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SPM Biology Form 4 Notes Terminology and Concepts: Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane (Part I)

Berry Berry Easy is back with SPM Form 4 Biology notes for Movement of substances across the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is a membrane of biological nature which forms the barrier between the interior of a cell against external environment. However, do not just think of it as a layer which do not have any function. Typically, movement of substances to and from cells to outer environment is controlled (due to its permeability) by the plasma membrane. The key concept here for this topic is to understand the selectivepermeability nature of a plasma membrane. The rest of the topic are rather easy and intuitive. Do note that plasma membrane is also known as cell membrane and plasmalemma.
SPM Biology Form 4 Terminology and Concepts: Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane (Part 1) 1. Uniqueness of Plasma Membrane (also known as cell membrane):

controls the movement of ions and particles (Na+, Ca2+ and K+) Glycoprotein combination of lipids and polysaccharides

Glycolipid

4. Permeability Permeable (allow to pass through)

small non-polar molecules (vitamins A, D, E, K, fatty acids, glycerol and steroids)

Impermeable (not allow to pass through but with help of carrier protein and cellular energy, it is allow to pass through)

large polar molecules (glucose, amino acids, mucleic acids and polysaccharides) charged ions (H+, Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca2+)

Substances that are allowed to move in the cell:

it is a semi-permeable cell membrane it allows water and certain substances to move in and out of the cell. cells obtain nutrients and gases cells excrete metabolic wastes cells can maintain pH for enzyme activity cells can maintain ionic concentration of the cells for enzyme activity control the types and the amount of substances allow useful substance (hormones/enzymes) to secrete from cells protect cells a boundary between the inside and outside of cell. Phospholipid molecule: Head hydrophilic: a polar phosphate molecule (philic~loves water / attracted to water) Tail hydrophobic: two non-polar fatty acids (phobic~hates water / repelled to water) Formation: Hydrophilic heads pointing outwards Hydrophobic tails pointing inwards (Bilayer phospolipid)

CO2 O2 excess H2O waste: nitrogenous Substances that are allowed to move out of the cell: CO2 O2 amino acids ionic salts glucose

2. Importance of Plasma Membrane:

Materials must be able to move through the plasma membrane in order for the cell cytoplasma to interact with the external environment. Therefore, the movement of soluble substances can occur in several mechanisms:

o o

Process of Passive Transport Process of Active Transport

A. Passive Transport i) Simple Diffusion - not selective: lipid-soluble molecules, gases and water. - not control by cell. - movement of the molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. - Factors affecting the rate of diffusion are temperature, size of molecules/ions, diffusion gradient, surface area anddiffusion medium. - example: diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the alveolus.

3. Structure of the basic unit of plasma membrane

Fluid Mosaic Model (Protein embedded in the bilayer) Carrier protein

carrier for some molecules (glucose, amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids)

ii) Osmosis: - only water molecules. - not control by cell. - movement of water from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration and often occurs across asemipermeable membrane. - strong sucrose solution = less water molecule = low water potential. - weak sucrose solution = more water molecule = high water potential. - example: absorption of water by root hairs. iii) Facilitated Diffusion: very specific: glucose, nucleic aicds, amino acids, protein and mineral ions. control by cell. transport of molecules (only certain molecules) across the outer membrane of living cell by a process of carrier protein(hydrophilic group) / channel protein (Ions: Na+, Ca2+, K+) within the cell membrane. normally take place from a region with higher concentration of molecules to a region of lower concentration. example: absorption of digested food in the villus. B. Process of Active Transport very specific: minerals ions and amino acids. control by cell. This process needs carrier proteins and energy (due to against concentration gradient) from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration). Cell must expend energy that derived from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) example: human nerve cells (sodium ions are constantly transport out of the cell) / ions intake by root hairs of a plant.

3) Hypertonic

Solute concentration in the external solution is greater than solute concentration inside the cell. Water concentration outside the cell is lower than the water concentration inside the cell.

Types of solutions: Type Hypotonic of Solut ion Anim The al Cell to the water the cell. Eventually it bursts(thin plama No the size The cell shrinks and rated due to the water molecule leave the cell inflates due change in becomes soft anddehyd molecules enter of Isotonic Hypertonic

cell. Net cell. Example: red moveme blood cell in 5% sodium nt of water is chloride solution.

membrane). Exa zero. Exa mple: red blood mple: red cell in distilled water. blood cell in 0.85% sucrose solution. Plant The No The cell lysis occurs), vacuole and Cell cell expands and change in becomes flaccid(plasmo becomes firm / t the size urgid due to the of enter the cell.

water molecules cell. Net cytoplasmashrink due moveme to the water molecules leave the cell. Example: water is strip of potato in 30% The rigidcellulos nt of e cell wall

Type of Solution 1. Hypotonic 2. Isotonic 3. Hypertonic 1) Hypotonic


expands slightly zero. Exa sucrose solution. and prevents cell mple: from le: strip of potato in distilled water. Application 1. Food is soaked in a concentrated salt solution to prevent bacteria and fungus to survive. 2. Chemical fertiliser (dissolved ions) increases solute concentration (decrease water molecules) in soil. strip of 5% sucrose solution. bursting. Examp potato in

Solute concentration in the external solution is lesser than solute concentration inside the cell. Water concentration outside the cell is higher than the water concentration inside the cell.

2) Isotonic

Solute concentration in the external solution is equal to the solute concentration inside the cell. Water concentration inside and outside of the cell is the same.

Therefore, water leaves from the cell sap of the plant which result the plant wither.