  behavior   •   Social  and  cultural  alteraSon     •   Permanent  customer  retenSon    

Short-­‐term  aims     Psycological  Aims   Long-­‐term  Aims    

à takes  a  long  Sme  to  be  established,  but  remains   comparaSvely  stable    

Source:  see  page  87  Chart:  replica  by  author  

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3.3  Agencies  

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3.3  Field  of  AcSviSes  
Agencies  offer  solu>ons  in  the  following  fields:    

Communica>on   CommunicaSon  Concepts,  Investor  RelaSons,   MarkeSng,  AdverSsing,  Brands  Concepts    Public  Rela>ons   Agenda  Se|ng,  Social  Networking,  Crisis   CommunicaSon  ,  Issues  Management   Design   Corporate  Design,  Web  Design,   Screen-­‐Design,  Layout  

Digital   Online-­‐MarkeSng,  Social  Media,   eCommerce,  Mobile,  SEO   Event   Sponsoring,  PromoSon,  ExhibiSons,  Product   PresentaSon  

Pictures   Photography,  Graphics,  IllustraSons  

 Strategy   ConcepSon  and  ProducSon  

Other  fields    

Source:  Author  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.3  MoSves    
When  to  entrust  an  agency:  Mo>ves     Market  Changes     •   changing  market  requirements   •   increased  compeSSve  pressure   •   new  trends  /  market  developments   •   altered  target  group  behavior   •   intensified  communicaSon  condiSons    

E   X   T   E   R   N  

Unternehmerische   A Company   Environment     nlässe  
•   globalizaSon   •   technology  dynamics   •   ecological  dynamics   •   social  changes   •   poliScal  changes  

Sources:  Güiler,  A./Klewes,  J.  (2002),  Drama  Beratung  (1.  Auflage)  /  Bruhn,  M.  /  MarSn,  S.  (2009),  Zur  Rolle  von  Agenturen  in  der  Integrierten  KommunikaSon  in  „Der  Markt  -­‐  Journal  für  MarkeSng“,   Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage),  Chart:    replica  by  author  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

73  

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3.3  MoSves    
When  to  entrust  an  agency:  Mo>ves     Lacking  ressources     (structure,  technical,  knowledge)   •   own  capaciSes  are  fully  uSlized      à  outsourcing  of  tasks   •   Manpower  +  Sme   •   Aiming  high  cost  flexibility   •   Aiming  high  staff  flexibility   •   Contacts  /  knowledge  /  experience   •   increasing  complexity  of  entrepreneurial   tasks   •   technical  Requirements   Status   •   social  recogniSon   •   reputaSon   Entrepreneurial  Anlässe   •   tacScal  events  (jubilee,  relaunch,   leadership  changes,  expansion)   •     see  CommunicaSon  Aims   External  Input   •   lack  of  creaSve  potenSal      à  fresh  ideas,  new  impulses     •   entrepreneurial  curiosity   •   rouSne   •     Analysis  of  business  processes  +  measures   implementaSon   •     internal  organisaSonal  blindness   •   external  perspecSve  

I   N   T   E   R   N  

Sources:  Güiler,  A./Klewes,  J.  (2002),  Drama  Beratung  (1.  Auflage)  /  Bruhn,  M.  /  MarSn,  S.  (2009),  Zur  Rolle  von  Agenturen  in  der  Integrierten  KommunikaSon  in  „Der  Markt  -­‐  Journal  für  MarkeSng“,   Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage);  Chart:    replica  by  author  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.3  ExpectaSons  

Expecta>ons  from   Agencies  

Level  of  performance   requierements  

Level  of  organisaSonal   requirements  

Level  of  personal   requirements  

Source:  Bruhn,  M.  /  MarSn,  S.  (2009),  Zur  Rolle  von  Agenturen  in  der  Integrierten  KommunikaSon  in  „Der  Markt  -­‐  Journal  für  MarkeSng“,  eigene;  Chart:  replica  by  author  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.3  Competences  /  Core  Assets    
Organisa>onal  competencies   •     Agencies  perform  operaSonal  tasks   •     Full  service  from  a  single  source   •     Manpower   •     Ad-­‐hoc  resource  

Source:  Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage),  Author  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.3  Competences  /  Core  Assets    
Strategic  competences   •     decision  aid   •     strategic  know-­‐how   •     industry  /  market  knowledge   •     advice   •     orchestraSon   •     orientaSon   •     evaluaSon   •     thinking  ahead  

Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage),  eigene  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.3  Competences  /  Core  Assets    
Emo>onal  competences   •     sensiSvity  in  cooperaSon   •     integraSon  capability   •     adequate  care   •     perceive  signals  in  the  team   •     empathy     •   Teamwork  organisaSon  ßà  Agency  

Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage),  eigene  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.3  Competencies/Core  Assets  
Core  Assets   •   CreaSvity   •   Know-­‐How   •   Experience  à  Obstacles  +  factor  of  succes   •   Growing  network   •   Employees   •   Flexibility  à  contenswise,  personnel,  skills,  Sme   •   References  

Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage),  eigene  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.4  AddiSonal  Benefits  of  Agencies    

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3.4  AddiSonal  Benefits  
What  are  addi>onal  benefits?    

Company  commissioned  an  agency  to   create  a  brand  strategy  

Agencies  deliver  

Brand  Strategy  

The  customer  addiSonally  receives  

•   Knowledge  of  planning  process   •   insights   •   expanding  network   •   …  

Source:  Author,  Chart:  Replica  by  author  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.4  AddiSonal  Benefits  
What  are  addi>onal  benefits?    

Company  commissioned  an  agency  to   create  a  brand  strategy  

Agencies  deliver  

Brand  Strategy  

The  customer  addiSonally  receives  

Added  Valueà  Addi>onal  benefits:  A  
benefit  that  goes  beyond  the  actual  basic  benefit   (services).  The  added  value  of  services  rendered   by  an  agency  ,   may  either  be  regarding  the  service  itself  or  can   effect  a  social  level.    

Source:  Author,  Chart:  Replica  by  author  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.4  AddiSonal  Benefit  

Addi>onal  Benefit  of  an   Agency  

AddiSonal  Benefit     Of  Service    

Social  AddiSonal  Benefit  

Personal  Level  

Company  Level    

Source:  Author,  Chart:  Replica  by  author  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.4  AddiSonal  Benefit  
Addi>onal  benefit  of  service     •   Image  Transfer   •   reducSon  of  complexity   •   reducing  the  risk  potenSal  of  decisions   •   industry  overview  on  actual  industry  itself   •   best-­‐pracSce  overview   •   topics  are  tangible  /  intangible   •   grown  employee  base   •   imaginaSon  

Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage),  eigene  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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3.4  AddiSonal  Benefit  
Social  addi>onal  benefit  (  personal  +  company  level)     • understanding  /  trust   • insights  +  enlargement  of  the  horizon   • agency  =  interpersonal  control  in  the  company   • strengthen  the  company's  internal  hierarchical  posiSon  of  the  client   • presSge  /  reputaSon   • feedback   • development  and  development  of  a  network  

Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage),  eigene  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

85  

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3.4  AddiSonal  Benefit  
Social  addi>onal  benefit  (  personal  +  company  level)     •   sparring  partner   •   support   •   personality  building   •   exchange  with  professional  people   •   sense  of  security   •   entertainment   •   emoSonal  AddiSonal  Benefit  

Allgäuer,  J.  /  Larisch,  M.  (2011),  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  (1.  Auflage),  eigene  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

86  

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Sources  –  Chapter  3  
LITERATURE  CORPORATE  COMMUNICATIONS  (SLIDE  4)   Aerni,  Markus  /  Bruhn,  Manfred  (2008):  Integrierte  KommunikaSon,  1.  EdiSon,    Zürich:  Compendio  Bildungsmedien   LITERATURE  COMMUNICATION  AIMS  (SLIDES  6  –  15):   Bruhn,    Manfred  (2007):  KommunikaSonspoliSk,  4.  revised  ediSon,  München:  Franz  Vahlen   Bruhn,  Manfred/Esch,  Franz-­‐Rudolf/Langner,  Tobias  (2009):  Handbuch  KommunikaSon,  1.  ediSon,  Wiesbaden:  Gabler   Homburg,  ChrisSan/Krohmer,  Harley  (2009):  MarkeSngmanagement  –  Strategie,  Instrumente,  Umsetzung,  Unternehmensführung,  3.   revised  and  extended  ediSon,  Wiesbaden:  Gabler   Mast,  Claudia  (2008):  UnternehmenskommunikaSon,  3.  revised  and  extended  ediSon,  Stuigart:  Lucius  &  Lucius     Meckel,  Miriam/Beat,  F.  Schmid  (2008):  UnternehmenskommunikaSon  –  KommunikaSonsmanagement  aus  Sicht  der   Unternehmensführung,  2.  ediSon,  Wiesbaden:  Gabler   Meffert,  Heribert/Burmann,  Christoph/Kirchgeorg,  Manfred  (2012):  MarkeSng  –  Grundlagen  marktorienSerter   Unternehmensführung,  11.  ediSon,  Wiesbaden:  Gabler   Neubarth,  Achim  (2011):  Führungskompetenz  auƒauen  –  Wie  Sie  Ressourcen  klug  nutzen  und  Ziele  sSmmig  erreichen,   2.  ediSon,  Wiesbaden:  Gabler       LITERATURE   Allgäuer,  Jörg  E./Larisch,  Maihias  (2011):  PR  von  FinanzorganisaSonen  –  Ein  Praxishandbuch  für  die  externe  und  interne   KommunikaSon,  1.  ediSon,  Wiesbaden:  Gabler   Bruhn,  Manfred/MarSn,  Sieglinde  (2009):  „  Zur  Rolle  von  Agenturen  in  der  Integrierten  KommunikaSon  –  Empirische  Befunde  zu   Anforderungen  an  Leistungsfähigkeit,  Zusammenarbeit  und  Umsetzungsbeitrag  von  Agenturen   in  österreichischen  Großunternehmen“  in  Der  Markt  -­‐  Journal  für  MarkeSng,  Springer-­‐Verlag   Güiler,  Alexander/Klewes,  Joachim  (2002):  Drama  Beratung,  1.  ediSon,  Frankfurt  am  Main:  Frankfurter  Allgemeine  Zeitung    
Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     87  

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Sources  –  Chapter  3  
WEB:   hip://www.existxchange.de/werbung/die-­‐vor-­‐und-­‐nachteile-­‐einer-­‐werbeagentur.html;  Stand:  21.12.2012   hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/326741/unternehmenskommunikaSon-­‐v5.html;  Stand:  05.11.2012   hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/54937/kommunikaSon-­‐v6.html;  Stand  05.11.2012   hip://wirtscha}slexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/1446/mehrweriheorie-­‐v6.html;  Stand:  19.12.2012   hip://www.zaw.de/doc/Erwartungen-­‐Berlin-­‐5-­‐04.pdf;  Stand:  19.12.2012   hip://www.bvdw.org/medien/?topic=138&type=&year=&search;  Stand:  05.11.2012   hip://www.gwa.de/agentur-­‐kunde/uebersicht/;  Stand:  05.11.2012          

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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4.  CommunicaSon  from  a  PR  &  MarkeSng  perspecSve  
  The  fight  between  markeSng  and  public  relaSon  is  one  of  the  oldest  in  the  field  of  corporate   communicaSons.  It´s  a  story  of    might,  decision  power  and  different  aims.  In  the  last  years  these   departments  grew  more  and  more  together  and  learned  from  each  other  to  match  the  demands  of    the   market.  People  recognized  that  their  aims  are  not  that  different  they  thought.  In  the  following  part  we   show  different  models  that  can  be  used  seperated  for  tasks  in  both  fields.  But  they  also  expose  the   intersecSon  and  changeable  parameters  where  both  need  to  complement  each  other.      

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4.1  3i  Model  by  P.  Kotler  

brand ntegrity  
POSITIONING   DIFFERENTIATION  

i

3i  
BRAND  
Kotler,  Kartajaya,  SeSawan,  2010,  p.  55  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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4.1  3i  Model  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
Brand  Iden>ty/Posi>oning  
PosiSoning  your  brand  in   consumers  mind   Relevant  to  raSonal  needs  of  the   consumers   Target  is  consumers  „head“  

Brand  Image/Differen>a>on  

Brand  Integrity  

Aquire  consumers  mind  share  with   Fulfilling  the  promise  of  idenSty   posiSve  acts   and  image   Relevant  to  emoSonal  needs  of  the   Establishes  consumers  trust  in  the   consumers   brand   Target  is  consumers  „heart“   Target  is  consumers  „spirit“  

•   can  help  to  establish  a  value  based  markeSng   •   respects  consumers  as  mulSdimensional  beings   •   higher  integrity  can  protect  the  brand  from  modern   phenomena  like  „shitstorms“  in  social  media  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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4.1  3i  Model  –  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  just  descripSve   shows  a  relaSon  but  without  a  recommended  proceedure    

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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4.2  Brand-­‐Envelope-­‐Model  by  T.  Gad  
differenSaSon  to  a  compeSSve  brand  

competence  

func>onal  

social  

BRAND  CODE   central   message  

mental  

spiritual  

future  idea  of  the  brand    
Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

vision  

Gad,  2005,  p.  147  

93  

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4.2  Brand-­‐Envelope-­‐Model  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  Value  
The  4  dimensions  of  a  brand  are:   •  func>onal:  concerns  the  percepSon  of  benefit  of  the  product  or  service  associated  with  the  brand   •  mental:  is  the  ability  to  support  the  individual  mentally   •  spiritual:  is  the  percepSon  of  global  or  local  responsibility   •  social:  concerns  the  ability  to  create  idenSficaSon  with  a  group  

•  shows  the  screws  for  evolving/enhancing  a  brand   •  can  be  used  for  an  internal  or  an  external  view  at  the  brand  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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4.3  Brand  Personality  by  J.  L.  Aaker  

BRAND  PERSONALITY  

Sincerity  

Excitement  

Competence  

SophisScaSon  

Ruggedness  

down  to  earth   honest   wholesome   cheerful  

daring   spirited   imaginaSve   up  to  date  

reliable   intelligent   sucessful  

Upper  Class   charming  

outdoorsy   tough  

D.  Aaker,  1997,  p.  352  

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4.3  Brand  Personality  –  OperaSng  CondiSons  and  Added  Value  
Brand  personality   •  the  set  of  human  characterisScs  associated  with  a  brand   •  based  on  the  „Big  Five“-­‐Model  of  human  personality   •  first  three  of  them  matches  each  other   •   the  „task“  of  the  brand  is  to  match  the  personality  of  its  target  group  (their  self-­‐concept)  

  •  get  to  know  the  self-­‐concept  of  your  target  group  to  evolve  the  brands  personality   •  preference  for  brand  will  increase  or  relaSonship  will  be  strengthened    

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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4.3  Brand  Personality  –  Limits  and  CriScism    
•  •  has  to  be  differenSated  in  other  countries  (as  J.L.  Aaker  et.  al  showed)   its  a  study  from  1997  –  is  it  sSll  valid?    

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4.4  Archetypes  by  M.  Mark  and  C.  Pearson  
Archetypes  and   MoSvaSon  

Stability  &  Control  

Belonging     &  Enjoyment  

Risk  &  Mastery  

Independence  &   Fulfillment  

Archetypes  

Creator   Caregiver   Ruler     financial  ruin   ill  heath   uncontrolled  chaos  

Jester   Regular  Guy/Gal   Lover   exile,  orphaning    abandonment    engulfment  

Hero   Outlaw   Magician   ineffectuality   impotence    powerlessness  

 Innocent   Explorer   Sage     entrapment   selling  out   empSness  

Customer  fear  

Helps  to  

feel  safe  

have  love/ community  

achieve  

find  happiness  

M.  Mark,  C.  Pearson  (2001,  p.18)  

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4.4  Archetypes  –  OperaSng  CondiSons  and  Added  Value    
•  an  archetype  is  a  generic  but  consistent  version  of              a  personality  that  mostly  is  understood  as  a  symbol  for  a  special  behavior   •  archetypes  can  be  used  in  storytelling  for  public  relaSons,            internal  communicaSons  or  product  markeSng  with  products  and  persons   •  they  help  or  even  force  the  consumer  to  idenSfy  a  meaning  in  an  intuiSve  way  

•  adresses  basic  stereotypes  in  consumers  mind   •  creaSng  an  emoSonal  affinity  that   •  alleviates  the  management  of  meaning  

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4.4  Archetypes  –  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  in  comparison  to  C.  G.  Jung  or  other  authors  archetypes  differ   what  about  hybrids?  

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4.5  Elements  of  Storytelling  a}er  D.  Herbst  
stage  
place   country,       internaSonal,    office,  producSon,     nature  etc.   àstaging  of  meaning   stage  props   using  symbols  like  cars,  logos,   buildings,  etc   à  audience  should  the   meaning    

Character   age,  relaSons,  social   standing   Personality   experience,  emoSons,   qualiSes   ac>ng  level   business,  private,  public   Appearance   airacSvity,  movement,   language,  style  

central  elements   &   structures  

main/minor   actors  

Conflicts   stakeholders,     compeStors,  generaSon,   society,  values  etc.     explain  strategies  to  make  a   change     in  a   chronological,    meaningul   and  thrilling     story        

plot  
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4.6  Storytelling  -­‐  OperaSng  CondiSons  and  Added  Value    
Internal  Communica>ons  
communicate  tradiSons,  values  and  culture   get  informaSon  about  the  “real“  culture/ micropoliScs  -­‐>  solve  problems   explore  ressources     idenSfy  weaknesses    

External  Communica>ons  
communicate  tradiSons,  values  and  culture   charge  products  and  brands  with  meaning   develop  and  improve  customer  relaSonship    

•  •  •  • 

easier  to  understand  and  to  keep  in  mind  than  facts   usable  for  research     meaningful     endows  idenSty  

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4.6  Storytelling  –  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  elaborate  process  that  is:   –  Sme-­‐consuming  

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4.7  Shareholder  Value  Model  vs.  Stakeholder  Value  

Shareholder   Value  

Results  in  short  Term  

Financial  Measures  

VerScal  Control  

Efficiency   (Doing  same  things  beier)  

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4.7  Shareholder  Value  –  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  Value  
Shareholder  Value  

•  •  •  • 

value  of  the  company  from  shareholders  point  of  view   cash  equivalent  to  saSsfy  the  requirements  of  th  sharholders   shares  as  an  instrument  for  financial  earnings   business  policy  to  increase  shareholder  value  

increasing  shareholder  value  requires:  
•  •  •  •  efficient  company   high  quality   producSon  at  low  costs   matching  the  interests  of  consumers  

  increasing  shareholder  value  leads  to:  
•  •  new  techniques  and  products   more  jobs  

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4.7  Shareholder  Value  –  Limits  and  CriScism  
•  •  unidirecSonal  development  to  shareholder  interests   can  lead  to:   –  inadequate  business  policy  (monopol,  contempt  of  ecological,  safety  and  human  rights  standards)   –  redundancies   –  neglect  of  social  responsibiliSes     asymmetric  informaSon  between  shareholders  and  managers  are  disregared   Outside-­‐In  perspecSve  is  disregard  

•  •     

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4.8  CommunicaSon  Theories  
Lasswell-­‐Formel:   „Who  says  what  in  which  channel  to  whom  with  what  effect?“  

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4.9  Overview  CommunicaSon  Ways  

1:1  

1:n  

Mediaprovider  

Mediaprovider  

n:n   n:n  
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IllustraSon  n:n  according  to  Fieseler/Hoffmann/Meckel  (2010)  p.25  

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4.10  CommuniaSon  modell  according  to  Maletzke  (1963)  
Public   Enforcement  
(  e.g.  Issues)  

(self-­‐percepSon  of   personality  –  in  a  team)  

Communicator  

Message   Communi-­‐ caSon   Channel    

(self-­‐percepSon  of   personality,     -­‐  as  member  of  the   audience.)  

Receiver  

 
IllustraSon  by  author,  based  on  communicaSon  modell  of  Maletzke   1:1  
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4.11  Issue  Management  -­‐  Vita  of  an  issue  
number  of  interested  people  

Variable  period,  o}en    smooth  transiSon  -­‐  but  period  can  also  be  skipped  
single   event   public   concerns   potenSel.   claim   tangible   claim   claim  saSs-­‐ facSon   resSng   claim  

>me   Increasing   formalisa>on   and  decreasing   influence  

trends    

concerns  

direct  concerned  person/company   highbrows,  scienSsts,  acSvist   massmedia,  poliScians   stakeholder  
IllustraSon  by  author,  based  on  a  modified  modell  of  Ingenhoff/Röiger  (2008)    p.330  
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4.11  Issue  Management  -­‐  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  Value  
  MarkeSng   •  Campaign  strategy  and    controlling   •  exhibiSons   •  product/  brandpresentaSon   PR   •  Issues  Management   (stakeholder  communicaSon)  

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4.11  Issue  Management  –  LimitaSons  and  criScs  
•  Not  even  all  can  be  influenced   •  Unaccounted  for  communcaSon  interrupSons   •  To  avoid  communcaSon  interrupSons  the  communicaSon  channel  needs  special  aienSon  

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4.12  One  to  many  communicaSon  according  to  Hoffman/Novak    

massmedium   adverSsing,  messages,  e.g.  

Individual  
IllustraSon  by  author    

1:n  

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4.13  Gatekeepermodell  Katz/Lazarsfeld  (1955)    „Two-­‐Step-­‐Flow  of  CommunicaSon    

massmedium  1957   (TV,  Radio,  Print)  

Opinionleader   Individual  with   personal  contact   to  opinionleader  
IllustraSon  by  author    

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4.13  Many  to  Many  communicaSon  according  to  Hoffman/Novak    

Massmedium  2012   (TV,  Radio?,  Print?,  Internet,  Web  2.0,  Facebook,   weblog,  intenet  playorm,  Twiier,  video  portal)  

Opinionleader  
Mediaprovider  

Mediaprovider  

Individual  with   personal  contact   to  opinionleader  
IllustraSon  by  author    

n:n  

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4.14  MulS-­‐way  communicaSon  -­‐  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
MarkeSng   •  SelecSve  adverSsing   •  Moderators  of  discussion  playorms  can  be  influenced   -­‐>  SEO  MarkeSng   •  Scanning  for  future  trends   •  Campaign  controlling/  media  response  analyses   •  Influencing  Blogger  and  Social  Media  Playorms     PR   •  Moderator  of  discussion  playorms   •  Scanning  and    idenSfying  of  relevant  topics   •  Discover  important  stakeholder   •  Social  Media  Playorms  

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4.14  MulS-­‐way  communicaSon  -­‐  OperaSng  condiSons  and  added  value  
•  •  Statement  of  opinion  leader  (ankerman  and  journalists)  is  more  „reliable     Internet  playorms  and  blogs  apply  to  be  independent  and  are  not  influenced  by  companies     -­‐>  User  are  seeking  serious  sources   -­‐>  influencing  the  gatekeeper  becomes  more  important  

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4.15  Agenda  Se|ng  according  to  Rogers/Dearing  (1988)  

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Sources  –  Chapter  4  
Maletzke,  Gerhard  (1963):  Psychologie  der  MassenkommunikaSon.  Theorie  und  SystemaSk.  Hamburg     Ingenhoff,  Diana/Röiger  Ulrike  (2008):  Issues  Management.  Ein  zentrales  Verfahren  der   UnternehmenskommunikaSon.  In:  Meckel,Miriam  /Schmidt,  Beate  F.:  UnternehmenskommunikaSon.  Gabler   Hoffman,  Donna  L./Novak,  Thomas  P.  (1996):  The  Journal  of  MarkeSng,  Vol.  60,  No.  3  (Jul.,  1996),  pp.  50-­‐68   Published  by:  American  MarkeSng  AssociaSon     hip://elabresearch.ucr.edu/blog/uploads/publicaSons/Hoffman_Novak_1996_JM.pdf   Katz,  E.,  &  Lazarsfeld,  P.  (1955):    Personal  Influence,  New  York:  The  Free  Press.   Rogers,  Everei  M.  /  Dearing,  James  W.  (1988):  Agenda-­‐Se|ng  Research:  Where  Has  It  Been?  Where  Is  It  Going?   In:  Anderson,  James  A:  (Eds.):  CommunicaSon  Yearbook  11,  Newbury  Park  ,  S.  555-­‐594   Fieseler,  ChrisSan/Hoffmann,  ChrisSan  P./Meckel,  Miriam  (2010):  CSR  2.0  –  Die  KommunikaSon  von   NachhalSgkeit  in  Sozialen  Medien.  In:  MarkeSng  Review  St.  Gallen,  o.Jg,  H.  5,  S.  22-­‐26   hip://netzwerSg.com/2008/12/18/werbung-­‐das-­‐komplexitaetsproblem-­‐von-­‐social-­‐media-­‐markeSng/  

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5.  Measurement  and  evaluaSon  of  communicaSons  

Measurement  and  evluaSon  of  communicaSons  is  yet  not  a  well  investgated  field,  which  affiliates  to  its   complexity.  Each  tool  can  be  measured  easier  on  ist  own  and  therefore  a  task  force  leaded  by  Prof   Ansgar  Zerfaß  invented  the  DPRG/IVC-­‐frame.  It  is  a  tool,  that  helps  companies  to  get  an  overview  of   different  possibiliSes  to  measure  communicaSons.    

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5.1  Measurement  and  EvaluaSon  of  CommunicaSon  

CommunicaSon  controlling  is  a  support  and   control  mechanism  that  creates  transparency   in  terms  of  strategy,  processes,  results  and   finances  for  the  division-­‐of-­‐labor-­‐based   process  of  communicaSon  management,  and   provides  suitable  methods,  structures  and   indicators  for  the  planning,  performance  and   monitoring  of  corporate  communicaSon  and   public  relaSons  (Ansgar  Zerfaß,  2006)  

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5.1  Measurement  and  EvaluaSon  of  CommunicaSon  
ConSnuaSon  „DefiniSon“  –  Three  areas  of  CommunicaSon  Controlling  
Controlling  for  management  and  monitoring  of  communicaSon  measures   •  Measurement  of  individual  communicaSon  acSviSes   •  IdenSficaSon  of  impact,  targets  and  appropriate  definiSons   •  Methods  are  the  common  measurement  incl.  media  analysis,  pretests,  surveys,  ect.       Controlling  for  management  and  monitoring  of  communicaSon  strategy     •  CommunicaSon  is  seen  as  an  valued  contribuSon  to  an  organisaSon´s  overall  strategic  goals   •  Strategy  congruence  and  calue  through  communicaSon   •  Methods  are  Scorecards  or  integrated,  individual  systems  

Controlling  process  and  quality  of  communicaSon  management   •  EvaluaSon  of  the  quality  of  the  acSviSes   •  EvaluaSon  of  the  processes   •  Methods  are  audits,  process  analysis  or  organisaSonal  maiers  within  the  departments  
Further  informaSon:  hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de  
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5.2  DPRG/ICV  Framework  
Defini>on  of  the  Framework     ObjecSve:  Set  a  standard  for  controlling  and  evaluaSon  of  communicaSon   Obstacle:  Measurement  of  communicaSon  is  a  mulS-­‐dimensional  process     and  each  phase  and  acSvity  is  individual.   Therefore  it  seeks  for  an  individual  approach  of  evaluaSon.  

  The  DPRG/ICV  framework  is  not  a  "fully  calculable  and  predictable"  model.   Rather,  it  is  a  discussion  tool  that  seeks  to  provide  orientaSon  on  a  meta  level  and     provide  a  workable  context  for  the  plethora  of  exisSng  evaluaSon  methods  and  parameters.     The  effect  levels  reference  framework  is  a  complex  input-­‐output  scheme  with  a  five-­‐stage  effect  side.    

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5.3  DPRG/ICV  Framework  

Further  informaSon:  hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de  
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5.3  DPRG/ICV  Framework  
Explana>on  of  each  phase  
•  Investment/Effort,  that  is  put  into  communicaSon   •  Investment  of  human  and  financial  capital   •  Both  these  kinds  of  capital  can  be  measured  in  cost  categories    

Internal  Output   •  Process  efficiency  (eg.  Budget  compliance,  error  rates                or  throughput  Sme)   •  Focus  lies  sSll  on  the  organisaSon   •  Important  benchmark  at  this  stage  is  the  saSsfacSon  of  internal  clients     External  Output   •  Range  and  content  of  communicaSon  offers                accessible  to  reference  groups   •  Necessary  criteria  but  yet  not  value  contribuSon  to  company´s  success    
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5.3  DPRG/ICV  Framework  
Explana>on  of  each  phase  

Direct  outcome   •  EffecSveness  in  terms  of  raising  percepSon  levels  and  knowledge   •  Demonstrate  informaSon  generaSon   Indirect  Outcome   •  Extent  of  impact  on  opinions/intenSons   •  GeneraSon  of  opinions,  emoSons,  behavioral  disposiSon,  ect.    

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5.3  DPRG/ICV  Framework  
Explana>on  of  each  phase  

•  Value-­‐adding  objecSves  enhanced  by  communicaSon   •  Impact  on  strategic  and  financial  goal   •  Effect  on  tangible  and/or  in-­‐tangible  capital-­‐building  resources  

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5.4  ImplementaSon  

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5.4  ImplementaSon  

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5.5  Methods  
Basic  methods     •  QuanStaSve  and  qualitaSve  data   •  Standardized   –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Print  media  analysis   Internet  media  analysis   Weblogs  media  analysis   Radio  media  analysis   Surveys/quesSonnaires   Focus  groups   Pretests   Posiests   Usability  tests  

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5.5  Methods  
Basic  methods  –  Performance  Indicators     (Extract)  
PIs  Print     Affinity  value   Acceptance  quoSent   PenetraSon  index   Fairness  value   IniSaSve  quoSent   Presence  index   Response  quoSent   Text-­‐image  quoSent   Issues  quoSent   Transfer  quoSent   DistribuSon  value   AdverSsing  equivalent   value   PIs  Online     Cost-­‐per-­‐1000  (CPM,  TKP)   Cost-­‐per-­‐AcSon  (CPA,  CPX)   Cost-­‐per-­‐click  (CPC)   Cost-­‐per-­‐Lead  (CPL)   Cost-­‐per-­‐Order  (CPO)   Degree  of  linage   Click-­‐depth   FluctuaSon  of  content   Accessibility   Statements   Rate  of  disseminaSon       PIs  Weblogs     PosiSve/negaSve/neutral   statements   Range/traffic  staSsScs   DuraSon  of  presence   Degree  of  linkage   Number  of  comments   Number  of  trackbacks   Tags/tag  clouds             KPs  Radio     Affinity   Acceptance   PenetraSon   Fairness   IniSaSve   Presence   Response   Topics   Transfer  quoSent   DistribuSon  value   AdverSsing  equivalent   value    

Further  informaSon:  hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de/methoden/basismethoden.html  

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5.5  Methods  
Evalua>on     •  EvaluaSon  of  individual  communicaSon  acSviSes   •  Enables  the  review  of  impact   –  –  –  –  –  –  Media  releaSons   Corporate  publishing   Online  communicaSon   Email  communicaSon   Events   AdverSsing  

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5.5  Methods  
Eg.  Evalua>on  of  Public  Rela>ons-­‐Ac>vi>es   (Int.  AssociaSon  for  Measurement  and  EvaluaSon  of  CommunicaSon)  
Further  informaSon:  hip://www.amecorg.com  

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5.5  Methods  
Eg.  Evalua>on  of  Public  Rela>ons-­‐Ac>vi>es  –  Brand/Product  Marke>ng   (Int.  AssociaSon  for  Measurement  and  EvaluaSon  of  CommunicaSon)  
Further  informaSon:  hip://www.amecorg.com    

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5.5  Methods  
Eg.  Evalua>on  of  Public  Rela>ons-­‐Ac>vi>es  –  Employee  Engagement   (Int.  AssociaSon  for  Measurement  and  EvaluaSon  of  CommunicaSon)  
Further  informaSon:  hip://www.amecorg.com    

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5.5  Methods  
Value  crea>on     •  Determining  the  value  creaSon  through   communicaSon     –  Brand  evaluaSon   –  ReputaSon  measurement   –  CommunicaSon  Due  Diligence   –  Scorecards/Strategy  Maps  

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5.5  Methods  
Example  Strategy  Map/Communica>on  Scorecard  

Further  informaSon:  hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de/en/methods/value-­‐creaSon/scorecardsstrategy-­‐maps.html   Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     137  

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5.5  Methods  
Processes  and  quality     •  Efficiency  and  effecSveness   •  Establish  and  reinforce  quality  in  the  medium  to  long  term     –  Concept  evaluaSon   –  Process  evaluaSon   –  Quality  management  

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5.5  Methods  
Integrated  systems     •  MulSdimensional  control  and/or  evaluaSon   •  CombinaSon  of  a  range  of  basic  methods,  evaluaSon  and  value  addiSon   approaches   •  O}en  organisaSon-­‐specific   –  –  –  –  –  –  –  CommunicaSons  Value  System   Index  Internal  CommunicaSon   TRIM-­‐Index   Corporate  InformaSon  System   CommunicaSonControlCockpit   CommunicaSon  performance  management   WebQM  -­‐  Procedures  

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Sources  –  Chapter  5  
  LITERATURE   Pfannenberg,  Jörg  (2009):  Die  Balanced  Scorecard  im  strategischen  KommunikaSons-­‐Controlling   Zerfaß,  Ansgar  (2004):  Die  Corporate  CommunicaSons  Scorecard  –  Kennzahlensystem,  

OpSmierungstool  oder  strategisches  Steuerungsinstrument?,  PR  Digest   Huhn,  Julia  und  Dr.  Sass,  Jan  (2011),  PosiSonspapier  KommunikaSonscontrolling   AMEC  (2011),  Valid  Metrics  for  PR  Measurement  –  Pu|ng  The  Principles  into  AcSon  
    WEB:  

hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de   DPRG/ICV  Frame:  hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de/index.php?id=280&L=3  

hip://www.communicaSoncontrolling.de/fileadmin/communicaSoncontrolling/sonst_files/DPRG-­‐ICV-­‐Bezugsrahmen-­‐ Sept2009.pdf   hip://www.amecorg.com  
               
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AddiSonal  content  

FURTHER  MODELS  

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MarkeSng  Plan  

Chart:  hip://www.aistrupconsulSng.com/MarkeSngStrategic.aspx  

Further  informaSon  also  on:    hip://www.businessplans.org/market.html  

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Crisis  management  
PotenSal   level  of  crisis   Latent   level  of  crisis   Acute   level  of  crisis   Post-­‐   level  of  crisis  

Time  

PotenSal   level  of  crisis  

AnScipaSve  crisis  management     (PrevenSon  of  a  crisis)  

Latent   level  of  crisis   Time   Acute   level  of  crisis  

PrevenSve  crisis  management   (DetecSon  and  prevenSon  of  a  crisis)  

Repulsive  crisis  management   (Mastering  the  crisis)    

Post-­‐   level  of  crisis  

AnScipaSve  crisis  management     (PrevenSon  of  a  crisis)  

Source  and  further  informaSon  hip://www.krisenkommunikaSon.info/Fruehwarnsysteme-­‐in-­‐der-­‐UnternehmenskommunikaSon.378.0.html  

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Decision  making  process  

Source  and  further  informaSon:  hip://www.robustdecisions.com/decision-­‐making-­‐tools/decision-­‐making-­‐process-­‐steps.php  

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Decision  making  process  

Source  and  further  informaSon:  hip://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640/opre640.htm  

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Decision  making  process  

Source  and  further  informaSon:  hip://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640/opre640.htm   Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     146  

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BCG-­‐Matrix  

Source:  hip://www.quickmba.com/strategy/matrix/bcg/  

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Customer  LifeSme  Value  
•  GC  is  the  (expected)  yearly  gross  contribuSon  margin  per  customer.  It  is,   therefore,  equal  to  revenues  minus  cost  of  sales.   •  M  is  the  (relevant)  promoSon  costs  per  customer  per  year.   •  n  is  the  length,  in  years,  of  the  period  over  which  cash  flows  are  to  be  projected.   •  r  is  the  yearly  retenSon  rate,  i.e.,  the  proporSon  of  customers  expected  to   conSnue  buying  the  company’s  goods  or  services  in  the  subsequent  year.   •  d  is  the  yearly  discount  rate  (appropriate  for  markeSng  investments).    

Source:  hip://download.clib.psu.ac.th/datawebclib/e_resource/trial_database/WileyInterScienceCD/pdf/DIR/DIR_2.pdf   Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  CommunicaSon  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0     148  

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Growth  Strategy  
Ansoff  Product-­‐Market-­‐Matrix  (1966)   Exis>ng  Products   New  Products  

Exis>ng   Markets  

Market  PenetraSon  

Product  Development  

New  Markets  

Market  Development  

DiversificaSon  

Source:  hip://www.quickmba.com/strategy/matrix/ansoff/  

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Weischenberg‘s  Zwiebelmodell    
Media  Systems   Context  of  Standards  
Social  Circumstances   Historical  and  Legal  Principles   CommunicaSons  Policy   Professional  and  Ethical  Standards  

Media  InsStuSons   Context  of  Structures  
Economical  ImperaSve   PoliScal  ImperaSve   OrganisaSonal  ImperaSve   Technological  ImperaSve  

Media  Statements   Context  of  FuncSon  
Source  of  InformaSon  and  Peer  Group   Covergae  Model  and  Forms  of  Expression  

Media  Player   Context  of  Roles  
Demografical  Token   Social  and  PoliScal  A|tude   Understanding  of  Role  and  Public  Image   ProfessionalisaSons  and  Sozializing  
Further  informaSon:  hip://luhmann.uni-­‐trier.de/index.php?Stle=Zwiebel-­‐Modell    

Weischenberg,  S.  (1995):  JournalisSk.Theorie  und  Praxis  aktueller  MedienkommunikaSon  (Second  EdiSon)    

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Modern  Approaches  on  Media  Effects  by  Bonfadelli  

Dimensions  of  Evalua>on  

Dimensions  of  Media  Effects   Segmenta>on                                                                                                    Homogeniza>on   Uses  and  GraSficaSon  Theory   (Jay  Blumler/Elihu  Katz)   Agenda  Se|ng  Theory   (Maxwell  McCombs/Donald  Shaw)   CulSvaSon  Theory   (George  Gerbner)     Spiral  of  Silence  Model   (Elisabeth  Noelle-­‐Neumann)  

FuncSonality  

DysfuncSonality  

Knowledge  Gap  Hypothesis   (Philipp  Tichenor/George  Donohue/   Clarice  Olien)  

Print   Bonfadelli,  H.,  Jarren,  O.  &  Siegert,  G.  (2005):  Einführung  in  die  PublizisSkwissenscha}  (Second  EdiSon)     Links  to:   Uses  and  GraSficaSon   Further  informaSon:  hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uses_and_graSficaSons_theory     Gap  in  Knowledge   Further  informaSon:  hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_gap_hypothesis     Agenda  Se|ng   Further  informaSon:  hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agenda-­‐se|ng_theory     CulSvaSon  Theory   Further  informaSon:  hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CulSvaSon_theory     Spiral  of  Silence   Further  informaSon:  hip://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiral_of_silence  

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The  Big  Five  Personality  Traits  

Source:  hip://www.belbin.com/content/page/5596/A%20Comprehensive%20Review.pdf  

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The  Big  Five  Personality  Traits  

Source:  hip://www.web-­‐books.com/eLibrary/NC/B0/B58/010MB58.html&docid=1FIimSY2XpePaM&img  (05.02.2013)  

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News  factors  
Galtung  &  Ruge  (1965)     •  Frequency   •  Threshold   •  Unambiguity   •  Meaningfulness   •  Consonance   •  Unexpectedness   •  ConSnuity   •  ComposiSon   •  Reference  to  elite  people   •  Reference  to  elite  naSons   •  PersonificaSon   •  NegaSvity  
Galtung,J.  &  Ruge,  Mari  H.  :  The  Structure  of  Foreign  News;  in   Jeremy  Tunstall  (ed.),  Media  Sociology:  A  Reader  (London   Constable,  1970)  pp.  259-­‐98  

Harcup  &  O'Neill  (2001)     The  power  of  elite   Celebrity   Entertainment   Surprise   Bad  News   Good  news   Magnitude   Relevance   Follow  up   Media  agenda      
Harcup,T.  &  O‘Neill,  D.:  What  is  news?  In  Galtung  and  Ruge   Revisited  Journalism  Studies,  Vol.2,  no.2  

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Contact  
Making  communica6ons  theories  applicable  
This  map  is  meant  to  be  the  start  of  a  dialogue  –  not  its  end.  Therefore,  we  are   very  thankful  about  your  feedback!     Please  send  an  email  to  Lars  M.  Heitmüller  at  CCM@LMH.de  or  visit  the   projects’  website:  hMp://CCM.LMH.de        

March,  2013  

Lars  M.  Heitmüller  et  al.  (2013),  Corporate  Communica6on  Map,  Version  Pre-­‐Beta  1.0    

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