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Chapter 1 Transport 1.

Circulatory system - distribute oxygen & nutrient - remove waste product - protect body from disease

Cardiovascular system
Leucocytes - colourless, irregular shape - produce in bone marrow & lymph nodes - able to squeeze throught blood capillaries pores Granulocytes - granulor Neutrophils - 3-5 lobed nucleus - phagcytosis of bacteria platelets - lifespan 7 days - irregular shape - produce in bone marrow - destory by liver & spleen Agranulocytes - non-agranular cytoplasm

erythrocytes - lifespan 120 days - produce in bone marrow - large TSA/V - rapid diffusion of oxygen - biconcave dics shape & flexible -consist heamoglobin, combine with oxygen to form oxyheamoglobin & carbon dioxide to form carbaminoheamoglobin

Basophils - S-shape nucleus - cure inflammation & allergic reaction

Eosinophils - double-lobed nucleus - cure inflammation & allergic reaction

Lymphocytes - rounded nucleus - produce antibodies

Monocytes -bean-shaped nuclues - phagocytosis of bacteria

Plasma - contain salts, digested food, vitamin, proteins (albumin- osmotic balance), enzyme & hormones - Haemolymph (invertebrates) transport water & insoluble salts through haemocytes Hearts - contract to pumps blood & relax to receive blood 1. Oxygenated blood enter left atrium via pulmonary veins, Deoxygenated blood enter right atrium via vena cava. Both atria contract & push blood to ventricles through tricuspid (right) & bicuspid (left) valve. 2. Ventricles contract & pump oxygenated blood to aorta & deoxygenated blood to pulmonary arteries blood through semi-lunar valve Left ventricle thicker than right to pump blood the every body parts Valve to prevent backflow of blood & to allow blood flow in a direction Pressure gradient (produce when) - right ventricle pumps blood to lungs while left ventricle pumps to the aorta - Contraction of skeletal muscle cause vein to contract Semilunar valves in vein - ( return blood to heart & prevent backflow of blood) Blood pressure A force of blood exerted on the wall of arteries -Systolic pressure (120 mmHg) when ventricles contract - Diastolic pressure (80 mmHg) when ventricle relax Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Negative Feedback mechanism of blood pressure Person in shock Blood volume increase Baroreceptor less stimulated increase rate of impulses to medulla oblongata that send impulses to effector 1. Cardiac muscle & smooth muscle relax 2. Blood flow resistance decrease 3. Heart beat rate decrease 4. Vasodilation occurs ( widening of blood vessel) Blood pressure decrease

Person injured or do vigorous exercise Blood volume decrease Baroreceptor stimulated - decrease rate of impulses to medulla oblongata that send impulses to effector 1. Cardiac muscle & smooth muscle contract 2. Blood flow resistance increase 3. Heart beat rate increase 4. Vasoconstriction occurs (narrowing of blood vessel) Blood pressure increase

Insects (open circulatory system) Vessels site of chemical exchange Haemocoel consist haemolymph Heart (1 or more) pump heamolymph into vessel Ostia open when heart relax to allow heamolymph to flow through (consist valve) close when heart contract Fish ( single circuit closed circulatory system) 1. Blood leave the ventricle to gill capillaries, gaseous exchange occur, then flow into a vessel to systemic capillaries. Carbon dioxide diffuse out & oxygen diffuse in to blood then return to atrium through vein Amphibians (double circuit closed circulatory system) 1. Oxygenated blood from lung& skin enter left atrium, Deoxygenated blood from body enter right atrium. Both atria contract & push blood to a ventricle. 2. Ventricles contract & pump mixed blood to pulmocutaneous circulation (lung & skin) & systemic circulation (body). Mammal & Bird (double circuit closed circulatory system) 1. Oxygenated blood from lungs enter left atrium, Deoxygenated blood from body enter right atrium. Both atria contract & push blood to ventricles, then contract & pump oxygenated blood to systemic circulation via aorta & deoxygenated blood to pulmonary circulation via pulmonary arteries Blood does not mix- increase blood pressure & speed up delivery of oxygen to body. Mechanism of blood clotting 1. When blood vessel damaged, platelets exposed to collegen fibres & release clotting factors that cause the platelet sticky & release thromboplastin to convert prothrombin to thrombin with calcium & vitamin K. Thrombin act as enzyme to convert fibrinogen to fibrin that form sticky net of fibres & traps red blood cell. Heparin chemical that inhibits clot formation Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Importance 1. Prevent excessive blood loss 2. Prevent microorganism entering 3. Maintain blood pressure & circulation of blood in a closed circulatory system Haemophilia - Lack of clotting factor that cause excessive bleeding - caused vy recessive gene in X chromosome Thrombosis - Blood clot (thrombus)within blood vessel - lead to stroke( in brain) & heat attack (in heart), Deep vein thrombosis (in legs ) Lymphatic system (single way & closed system) - to fight against disease - to produce electrolyte balance - to transport lipid from digestive system 1. Lymph / Interstitial fluid - squeezed from blood plasma into intercellular spaces by high pressure of arterial end - consists water, dissolved nutrient & gases, hormones, proteins & waste product - flowing supported by interstinal movements, single-way valves, contraction of skeletal muscle & blood pressure change during respiration . Lymph form intercellular space flow into lymphatic capillaries which merge into lymphatic vessel (lymphatics), then into right lymphatic duct to right subclavian vein & thoracic duct to left subclavian vein. 2. Lymph nodes - In neck, groin & abdomen Functions: 1. produce & store lymphocytes 2. Protect body against infection (swollen when infected) 3. Oedema ( excessive accumulation of lymph in intercellular space) -cause by blocking of lymphatic vessel Blood Plasma - in blood vessel - contain most protein - Red & white blood cell & platelets - Low lipid content Interstitial fluid - in intercellular spaces - contain less protein - leucocytes - Low lipid content Lymph - in blood vessel - contain more protein - leucocytes - high lipid content

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First line of defence

- non-specific -prevent pathogen entering the body

Second line of defence Third line of defence

- non-specific - phagocytes (neutrophil & monocyte) - specific defence

Mucous membrane - traps pathogen in air - secretes mucus with lysozyme to kill pathogen Skin (Tough) - secrete sebum to form protective film & inhibits pathogen growth - sweat contain lysozyme to kill pathogen Hydrochloride acid in stomach - to kill pathogen Tears & saliva contain lysozyme to prevent pathogen invasion Phagocyte attracted to chemical released by pathogen, then engulf & ingest it with pseudopodia. Lysosome release lysozyme to digest pathogen & the digested product is release from the cell. Antigens - a protein that immune system recognize as foreign - stimulate specific lymphocytes to produce antibody (destroy by lysozyme) - binding site highly specific Lysis lysin bind & disintegrate pathogen Opsonisation opsonin bind pathogen & act as marker for phagocyte to recognized & engulf it Agglutination agglutinin bind & clump pathogen so it cannot reproduce & capture by phagocytes easily Neutralisation antitoxins neutralizes toxin molecule & prevent from attaching to body cell Passive Immunity (temporary) individual obtain ready- make antibodies Natural acquired Artificial acquired - through breastfeeding - injection of antiserum (colostrum) & mother ( laboratory animal anitibodies cross antibodies) placenta to foetus - Tetanus, rabies, hepatitis & snake bites - Immediate immunity - After or have a high risk of infection - does not produce antibodies - way of prevention - second injection to boost antibodies production

Active Immunity (permenant) individual produce own antibodies Natural acquired Artificial acquired - when individual - injection of vaccine recovered from a (weakened pathogen) disease - through immunization & vaccination - rubella, mumps & poliomyelitis - Delay immunity - Before infection - produce antibodies - way of treatment - second injection to fight disease

AIDS - cause by HIV virus that destroy lymphocytes - bind, insert its viral DNA, so that host cell produce new viruses that released into bloodstream - cause immunity weak & vulnerable to disease - transmitted by sexual intercourse, blood products, shared syringe needles, pregnancy & breastfeeding

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Cardiovascular disease 1. cause by dysfunctional heart condition & blood vessel 2. Atherosclerosis - fatty plaque( cholesterol) form & harden on arteries inner surface. - cause arteries not elastic & narrow - Heart attack when coronary arteries clot & stroke when cerebal arteries clot Proper Nutrition Healthy lifestyle - Avoids high fats & cholesterol food - Dont smoke ( improve heart functioning & - eat more soluble-fibre food (lower cholesterol level) lower cholesterol level - eat more furit & vegetable( promote healthy blood - Often exercise circulation) - Maintain balance diet Xylem - transport water & dissolved mineral salts (continuous from root to leaves) 1. ligninfied wall- support plant, increase water adhesion 2. perforated pits allow water & mineral salts pass sideways 3. Tracheids smaller & longer vessels than xylem - transport organic substances 1. Sieve tubes - transport organic substances through translocation 2. Companion cells provide nutrient & ATP to sieve tube 3. Parenchyma - store food substances Transport of organic substances in phloem ( to growing & storage region) - ensure plant survival - To store & convert sucrose into other sugar Water vapour lost through in plant. (Site: Stomata, Cuticle & Lenticels) 1. Sun heat up water & evaporate into spaces in between mesophyll cell & diffuse out through stomata to less saturated atmosphere air 2. Osmosis between mesophyll cell cause water flow from xylem to outermost cells - keep plant cool - prevent plant witting by maintaining cell turgidity - help to supply water - help to transport & absorb water & mineral salts

Phloem

Translocation (Importance) Transpiration

(Importance)

Monocotyledons stem Dicotyledons stem Parenchyma store food substances Epidermis maintain plant shape & secrete waterproof cuticle Monocotyledons root Dicotyledons root Parenchyma store food substances Sclerenchyma in pericycle support the root Potometer measure water uptake rate Bubble photometer- measure water loss during transpiration Factors affect transpiration rate temperature high - increase water evaporation rate light intensity high- stimulate stomata opening & photosynthesis rate relative humidity low - increase water evaporation rate (difference of water concentration between sub-atomal spaces & atmosphere) air movement fast- remove water vapours fast Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Guttation Root pressure Cohesion Adhesion

- Root pressure push water out of hydathodes - in humid morning ( air too saturated for water droplets to evaporate from the leave ) - a force pushing water from root to stem with ATP used attraction force between same (water) molecule attraction force between different molecule

Transport mechanism First 1. Root hairs absorb water through osmosis as it is hypertonic to soil water. 2. Water dilute cell sap & become hypotonic. 3. Water then passes from cell to endodermis 1. Endodermis secrete mineral ions into xylem & create water potential gradient & root pressure to flow water through osmosis

Second 1. Water evaporate during transpiration create transpirational pull from root 2. Forces of cohesion & adhesion of water help water draw up to leave 1. Guard cell turgid when stomata open & flaccid when stomata close, which response to light intensity & carbon dioxide level.

Guard cell - control transpiration rate & regulate gaseous exchange Opening of stomata Closing of stomata Guard cell potassium ions & glucose level increase, Guard cell potassium ions & glucose level decrease, became hypotonic & water potential decrease, became hypertonic & water potential increase, water move in through osmosis, became turgid. water move out through osmosis, became flaccid.

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Stimulus : Change that trigger body responses Response : Reaction towards a stimulus Coordination : regulation of body activities Internal Stimuli : Blood osmotic pressure & glucose level External Stimuli : Light, temperature, touch, pressure & sound Chapter 2. Pathway of nerve transmission Stimulus is detected by receptors & send impulses along afferent neurons to integrating centre for analysis, then send impulses along efferent pathway to effector for response. Negative feedback corrective mechanism in opposite direction of environment change
Nervous system

Central Nervous System - proses, analyse & store information & start response

Peripheral Nervous System - relay signals between CNS & body parts

Autonomic nervous System Brain - Primary integration organ Spinal Cord - control reflex action - connect brain & PNS - conduct impulses to & from the brain Sympathetic System - prepare for activity ( Spinal Nerve) - control involuntary action - has motor parts (efferent neurons & effector)

Somatic Nervous System - control voluntary action - has sensory & moror parts

Parasympathetic System - prepare for relazation ( 12 Carnial & 31 Spinal Nerve)

Human Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Medulla Oblongata Spinal Cord Central Canal Grey Matter White Matter Ventral root Dorsal root Spinal nerve

- control voluntary action, memory & intelligence ( action, hearing & tasting) - left side control right body movement & vise-versa - control body balance & movement - give awareness of touch, pain & temperature (sense) - control homeostasis, blood pressure, body temperature, sleep & thirst - Produce hormones & control growth, reproduction & osmoregulation - control involuntary action, act as reflex centre

- contains cerebrospinal fluid ( supply nutrient & act as shock absorber) - maintain electrolyte balance in CNS - contain neurons & dendrites - contains myelin-coated axons of neurons that surrounds grey matter - contain efferent neurons & conduct impulses from spinal cord to effector - contain afferent neurons & conduct impulses from receptor to spinal cord - Ganglion ( place afferent neurons clustered) - contain ventral & dorsal roots

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Neurons Dendron / Dendrites Cell body Axon Synaptic terminal Myelin sheath

- conduct impulses - provide large surface area to receive information - integrate electrical signals & coordinate metabolic activities - transmits impulses from cell body to synaptic terminal - transmits impulses from neurons to effector or other neurons - speed up the impulses transmission & protect axons Interneurons - from afferent to efferent neurons - Grey matter - CNS ( not myelinated) Efferent neurons -from CNS to effector - Grey matter - whole body

Impulses Cell Body Location

Afferent neurons - from receptor to CNS - Dorsal root ganglion - whole body

Transmission of Information across synapses Impulses form presynaptic neurons stimulate synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft/ synapse & diffuse to dendrite of post-synaptic neurons that excites to produce impulses
-Converts electrical > chemical > electrical Signal, contain mitochondria (generate energy for transmission)

Function of synapse 1. control & integrate impulses 2. ensure impulses transmission in one direction Voluntary action under control of will Cerebral cortex of cerebrum Fast or Slow aware action is taken Skeletal muscles Involuntary action Not under control of will Medulla Oblongata & hypothalamus Fast unaware action is taken Skeletal muscles & Gland

Characteristic CNS Reaction Awareness Effector

Reflexes - involuntary response to stimulus (rapid & automatic) Importance : 1. Protect body from danger 2. Coordinate muscular function 3. Act as automatic response 4. Provide response before feeling pain Reflex Arc - nerve pathway that produce reflex action

Knee-jerk reflex / Patella reflex - Knee tendon is tapped by rubber hammer. Quadriceps muscle stretched & send impulses along afferent neurons to spinal cord & back to efferent neurons to then cause the leg jerk forward.

Burns cause receptors to send impulses along afferent neurons to spinal cord for analysis, then relayed to interneurons & sent along efferent neurons to effector. Cause triceps relax & biceps contracts to pull hand away.

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Parkinsons Disease 1. Accelerating disorder of CNS due to low level of dopamine (neurotransmitter) Alzheimers Disease 1. Neurological disorder that cause increasing loss of memory ( forgetful, confused, cant read & write ) Nervous system voluntary & involuntary action electrical signal neurons fast reversible Endocrine system involuntary action chemical signal bloodstream slow irreversible

controls signals conveyed via reaction effect of action

Transmission of Hormones Stimulus affects endocrine secretes hormones into bloodstream to target organ, then bring response. Hormones : chemical produced that conveyed thought out organism & produce response in target cell Chapter 3 Growth : irreversible process with increase in mass, sixe & number of cells Development: Change in shape, function & complexity Growth Stages Cell Division 2n, n : number of mitosis Cell enlargement Cell elongation : vacuolation in plants ( intake water to increase size & volume) assimilation in animal ( intake of amino acid) Cell differentiation Differs from each other with specific function Dry mass: water content removed ( heating above 100oC until the mass is constant) Growth curve in insects (egg > instar > Imago) - discontinuous growth (ecdysis during instar) - old exoskeleton shed, new exoskeleton grows meanwhile enlarge body volume. When exoskeleton hardens, ecdysis stop Primary growth in plants ( cell elongation of root & shoot) 1. Meristem cell undergoes mitosis (cell division) - replace worn out root cap (root) - give rise to leaf primordial which grow into leaves (shoot) 2. Cell elongation through vacuolation 3. Cell differentiation to give rises to phloem, xylem, epidermis & sclerenchyma

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Secondary growth ( increase in diameter of plant) 1. lateral meristems cell ( vascular cambium ) - divide to form cambial cells that link together into cambium rings, - differentiate into secondary phloem (from outside cambium ring) & xylem (from inside cambium ring) - causes primary phloem pushed outwards & xylem pushed inwards, & form vascular tissue. (cork cambium) - divide to form secondary cortex (inside cork cambium) & cork (outside cork cambium ) Undergoes secondary growth Dicotyledons large present present woody Long Does not undergoes secondary growth Monocotyledons small absent absent non-woody short

Plants Sixe Vascular Cambium cork cambium Stem Lifespan

Annual growth ring - ( growth of tree in 1 year) Importance of Primary Growth 1. To achieve maximum length 2. To obtain sunlight 3. Form xylem (carries water & minerals) 4. Form phloem (carries organic substances) 5. Support plant with lignified xylem Importance of Secondary Growth 1. Increase plant diameter 2. Support & Strengthen the plant 3. Produce more vascular tissue 4. Thick bark decrease water evaporation 5. Increase success of seed propagation

Economic Importance of Secondary Growth 1. Produce valuable timber 2. Produce large quantities of fruits 3. Produce ornamental plants 4. High commercial value 5. Supply material for buildings & furniture processing Chapter 5 Inheritance trait transmission from 1 generation to another generation Gene inheritance unit at a locus in chromosome. - determine individual characteristic Allele Form of gene Trait a characteristic varies of others Genotype Genetic composition of organism Phenotype outward appearance of organism Homozygote Organism with 2 same allele Heterozygote Organism with 2 difference allele Monohybrid Inheritance Inheritance of single character Dihybrid Inheritance Inheritance of 2 characteristic, control by different gene Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Mendels experiment (cross-breeding of dwarf & tall plant ) 1. Remove stamens to prevent self-fertilization 2. Transfer pollen to stigma of another flower of contrasting trait 3. Seeds produced are collected, counted & grown. 4. First filial generation traits are recorded 5. Crossed filial generation plants 6. Seeds produced are collected, counted & grown. 7. Second filial generation traits are recorded

Result : 3 Tall ( TT & 2Tt) & 1 Short (tt) All F1 Generation : genotype (Tt) Reason Mendel choose pure-breeding plants - can self fe rtilise - have same trait as parent plant - trait can pass down from generation to generation

Law of Segregation -Allele in pairs determine organism characteristic. One pair of allele can be carried in a single gamete Importance 1. Meiosis produce gametes with one of each pair of genes 2. Meiosis I - cross over occur to form chiasmata ( gene are swapped) - homologous chromosome pair separated 3. Meiosis II - chromatids separated - gamete with unique individual chromosomes formed Law of Independent Assortment - Allele pair may combined with any other pair ( 4 possible allele combinations) Blood groups
Blood Group Antigen on RBC surface Antibodies in serum Donate blood to Receive blood from

O A B AB

A B A&B

anti-A & anti-B anti-B anti-A -

A, AB, B & O A & AB B & AB AB

O A&O B&O A, B, AB & O

Rhesus system 1. When rhesus negative (Rh-) is exposed to rhesus positive (Rh+), the body produce antibodies in plasma, and cause hemolysis 2. Rh- can receive Rh- only , but Rh+ can receive Rh+ & Rh- blood 3. Blood pass from foetus (Rh+) to mother(Rh-)due to leaky placenta, causes mother to produce antibodies that harm the foetus . Prevented by injecting drug that inhibits the antibodies production. Human karyotypes - human have 22 pairs identical autosome & a pair of sex chromosome

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Sex-linked inheritance ainheritance genes on sex chromosomes Haemophilia Lack of ability to clot, due to deficiency of clotting factor Colour-blindness cannot distinguish colours Thalassemia Abnormal & lack of haemoglobin due to defective gene. -Treated by blood transfusion & bone marrow transplant DNA

Caused recessive allele of chromosome X Major (carrier), Minor (have anaemia )

Long polynucleotide condensation chain

Nucleotides subunits of

DNA

- twisted / double helix structure Phosphate - thymine(T) paired adenine (A) by 2H bond group - guanine(G) paired cytosine (C) by 3H bond - contain instructions for making protein (determine trait) Importance of genetics 1. Improve human lives 2. Improve quality of crops 3. Control genetic codes to create new organism 4. Identify the mechanism of genetic disease DNA fingerprinting 1. Distinguish individual of same species using DNA (through different number of microsatellites at a locus) 2. 5% code for protein, 95% non-coding( microsatellites) Human Genome Project ( study to map all human genes) 1. Determine gene that cause disease 2. Manufacture human protein 3. Treat common disease

Pentose sugar

Nitrogenous base

Function of DNA fingerprinting 1. To identify criminal 2. To test potential organ donors 3. To study relationship among human population 4. To confirm animal pedigrees

Adult stem cell - activated by injury or infection Embryonic stem cell - found at blastocyst - develop into all tissues expect gamete

Potential Stem cell research Stem cell - undifferentiated cell that divide & develop into specific functional cell Function: 1. generate new cell, 2. treat disease by replacing cell, 3. develop ways to manipulate gene

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Genetic Engineering - modification of organism characteristic by manipulating DNA a) Gene therapy Insertion of genes to treat hereditary disease ( sickle cell anaemia ) 1. Normal gene inserted into genome to replace non-functional cell 2. Homologous recombination occurs (normal swapped abnormal gene) & return normal gene function\ b) Genetically modified organism - organism with genetic codes altered i) genetically modified food - improve crop with pest resistance & herbicide tolerance - Insulin extracted from animal pancreas to treat diabetic Manufacture of insulin 1. Plasmid is removed from bacteria & cut with restriction enzyme 2. mRNA extracted from pancreatic cell & reverse transcript to cDNA 3. cDNA is inserted into plasmid & introduced to plasmid free-bacteria 4. Bacteria divide during fermentation & human insulin is separated & purified. Advantage 1. Produce more & different types of product 2. Develops new crop & livestock 3. Overcome food shortage 4. Food available at cheaper cost 5. Cope with environment problem

1. Safety is not proven 2. affect natural ecology 3. Natural equilibrium disturbed 4. Side-effect undetermined

Chapter 6 Variation Difference in traits between individuals of the same species Continuous variation Discontinuous variation - variation with no distinct categories that can be -variation with distinct categories that can be replaced replaced - characteristic different from others - characteristic distinct & invariable from others - quantitative in nature - qualitative in nature - influenced by environment - not influenced by environment - caused by genetic & environment factors - caused by genetic factors - 2 or more gene control a character - 1 gene control 1 character -Cannot be inherited - can be inherited - normal distribution graph - discrete distribution graph - height, weight & skin colour - blood group, fingerprint & ability to roll tongue Variation in Sexual Reproduction 1. Crossing over - exchange of genes between homologous chromosome during prophase I - form chiasmata (mix of paternal & maternal allele) Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

2. Independent of assortment -Chromosomes can line up in any orientation

3. Random fertilization - numerous male gametes fuse with any female gamete to form a unique zygote Mutation in Genetic Variation - spontaneous change of DNA - irreversible & permanent a) Mutagens Physical mutagens 1. radiation ionises DNA bases & do not form complementary base pairs. (Ultraviolet, gamma & X-rays)

Importance of variation 1. Increase survival & success rate in reproduction 2. Resistant to pests & diseases 3. Withstand severe weather

Chemical mutagens Damage DNA (Asbestos, Benzene & Pesticides)

b) Chromosomal mutation - sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis (anaphase)& form monosomy & trisomy gametes Deletion Chromosome segment breaks off & the 2 ends rejoins Duplication Chromosome segment copied twice Inversion Chromosome segment breaks off & & reversed middle piece is reinserted Translocation Chromosome breaks off & attached to another chromosome 1. Non-disjunction chromosome fail to separate during meiosis Downs Syndrome (Trisomy 21) Uneven parental chromosome division where sister chromatids fail to separate - Extra copy of chromosome at chromosome 21 - Cause by increasing age of mother of radiation - Mental retardation, short neck & slanted eyes - female with 1 X chromosome, low level of sex hormones - Men with extra X chromosome - low level of testosterone & undevelop sex organs

Turners Syndrome (Monosomy) Klinefelters Syndrome (Trisomy)

c) Gene Mutation ( cause no protein produced) Base addition extra nucleotide sequence is added into chain Base deletion a segment of nucleotide chain is removed Base duplication a segment of nucleotide chain is repeated Base inversion nucleotide sequence is separated & rejoins in an inverted manner Base substitution a segment of nucleotide chain is replaced another (Sickle-cell anaemia) Diease Sickle-cell Mutation of gene that synthesize heamoglobin. anaemia Produce abnormal, sickling shape haemoglobin which is not efficient in transporting oxygen Albinism Mutation of gene that control skin colour. Unable to produce enzyme for production of melanin pigment, cause white / pink skin.

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Form 4 Chapter 1 Homeostasis (maintenance of internal environment for cells function optimally) 1. Regulating the internal environment - Physical factors : temperature, blood pressure, osmotic pressure - Chemical factors: salt content, sugar content, pH value Regulation of body temperature: 1. Nervous system, circulatory system, muscular system, endocrine system When Temperature raise, skin detect & send impulses to hypothalamus that send impulses to effectors 1. Blood vessel dilate to increase heat loss 2. Sweat gland secrete more sweat to cool body through evaporation 3. Hair erector muscle relax to reduce insulation (hair flatten) 4. Thyroid gland less stimulated (lower metabolic rate ) Regulation of blood glucose level (endocrine, circulatory & digestive system) 1. When glucose level high, pancreas secrete insulin & send to liver through circulatory system 2. insulin converts glucose into glycogen & blood glucose level decrease 3. When glucose level low, pancreas secrete glucagon & send to liver through circulatory system 4. Glucagon converts glycogen into glucose & blood glucose level increase Regulation of blood pH level ( excretory, circulatory & respiratory system) 1. Kidney regulate hydrogen ions, hydroxyl ions & hydrogen carbonate ions content Amoeba sp Paramecium sp Irregular shape Fixed shape one nucleus two nucleus (mirco- & marco-) Locomotion & Feeding using pseudopodium Locomotion & Feeding using cilia ( cytoplasmic projection ) ( rotate & spin along its axis) Using pseudopodium engulf & enclose foods The beating of cilia create water current that through phagocytosis. Food package in food carries food into cytostome. Form food vacuole & vacuole & digested by lysozyme. Nutrient is digested by hydrolytic enzyme. Waste is absorbed & waste is egested eliminated through anal pore Binary Fission & Spore Formation ( Unfavorable) Binary Fission & Conjugation ( Sexual) Osmoregulation. Water diffuse in through osmosis, Water diffuse in through osmosis, contractile vacuole expand, diffuse out when vacuole is full. vacuole expand, & expel water when reached Hence the vacuole shrink plasma membrane by contraction - Both live in pond & lake, eat algae & bacteria - Both respiration through simple diffusion across plasma membrane

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Chapter 6 Type of Nutrition food undergoes six major processes: 1. Ingestion : process of eating 2. Propulsion : passing of food down the GI tract swallowing : voluntary peristalsis : reflex, involuntary, alternating contractions of muscles in body walls of GI organs 3. Mechanical digestion prepares food for chemical digestion includes chewing, mixing with enzyme 4. Chemical digestion Process which food is broken down to basic food blocks by enzymes in digestive juices 5. Absorption : passage of food particles into the blood-lymph 6. Defecation : elimination of indigestible food substances BALANCE DIET - diet contains the right amounts of different classes foods required by body 1. Carbohydrates (provide energy) 2. Proteins (Build new tissues / important in growth and repairing damaged tissues) 3. Fats (provide energy / storage of extra foods) 4. Water (act as medium for biochemical reaction / transportation of substances) 5. Vitamins (prevent diseases / efficient metabolism / important for normal growth) 6. Minerals (important for normal growth and development of teeth, bones and muscles) 7. Roughage / Dietary fiber (prevent constipation / stimulate peristalsis) FACTORS EFFECTING DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT Bomb calorimeter calculate the energy value of various types of food samples. The energy value/ calorific value - quantify of heat produced when one gram of food is completely oxidised. Body size Gender Age Occupation Climate - bigger body build, high metabolic rate, more body cells, more energy used Male need more energy for body development- high metabolic rate, more active Children need more energy for growth- high metabolic rate, more active Person does heavy work needs more energy- more active Colder place need more energy to maintain body tempPregnant mother need more energy to supply energy to foetus - high metabolic rate Breast-feeding mother need more energy to produce milk Low level of thyroxine- low metabolic rate, High level of thyroxine- high metabolic rate Proteins : (meat, fish, cheese, eggs) Make new cells for growing Repair & Replace damaged cells/tissues Make enzymes, antibodies & hormones Lack of it: kwashiorkor, very weak, muscle are poorly developed

Carbohydrates: (rice, noodles, potatoes) Source of energy for motion and growth Used to form supporting structures in plants (cell wall) Effective methods for food storage (starch/glycogen) Part of nucleus (DNA) Lack of it : become very weak

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Fat : ( oils, butter, milk, nuts) Supply energy Part of cell membrane Help absorb certain vitamins (ADEK) Too much: excess fat stored under the skin (obese) Too little: vitamins wont be absorbed, cell membrane wont be formed normally Vitamins: Organic compound Can be reused, small amount needed As Biological catalyst i) Fat soluble vitamins, A,D,E,K Stored in the body fat No need to consume everyday (stored in the body) ii) Water soluble vitamins, C and B Dissolved easily in water, easily lost Cannot be stored in the body, need to be consumed everyday. Vitamin A Function: - Healthy Epithelial tissue growth, - Formation of pigment in retina - As antioxidant Deficiency disease: Night blindness. Vitamin B1 Function: - coenzyme for carbohydrates metabolism - healthy nervous & muscular system (growth) Deficiency disease: Beriberi (affects nervous system). Vitamin B3 Function: - healthy skin, digestive & nervous system Deficiency disease: Pellagra. Vitamin B5 Function: - coenzyme for carbohydrates, protein & fats metabolism - antibody formation - healthy skin nervous system Vitamin B5

Roughage/ fiber o Higher water holding capacity o Help peristalsis / bowel movement o Prevent from constipation o Lower the cholesterol o Reduce the risk of heart disease

Mineral salts: - inorganic substances - small amount needed Macronutrient - required in large amount Micronutrient - required in small amount Iron - Formation of heamoglobin, prevent anaemia Magnesium - Bone formation, impulses transmission, energy metabolism Phosphorus Formation of bone & ATP Potassium & Sodium blood osmotic balance, normal function of muscle & nervous system Sulphur energy metabolism & enzyme reaction

Iodine thyroxine formation, prevent goitre Zinc - growth

Water Medium for biochemical reactions Medium for transportation of respiratory gases Regulates body temp. Removes excretory waste Maintain osmotic pressure Aids peristaltic movement Hydrolyse some food substances Dissolve most chemical substances

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Function: - coenzyme for carbohydrates, protein & fats metabolism - red blood cell formation Deficiency disease: Anaemia & Diarrhoea Vitamin B12 Function: tissue & red blood cell formation Deficiency disease: Anaemia Vitamin C Function: Healthy skin & healing of wounds, as antioxidant Deficiency disease: Scurvy Vitamin D/ Calcium/ flourine Function: Strong bones & teeth. Deficiency disease: Rickets (Soft / deformed bones) Vitamin E Function: - tissue & red blood cell formation, - as antioxidant - prevent sterility Vitamin K Function: Help in blood clotting Deficiency disease: Anaemia

MALNUTRITION -unbalanced diet due to wrong proportions of nutrition for a long term Anorexia Nervosa believe themselves to be fat, extremlely thin, dont want to eat. Bulimia Over concern with body weight, eat a lot and force themselves to vomit Overweight/ Obesity high risk of diabetes,hypertension, heart attack Over consumption of cholesterol & arthrosclerosis (build up fatty deposits in the coronary arteries/ saturated fat: blood vessels Constipation lack of dietary fiber. High blood Pressure Diabetes Mellitus Osteoporosis heart pump faster excessive glucose in blood lack of calcium, vitamin D & phosphorus

Digestion Break down of complex food into simple form for body absorption Physical Digestion - breaking food into smaller pieces mechanically - Mouth chewing & slicing action Mouth Chemical Digestion - Enzyme hydrolyse complex food into simoke soluble food

1. Salivary amylase digest starch into maltose, lysozyme- kill bacteria 2. Food chewed & rolled into bolus 3. Tongue push bolus into pharynx, larynx rise & epiglottis close glottis, trachea is closed

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4. Bolus move down the oesophagus by peristalsis Stomach 1. Gastric Gland secrete gastic juice : - Pepsin digest protein into polypeptides - Rennin coagulates milk & digest caseinogen into casein - hydrochloride acid stop salivay amylase activity, kill bacteria & provide acidic medium for rennin & pepsin Duodenum 1. Pancreas secrete pancreatic juice: (Start absorption) - Pancreatic amylase digest starch, trypsin digest polypeptides, Lipase digest lipid droplets 2. Bile produced by liver & stored by gall bladder: - emulsify lipid into lipid droplets Ileum (complete 1. Intestinal gland secrete intestinal juice absorption) - digest sucrose, lactose & maltose, peptides, lipid * Digestion of albumen Peristalsis spontaneous contraction & relaxation of alimentary tube Digestion of Cellulose in Human, Ruminants & Rodents Similarities 1. Consume plant & digest starch, fats & protein 2. Digestive system with stomach, small & large intestine 3. Contain symbiotic bacteria ( protozoa ) to secrete cellulase Differences Human Omnivores Single stomach chamber Small caecum No protozoa no chewing cud & regurgitate food does no re-ingest faeces Food Digestion Problem Indigestion (Incomplete food digestion) - eat too much oily food - eat too fast Ruminanats Herbivores & Omnivores Single stomach chamber Long & well-developed caecum Protozoa in caecum no chewing cud & regurgitate food re-ingest faeces Specific enzyme production decrease - damage of digestive glands - diabetes mellitus & genetic factors Rodents Herbivores Four Small caecum stomach chamber Big & not well-developed caecum Protozoa in rumen have chewing cud& regurgitate food no re-ingest faeces does Formation of gallstone (blocked bile duct) - eat too much fatty food - obesity

Structure of Small Intestine in Relation to Absorption 1. Villi absorbed most nutrient in the ileum, 4. Absorption in epithelial cell factors: Amino acid & glucose facilitated transport - folded walls to increase total surface area fatty acid & glycerol simple diffusion - having very thin walled ( one cell thick ) Water Osmosis - having a network of blood capillaries Mineral & Vitamin simple diffusion & active - Having lacteals for absorption of fatty acid & transport glycerol 2. Intestinal crypt make epithelial cell - secrete lysozyme & intestinal juice (alkaline fluid & mucus) to increase fluid volume in gut - goblet cell secrete mucus

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3. Lacteals / lymphatic vessel - absorb glycerol, fatty acids & fat soluble vitamins (ADEK) then transport via lymphatic system to bloodstream 4. Blood capillaries from villi merge to form hepatic portal vein which transport nutrient to liver Liver store & convert glucose in glycogen & amino acid into urea & flow processed nutrient into hepatic vein Assimilation - absorption of digested product by body cell Fats & lipid Amino acids - stored by adipose tissue - Excess - undergoes deamination into (keep body warm & stored urea energy, protect body) - glucose shortage -converted into - oxidise to generate energy glucose - build plasma membrane & - help on blood clotting cholesterol - growth & repair damaged tissue - synthesis enzyme & hormones

Glucose - excess converted into glycogen & stored in liver -shortage glycogen converted back into glucose - used in cellular respiration

Function of liver - maintain blood glucose level by secretion of insulin & glucagon - maintain body temperature - manufacture bile, plasma protein (fibrinogen & prothrombin )& haemoglobin - store vitamin fat soluble vitamin & nutrient - detoxification of poisonous substances - deamination of amino acid - synthesis of vitamin A for blood clotting Formation of Faeces - water, vitamin & salt from undigested food are absorbed by colon - mucus to lubricates movement of faeces along colon - Beneficial synthesis vitamin K & B12, produce antibiotic to kill pathogenic & digest nutrient fragments Constipation Colon Cancer Haemorrhoids faeces hard & slow in passing due cause by prolonged constipation & Veins around anus inflamed & too large amount water loss toxic accumulated in colon swollen Prevented by eat more roughage & drink more water & often exercise Defecation Discharging of faeces from large intestine through anus Importance 1. Excrete waste & toxic substances 2. Avoid toxicity & poisoning in body Gastritis Inflammation of stomach lining Irregular meal time, too much alcohol & smoking Pain in abdomen Obesity Excessive body fats above than a normal weight Eat too much fatty food Lack of exercise High risk of high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus & heart attack Anorexia Nervosa Eating disorder by consuming food minimally Low self-esteem believe themselves to be fat, extremely thin, dont want to eat. Bulimia Nervosa Eating disorder by consuming food excessively Depression, misuse of laxatives Over concern with body weight, eat a lot and force themselves to vomit

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Treated with antacids

Overcoming with practicing balanced diet

Counseling & gradual restoration through nutrition

Often exercise & gradual restoration through nutrition

Plants in large amount Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Sulphur Magnesium

Macronutrient - required -stem & leaf growth -increase seed & fruit yeild - help in protein & ATP synthesis - help in photosynthesis & fertilization - help in protein & ATP synthesis - help in chlorophyll formation - help in protein synthesis - promotes fruit development - help in chlorophyll synthesis

Micronutrient - required in small amount Boron - help in cell wall formation - promotes fruit development Manganese - help in photosynthesis & fertilization Copper Zinc Ferum - help in chlorophyll formation - help in plant reproduction - help in protein& auxin synthesis - help in chlorophyll synthesis

Leaf Structure in photosynthesis; 1. Flattened shape increasing surface area 2. Thin so that gases can diffuse quickly 3. A vascular system to supply water & take away the products 4. Stomata To allow gas exchange 5. Chloroplast (Palisade mesophyll cell) to capture light energy Terrestrial Plant 1. Waxy cuticle to prevent excessive water loss 2. Most chloroplast in palisade mesophyll to maximise photosynthesis 3. Most stomata in lower epidermal layer to maximize gaseous exchange Floating plant 1. Waxy cuticle to prevent excessive water loss 2. Air sacs in aerenchyma tissue provide buoyant force 3. Most stomata in upper epidermal layer to maximize gaseous exchange

Importance : 1. Maintain oxygen & carbon dioxides level in environment 2. Supplies food directly to green plant & indirectly to animal

Submerged plant 1. Air sacs in aerenchyma tissue to support plant 2. Many small leaves increase absorption of sunlight

Dry places plant 1. Waxy cuticle to prevent excessive water loss 2. Spiky leaves to prevent excessive water loss 3. Shuken stomata prevent excessive water loss 4. Shiny surface to reflect heat

Photosynthesis Chlorophyll in granum capture sunlight & used to split water into hydrogen & oxygen Carbon dioxide diffuse into stomata & oxygen released out of stomata Hydrogen react with carbon dioxide to form glucose that store in starch grains. Light reaction require light energy grana photolysis of water Form ATP Produce water & oxygen presence of light Similarities 1. Occur in chloroplast & during the day Dark reaction does not require light energy stroma Reduction carbon dioxide Use ATP produce glucose & water after light reaction

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2. Catalysed by enzyme & involve chemical reaction Factors Carbon dioxide concentration photosynthesis rate increase as carbon dioxide concentration increase up to a certain point where light intensity & temperature became the limiting factors Light Intensity Photosynthesis rate is increase as light intensity increase to a certain point where carbon dioxide & temperature became the limiting factors Temperature Photosynthesis dark reaction is catalysed by photosynthetic enzyme Optimum temperature 25-300C the Temperature too high destroy the enzyme and photosynthesis stops.

Ways to improve food production Direct seeding seed sown directly into soil Hydroponics Aeroponics Breeding Tissue Culture Genetic Engineering Soil management Biological control growing in aerated culture solution suspended in air with root sprayed with nutrient Dura sp & Pisifera sp = Tenera Sp ( Thick mesophyll, small shell & Big kernel) grow in culture medium Manipulating DNA to produce organism with new characteristic Reduce soil erosion & leaching

Save cost, labour & time, increase the yield Better quality & quantity, Save space Better quality & quantity, Save space high nutritional value, higher yield & pest resistance Better quantity & same quality as parent x Enhance growth & nutritional properties 1. Add fertilizer consistently 2. ploughing to increase soil aeration 3. Practice crop rotation- improve soil fertility control pest & reduce pesticides usage

natural prey-predator relation

Importance of Food Processing 1. Food can last longer 2. Prevent spread of disease 3. increase fodd commercial value 4. Avoid food wastage Ways (Food additives) Food preservation, food enhancers, food colouring Cooking Caning Drying Fermentation Sugar or Salt pickling Pasteurisation Refrigeration Ultra Heat Treatment High temperature kill bacteria High temperature kill bacteria, vacuum prevent bacteria growth Water removed from bacteria, sunlight kill bacteria Ethanol remove water from bacteria & kill bacteria create hypotonic solution to remove water from bacteria by osmosis High temperature kill bacteria, maintain milk taste (720C-15sec, 630C-30 min, then 50C) Low temperature prevent bacteria growth High temperature kill bacteria (1320C-1sec)

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Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration - Food oxidation to generate energy in body Aerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration - glucose oxidation in oxygen to release energy, CO2 - glucose oxidation in absence of oxygen to release little & water energy & lactic acid - energy captured by ADP & fuses with - Vigorous exercise cause oxygen debt in muscle, More phosphate to form ATP (38) oxygen is used than is inhaled, -ATP can broke down to release energy, - Fermentation by yeast used zymase to hydrolyse phosphate & ADP when body required glucose to form ethanol, energy & CO2 Occur in mitochondrion & cytoplasm Occur in cytoplasm Similarities 1. Occur in animal & plant cell 2. Cellular respiration that oxidise glucose to produce energy (ATP) with enzyme to catalyse Adaptation of respiratory surface 1. thin (one cell thick)- effective gaseous exchange 2. moist gases diffuse in before diffuse out 3. Large surface area maximise gaseous exchange Protozoa - no respiratory structure - large (TSA/V) ratio to maximise gaseous exchange Insect 1. Abdominal relax & contract to change abdomen volume pressure. 2. Spiracles have valves which allow air, go in and out of tracheae which reinforced with chitin rings to prevent them from collapsing 3. Trachea split into large number of tracheoles provides large surface area & thin moist wall to maximise gaseous exchange 4. Air sacs to speed up gaseous exchange Breathing mechanism (petty) 1. Air inhaled into buccal cavity. Glottis close & buccal cavity floor lowered to fill buccal cavity with air. 2. Glottis open, nostril closed & buccal cavity floor raised to force air flow into lungs. Gaseous exchange occurs 3. Nostril open & lung muscle contract to exhale the air

- simple diffusion of gases occur through plasma membrane

Amphibians Adaptation of skin a) thin & moist ( secretion of mucus) - allow fast & effective gaseous exchange b) blood capillaries network under the skin maximise gaseous exchange Adaptation of lungs a) numerous inner partition large surface area-maximise gaseous exchange b) Covered with blood capillaries network maximise gaseous exchange c)thin and moist membrane allow fast & effective gaseous exchange

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Fish Adaptation of gills: a) Thin lamella membrane - allow fast & effective gaseous exchange b) Rich of blood capillaries maximise gaseous exchange c) Surrounded by water enable respiratory gases to be dissolve d) Large surface area of filaments & lamellae maximise gaseous exchange Countercurrent mechanism 1. Deoxygenated blood flows in opposite direction of water current through blood capillaries in the lamellae, encounters higher O2 content water, concentration gradient allows the O2 diffuse into the blood 2. When CO2 concemtration in blood is higher than in water, CO2 diffused from blood into water

Breathing mechanism 1. Buccal cavity lowered to decrease buccal cavity pressure 2. Water drawn flow into mouth & through lamellae. 3. Oxygen diffuse from water to lamellae & carbon dioxide diffuse from lamellae to water. 3. Mouth closed & buccal cavity raised to increase buccal cavity pressure causing operculum to open & water to flow out.

Adaptation of Alveoli 1. large number of alveoli - increase surface area for gaseous exchange 2. One cell thick walls fast & effective gaseous exchange 3. Moist ( wall secrete moisture) fast & effective gaseous exchange 4. Surrounded by blood capillaries network maximise gaseous exchange Inhalation External intercostal muscles contract Internal intercostal muscles relax Rib cage move upwards and outwards Diaphragm contracts and flattens Volume of thoracic cavity increase resulting in low air pressure in thoracic air cavity Higher atmospheric pressure causes air to flow in Transport of Oxygen Partial oxygen pressure in alveoli higher than in blood capillary, oxygen diffuses into blood capillary. Oxygen combine with heamoglobin to form oxyheamoglobin Partial oxygen pressure in blood capillary higher than in body tissue. Oxyheamoglobin release oxygen that difuses into body tissue Exhalation External intercostal muscles relax Internal intercostal muscles contract Rib cage move downwards and inwards Diaphragm relaxes and returns to dome-shaped Volume of thoracic cavity decrease resulting in highair pressure in thoracic air cavity Low atmospheric pressure causes internal air to flow out

Transport of carbon dioxide Partial carbon dioxide pressure in blood capillary lower than in body tissue, carbon dioxide diffuses into blood alveoli.Carbon dioxide 1. dissolved in blood plasma as bicarbonate ions (70%) 2. combines with heamoglobin to form carbaminoheamoglobin 3. dissolved in blood plasma Partial carbon dioxide pressure in alveoli lower than in blood capillary. Carbaminoheamoglobin release carbon dioxide that difuses into alveoli

Regulation respiration mechanism 1. During vigorous exercise, muscles require more O2 and glucose to release energy during cellular respiration, 2. Rate of respiration increase, rate of breathing increase, heartbeat increase, 3. More O2 and glucose can be supplied for cellular respiration and more CO2 removed from the cells.

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4. Rate of gaseous exchange between alveoli and blood capillaries increase Regulation Mechanism of Carbon Dioxide Content 1. During vigorous exercise, more carbon dioxide produced, blood pH decrease, detect by chemoreceptors in medulla oblongata that sent impulses to intercostal muscle to contract & relax rapidly, breathing rate increase, more carbon dioxide eliminated, carbon dioxide concentration & blood pH return to normal Regulation Mechanism of Oxygen Content 1. At high altitude/Fear, oxygen concentration decrease, detect by chemoreceptors in carotids & aortic bodies that sent impulses to intercostal muscle & diaphragm to contract. Breathing rate increase, heartbeat increase, more oxygen inhaled oxygen concentration level return to normal Good habits to cultivate healthy respiration system 1. practice healthy diet & breathing exercise 2. do not smoke & avoids breathing polluted air Respiration in plant In mitochondrion for cellular respiration Photosynthesis light to chemical energy CO2 & H2o is used, glucose & oxygen is formed Water decomposed Presence of sunlight Store glucose Involve chloroplast Chlorophyll pigment needed In green plant only

Respiration chemical to light energy glucose & oxygen is used, CO2 & H2O is formed Glucose decomposed All condition Used glucose Involve mitochondrion Chlorophyll pigment not needed In all organism

Photosynthesis rate is highest in midday (large amout of CO2 is formed) Respiration rate is highest in midnight (large amout of CO2 is used) Compesation point no net exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide (CO2 is formed = CO2 is used), Photosynthesis rate = Respiration rate Plant carries out anaerobic respiration during flood & initial stages of germination

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Chapter 8 Components of Environments


Abiotic components (Non-Living components) Light intensity (photosynthesis affect growth in plant) Humidity ( High at night, low during day) ( affect rate of water loss) Temperature (low metabolic activities decrease) topography Region aspect high Altitude- low atmospheric pressure & temperature steep slope soil layer thinner & drier pH ( affect growth of organism) microclimate ( small habitat climate)

Biotic Components (Living components) Producer (1st trophic level) - Autotrophs (green plant), use organic substances & sunlight to make food Consumer Heterotrophs, 1st herbivores, 2nd & 3rd carnivores Decomposer - digest organic substances & dead organism into humus (used by plant)

Food chain - sequence of one organism feeding upon another Food web - a series interrelated food chains Number pyramid- show number of individuals at each trophic level of food chain at a period Energy flows Produce undergoes photosynthesis that absorb sunlight. 90% energy lost to the environment & 10% is converted into food Energy transferred from one trophic level to another in the form of heat Symbiosis( Interaction between different species) 1. Commensalism - One species benefits, the the host is not affected a)Epiphyte (plant grows another plant) - pigeon orchids False bulb (pseudobulbs) Aerial roots Spongy roots layer sunken stoma

store water absorbs water vapour from air prevent tissue from drying out reduce water loss due to evaporation

b) Epizoics - barnacles on crab & remora fish on sharks ( free ride & food) 2. Mutualism - both species of organisms benefit 1. Legumious plant provide food while rhizobium sp convert nitrogen gas into organic compound for plant growth 2. Alga provide food while fungus prevent alga from drying out Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

3. Parasitism - one organism benefits from the host a) Ectoparasites feed on the surface of the host(e.g. ticks and fleas) b) Endoparasites shelter & feed on tissue in the host (e.g. tapeworms) Prey-predator An animal is haunted & eaten by a stronger animal - regulate both organisms populations Saprophytism An organism lives and feeds on decaying organic matter. Saprophytes (plant) - mushrooms, bread mould and bracket fungus. Saprozoites (bacteria) - paramecium sp & amoeba sp Competition - two organisms to obtain limited basic needs of life living space, water, minerals, sunlight, food and mates. a) Intraspecific completion ( between same species) b) Interspecific competition (between different species ) colonization a process where life take place & form a colony in a newly formed area succession - a process where dominant plant replaced by another plant in a habitat (slow & continuous) 1) pioneer species dense root systems- to survive on dry & nutrient-poor soil. change habitat into more suitable habitat for another species to live. 2) dominant species - Grow faster to out-compete pioneers - occurs in stages until stable & matured community equilibrium with environment is formed. (climax community) Colonisation and Succession in a Mangrove Swamp Environmental conditions : a) Soft muddy soil b) Waterlogged soil which lacks oxygen c) Seawater with high salinity (high salt content) d) Strong sunlight & extreme heat. a) Avicennia sp. (open area)& Sonneratia sp.(shaddy area) - pioneer species - pneumatophores (Breathing roots with spongy tissue) - enable respiration of roots & provide support - viviparous seedlings geminate while attached to mother plant, float on water & ensure species survival Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

b) Rhizophora sp. (successor) - prop / stlit roots - enable respiration of roots & provide support - viviparous seedlings i) geminate while attached to mother plant & ensures seeds get sufficient oxygen, ii) ensure species survival & prevents seed from dehydration in the saline sea water, c) Bruguiera sp. (2nd successor) - pneumatophores (Breathing roots with spongy tissue) - enable respiration of roots & provide support - buttress root - provide support - thick cuticle & sunken stomata of leaves - reduce transpiration rate due to high temperature d) Nypa sp & Pandanus sp (climax community) Sampling technique - to study the population size of an organism. - involves collecting, counting, and observing organism studied. - random and systematically. i) quadrat sampling technique (plant) - quadrat - square frame made of wood, string or metal. (depend on size & density of organism studied) a)Frequency - number of times a species is found present when a number of times quadrats is thrown b)Density - mean number of individuals of a species per unit area. c)Percentage coverage = indication of quadrat area is occupied by a species. (high population) ii) capture-mark-release &recapture technique (animal ) - animal sample is captured and marked with waterproof coloured ink, paint or nail varnish - done in 3 days & done again in 3 months enough time for random dispersal of organism - birth rate & death rate due to old age, eaten by predator or migration Taxonomy Study of identifying, describing & naming organisms. based on similarities in their characteristics. 5 kingdoms. Monera - unicellular , no nuclear membrane no tissue formation & muscle Protista - unicellular , have nuclear membrane, no muscle Fungi - multicellular, no chlorophyll, have chitin wall & produce spore Plantae - multicellular, have chlorophyll & produce food (photosynthesis) Animalia - multicellular, no chlorophyll & have well-developed tissue Kingdom , Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Naming in Latin Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Bacteria Amoeba & Paramecium saprophytes Plant Animals

Genus name (capital) followed by species name ( small letter) Biodiversity Species Population Community Ecosystem Niche Habitat a diverse species of plants & animals interacting with one another a group of organism with similar characteristic living in the same habitat a group of organism of same species living in the same habitat at the same time Several population of different species living in the same habitat in an ecosystem A community of organism interact together & with natural environment Role of an organism environment where organism live

Microorganism - microscopic organisms that cannot be seen by naked eye. Protozoa sexual & asexual reproduction through cell division, have cilia, pseudopodium & flagella Fungi visible to naked eye, sexual & asexual reproduction through spore formation & budding Bacteria asexual reproduction through binary fission & spore formation, visible under light microscope Algae have cell wall made of cellulose, have chlorophyll, reproduce through fermentation & spore (Protista) formation, Virus smallest microorganism, visible under electron microscope, infest on living cell for nutrition & (Monera) respiration & reproduction. Have protein coat & form spore Nitrogen cycle To maintain balance of nitrogen content in the water, soil & atmosphere. a) Nitrogen fixation( conversion of atmospheric nitrogen is to nitrogen compounds required for growth) Nitrogen fixing bacteria (Nostoe sp & Rhizobium sp) in root nodules convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium compounds that converted into plant protein, become animal protein when eaten by animal b) Decomposition, Nitrification &Denitrification 1. When the animals and plants die, nitrifying bacteria, convert dead organism & waste matter into nitrites(Nitrosomonas sp.) & nitrates(by Nitrobacter sp.). 2. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates into atmospheric nitrogen & complete the nitrogen cycle Lightning energy causes oxygen combine with nitrogen to form nitrogen oxide. Combine with rain drops to form nitric acid, then combines with the soil minerals to form nitrates & nitrites. Decomposition Saprophytes (putrefying bacteria & fungi) digest protein in dead organism into ammonium compounds. & nutrient released in the soil Alimentary canal of termites Protozoa (Trichonympha sp). in alimentary canals termites secretes the cellulase & enables termite digest cellulose in wood Digestive system in humans a) Symbiotic bacteria in colon (caecum) synthesis vitamin B12 (anaemia) and vitamin K. (blot clotting) Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Chapter 9 Endangered Ecosystem 1. Green House Effect - phenomenon of increasing temperature of the Earth
- heat is absorbed & trapped in atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane,CFC & nitrogen dioxide

- Effect: global warming, melting of polar caps & raising sea level, deteriorate health Factors : increasing concentration of carbon dioxide a) Burning of fuels in factories b) Forest fires c) Deforestation d) Open burning of rubbish e) Motor vehicles 2. Thinning of the ozone layer - located at the stratosphere - absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays from reaching the Earths surface. - ozone hole - area with low ozone concentration Factors: increasing levels of chlorofluorocarbon(CFC) a) Coolants in air conditioners and refrigerators, b) propellants in aerosol cans Effect : 1. Increase world temperature 2. Change climate & weather patterns, wind direction 3. Destroy stomata and chlorophyll in the leaves, Rate of photosynthesis decreases 4. Destroy aquatic organisms, disturbs ecological balance. 5. Causes skin cancer, cataract, weakens immune system CLC form chlorine atom under UV rays that react with ozone to form chlorine monoxide & oxygen gas. Chlorine monoxide react oxygen in atmosphere to form oxygen gas & chlorine atom 3. Eutrophication Factors : Excess fertilizers in lakes, pond or rivers. 1. high concentration of nitrates & phosphates promote algae bloom, increase algae population - cover up lake surface, prevents sunlight from reaching submerged plants - aerobic bacteria decompose more dead plants & reduces oxygen concentration in water - increase biochemical oxygen demand(B.O.D) & cause death of aquatic organisms. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D) - amount of oxygen taken up to decompose organic waste matter in water. measure amount of organic pollutant & water pollutions level more microorganisms, oxygen content decrease, B.O.D increase, pollution level increases, Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

Methylene blue solution decolourise when presence of oxygen in water is low Deforestation Important of rainforest - Permanent removal of trees from forest 1. Habitat of flora & fauna Effect 2. Provide food & 1. soil erosion & landslide medicine 2. flash flood 3. Regulate world climate 3. global warming & climax change 4. Water catchment area 4. destroy natural habitat, extinction of species 5. destroy recreation area

Mining decrease soil nutrient , hydroelectric dam flash flood Burning of fossil fuel - release carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide & nitrogen oxide pollute air & cause acid rain

Bad Agricultural pratices 1. Use excessive inorganic fertilisers &pesticides 2. intensive farming Effect 1. pollute water source 2. cause eutrophication & flash flood 3. Soil structure changed

Air pollution condition where pollutant enter air from various source - cause haze (decrease light penetration, affect photosynthesis) - cause acid rain corrodes buildings, soil & water acidity increase, leeching of soil nutrient, affect plant growth & cause health problems Water pollution condition where pollutant enter water from various source Thermal pollution increasing environmental temperature due to excess heat release Noise pollution unwanted man-made sound disrupts environment & people health & welfare - factors : aeroplanes, machinery vehicles, factories machines, piling & drilling in construction area - cause deafness, high blood pressure & headache A) Biological control Method where predator is used to control the population of that pest in an area. use prey-predator interaction. a) Does not pollute environment (stop use of pesticides.) b) Does not kill other organisms c) Is cheap and safe to use B) Enforcement of Environment Quality Act - prevent environmental pollution by control licensing & examines disposal of waste & smoke in industry C) Education - raise awareness & importance of protect healthy environment for society , recycle & less polluting D) Preservation & Conservation of ecosystem - replant trees after deforestation, restore mining land for agricultural, river cleaning, treat toxic & waste before disposal, use unleaded petrol, E) Use of renewable energy Joshua Chong Kah Leong 2012 Copyright is reserved for sharing & individual purpose

- Solar energy, wave energy & tidal energy environment friendly

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