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Geospatial Intelligence for Defence Preparedness

Dr Ganesh Prusty

Defence Terrain Research Laboratory DRDO, Metcalfe House, Delhi-110 054

GeoINT refers to exploitation and analysis of Satellite imagery, AP and geospatial information to describe, assess and visually depict physical feature and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. Basic input to Terrain Analysis

Terrain analysis consists of interpreting natural and man-made features of a geographic area, together with the influences of weather and climate, to determine their effects on military operations.
----GeoINT is integral part of Intelligence Preparation of Battlefield (IPB) ----play a key role in Military Operations: base for strategic planning & tactical decisions

----GEOINT provides innovative, versatile solutions for meeting todays demanding intelligence requirements and predicting tomorrows future threat environment.

Need of the hour : Rapid-Response conventional field survey untenable Available data is archaic GeoINT of unexplored virgin trans-border terrain Fast changing terrain : frequent updates Data in Digital format: Input to contemporary warfare Demand for high resolution TerraINT Interoperable Data for Network centric warfare

Image Intelligence from space platforms is the solution

MILITARY REQUIREMENTS: DRDO Endeavour


Topographic/Terrain Mapping Visualization- Strategic Planning Terrain (scene) Matching for cruise missile guidance War Gaming- Tactical operations, inter-visibility for optimal positioning X-country trafficability Assessment Training Simulators for mission planning & rehearsal Cover & Concealment planning Natural (Geological) hazards result in changed surface topography

Geospatial Technology for Military Application


GeoINT Level-3 GeoINT Level-2
Military Requirements Geo-visualization: Strategic Planning Trn Scene Matching War Gaming Training Simulator Going maps: Mission Pln ground water potential Hazard Mitigation
Cover & Conceal. planning

GeoINT Level-1
Parameters Terrain Relief Land use/land cover Surface water Soil characteristics Landforms Vegetation Soil Moisture

Terrain Intelligence Contour / micro-relief


Slope

Slope aspect Pattern -features Texture - features State-of-the-ground Load bearing capacity Shear strength forest cover/agriculture geology geomorphology Hydrology Hazard Potential Mapping

Target Identification Line of sight Hazard Susceptibility Mapping Landing zones Field of fire Amphibious crossing

Oblique Ariel Photography

Advantages of vertical over oblique aerial photographs present approximately uniform scale throughout the photo and making measurements (e.g., distances and directions) easier and more accurate.

constant scale throughout a vertical photograph, the determination of directions (i.e., bearing or azimuth) can be performed in the same manner as a map.
easier to interpret, tall objects (e.g., buildings, trees, hills, etc.) will not mask other objects. simple to use photogrammetrically as a minimum of mathematical correction is required. To some extent and under certain conditions (e.g., flat terrain), may be used as a map if a coordinate grid system and legend information are added.

Stereoscopic study is also more effective

Advantages of oblique over vertical aerial photographs covers much more ground area than a vertical photo taken from the same altitude and with the same focal length.

If an area is frequently covered by cloud layer, there may be enough clearance for oblique coverage.
more natural view because we are accustomed to seeing the ground features obliquely, will be more recognizable because the silhouettes of these objects are visible. Objects that are under trees or under other tall objects such as ridges, cliffs, caves, etc., may not show on a vertical photograph if they are directly beneath the camera. Determination of feature elevations is more accurate Because oblique aerial photos are not used for photogrammetric and precision purposes, they may use inexpensive cameras.

Terrain Analysis Applications in tactical operations


Area analysis study Line of Communication (LOC) Cover & Concealment Cross Country Movement (CCM) Line of Site and Zone of Entry Geo-Visualization Flood modeling for strategic perception Mission planning & execution Geo-environmental analysis Decision Support System for hazard mitigation

Input Data Resolution Dictates the Feature Scale

D E M

DTED 30m C O N T O U R

Cartosat (5m)

Worldview (2m)

Contours cannot be generated

Improvement in Elevation Contour Resolution

Input Data Resolution Dictates the Feature Density

Cartosat1

For mapping 1:25K

For mapping 1:5K Worldview

INPUTS FOR GIS

Geographical Information System

Digital Elevation Model (DEM)


DEM are the terrain elevations at regularly spaced horizontal intervals, i.e., a grid of regularly spaced elevations. DEM reconstruction from Satellite Imagery InSAR Radargrammetry Stereogrammetry

Clinometry

BandF

Cartosat 1 stereo pair

BandA

Reconstructed DEM of Ladakh test Site

Comparison & Fusion of DEMs Derived From Multi-date and Multi-sensor Satellite Data Sources
DEM is the key to all scientific research related to earth surface. Elevation modeling has become an important part of geo-spatial intelligence required for Military Operations & Planning. However, the data need to be contiguous. Optical stereo mapping depends on appropriate weather & illumination conditions. Sometime it excludes certain region of earth temporarily. Radar-grammetry present an alternative due to its cloud penetration capability. Optical data is available with higher resolution, whereas, Radar data mostly available with lower resolution. Synergistic use of optical & SAR data for DEM reconstruction can facilitate contiguous mapping and enhance the accuracy.

Scientific Rationale

1. DEM reconstruction 2. Co-registration & DEM normalization 3. Void filling 4. Accuracy assessment 5. DEM fusion based on weighted average (correlation image) Expt-1 with multi-date same sensor data with different cloud localization Expt-2 with multi-polarization data Expt-3 with multi-sensor data having different resolution and characteristics 6. Validation

Model Development
Corr Img-C1 DEM-1 Ortho Img-O1 Co-registration Ortho Img-O2 DEM-2

Corr Img-C2

Normalisation D1 MaskedDEM-1 (D3) Demarcation of cloud/shadow regions

Normalisation MaskedDEM-2 (D4) D2

If C1=C2=0 then D1 else [(D1*C1)+(D2*C2)] / (C1+C2) If D3<0 then D2

If D4<0 then D1
Fused DEM

Validation

Reconstruction of DEM & Ortho-rectification of PAN image

2008

DEM

Correlation Img

PAN-Ortho

2009

DEM

Correlation Img

PAN-Ortho

Fusion of Multi-date DEMs

2008

Fusion

Statistical observations 2009


DEM Minimum Maximum Mean Standard Deviation

2008
2009 Fused DEM

256
242 388

953
921 950

587.28
587.95 588.52

114.66
112.524 112.67

Results
100000 80000 DEM2008

DEM2009

No of Pixels

60000 Fused DEM 40000 20000 0 350 450 550 650 750 850

Elevation

Elevation Histogram
Error Standard Deviation

12 10 8

DEM 2008
10.135
10.178 9.418 8.737 8.091 8.107 8.569 7.861 7.567 7.706

6
6.326 6.374 4 2 0 Low

DEM 2009
DEM Fused

Medium High Relief Category

All

Accuracy Assessment

Multi-sensor DEM Fusion: Reconstruction

Cartosat

Radarsat

DEM

Correlation Image

Model Developed

Cartosat

Radarsat

EITHER $n7_norm_radarsat IF ( $n12_masked==0. ) OR float (($n12_cartosat * $n13_c_score) + ($n7_norm_radarsat * $n5_r_score)) / float ($n13_c_score + $n5_r_score) OTHERWISE
Fusion

Fused DEM

Accuracy Assessment
800000 700000 600000 500000

Cartosat
400000 300000 200000

radarsat Fused

100000
0 -200 -100 0 100 200 100 90 80 70 60 91.541 74.392 47.583

Error Histogram

Cartosat
73.871 72.071 50.353

SD

50 40 30 20 10 0 Valley 45.402 68.274 53.955

Radarsat Fused

Mt Slp Category Ridges Relief

31.704 60.389 45.808

All

Accuracy assessment based on Relief categories

Geo-Visualization

N
Teram Shehr Group
Saltaro Hills Teram Shehr G.

Texture based Modeling and Visualization System DTM Generation Digital database creation Terrain skin generation

Feature Extraction +Merging

Enhanced DEM texture Image

3D Visualization Engine

Design of process flow

DEM

TIN Modeling

DTM

Satellite Imagery

Topographical Map

Texture Tile

Geo-visualized model

Trafficability Potential / Going Maps

GM for Tracked Vehicle (L) and GM for Wheeled Vehicle (R)

Texture based 3-D visualization System

SOIL MOISTURE INVERSION MODEL


Test Sites: Desert, Runn, Coastal Plain, Alluvial plain & Cold desert

Remote Sensing Inputs


Synchronized Field Same period VIR Campaigns band data

SAR (MW) data

Data Processing
Terrain Variables
Approach Strategies
Multi-polarization strategy Multi-incidence angle Change detection strategy

Signature Extraction

Model Building

SM estimation and Mapping

Soil Moisture Mapping


=1-10% =11-20% = 21-30%

Data input Multi incidence angle SAR Multi polarized SAR Surface roughness

Moisture Mapping System

Soil Moisture temporal dynamics: Inversion Model Based on Microwave RS


Jan_04

Feb_04 Oct_03

Apr_03 Apr_04

Data: RADARSAT SAR

Also have Agriculture application

TPMS: Automatic Generation of Terrain Parameters- Soil Texture Mapping


AREA DIAMOND HARBOUR

Technique: Rough Set Theory & CBR hybridization


SANDY CLAY LOAM SANDY CLAY SAN.C.LOAM

SANDY LOAM
SILTY LOAM SILTY CLAY SIL.C. LOAM CLAY LOAM

Automatic Terrain Feature ExtractionLanduse Feature


Features Extraction using Chip Mining approach Technique UsedRough Set theory

Better Accuracy achieved than statistical techniques of standard I/P software

Automated extraction of Landforms from Multi-spectral imagery

AREA ANALYSIS STUDY


Area details Physiographic Setting Geological Set-up Terrain Characteristics Trafficability Analysis with Maps Military Potential Camouflage and concealment Movement of Men and Animal Camping Sites and Dropping Zones Areas of Artificial Triggering Areas susceptible to inundation

Going Map IMAGE

Cross country Movement (CCM)


Trafficability potential of the denied or otherwise inaccessible areas.

An assessment of trafficability requires knowledge of soil types (which are in turn controlled by the underlying bedrock type); the physical, chemical, and biological soil forming processes at work; and meteorological conditions. Creation of computer expert systems that will be able to combine map layers showing roads, soil types, topography, rivers, vegetation, and land use to produce probabilistic estimates of trafficability for specific vehicle types and weather conditions. Terrain is classified into three categories based upon trafficability: go, slow-go, and no-go.

Natural Habitat Characterization: Turtle rookery dynamics using multi-temporal & multi-spectral RS data

Video Clip

Nov.1988

Mar.1991

Jan1997

Nasi sandbar Ekakula spit Satabhaya gap

Feb.1998

Mar.2001

Mar.2004 Apr.2003

MAGIC: Progressive change of landforms configuration, evident from historical satellite datasets

Set of 7 multi-sensor reference data

PAN LISS 3

PAN

Acquiring Timely Tidal measurement for each Images from Indian Tidal Tables

Change detection

Data fusion

Land-water Delineation

Elevation Leveling & Contouring

Shoreline Extraction

01-01-97

Reference Shoreline (1.69m ref. level) Surfacing for DEM Classification (20 classes)

Target Shoreline (1.68m tide level)

Process flow of Tide Elevation Normalized Change Detection: Nasi sandbars

Turtle rookery dynamics characterization using multi-temporal & multi-spectral RS data


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Bar turtle emergence in lakhs

% surface area change with respect to reference year Surface area change wrt reference year %

70 60 50

70%
6.59 6.72

6.95 6.20

6.50

6.80

4.50 3.84 3.40 2.90 2.98 2.30

40 30 20 10 0 0 0 10 0 20

30

40

50

-10 -20 -30

Time period in number of months since Nov.1988

60

70

80

0 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

-30%

Turtle nesting emergence in relation to surface area dynamics of Nasi barrier bar

1999 Nasi I

2000 Nasi I

2001 Nasi I

1999 Nasi II

2000 Nasi II

2001 Nasi II

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Nasi I and Nasi II barrier bars indicating effective nesting surface area above highest high tide line of the season

Estimation of dune celerity and sand flux using Cartosat-1 images: A case study of Gadra, South Rajasthan, India

Study of dune migration in the dynamic desertic environment is of immense importance for military planning and operation. The Western sector of India shares a strategic international boundary. Since it consists of the dunes which are dynamic, dune celerity and sand flux studies are vital Geospatial Intelligence.

DEM Reconstruction and Co-registration

Residual Report of DEM reconstruction and orthorectification


2010 Total no. of tie points RMSE 43 0.665 2011 31 0.87

Residual Report of 2010 and 2011 registration


2010 & 2011 Total no. of Ground Control Points RMSE 23 0.43

Correlation and Dune Migration


Horizontal ground displacements are retrieved from the sub-pixel correlation of the pre and post-orthorectified images. Image correlation is achieved with an iterative, unbiased processor that estimates the phase plane. This process leads to two displacement images, each representing one of the horizontal ground displacement components (East-West and North-South)

Vector Field showing directional trend of displacement (left)

Euclidean Displacement Map

Ortho Image

DEM

2010

2011

Euclidean Displacement Map

Results
Accuracy Assessment
SNR
Measure of quality of EDM (m) correlation performed Sand Flux(m3/m/day) For our study pixels < 0.9 Celerity (m/day) SNR were excluded because of noise
Indices

Area1
Mean 1.2959 0.0141 0.0035 SD 0.8813 0.0384 0.0024

Area2
Mean 1.2079 0.0171 0.0033 SD 0.8878 0.03409 0.0024

Precision of correlation
To validate the correlation results observations are taken in the inter-dunal region where the displacement is supposed to be minimum.

Dune elevation accuracy

map

Calculated by seeing the variation of the reconstructed DEM with a reference The standard deviation was found to be 2.5m.

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Decision Support System for Landslide mitigation

WATER : INDIAS NEW BATTLEGROUND (TerraINT as Force Multiplier) Geo- politics on main river systems- Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra AGRICULTURE Per-capita demand
WATER Demographic factors Climate change

Industrialization Irrigation Energy (hydro-power) Urbanization

HOSTILE NEIGHBOURS

Trans-border Rivers: Indo-Pakistan border


Control of the River Jhelum by India Strategic edge to India and serious threat to Pakistan

Trans- Border Rivers: Indo- China Border


Tibetan Plateau source of Indus, Brahmaputra and Satluj rivers.

China Hydro-Hegemony in South Asia Proposed Projects in TAR


Tibet water tower- supply 25%world Diversion of trans-border river water: N-S Link Using water as weapon: deny (drought)/ oversupply (flood) Planned/executed 3 Major Dam Systems near IB Indus, Sutlej & Bramaputra: Indo-China trans-border rivers Present study: Flooding due to artificial triggering

Motuo (U Bend)

FMSP: Inundation mapping


(in case of artificially triggered flood event)
TEST SITE: Trans- boundary River Siang River characterization: Field input & RS

Scene Modeling using Remote sensing data


Geometric data input: Flood plain, channel c/s, discharge, channel roughness Modeling Envn: HEC-RAS, ArcGIS, CCH2D, River2D Scene Modeling (RS data) Flood plain DEM & Channel cross section Boundary Initial Conditions

Lead hr with dam burst Max flow depth for peak discharge

Hydrodynamic Modeling (Numerical and Physical)

MSS Imagery(23.5 m)

Cartosat-1 DEM (20m)

Field Photograph: 14th- - 25th Mar10

Depth, Velocity, Discharge Inundation Area GIS Integration

Flood Inundation Map

3D visualized model

Collaborators: IIT-G & IIT-K

Steady/unsteady flow: Physical Model


(Hydraulics Laboratory at IIT, Kanpur)

Great U Bend being exploited by China

Simulation Results of 1D- Steady flow conditions


Longitudinal Profile of the river Maximum flow depth for peak discharge

Lead Hour at different locations

Simulation Results of 1D- Unsteady flow conditions


Initial and boundary condition for simulation : Normal depth as 0.004 m
Channel velocity at 80,000 cumecs

Hydraulic depth variation:

GeoINT: supporting military operations

Electro-Optical
IMINT Mapping

RADAR/IFSAR
Night/Day DTM

Multi/Hyper Spectral
Camouflage detection Terrain classification

GeoINT typical scenarios

Mission Planning & Execution


Problem: Where can I land my humanitarian assistance team?
HELICOPTER LANDING ZONES

Must consider slope, vegetation, obstacles, and proximity to Lines of Communications

OBJ

DEM Generation

Geospatial Intelligence Mission


Digital Elevation Models (DEM): Reconstruction & fusion

COK

Ortho image for Thematic Mapping: Natural & man-made feature extraction
DEM derivatives contours, spot ht, slope and slope aspect Flood modeling for strategic perception Situational Awareness & Analysis System (SAAS) S/W : GeoINT analysis and 3D Geovisualization GeoINT products for Tibet & Myanmar (400km depth, 12.7lac Sq Km)

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