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Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................ 3 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

HISTORY ................................................................................................................................................................. 4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ................................................................................................................................... 5 1 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................................... 5 2 TERMS USED IN FREQUENCY PLANNING ........................................................................................................... 6 3 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS OF A FREQUENCY PLAN ....................................................................................... 8 3.1 Before Frequency Plan Implementation.............................................................................................................. 8 3.2 After Frequency Plan Implementation ................................................................................................................ 9 4 FP PROCESS FOR CLASSICAL NETWORK CONFIGURATION (ONE BAND. ONE LAYER N O SPECIAL CELL TYPES) ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10 4.1 FP Targets .................................................................................................................................................... 12 4.2 F P Strategy .................................................................................................................................................. 12 4.2.1 Spectrum Partitioning ................................................................................................................................... 12 4.2.2 Exception Handling of Sites with Untypical Configurations ............................................................................ 14 4.2.3 Decision on Frequency Hopping Implementation ......................................................................................... 15 4.2.4 TRX-PREF-MARK and GPRS-PREF-MARK ..................................................................................................... 15 4.2.5 DTX and PC ................................................................................................................................................. 16 4.2.6 Frequency Coordination at the Planning/Country Border .............................................................................. 17 4.2.7 Frequency Coordination at Co-Existence of Several Systems ......................................................................... 17 4.2.8 BSlC Allocation Strategy ............................................................................................................................... 19 4.2.9 Frequency Planning Activation Mode ........................................................................................................... 20 4.2.1 0 Definition of Hot Spot Areas ....................................................................................................................... 20 4.3 Inputs preparation .......................................................................................................................................... 20 4.3.1 Retrieval of Network Design Parameters .......................................................................................................20 4.3.2 AFP Dry Run ................................................................................................................................................ 21 4.3.3 OMC Neighbors Relationships Clean-up ...................................................................................................... 21 4.3.4 Experience Database ................................................................................................................................... 22 22 4.3.5 Prepare Before/After Comparison ................................................................................................................ 4.4 Creation of Frequency Plan ............................................................................................................................. 23 4.4.1 Setting of Parameters to Reflect F P Strategy ................................................................................................... 23 23 4.4.2 Run the AFP ................................................................................................................................................. 4.5 Frequency Plan Validation ...............................................................................................................................23 4.6 Implementation of the new Frequency Plan ...................................................................................................... 24 4.7 Post Implementation Tasks ............................................................................................................................... 24 4.7.1 Intensive QoS Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 24 4.7.2 Update Experience Database ....................................................................................................................... 25 5F P PROCESS FOR DUAL LAYER NETWORK ........................................................................................................ 25 5.1 F P Strategy ..................................................................................................................................................... 25 5.1 .1 Spectrum Partitioning ................................................................................................................................... 25 5.1.2 Decision on Frequency Hopping Implementation .......................................................................................... 25 5.2 Inputs preparation .......................................................................................................................................... 26 5.2.1 Setting of Parameters to Reflect F P Strategy ................................................................................................... 26 6F P PROCESS FOR DUAL BAND NETWORKS .................................................................................................... 26 6.1 F P Strategy ..................................................................................................................................................... 26 6.1 .1 Spectrum Partitioning ...................................................................................................................................26

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7 FP PROCESS FOR CONCENTRIC CELLS ............................................................................................................. 27 7.1 FP Strategy ..................................................................................................................................................... 27 7.1.1 Spectrum Partitioning ................................................................................................................................... 27 8 FP PROCESS FOR HOPPING NETWORKS .......................................................................................................... 27 8.1 FP Strategy ..................................................................................................................................................... 28 8.1. 1 Spectrum Partitionina .................................................................................................................................... 2 8 8.1 . 2 Decision on Frequency Hopping Implementation .......................................................................................... 2 8 8.1 . 3 TRX-PREF-MARK and GPRS-PREF-MARK ...................................................................................................... 3 0 8.1.4 RF Load ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 0 8.1 .5 Frequency Coordination at the Planning/Country Border .............................................................................. 30 8.1 .6 Frequency Coordination at Co-Existence of Several Systems ....................................................................... 31 8.2 Inputs preparation .......................................................................................................................................... 31 8.2.1 Experience Data base ................................................................................................................................... 31 8.3 Creation of Frequency Plan ............................................................................................................................. 31 8.3.1 Setting of Parameters to Reflect FP Strategy .................................................................................................. 31 8.4 Post Implementc!ion Tasks .............................................................................................................................. 31 8.4.1 Update Experience Data base ....................................................................................................................... 31

Y FREQUENCY P U N N I N G TOOLBOX .................................................................................................................. 3 2 9.1 Short Description of A91 55 ............................................................................................................................. 3 2 9.2 Short Description of EasyRNP .......................................................................................................................... 33 9.3 Short Description of SONAR ........................................................................................................................... 33 9.4 Short Description of RADAR ............................................................................................................................ 34 9.5 Tool related FP steps .......................................................................................................................................34
10 PROPOSALS OF DIFFERENT FREQUENCY P U N N I N G CONFIGURATIONS

......................................................35
38

1 1 REFERENCE NETWORKS .................................................................................................................................. 1 2 ABBREVIATIONS ..............................................................................................................................................

38

INDEX .................................................................................................................................................................. 39

SCOPE
Readership Profile Conlent Summary The target group is GSM frequency planners The content of this guideline is to show the basic rules for frequency planning. recommendations for spectrum partitioning and important steps to be performed during a frequency planning project . The main focus of this document is to capitalize all Alcatel experience from the real frequency planning experts on the field .
Senice Information

Please send your comments. update wishes referring to this document to ~~ n. o. ~ ? ~ e i i ~ o d s ~ ~ c lThey c c ~ t will eI.~ be l econsidered . in a next edition of the document .

Available Documentaii~n

There are two main documents for Frequency Planners in Alcatel environment:
Frequency Planning Guideline, 3DF 01 902 201 3 VAZZA A91 55 V6 RNP Application Note: Frequency Planning, 3DF 01 955 6082 BGZZA

HISTORY
Ed . 0 1 Proposal 01 2003/11/24 Creation

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Document released

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
Slow Frequency Hopping Alcatel Document 3DF 00995 0000 UDZZA Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) - MAFA in Release 87 Alcatel Document 3DC 21 144 0027 TQZZA Alcatel Frequency Hopping Solutions Alcatel Document Synthesized Frequency Hopping in Romania Alcatel Document 3DF 00997 0007 UAZZA Antenna System Solutions for Site Sharing Alcatel Document 3DC 2101 9 005 TQZZA RNP Extension Training on Dual Band Alcatel Training Engineering Rules for Radio Networks Alcatel Document 3DF 00995 0000 UAZZA RNP Extension Training Micro Cells Alcatel Training RNP Extension Training: Concentric / Multi Band Cells Alcatel Training Concentric Cells: Easy Implementation in Live Networks Alcatel Document 3DF 00958 0001 PGZZA Spectrum Planning in GSM Networks Alcatel Document 3DC 21 150 0279 TQZZA RNP Extension Training: Frequency Hopping Alcatel Training Radio Frequency Hopping: Implementation Strategy Alcatel Document 3DF 00976 0001 TQZZA SFH Field Trial Report: VODACOM South Africa Alcatel Document 3DF 00997 001 1 UAZZA Frequency Planning for Cape Town Alcatel Document 3DF 00997 0008 UAZZA Specifications on RMS and T I 80 Integration into A9155 V6 Alcatel Document 3DF 01 955 6044 DSZZA A91 55 - A956 File Interface Specifications Alcatel Document 3DF 00983 1020 DSZZA A9155 V6 RNP Application Note: Frequency Planning Alcatel Document 3DF 01955 6082 BGZZA A91 55 PRC Generator Module V2.30 User Guide & Process Description Alcatel Document 3DF 01955 0080 PCZZA Radio Network Planning Process Alcatel Document 3DF 01 902 3000 DEZZA User Manual & Process Description for A91 55 PRC Generator Module Alcatel Document 3DF 01955 0080 PCZZA Inter System Compatibility: Challenges and Solutions Alcatel Document 3DF 01902 301 2 VAZZA ERC Recommendation T/R 20-08 E - Frequency Planning and Frequency Coordination for the GSM - http://www.ero.dk

1 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW
There is always need for capacity improvement of the GSM network. The main impact on network capacity i s given by the frequency planning, particularly by the number of TRX per cell and frequency reuse in the network. Therefore there i s a need of a proper frequency planning. The main task of this document is to give rules and strategies for

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frequency planning in a GSM project. This document is presenting also an overview of frequency planning tools used within Alcatel. There are two documents related to frequency planning process, in Alcatel: this document and A91 55 V6 RNP Application Note: Frequency Planning [ I 81.

2 TERMS USED IN FREQUENCY PLANNING


This chapter is intended to make a clear view on the general concepts and acronyms used i n frequency planning process

-n

>

Average Reuse Cluster Size (ARCS)

m ?

As the frequency spectrum is limited, frequencies have to be reused to provide enough capacity. ARCS is defined as:

$! $
,c:

-e ;t Ce Y

g. :;
C

Number of available GSM channels used ARCS = Average amount of TRX per cell
The more often a frequency is reused within a certain amount of cells, the smaller is frequency reuse. The ARCS has to be as small as possible to increase traffic capacity and as high as possible to avoid network interference. For frequency planning the ARCS gives an idea about the traffic capacity as well as network interference. By applying frequency hopping the ARCS can be reduced while the network quality is not changed significantly. Below there is a table which presents the typical values for ARCS.

F5

= a =

8 7+-

Table 1 ARCS typical values


Frequency usage
BCCH TCH non hopping TCH BBH
>

Aggressive
12 10

Typical

Conservative
20 12 12

18
12

Fractional Reuse Cluster Size (FARCF

Applying radio frequency hopping, the fraction reuse techniques can be used. The principle of fractional reuse is, to use more frequencies in a cell than TRX are equipped: N(hop)>N(TRX). FARCS is defined as:

Number o f available GSM channels used FARCS = Averageamount o f frequencies per cell
The later introduced reuse 1x1 and 1x3 hopping schemes are defined by l/FARCS.

I
I

>

Frequency hopping

Frequency hopping consists in changing the frequency used by a channel at regular intervals. In GSM there are defined two hopping types: Base Band Hopping (BBH) and Radio Frequency Hopping (RFH). More details can be found in [ I ] .

BBH
Each transceiver is transmitting on one fixed frequency. Hopping is performed by switching the mobiles from burst to burst to different carrier units of BTS. (Number of hopping frequency = Number of TRXs)

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RFH
T R X s do no get a fixed frequency assignments, they may change their frequency from timeslot to timeslot according to a predefined hopping sequence. (Number of hopping frequency = Number of TRXs) >

Reuse 1x3

Reuse 1x3 is defined for RFH. During frequency hopping sequence allocation the TCH frequency band is split in three groups. Each cell in the network is using one of these three groups.

>

Reuse 1x1

The same as reuse 1x3, this reuse is defined for RFH. In this case the frequency band is not split, and each cell is using the frequency from the complete frequency band.

only one govp

Rcwc 1x1

>

RFLoad RF Load represents a relation between number of "on-air" T R X per cell and the number of frequencies assigned to the cell. Definition of Max RFLoad is presented below.

max RFLoad =

# T M / Cell #Frequencies / Cell

Maximum RFLoad is only achieved, if all TRXs within the cell are fully loaded. Table 2 Max RFLoad Proposed Values

Reuse scheme

Service targets
Maximum theoretical synchronized hopping) limit for

RFLoad
16.6% 1 0 - 12 %

1x l

Maximum acceptable maxRFLoad

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Reuse scheme

Service targets
Maximum theoretical synchronized hopping) limit for

RFLoad
50% 30%...35%
0 C

1 x3

Maximum acceptable maxRFLoad

The maximum acceptable values are taken into account during RFH planning. Besides Max RFLoad, in documentation can be found also the term Real RFLoad. The Real RFLoad can be calculating according to following formula:

- - 0 g Eu

- 2 <
,o

7.: 3 5
0 .Y C %

f 3

#Active timeslots 1Cell real RFLoad = (#Frequencies 1Cell) - 8


Only active timeslots contribute to RFLoad. Idle timeslots do not create interference and are not contributing to the RFLoad. The real RFLoad is only an indicator of network quality and it cannot be used in RFH planning.

?z; 'Z g
o C

U 2.3 T5 u u n

1 3 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS O F A FREQUENCY PLAN


The definition of the frequency plan performance indicators is a key issue. It makes frequency plans comparable with each other before and after implementation.

3.1 Before Frequency Plan Implementation


The frequency plan must be checked and validated before its implementation. Since the frequency plan is not yet implemented other "measurable" parameters than KPls must be used. A clear definition of frequency plan performance, using predictable parameters, is .necessary to perform a comparison between frequency plans before and after the new frequency plan implementation. T o overcome this issue, here are defined different parameters, which can be taken into account to describe the performance of a frequency plan.

>

Interference indicators
The quality of a frequency plan in a certain area can be estimated by the number of points with a C/I value higher than a certain threshold. Two indicators can be defined related to interference: percentage of area with a C/I higher than a threshold or number of points with a C/I higher than a threshold. The methods to estimate interference are: C/I weighted over area. All points have the same weight in final value of interference indicator. C/I weighted over traffic: The points from different traffic zones have different weight factor in the final result.

The interference indicators may be calculated for different planning area: Rural areas or areas with less importance (low traffic) Hot-spots area or areas specified by customer (problematic areas or high traffic) This splitting is done to avoid validation of frequency plans with an overall interference better than before, but with interference worse in hot-spots areas. By focusing more on more importance areas the quality in less important areas i s sacrificed. All indicators presented in this chapter can be calculated by A91 55.

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In order to get an overview, for the value of interference indicators in each FP project, please send the final value of the indicator: percentage of C/I higher / I , = 9 dB to: than a C Rnp.Methods@alcatel.de.
>

Constraints violation
Number of constraints violation. This indicator represents the number of co-site/co-celI/neighborhood and experience matrix constraints violation. The very critical violations (co-cell) have a higher weighted factor that less critical ones (neighbor violations) in the final value of this indicator.

>

Best 'visual' frequency plan


Using frequency visualization method the spreading of frequencies over the planning area can be easily observed. The frequency plan is better if the frequency distribution is homogenous. A good "visual" frequency plan is an indicator that the frequency plan might be good, but is not mandatory to be so.

>

Optimum distribution of frequencies


Another indicator that can be used is the frequency distribution. The frequency plan is using the resources in a best way, if all frequencies are used with an equal distribution (all frequencies are used in a same amount). But an optimum frequency distribution does not imply all the time a good frequency plan.

To have a good indication that the new frequency plan is better than the previous one, all performance indicators mentioned here are mandatory.

3.2 After Frequency Plan Implementation


The frequency plan quality can be measured by different QoS indicators with the help of a before-after comparison. The main important indicators are presented below:

CSSR - Call Setup Success Rate CDR - Call Drop Rate

HO rate
Handover Causes (Quality HO, Better Cell HO, Level HO) SDCCH Assign Fail Rate RMS Indicators (since 87):
o

Frame Erasure Rate

RX Qual

1FP PROCESS FOR CLASSICAL NETWORK CONFIGURATION (ONE BAND, ONE LAYER N O SPECIAL CELL TYPES)
The RNP process is subdivided into different phases [20]:

B a r k OWinriulHtion

srrh;aun

Figure 1 RNP Process Frequency planning occurs during the phases of implementation and optimization. Because it's impossible to wait with the opening of the network until the last BTS is integrated, the network is launched step by step (Turn on Cycle by Turn on Cycle) during the implementation phase. At each TOC, the RNE has to decide which sites go on air and a new frequency plan has to be created. New frequency plans have to be done for each extension of the network and the frequency distribution may be tuned during the optimization phase, to improve the QoS. The frequency plan has to be checked regularly because due to manual modifications the frequency plan comes out of shape from a global point of view. In regular periods (for instance every 4 weeks) a performance analysis should be performed, by downloading the frequency plan from the OMC and checking its performance. If performance falls under a certain threshold an overall re-tuning should be triggered. The frequency planning process is explained in Figure 2.

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.-

* -B
C

: :E .G t: E
j
O C S

- Y <

c 20 B .I!

:.2 ::i

,? 3:
c .

5 - .g 2 :

z:
:

-.S? .F2; 3p"'L


0

2 6 2% ;; :

.
r*

hr

Figure 2 Frequency Planning Process

This chapter presents the classical frequency planning process with one layer, one
band and no special cell types in the network. All details, related to a specific network configuration will be explained i n the next chapters.

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The first step of the FP process is to define the F P inputs and targets: target area of the new frequency plan has to be defined, as well as the list of all involved cells from this area. frequency spectrum. The FP targets must contain the available frequencies. If there are usage constraints related to the frequency spectrum they must be provided. Day ) : when the new frequency plan has to be ready for implementation. The new plan must take into consideration the network configuration planned for this day. In order to prepare the frequency plan validation the chosen performance indicators have to be calculated for the old frequency plan. The target of the frequency plan is to improve these indicators. Of course the customer will care more about end user KPls, but if, for example, the medium C/I value is improved, also the end user KPls of will be increased after frequency plan implementation. Frequency plan optimization has to be done to keep a certain QoS in the network, while increasing the traffic capacity by network densification. The expected results from the FP should be clearly stated from the beginning, and the whole strategy should be driven by these goals.

4.2 FP Strategy
In this chapter the strategy to perform the frequency plan will be explained. Frequency
planning targets define the strategy chosen. The strategy is defined by performing the spectrum partitioning, by setting the way to treat different areas with different site configuration, by frequency hopping implementation decision, by different parameters setting, by frequency planning at planning border or for co-existence of several systems and by BSlC allocation strategy.

4.2.1 Spectrum Partitioning This step is performed in order to optimize the frequency resources used by frequency planning process. The resources must be used in an optimal way in order to achieve a maximum capacity with the minimum number of frequencies for each layer. Spectrum usage strategy depends on several aspects: available bandwidth customer specifications network environment and design For areas with very different default BTS configuration different subdivisions of frequency band can be used. At the beginning of the frequency plan construction, the frequency band is split into different parts:

- Macro layer / Micro layer - BCCH / TCH


- Guard Bands /Joker Frequencies

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Macro layer / Micro layer separation

At the beginning of the design, it has to be known if a complete micro layer has to be installed (often to anticipate a cell densification of the network). In this case, a dedicated frequency band must be allocated exclusively to BCCH and TCH of these micro cells (7 carriers are usually sufficient for planning micro BCCH layer). The detailed explanation of micro layer separation will be explained later in a micro layer dedicated chapter.
8

. :
J

BCCH / TCH separation

The BCCH is the most important carrier as it transmits the network information towards the mobile. The network cannot be used by a mobile, which cannot identify the BCCH carrier and decode this information. In these conditions, the BCCH band must be separated from TCH band (as presented in Figure 3), and the BCCH must be planed separately with a less dense frequency reuse scheme.

- BCCH

lJigll

TCH

Frequency Band

Figure 3 Frequency Bond Split

This separation is not mandatory, but is recommended for interference reductions between BCCH and TCH. A91 55 can determine the number of frequencies we need to plan the BCCH layer with the method described next. In order to define the required number of BCCH channels in the network, and to keep a certain level of interference a first dry run of the Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP) is required. The process begins with allocating a defined number of frequencies to the BCCH layer and launching the frequency plan calculation for these BCCH only. If the number of allocated frequencies is insufficient, the next calculation will be performed with more frequencies. If the solution is found quickly, the opposite way is to decrease the number of frequencies to optimize the frequency reuse. Because frequency planning allocation process is quite time consuming, the calculation should begin with a well-adapted number of frequencies for the BCCH to limit the number of re-calculation. Usually the number of BCCH frequencies is around 18. However, the topology and the morphology of the terrain influence this parameter.
Guard Band and Joker Frequencies

The guard band is the number of frequencies which are not used for frequency allocation, to prevent interference between operators or different types of frequency usage (SFH, concentric cells, micro cells, BCCH). Guard band between operators: mandatory Guard band between different types of frequency usage is not mandatory, but is sometimes needed for interference reduction. (e.g. between BCCH and TCH in RFH mode) If the frequency band is large enough, some frequencies (generally less than 4 frequencies) can be kept as joker frequencies to solve quickly isolated problems of interference or to allow implementation of new cells without changing the complete plan. The number of ioker frequencies is given by the number of frequencies not necessarily needed for BCCH or TCH allocation to achieve the required FP quality. The guard band con also be used as joker frequency.

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From projects it is seen that very often the customer checks the frequency plan before implementation and give special hints for final fine-tuning. Therefore, it is very useful to have some frequencies available for this purpose.

Spectrum Partitioning Example


The frequency spectrum, depending on the network configuration, is split using different algorithms. Therefore, in this case (one layer, one band network), the frequency spectrum is split in two sub-bands: one for BCCH channels and one for TCH channels. An spectrum partitioning example for a classical network is presented below:

f $2 - 0

.
;.
U

/: i?,E ;
nij
.Y
0

; ;

052

s8%
0 ; ;

-7 2

t 2 u " 3 3

Figure 4 Spectrum Partitioning for Classical Network Therefore, for different frequency usage are defined different Average Reuse Cluster Size (ARCS) [I 1. Table 3 Typical values for ARCS Frequency usage BCCH macro layer BCCH micro layer TCH non hopping/BBH TCH RFH (F)ARCS

,c B

8 z2 0

% .= ,i=f

18
7

12
3

In a real network there might be different areas with different configuration such as very dense areas and rural areas. For an optimized frequency plan, the spectrum can be partitioned in different ways for different areas. ARCS depends on the number of available frequencies, number of installed T R X on each cell and the topography. For a hilly terrain, for example, a lower ARCS can be used, as presented in

[ I51. Below

Figure 5 Spectrum Partitioning for Different Areas The spectrum partitioning is dependent on the chosen frequency planning strategy. Next chapters contains the particularities of dual layer (chapter 5 ) , dual band (chapter 6), concentric cells (chapter 7) or hopping (chapter 8) networks.

4.2.2Exception Handling of Sites with Untypical Configurations


For sites with untypical configuration, such as sites with an increased number of TRX, the frequency planning process has to be treated in a particular way. The solution is to provide fixed frequencies from BCCH band and using for example concentric cells, for interference reduction. B y assigning specific frequencies manually, the frequency planning tool has to find less frequencies automatically, while keeping all constraints fulfilled.

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4.2.3 Decision on Frequency Hopping Implementation During strategy definition the decision for implementation or not of frequency hopping should be taken. The decision for frequency hopping implementation is taken either for QoS improvement or due to capacity saturation. Base Band Hopping (BBH) solution is performed in order to increase the network QoS. From the frequency planning process point of view the implementation of BBH has no impact. Radio Frequency Hopping (RFH) is implemented if it is impossible to perform a(ny) TRX extension or site densification due to lack of a free frequency.

'H
E

2 3

The F P for hopping networks will be presented Chapter 7. 4.2.4 TRXPREFMARK and GPRSPREFMARK
>

TRX-PREF-MARK is used to distribute circuit switch (CS) traffic on the less interfered frequencies. Its value is in the range: 0 lowest priority / 7 highest priority. For BCCH band interference reduction, the RCS of BCCH frequencies i s higher. Therefore, since the frequencies from the BCCH band are less interfered, the traffic can be distributed on these frequencies. T o perform this, TRX-PREF-MARK is used to set the highest priority for BCCH frequency. This is performed also in order to reduce the real RF Load (see chapter 8.1.4). PREFMARK can be used to give different priorities to different TCH TRXfrequencies. Different priorities can be set for each frequency from each cell, but to perform this for entire network is a very time consuming process. T o speed up this process, a solution is to: divide the TCH band in two sub bands set a higher priority for frequencies from the less interfered sub-band. In case of non-GPRS networks the proposed values of TRXPREFMARK are for BCCH frequency 7, for clean TCH frequencies 5 and for interfered frequencies 0.

>

GPRSPREFMARK is the preference mark assigned to a T R X to favor P S radio resource allocations on a T R X , for GPRS networks. This parameter i s introduced in release B7 (0: no GPRS support / 3: highest GPRS priority). From release B8 its PREFMARK. From frequency planning point of view functionality is taken by TRXthis parameter i s used to distribute packet switch (PS) frequencies on the less interfered frequencies. PREFMARK Example of tuning GPRSnetworks: and TRX-PREF-MARK for non hopping

Set all T R X foreseen with only CS service to: TWPREF-MARK ? 0 (Range 1-7) GPRSPREFMARK = 0 Set all TRX favoring for PS service TRXPREFMARK =

GPRSPREFMARK 2 0 (Range 1-3) (according to cell specific interference)

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TRX4 TRXS TRX6

4
3

1 1 1

1 1

2
1

2
3

2
1

* I '
4.2.5 DTX and PC

Figure 6 Example of tuning TRX-PREF-WRK and GPRS-PREF-MARK

(Nanjing, China) for hopping networks is


'

Example of tuning GPRS-PREF-MARK and TRX-PREF-MARK presented in chapter 8.1.3.

TRX-PREF-MARK and GPRS-PREF-MARK are not used by frequency allocation algorithm, but can be used after frequency plan implementation for interference reduction.

Discontinuous transmission (DTX) consists in interrupting the transmission when there is nothing to transmit, during silence time. DTX is performed both in UL and DL directions. The main target of DTX is to reduce the R F Load (see chapter 8.1.4) in the network and enhance thefrequency spectrum utilization. By RF Load reduction the interference in the network is decreased while speech quality is improved. The table below presents the results of drive tests performed in Jakarta before and after DTX activation.
Table 4 DTX Activation Comparison

Range
RxQual <=3 3 < RxQual<= 5 RxQual > 5 Statistical Indicators

Without DL-DTX

With DL-DTX

49.5%

5 ~ ' ~ ~ ' : ~
96 . . i yo

38.89'3
II ,79$

15.4ci,
With DL--DTX ; . . ; . , . c. \,.\-' . ,c:
,

WiUlout DL-DTX

Mean Rx-Qual
STD Rx-Qual

Variance Rx.-Qual

1.055 I ,83%> 3.3%

'i * ; y,;:,

-.

2.5:.(;5

Another feature used for interference reduction is power control (PC) activation. Therefore, the network overall interference can be reduced also by applying PC and DTX, leading to a lower effort in frequency planning optimization. The activation of DTX and PC does not influence the frequency planning strategy, but is used for interference reduction after frequency plan implementation.

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These new frequencies components are either harmonics of the input frequencies or a combination of them (mixing). If we consider the input signal is made up of two sinewave signals with frequencies f l and f2, the output signal will contain frequency components at:

f;M'mJ+n$

with

{, +

m,n= O,?l,Q ,...

m l I n 1 = order of the intermodulation product

The frequency planner have to avoid the intermodulation products flM of falling inside a used receive band.
Because, high-order interrnodulation products have lower levels than those with a loworder, only the very low-order products will be critical for the quality of the network and have to be taken in considerations (generally we only consider 2nd and 3rd order). The frequency planning will take place in this case to avoid these low-order interrnodulation products of falling inside a used receive band. Two different types of interference generated by intermodulation have to be considered in a GSM network:

intraband intermodulation derived from inside frequencies of the network. By avoiding a certain channel separation, intraband intermodulation products are reduced. For GSM 900 the avoided channel separation is 11 2/113 channels for IM3 and 75 channels for IM5 and for GSM 1800 is 237/238 channels for IM3. co-located systems intermodulation that is generated mixing terms from different networks (e.g. TACS-GSM). The intermodulation products for co-located systems must be treated different since these information is not used by F P tools. Several measures are possible to prevent this type of intermodu!ation (221. A careful frequency planning is one of them.
Table 5 remind the spectrum of main used networks and Table 6 gives recommendations for frequency planning depending on the co-located systems: Table 5 Radio Band Spectrum of main used

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Table 6 Recommendations depending on the to-located systems


'
A *

.">'>

:
r

Co-located Systems

Recommendation

GSM900/GSM1 800

Avoid 2"dorder intermodulation products (f,=f,-f,)

GSM900/UMTS

No problem at all

- Avoid 3"' order intermodulation products (f,=2f,-f2)


GSM1 800/UMTS
O R

- Use UMTS frequencies above 1955 MHz


O R - Use GSMl800 frequency band smaller than 40 MHz

Other (e.g. TACS-GSM)

Systems

Avoid low-intermodulation products only if other techniques [7] can't be used to prevent them (e.9. antenna decoupling, filters ....) Example:

- GSM 900/PCS 1900: avoid 2& order intermodulation - GSM 900/EJACS : avoid 3& order intermodulation
- GSM 900/NJACS - GSM 1800/ETACS
: avoid

3& order intermodulation

- GSM 1800/NTM900:

avoid Pd order intermodulation

: avoid

2"d order intermodulation

The frequency planning strategy should be in that way that the IM produds must be avoided. Therefore, each operator must avoid using frequencies combinations that can create IM products in other operator frequency band. 4.2.8

BSlC Allocation Strategy


The BSlC code is set to distinguish between BTS using the same BCCH frequency. The aim of BSlC planning is to use different frequency/BSIC combination on cells having the same BCCH frequency. BSlC is composed from Network Color Code (NCC) and Base Station Color Code BCC (3bits). Therefore, the number of available BSlCs is (BCC): BSlC = NCC (3bits) between 8 (for one NCC) and 6 4 (for 8 NCCs).

The method for BSlC planning is: Group all cells which are using the same BCCH frequency Provide to each cell from group different BSlC code. If there are not enough BSlC codes (more than 64 cells are using the same BCCH frequency: For first and second order neighbours provide different BSlC codes for the others cells, provide same BSlC code to cells which are located as far as possible from each other. The feature of BSlC allocation of A91 55 V6 AFP module is based on this strategy.

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In order to avoid BCCH/BSIC conflicts an intensive BSlC planning is required. Therefore, this step should not be underestimated in cases where not all NCCs (8) are available. 4.2.9 Frequency Planning Activation Mode Frequency plans can be activated in different ways: message mode or Massive Logical Update (MLU) mode (see chapter 4.6). To avoid any schedule problems, the decision of frequency planning activation mode should be clearly taken at the beginning. The modality of frequency planning activation has no impact on frequency allocation process. 4.2.10 Definition of Hot Spot Areas This step is made to give a higher priority for hot spots areas or for customer specified areas. By defining these areas and setting different AFP Weight, the A9155 AFP module uses a higher priority for these areas. The disadvantage is that the areas with lower traffic are sacrificed for areas with high traffic. The AFP Weight factor can be set manually for some specific areas (known areas with high traffic or areas defined by customer). Also to provide different AFP Weight factor for different traffic zones, A91 55 can use a traffic map.

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4.3 Inputs preparation


The preparation of network frequency plan involves a period of intensive work, requiring the careful scheduling of a number of service affecting tasks. The keys of a good frequency plan are reliable input data and carefully settings of the AFP parameters. This chapter is presenting the needed parameters and how they are influencing the frequency allocation process. 4.3.1 Retrieval of Network Design Parameters For a proper frequency planning, network design in the tool must be consistent with the network design of the real network. For this both the physical and the logical parameters has to be imported in the planning tool. Unfortunately not both parameter types are found in the OMC-R
,

Physical parameters for all sites from planning area should be retrieved from audit reports, installation reports or optimization report. The information needed are the sites coordinates, antenna azimuth, antenna type, antenna height and antenna tilt. Logical parameters extracted, from all OMC-R of the sites belonging to the planning area, by AClE interface in csv files. PRC Generator is the tool used to interface between A9155 and OMC-R. This tool converts the files from OMC-R (csv) into A9155 readable format (coo. The csv files from OMC-R are: Cell.csv: contains logical parameters for each cell of the OMC-R Adjacency.csv: contains all the neighbor relations for this OMC-R External0mcCell.csv: contains the OMC-R external cells HOControl.csv: contains handovers the logical parameters related to

RnlAlcotelBSC.csv: contains the parameters related to BSC

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RnlAlcatelSiteManager.csv: contains the topographical information of the sites


RnlBaseBandTransceiver.csv: contains logical parameters for T R X s RnlFrequencyHoppingSystem.~~~: contains regarding the hopping

the

information

RnlPowerControl.csv: contains logical parameters for power control SubNetwork.csv: contains a hierarchy of all csv files. The cof files, which are imported in A9155 are: Cell.cof:contains logical information for all cells Adj.cof: contains neighbor relations for all cells Fhs.cof: contains the frequency hopping sequences Frq.cof: contains the allocated frequencies of all cells Hop.cof: contains the hopping mode and MA10 Pdc.cof: contains the logical parameters for GPRS Using P R C Generator the subsets of logical network parameters are imported in A9155. A detailed explanation on P R C Generator usage is presented in 1211. The most important aspect of this step is that the A9155 inputs, like design data, must be reliable. Before starting the frequency allocation process, it is very important to have in A9155 V6 the network configuration for the day Y (when the frequency plan is implemented). Any changes in this configuration imply the restart of frequency allocation process. Therefore, the customer must be informed that any changes in network configuration delays the implementation of the new frequency plan. 4.3.2 AFP Dry Run After the network design is imported in A91 55, the dry run of AFP should be performed. This is done in order to:

Test the frequency planning tool and predict the possible problems that might appear during frequency allocation Find the optimum R C S for BCCH. The starting point should be 18 frequencies for BCCH. Then in an iterative way, based on interference, it is found the number of BCCH needed for a proper frequency plan (by increasing/decreasing the RCS). Optional the time estimation can be performed. Therefore, after finding the R C S of BCCH and using the remaining frequencies for TCH, the time of frequency allocation can be find.

4.3.3 OMC Neighbors Relationships Clean-up


One problem in most running networks is that there are too many neighbors declared in the OMC-R. One reason is for example when the network is growing, neighboring relations are increasing and no old relation is removed. This leads to an increased number of unnecessary neighbors. On the other hand taking into consideration all neighbors will lead to a bad frequency plan, because too many constraints. Before running the AFF: the unnecessary neighbors must be deleted. Generally the number of neighbors should be as small as possible to make the HO process faster and more reliable and as big as necessary to avoid having interference from strong cells not declared as neighbor. The neighbor relationships reduction is a tradeoff between the need of decreasing the call drop indicators and the available spectrum and seporations. 3DF 01902 201 3 VAZZA

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The solution is to visual check the neighbor relations on the map in A9155. The neighbors can be deleted manually. An optional solution is to use traffic flow measurement (T180) counters to check the unnecessary neighbors. HO attempts between cell couples are reflected by this counter. EasyRNP and SONAR are using TI80 and the HO relationships are sorted according to the number of HO attempts between cell couples. First cell couples with a lower amount of HO attempts will be checked and decide to keep or delete the neighbor relation.

4.3.4 Experience Database The experience database is an important AFP parameter. This step has to be treated carefully, by creating certain constraints for each problematic cell-couples. Field feedback can be used to get an accurate frequency plan. This kind of information can be inserted manually in A1955 in so called "experience matrix" [I 71. By using experience database, AFP takes into account besides standard constraints, like co-cell, co-site and neighbors constraints, as well as the constraints imposed by frequency planner, based on experience (network behavior). The experience matrix is based on a good knowledge of critical cells and known problem in the network. During projects this kind of information are usually summarized by old reports, like anomaly reports, or based on RNP/RNO team experience during network operation. T o add the interference information in the matrix the possibilities are:

List all areas with bad quality due to interference. Select cell couples with high interference and than set a proper channel separation in the experience matrix. Another possibility is to make drive tests and find the areas with high interference. Afterwards for cell couple with interference, a proper channel separation will be set in experience matrix. Using A9155 "worst interferer" feature.This feature finds the interferer sites in the network. This information can be used as it is in the experience matrix or it can be used as input for drive test team to verify the predicted interference.

4.3.5 Prepare Before/After Comparison The before/after comparison is performed in order to quantify the gain of QoS indicators of the new frequency plan. T o see clearly the impact of the new frequency plan, QoS should be measured before and after the frequency plan implementation. During this phase are defined the procedures, the tests to be performed and the relevant statistics in terms of QoS, for this comparison. The overall QoS indicators can be retrieved from OMC-R or measured during drivetests.
>

OMC-R. The indicators checked are Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR) and Call Drop Rate (CDR). In order to see clearly the impact, it has to be taken into account that not all the parameters are referring to the area where the new frequency plan was implemented. The advantage is the possibility to check the overall network quality. Drive tests. To see the improvements of new frequency plan the drive tests are performed, on the same routes before and after implementation, in area where the new frequency plan is changed. The same indicators as presented below are measured.

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At the end of this step, the frequency planner has a clear view on the frequency plan acceptance procedure, the compared indicators and drive tests routes.

4.4 Creation of Frequency Plan


This chapter presents briefly how to set up the AFP parameters to follow the chosen frequency planning strategy. Since this information is tool related all detailed information related to A9155 is detailed explained in [ I 81. 4.4.1 Setting of Parameters to Reflect F P Strategy A91 55 parameters must be set, in order to follow the strategy defined.
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Spectrum Partitioning. For A9155, in case of classical network configuration a cell type with one frequency band for BCCH and one for TCH must be defined. The way to perform this is explained in (181. Frequency Constraints. If there are some frequency usage constraints defined they must be set during this phase. For example if some frequencies must be used in specific areas, these frequencies can be set as fixed and are not touched by AFF! In the same way if some frequencies must be avoided i n some specific areas, they must be set as forbidden, and therefore, not allocated by AFP (181. These parameters setting can are done on cell basis. Experience Matrix. The experience database i n A91 55 relies in exceptional cell pair constraints. It contains cell pairs having a specific channel separation, based on field experience [ I 81. Interference Matrix. Another input for frequency allocation process is the interference matrix. This matrix can be generated by A9155 and is based on predictions. It contains the interference probability between cell pairs. Detailed information about, creation, import and export of A9155 interference matrix can be found i n [ I 81. GSM Frequency Constraints. During this phase, the specific GSM constraints must be set. As explained in [ I 81, co-cell, co-site and neighbor constraints are defined and used by AFP The default values proposed for these constraints are:
co-site constraint a separation of 2 channels co-cell constraint a separation of : 2 channels, from BTS G3 [22] 3 channels, for G2 BTS or less neighbors constraint the separation is 1 channel

>

>

>

>

>

Hot spots or high traffic areas. All cells from these areas will have a higher AFP Weight for frequency allocation process (as explained in 4.2.10).

4.4.2 Run the AFP Frequency planning allocation process is an iterative process. After all input data is available inside the tool, the frequency allocation process is started. All the required parameters to set up the frequency planning are presented in [18].

4.5 Frequency Plan Validation


The validation of frequency plan consists in taking the decision to implement or not the new frequency plan. Using the indicators presented in chapter 0, the new frequency plan is compared with the previous one.

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The validation is done in order to ovoid the implementation of a worse frequency plan. The validation of the frequency plan is done both automatically, in the tool (different analysis), and manually (by RNO team, due to a detailed knowledge of the network). There are several means of evaluating and improve the frequency plan. As explained in chapter 0,the comparison of previous and new frequency plan is made through the next performance indicators:

Interference calculation Constraints violation Visual analysis of frequencies plan Frequency distribution.

More detailed explanation of A91 55 usage can be found in [I 81.

4.6 lmplementation of the new Frequency Plan


lmplementation of the frequency plan is done via OMC-R through the PRC. It can be performed both manually for one to several cases and using external tools.
>

Manually Implementation. The manually frequency plan implementation is used for small networks or to change only some cells. When only microscopic changes ore performed, the PRC can be created manually: by copying parts of the SC to a PRC or enter the changes from a excel list into the PRC. Then the PRC can be activated i n OMC-R via message mode and is more effective. Using External Tools. T o implement the frequency plan for a complete network or for large number of cells (over several BSCs), is recommended to use MLU activation mode. In this case of global changes, the use of a external tool chain for csv file creation is strongly recommended. A91 55 RNP offers with its A9155 PRC Generator Module the possibility to interface with planning data to the open ACIE interface of the Alcatel OMC-R [19].

>

More detailed information about PRC Generator usage can be found in [ I 91.

4.7 Post lmplementation Tasks


After frequency plan implementation, usually there is need for optimization. In this phase the problematic frequencies are changed manually: using joker frequencies (more easy) re-using frequencies from another cells. The network possible problems are found from OMC-R counters/indicators and from drive tests. If RNO is available, its usage is recommended, since it provides a better visualization of OMC-R counters and indicators. 4.7.1 Intensive QoS Analysis In order to check the frequency plan after implementation, intensive QoS analysis must be performed. All problems discovered must be solved immediately. Drive tests have to be performed in the entire area of the new frequency plan. In this way the problemotic areas are found and solved very fast. A9155 has the visualization option feature. Using this feature the possible problems are found very quickly. The optimization solutions are: Using joker frequencies. Problems discovered can be solved very easy and quiclky if joker frequencies have been reserved from the beginning.

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Using MAFA feature. If joker frequencies are not available, finding "clean" frequencies could be useful in order to replace interfered ones. Traditionally, these measurements are obtained through measurement campaigns realized on the field. However, using release 87 and features RMS and MAFA [2], these measurements are available directly from the network for any period of time. Manual optimization. This solution consists in changing manually the frequency plan, while trying to fulfill al imposed constraints. The possible methods to improve the frequency plan for different types of network configuration are presented in the next chapters.
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4.7.2 Update Experience Database All changes performed in the frequency plan must be reflected by the experience database. Keeping an up-to-date experience data, leads to a better automatically created frequency plans in the future. During the frequency plan optimization all the problematic areas or interfered cell couples are discovered. If there are performed any changes in the frequency plan, the new channel separation must be written into experience matrix also.

5 FP PROCESS FOR DUAL LAYER NETWORK


In this chapter only the particularities of micro cell frequency planning related to classical frequency planning are presented.

5.1

FP Strategy

5.1.1 Spectrum Partitioning Dual layer issue from spectrum partitioning point of view can be seen in two modes: continuous micro layer implemented or sporadic use of micro cells, for traffic hot spots coverage.

Sporadic implementation of micro cells. If the micro cells do not create a continuous layer, there is no special case for spectrum partitioning. The frequencies for macro layer are used in the micro layer. The spectrum partitioning strategy is the same as presented in Chapter 4.2.1. Continuous implementation. In this case the frequency spectrum must be partitioned to provide a dedicated frequency band for micro cells. It was seen that a good BCCH planning for micro cell is achieved with a RCS of 7. Since for micro cells it is recommended to use synthesized frequency hopping, due to quality improvement, there is no dedicated bandwidth for micro cells TCH. To assign the macro cellular TCH frequencies to micro cells TCH, without keeping a dedicated band for micro cells, is used the algorithm AIMS (Alcatel Integrated Microcellular Solution) [8]. AlMS is used only if the macro layer is hopping with a reuse of 1x3 (RFH).

A special treatment is made for indoor cells located in very high buildings. The interference in indoor cells at high floors is higher. To overcome this problem a dedicated band has to be kept in before. Usually 3 frequencies are enough for a good indoor frequency plan. If joker frequencies are reserved from the beginning, they can be used also for these indoor cells.

5.1.2 Decision on Frequency Hopping Implementation


It is recommended to use frequency hopping for micro cell frequency planning since micro cells gain more from frequency diversity, than macro cells.

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BBH. The BBH can be deployed in case of micro cells network wide implementation (where there is a dedicated bandwidth for micro cells). Since BBH does not change the frequency plan, there are no changes from classical frequency planning. BBH implementation for micro cell will increase the network QoS only when the number of hopping frequencies is equal or greater than 3. RFH. The advantage of RFH is that allow micro cells to use frequencies from macro cells, except the ones in the umbrella cell (AIMS) [8]. By using frequencies'
from macro layer: o o no need for a dedicated bandwidth for micro cells, except for BCCH planning,. The RCS for TCH is smaller. Having a smaller RCS for TCH lead to an increased traffic capacity.

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For micro cells is recommended to use a reuse 1x l

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The conclusion on strategy used for frequency hopping is presented in the Table 7. Table 7 FH implementation for Micro Cells

Hopping Mode
I

Usage for micro cells


I

Advantages
I

Drawbacks
Higher effort for frequency planning (dedicated bandwidth for micro cells) Requires good cell planning, with small overlap (possible for micro cells)

BBH

Not recommended for less than 3 frequencies in the hopping sequence. Reuse 1x l , using AIMS

Improve network QoS

RFH

Capacity increase while keeping a good QoS

5.2 Inputs preparation


5.2.1 Setting of Parameters to Reflect F P Strategy In case of sporadic implementation of micro cells the frequency planning can be done manually. In case of network wide implementation AFP is used for micro cell frequency planning. This step is performed as described in Chapter 4.4.1.

6 FP PROCESS FOR DUAL BAND NETWORKS


In this chapter only the particularities of dual band frequency planning related to classical frequency planning are presented.

6.1 FP Strategy
6.1.1 Spectrum Partitioning The feature "multiband cell" is available since 86.2. This feature brings a new strategy for dual band networks frequency planning. Therefore, the frequency planning for dual band networks can use two different strategies. One strategy for spedrum partitioning is for dual BCCH solution and the other for single BCCH solution.
>

Dual BCCH. For dual BCCH cells there are no constraints related to spedrum partitioning. The frequency planning process can be seen as two different processes, independent on each other. Therefore, the frequency planning is performed the same as for classical network for each band. Single BCCH. In this case (multiband cell) the BCCH is assigned to a dual band cell only from one band. Therefore, the spectrum partitioning between BCCH and TCH has to be done only in one frequency band. Between BCCH and TCH band a guard band or ioker frequencies must be reserved. Usually the BCCH frequency
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band is the customer classical band, and the preferred band will contain only TCH frequencies. A simple solution is to use one band only for BCCH and the other band for TCH. The advantage is that there is no need for a guard band. An example for single BCCH spectrum partitioning is presented below:

1
GSM 1800

514 514 514 514 51d 51d 518( 51E(

TMF-

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Figure 7 Specfrurn Partitioning Dual Band Single B C C H

7 FP PROCESS FOR CONCENTRIC CELLS


Concentric cells are used as a low cost solution to decrease the blocking rate on congested cells and to deploy temporarily investments in new sites, if traffic growth is moderate. Also concentric cells can be used to free up some frequencies in the macro layer and implement additional TRXs (for example for micro cellular layer). In this chapter the particularities for concentric cells frequency planning are presented.

7.1 FP Strategy
7.1.1 Spectrum Partitioning Concentric cells [9] (1 01 are introduced in the network to: minimize the overall interference to keep the same interference using a smaller reuse cluster size. There are two different cases for concentric cell implementation: hot spot and network wide implementation.

Hot spot implementation is performed only in some specific congested area, in order to increase the number of TRXs, due to capacity reasons. In this case there is no need for a dedicated bandwidth for inner zones of concentric cells and the frequency planning can be done manually. Nefwork wide implementation for concentric cells requires more careful frequency planing. Therefore, in order to have a proper frequency plan, for concentric cells, it is recommended to keep a dedicated bandwidth for inner zones of concentric cells. Typically, 6 or 7 frequencies are enough for inner zone and a reuse of 3 (non consecutive frequencies) can theoretically be achieved on three sectorized cells. Frequencies can be reused between inner zones of any pair of cell if these cells are not on the first ring of neighbors.

For concentric cell network wide implementation, the frequency planning is supported by A91 55 [ I 8.1

8 FP PROCESS FOR H O P P I N G NETWORKS


In this chapter only the particularities of hopping networks related to classical frequency planning are presented.

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8.1 FP Strategy

8.1 .1 Spectrum Partitioning


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BBH. There are no different aspects related to frequency planning and spectrum partitioning for Base Band Hopping. The frequency planning, for these networks, is performed the same as for classical network (Chapter 4.2.1). RFH. In the same way, as for the method described in chapter 4.2.1, a separation between BCCH and TCH frequencies is performed.
The frequency planning for BCCH frequencies is performed in the same way as for classical networks, since these BCCH frequencies do not hop. T o avoid adjacent interference is recommended to keep one channel separation between BCCH and TCH sub-bands. If the planning area contains hopping and non-hopping areas, the available resources have to be divided in hopping and non-hopping frequencies, for TCH carriers. These two sub-bands must have at least one channel separation between them, in order to avoid adiacency interference. The separation between sub-bands can be used afterwards as ioker frequencies.

>

An example for spectrum partitioning in a real network is presented below. This example is taken from Jakarta frequency planning, for Satelindo customer. For this network, there are defined two areas: inner area, very dense, with RFH hopping TCH

Figure 8 Spectrum Partitioning for H o p p i n g Networks


8.1.2 Decision on Frequency Hopping Implementation The primary goal of frequency hopping is to decrease the network interference and therefore, an increased network QoS. One major benefit of frequency hopping is the fading reduction. Fading effects occurs in urban environments due to reflections and diffraction on different propagation paths. Frequency hopping introduces frequency diversity and combats multipath fading: different frequencies experience different fading. Therefore, the mobile experience different fadings at each burst and stay in fading notch for a shorter time. The frequency hopping results in an increased receiver sensitivity under fading conditions and therefore in improved quality in uplink and downlink direction compared to a non-hopping configuration. Since there are defined two hopping modes: BBH and RFH there are different approaches for each of them.
>

BBH. There i s no other aspect related to frequency planning for BBH network than for classical network. The BBH is preferred instead of RFH since the frequency plan of a BBH network includes intelligence by using tools and different algorithms. By using BBH it i s very difficult to increase the traffic capacity and keeping a good QoS. When this point is reached, no capacity improvement is possible it is time to choose RFH. RFH. Usually RFH i s chosen when there is congestion in traffic, there are not available any additional resources for capacity improvement, and there is
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impossible to face any TRX extension. For RFH there is a possibility to increase traffic capacity, with the condition to keep the RFLoad bellow a maximum value. There are different reuse strategies for RFH: 1 *3 and 1'1. The advantages and drawbacks for each type of hopping and reuse are presented in Table 8. Table 8 Hopping Modes Advantages and Drawbacks

Reuse scheme
BBH

Benefits

Drawbacks

Minimum interference frequency diversity

benefits of interferer and

= Higher efforf for frequency planning

Radio Design errors can be hidden by frequency planning

RFH 1x3

Allow o re-use of the hopping frequencies (for the microcells). Ease the transition between hopping area and nonhopping area.

From interference reductnn p.0.v. Need a good design of the network (same teight of the sites, regular azimuth of the antennas, flat area, careful tilt tuning) to be fully efficient. Good cell planning required, little coverage overlap

RFH

From interference reduction p.o.v., the requirement to

1x1

lave same antenna height and a careful tilt tuning is even allowed. iigher as for 1x3, whereas there is no requirement for same azimuth No re-utilization of the hopping frequencies

possible (for example for micro-.lls). More difficult transition b ~ u e e n hopping area and non-hopping area.

A detailed explanation on how to create hopping groups fcr each reuse is explained in (11. Also, the method used in Cape Town to create hop;ing groups is presented in 1 151. In the Table 9 there are presented the improvement ozins, obtained in a running network (Portugal), for different hopping modes. Table 9 Frequency Hopping Modes Comparison

QoS indicators SDCCH drop RTCH assign fail Cali-drop Handover success rate H O causes

Reuse 1x1
1.2% 0.6%

Reuse 1x3
1.0% 0.5 %

Discrete hopping 1.2% 0.6%


1. l % 96.2% Better-cell: 42% Qual HO: 29% Level HO: 23% 68%

Baseband hopping 0.8% 0.4%


0.9% 96.4% ?seer-cell: 41% Z ~ aHO: l 32% --.vel HO: 22% 61%

1. l % 96.2%
Better-cell: 43% Qual HO: 34% Level HO: i9% 54%

1.1 % 98 %
Better-cell: 47% Qual HO: 23% Level HO: 28% n.a.

lnterference
bands

i% in band 1)
HO/coll

0.64

0.76

0.61

0.58

Note: Discrete hopping is like a BBH, but where the BCCH zaes not hop. As i t can be seen from the table a better quality can be pr: . d e d with BBH, while using on environment, the same number of frequencies. These gains are strongly ~ependent cell planning and antenna diversity gain.

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8.1.3 TR-REF-MARK

a n d GPRS-PREF-MARK

Non-GPRS networks In case of Base Band Hopping in non-GPRS networks, the TRX-PREF-MARK is not used, since the goal is to use all frequencies from one cell and hop between them. There is a particularity for Synthesized Frequency Hopping. The parameter TRX-PREFMARK can be used to reduce the R F Load of the cell, by setting a higher priority for BCCH frequencies. Therefore, the traffic is distributed on the BCCH frequency, less interfered, and the R F Load for hopping frequencies is lower. Default value of TRX-PREF-MARK is 0. The proposed values for BCCH is 7, for TCH less interfered 5 and for interfered frequencies the proposed value is 0.

I
8.1.4 RF Load

GPRS networks ST S The GPRS-PREF-MARK and TRX-PREF-MARK will have no impact on P assignment.

The R F Lood (see chapter 0) calculation is evaluated for RFH networks, since for the other networks R F load will be all the time 100%. F Load should be 30-35%, with its As explained in [ l ] and [ I I ] , for reuse 1x3, R maximum value 50% to avoid intra site interference, and for a reuse of 1x1, it must be 10-1 2%, with the maximum value of 16.6%. By using these maximum values, the maximum number of frequencies that can be assigned to a cell are found.

More detailed information on R F Load calculation can be found in [ I ] and [ I I ] . 8.1.5 Frequency Coordination a t the Planning/Country Border Frequency coordination at the planning border

BBH the strategy at the planning border is the same described in Chapter 4.2.6. RFH the strategy is to remove from the FHS (Frequency Hopping Sequence) the frequencies used in the vicinity of the planning border. The problems might appear if the area outside planning border is not hopping and is using the some frequency band for TCH. If there is a good separation between plannina area and the surroundings, the frequency planning dptimization can be done &anually on the planning border. This was the case for Cape Town [ I 51.

Reuse 7x3. In case that the same frequency band is used in both areas, is achieved an easier transition from hopping area to non-hopping area . Reuse 1 x 1 . In case of reuse 1x1, the transition can be done if a dedicated bandwidth is kept for plonning at the hopping border (is like a buffer). The optimization of frequency plan is performed manually, when using RFH. Frequency coordination at the country border
-

For BBH the strotegy at the country border is the same described in Chapter 4.2.6. For RFH: In case that the thresholds presented in chapter 4.2.6 are not exceeded there i s no need for coordinotion

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If the thresholds are exceeded, the strategy is to reniove from the FHS (Frequency Hopping Sequence) the frequencies used on the country border, by the other GSM operator.

8.1.6Frequency Coordination at Co-Existence of Several Systems

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For BBH networks the strategy is the same as described in Chapter 4.2.7. For RFH the forbidden frequencies are calculated like in Chapter 4.2.7. The difference is that the forbidden frequencies are extracted from the FHS (Frequency Hopping Sequence).

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8.2.1Experience Database
The creation of the experience database for hopping networks is the same as for classical network, described in chapter 4.3.4.
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BBH. For BBH networks the experience database is used the same as for classical network, since there is no difference from classical frequency planning.
RFH. In case of RFH, the experience database must be used besides BCCH frequency allocation also during group allocation for hopping TCH.

>

8.3 Creation of Frequency Plan

8.3.1Setting of Parameters to Reflect FP Strategy


AFP parameters settings for hopping networks, is performed the same as presented in Chapter 4.4.1. There is a difference in case of RFH and consists in FHS definition. As described in [18] a new cell type is defined containing the frequency sub-band allocated for hopping TCH (described in spectrum partitioning chapter) and provide the FHS. Before launching the AFF] hopping mode must be set as described in

[I 8 1 .

8.4 Post Implementation Tasks


8.4.1 Update Experience Database
The main difference from the classical network configuration is that for TCH frequencies of RFH network, the experience database is not used. Experience database is used only for BCCH planning. All constraints found, both from BCCH and TCH frequency planning optimization, or some specific channel separation for problematic cell couples must be added in experience matrix.

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9 FREQUENCY PLANNING TOOLBOX


This chapter wants to make a clear view of the context of frequency planning related tools that are avoiloble in the whole Alcatel frequency planning world. The tools used within Alcatel are:
> >

A91 55 Radio Network Planning EasyRNP (which includes Piano tool) SONAR RADAR

> >

A9155 is the only tool that followed Alcatel PLC. The other tools are not officials and can be used internally, if needed, but cannot be provided to the customer. The disadvantage i s the more tools are used, the probability of inconsistency is higher.

9.1 Short Description of A91 55


A9155 RNP is the Alcatel software dedicated to radio network planning for networks working under the GSM and UMTS technology, from initial design to densification and optimization. A91 55 allows the following tasks:

Radio Measurement Evaluotion an d Propagation Model Calibration Radio network Coverage Plonning Traffic/Capacity Analysis Neighborhood Plonning Frequency and BSlC Planning B S System Data Interfacing

The frequency planning process for A9155 is bclsed on Automatic Frequency Planning module (AFP) [ I 81. During frequency allocation process AFP takes into account, besides standard channels separation: Interference matrix, based on coverage predictions Capacity Analysis From frequency planning point of view A9155 is performing:

Enhanced frequency plan analysis for all kind of radio configurations Consistency checks against given resources C/I analysis for overall quality check and local optimizations Efficient visualization functions for manual network check and frequency plan modifications Enhanced algorithms for fast, efficient and reliable resource planning Automatic Frequency planning in non-hopping, base-band and synthesized frequency hopping networks Automatic MAL, MA10 and HSN planning Automatic BSlC planning

Standardized

Interface

to

Alcatel

BS

system

for

frequency

plan

implementation

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A91 55 can be used as a standalone tool also for a frequency planning campaign. This can be seen in Table 10. A91 55 works on Windows NT, 2000 platform.

o <

E
C

Detailed information can A9 155.support@alcatel.de.

be

retrieved

from

A9155

support

team,

,O

9.2 Short Description of EasyRNP


EasyRNP is an additional RNP tool, which can be used on top of A91 55 RNP fool. The Piano (an old frequency planning tool) functionality is included in EasyRNP The tool provides a visual interface for radio network planners to operate RNP data in graphical way. The main application of this tool is seen in operational networks during optimization of: - frequency plan

;
i

2
=

2 E

neighbors planning

EasyRNP features are:

EasyRNP provides a visual and effective interface of site DB to operate RNP data in a graphical way (Piano functionality). TI 8 0 measurement reports can be imported. EasyRNP provides SONAR functionality cell by cell. SONAR functionality is based on T I 8 0 counters and provides the HO traffic between cells. If the H O traffic between two cells is high, the channel separation has to be high as well. Channel separation assignment for the entire network. These results can be exported to A91 55V6 for automatic frequency planning. The possibilities are: a) From scratch, with no T I 8 0 information, based on site co-cell, co-channel and neighbors constrains b) Based on T I 8 0 counters

EasyRNP does not have the feature of automatic frequency allocation. Therefore, the tool can be used only during a frequency plan manual optimization and to create inputs to A91 55 (interference and channel separation matrix). EasyRNP works on Windows NT, 2000 platForm. Detailed information can be retrieved from the support team: Huaron.Cui@alcatel-sbell.com.cn Hor~q~n&n@c~lcatel-sbell.com.c~. --

9.3 Short Description of SONAR


SONAR was developed out of necessity to identify missing neighbors relationships, in the networks. The tool can be used during frequency plan optimization campaigns. SONAR uses a web interface and needs live connection with OMC-R, to have access to weekly and daily H O statistics. Therefore, the tool is not easy to be installed. The tool inputs are:

Neighbor H O statistics Configuration data from OMC-R

The main features of SONAR are: Neighbor analysis a) 1 " order neighbor analysis

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b) 2""rder

neighbor analysis

c) Global neighbor analysis

Automatic frequency ollocation, based on T I 8 0 counters (HO statistics) SONAR works on Windows, Solars and Linux platform and requires Apache Web server and Perl. Detailed information con be retrieved from Richard lvanov and Wayne McDermid, who developed it: Ricliord.lvanov~~i~lcatel.co.za and

\~~l(:vne.N~CCERMiD~2o:c~iel.co.z~1. 9.4 Short Description of RADAR


RADAR is an evolution of SONAR, by including RMS indicators for frequency planning. RADAR uses RMS measurements in order to evaluate the probability of interference between any given cell and all others in the network. This probability is then used to select or allocate frequencies. RADAR is currently a CGI script and can be accessed with a web browser. RADAR relies on a large amount of pre-computed data and requires a database to be populated daily with RMS binary files. In order to facilitate timed data collection and processing, a Linux PC is used. The back-end database is MySQL. RADAR is written in Perl but uses a few Bourne shell scripts for OMC connection and crontab handling. RMS does not by itself provide enough information for a frequency plan, because mobiles that are in dedicated mode on a particular cell, scan only BCCH frequencies defined in the neighbour list. Therefore it is necessary to implement "dummy neighbours" in the network in order to scan all BCCH frequencies, and thus pick up potential interferers cells that are not neighbours. These dummy neighbours are created as external OMC cells with an impossible H O margin (127). The dummy neighbour management i s part of RADAR. As inputs RADAR uses the binary PMRES files of types T I 10, T31 and T180, and the AClE RNL export files. The frequency plan output is in Alcatel PRC format (12 AClE files). RADAR provides the frequency plan faster since it does not contain a validation step, before frequency plan implementation. For more information contact rivanov@alcatel.co.za or wmcdermid@alcatel.co.za

9.5 Tool related FP steps


The table below presents the tools used in each FP process step. The steps which are not tool related were ignored in this table.

Table 10 FP Toolbox
Tasks
1. Analysis of existing FP

A91 55
PRC Generotor module

EasyRNP
Load from xls files

SONAR
AClE Interface

RADAR
AClE Interface

1.1 Download from OMC-R of FP and


neighbourhood plan

1.2 Import 180 counters 1.3 Frequency usage based on T180


counters

v v

v
v

11.4 Determination of FP ~erformoncel


I indicators

I
v

1.4.1 C/I weighted over area 1.4.2 C/I weighted over traffic

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Tasks

A91 55

EasyRNP

SONAR

RADAR

1.4.3 Number of constrains violation

v
Not tool related Not tool related

2. Define Targets

3. Define Strategy
4. Preparation w o r k
4.1 Support for any spectrum partitioning
strategy (different subbands)

v v v

v
Manual exception list

v
Manual exception list

4.2 Treatment of exception sites (fixed


frequencies)

4.3 Possibilities for 4.4 4.5

Frequency Hopping implementation (BBH, RFH) of frequency

v
v
P R C Generator module P R C Generator module Automatic Manual Load from xls files Only manually

BBH and RFH

Implementation coordination solutions Logical parameter system (ACIE)

retrieval from

v v
Automatic Manual

v v
v

4.6 Neighbors retrieval from system 4.7 Neighbors Planning

4.8 OMC Neighbors relationships cleon-up 4.9 TI80 counters consideration 4.10 Experience database consideration 4.1 1
Interference automatically matrix creation

v v

v v
Manual experience matrix

v v v

4.12 Interference matrix creotion monually 4.13 Check Handover Traffic manually
5.Creation of frequency p l a n

v v v v v v v
P R C Generator module Only BCC

v v v v

5.1 Monuol frequency planning 5.2 Automatic frequency planning 5.3 Automatic BSlC planning 6. Frequency p l a n validation 6.1 Determination of F P performance
indicators

v v
v

Only visual check of F P End user QoS indicators End user QoS indicators (after implementation) (after implementation) End user QoS indicators End user QoS indicators (after implementation) (after implementotion) External tool via PRC

6.2 Frequency plans comparison


7. Frequency p l a n implementation

8. Post implementation tasks 9. Reporting

Not tool related Not tool related

10 PROPOSALS O F DIFFERENT FREQUENCY P L A N N I N G CONFIGURATIONS


This chapter is providing some proposal frequency planning strategy based on available frequency spectrum and traffic capacity requests. Table 1 1 is presenting some

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hints but not rules. It is very difficult to give general strategies on this issue, since each project is different and dependent on network environment. Table 11 Proposed FP Strategies

1 Channels

# TRX /cel

Network configuration & inputs

Proposed FP strategy

Calculated values

Observatio

I 2

- Very small bandwidth

Best solution is to deploy RFH reuse 1 xl

1 1 frequencies for BCCH


band/Joker frequency

- 1 frequencyguard

Due to limited bandwidth the traffic capacity can be fulfil by RFH reuse

1x1.
Requires:

- small cells overlap


-effort in planning transition from RFH and nonhopping

- Regular pat?ern - Flat area - Homogenous


best server area

For high traffic capacity deploy reuse 1 x3.

14 frequencies for BCCH

Needs a very good RNP since RCS for BCCH is only

- Same azimuths
- Irregular pattern
- small cell overlap

1 frequency guard band/Joker frequency


hopping TCHs

14.

- 15 frequencies for
Deploy reuse I xl Needs the same antenna height/tilts for all sites. Problems to implement micro cells. Lower interference due to intelligent F P Higher effort in frequency

1 4 frequencies for BCCH

1 frequency guard band/Joker frequency


hopping TCHs

- 15 frequencies for

- Fewer constraints in network design

Deploy BBH

17 frequencies for BCCH

- N o continuous
micro cellular layer

22 frequencies for BBH TCH

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Channels

#
TRX /cel

Network configuration & inputs

Proposed FP strategy

Calculated values

Observatio

52 C4 Y
O

5 2 %

39

- Regular pattern
- cells with big overlaps

Deploy RFH Reuse 1x3

.*=
. L

; g:
6$

E5.5
F" Co " E
o c U f

- Continuous
micro cellular layer

17 frequencies for BCCH

6 frequencies for micro BCCH

'a
2

F E

a 5

$ E

% Bs

-:
39 3

1 frequency guard band/Joker frequency


15 RFH TCHs: reuse 1x3

.-

f f $2 .- ..

Traff RCS~~~~-rno~r~ = ic capacity is RCSBCCH-~;~~,,=~ enhanced by the FARCSTc"=3 continuous RFLoad=40% micro cellular Traffic capacity layer increased due to micro loyer (AIMS) RCSBccH= 17 FARCST~H=~ RFLoad=28.57% 4 ~ with ~ ~ possible / ~ ~ l l Higher traffic capacity up to 4TRX/cell

9-0"_"

= E ' 2 ;

- Isolated micro
cell implementation

Deploy RFH Reuse 1x3

- Regular pattern

- 17 frequencies for BCCH - 1 frequency guard


band/Joker frequency

- Need for traffic


Increase

- 21 RFH TCH: reuse 1x3 - 2


-

RFLoad=42.85%

62

- dense urban area - micro cell layer


implemented

joker frequencies

21 frequencies BCCH macro and TCH micro

7 frequencies for BCCH micro


1 frequency guard band/Joker frequency frequencies for TCH Reuse 1x l

- 31

a R C S B C C H -1 ~ ~ ~ ~ Provides =~ good C/I R C S B C C H -7 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ =level due to RF small Load RFLoad=9.67% Can cope with high ' ~n traffic micro cell layer. T o increase the number of TRX/cell, the BCCH band can be reduced up to 18 TRXs.

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