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INTRODUCTION

Marpol 73/78istheInternational Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978.

("Marpol"isshortformarinepollutionand 73/78shortfortheyears1973and1978.) Marpol73/78isoneofthemostimportant internationalmarineenvironmental conventions.Itwasdesignedtominimize pollutionoftheseas,includingdumping,oil andexhaustpollution.


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The Objectives
At the end of the course, the trainees must be able to: Definemarinepollution Discusstheimpactofmarinepollution Describehowshipscontributetomarine pollution Enumerateandexplainwaysofpreventing marinepollution Statetherulesgoverningmarinepollution Explaintheprinciplesinvolvedinpreventing marinepollutionbycargooilthroughspecific constructionandrequirementsforoiltanker andtocomplywiththerelevantoperational requirements 2

Itsstatedobjectis:topreserve

themarineenvironmentthrough thecompleteeliminationof pollutionbyoilandotherharmful substancesandtheminimization ofaccidentaldischargeofsuch substances.

INTRODUCTION
TheoriginalMARPOLConventionwas

signedon17February1973,butdidnot comeintoforce.ThecurrentConventionis acombinationof1973Conventionand the 1978 Protocol. Itenteredintoforceon2October1983.As of31December2005,136countries, representing98%oftheworld'sshipping tonnage,arepartiestotheConvention
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Allshipsflaggedundercountriesthat aresignatoriestoMARPOLare subjecttoitsrequirements, regardlessofwheretheysail,and membernationsareresponsiblefor vesselsregisteredundertheir respectivenationalities.


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Marpol Annex I Regulation for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil enteredintoforce02Oct.1983/Revised01jan.2007

Basic Principle of Marine Pollution As seen from the space, the blue color of the planet earth is the vast water of ocean surrounding the beautiful planet about 70% of earth is comprised of water.
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Oceanarethebiggeststoresofwater onearth. Waterleavestheoceansthroughthe evaporationandthenentersagain throughrainfalls,lakes,riversand groundwater.

Therewasatimemanthoughtthatthe oceanwasinfiniteandeverythingwas absorbedbyit. Oceanandseasliterallybecamethe receptorsofalmostallkindsofrefuse originatingfromshore,aswellas wastecomingfromship.


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In1972,theunitednationconference

onhumanenvironmentwasheldin stockholm,sweden. Theconferenceprovidedan internationalforumtoresolve environmentalissuesthatincluded marineenvironment.

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Inthesameyear,anotherinternational conferencewasheldinlondon. Thiswastheinternationalconventionon thepreventionofpollutionbydumping ofwasteandothermatters(london dumpingconvention)

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In 1973, the international convention for the prevention of marine pollution from ships was adopted. This has been the most comprehensive convention as regard to the protection of marine environment coming from ship. This convention was modified by the 1978 protocol relating thereto.
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It is popularly called MARPOL 73/78. From this convention, the international regulation for prevention and control of marine pollution become an important concern of the marine community.

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VARIOUSMEANINGOFPOLLUTION The word pollution defined as something that makes a pure thing impure. Scientifically, pollution is the chemical gaseous and organic waste, which contaminate air, soil, or water. Anything that pollutes these earths element is called pollutant.

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Environmentalpollutionbasicallyrefers toallkindsofpollutionintheearth environment. Therearedifferentmeaningof environmentalpollution. Themeaningdependonwhatpartof theearthelementhasbeenpolluted.


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Themarinepollutionisonlyonetypeof environmentalpollution. Forthepurposeofdistinguishingmarine pollutionfromtheothertypesof environmentalpollution

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Air pollution is also called atmospheric pollution. Atmosphere outside our home may contain pollutants such as dust, smoke, vapors, etc. Substantial quantities of these pollutants stay within the atmosphere for a period of time.
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The quantities and duration oftentimes create harmful effect to person, places, animal, and things. Dust, fuel exhaust, and air rockets debris are some of the air pollutants which result from mans entry to space.

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Waterpollutionisrefertoalterationopf waterwhichreducesthequalityofits usefulnesstopeople,plants,animals, andproperties. Waterpollutioncanbeconsideredasa majorpollutioninthePhilippinesand otherdevelopingcountries.


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Sound pollution refers to any sound that is too loud and irritating to human ears is called sound pollution. Noise is measured in decibels

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Pollution from solid waste or refuse are in form garbage, rubbish, demolition debris, street litters, etc.they originate from the activities of both human and animal.

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Pollutionfromhazardouswasteare eitherliquidorsolidwasteora combinationofwastethatposeor createhazardtohumanorliving organismforthefollowingreason:


Wastearenondegradable Wastecanbebiologicallymagnified Wastetendtocausedetrimental cumulativeeffect
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The hazardous waste can be categorized in accordance to the following: Chemical waste Radioactive substance waste Biological waste Flammable waste Explosive waste
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Marine pollution after knowing the concept of other types of environmental pollution, it is now distinguish the meaning of marine pollution. In defining marine pollution, the united nation conference on environment and development (UNCED) used the definition adopted by the group of expert on scientific aspect of marine pollution (GESAMP).
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MarinePollutionisdefinedasan introductionofmandirectlyorindirectly, ofsubstanceorenergyintothemarine environment(includingestuaries) resultinginsuchdeleteriouseffectas harmfultolivingresources,hazardto humanhealth,hindrancetomarine activitiesincludingfishing,impairmentof qualityforuseofseawaterand reductionofamenities.
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AIRPOLLUTION

HAZARDOUSWASTE

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Internationalconcernonmarine pollution Inthelastfiftyyears,expressionof concerntowardspreventionandcontrol ofmarinepollutionandprotectionof marineenvironmentwerebroughtintoa numberofinternationalconferences.The followingistheseriesofinternational conventionrelatingtomarinepollutionin the2ndhalfofthe20thcentury
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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT Oil enters the sea as a result of natural phenomena; it also enters the sea as a result of mans activity. Whether through natural seepage, accidental spill, or long-term, low leveldischarges,thepressureofoil in the marine environment is to someextentunavoidable.
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In tonnage terms, the most important pollutant resulting from shipping operationsisoil. The National Academy of Science (NAS)oftheUnitedStatesestimatedin 1980 that as much as 3.54 million tons ofoilenteredtheseaeveryyear, some 1.5 million tons of which resulted from the transport of oil by sea (the remainder came from kind based activitiesandincludedindustrialwastes, urbanrun-offandnaturalseeps).
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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
The ships of the world tanker fleet have changeddramaticallyinsize.In1950sships of30,000tonsdeadweightwereregardedas a very large; today, tanker of 250.000 tons deadweightarecommonplace. Amuchgreaterquantityofoilentersthesea as a result of normal tanker operations, usuallyassociatedwiththecleaningofcargo residues (clingage) which takes place when the ship is returning from the port of dischargetotakeoncargooil.
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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT The amount of clingage normally amounts about 0.4% of cargo carrying capacity about 800 tons ona200,000dwtcrudeoilcarrier. During ballasting and cleaning as much as half of this can be lost overboardunlessslopsareretained onboard.
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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT In tonnage terms, this still probably the biggest source of oil pollution from ships about 700,000 tons a year, according to the NAS but it has declined considerably in recent years.

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Pollution
Anyinconvenienceor damagecausedby humanactivitiesto humans,plants animalsandtoour environmentasa wholebyspreading compoundstoair, waterorland.
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Effects of Marine Pollution


It blankets the surface interfering with the oxygen exchanged between the sea and the atmosphere. Blankets the seabed, interfering with the growth of marine life elements are mostly toxic and can enter the food chain oil may enter sea water distilling inlets and it may be deposited on tidal mudflats again with detrimental result interferes with the recreational uses of beaches
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Main Sources of Marine Pollution


Land-based Sources: byproductsofindustry run-offfromagricultural pesticidesandherbicides effluentsdischargedfrom urbanareas Explorationand exploitationactivities

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Main Sources of Marine Pollution


Shipping and Maritime Industry collision groundingoraccidental discharge operationaldischarges tankwashing ballasting/deballasting machineryspacedischarge docking

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Some of the best known cause of oil pollution


by tanker accidents : Braer1993ShetlandIsland, U.K Oillost-85,000MT SeaEmpress1996Melford Haven Oillost-72,000MT ExxonValdezAlaska,U.S.A Oillost-37,000MT TorreyCanyon1967Sicily Isle,U.K Oillost-119,000MT
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Some of the best known cause of oil pollution Urquiola 1976LaCorona,spain Oillost-100,000MT Hawaiian Patriot 1977Honolulu,Hawaii Oillost-95,000MT Atlantic Empress 1979OffTobago Oillost-287,000MT Abt Summer 1991Angola Oillost-260,000MT Castillo de Beliber SouthAfrica Oillost-252,000MT Amoco Cadiz 1978Brittany,France Oillost-223,000MT Haven 1991Genoa,Italy Oillost144,000MT Odessy 1988 Nova Scotia Canada 40 OilLost132,000MT

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International Convention to Control the Marine Pollution

1929 An International Conference washeldinWashingtonD.Cinattempt to control the discharge f oil into the sea. 1948 IMCO was established in GenevaandchangedtoIMOin1982
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International Convention to Control the Marine Pollution 1954 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the sea by oil (OILPOL 54) HostedbyU.K Enteredintoforcein1958 Distinction was made between oil and oily mixtures from machinery space and from cargotanks. Oil was defined as crude oil, fuel oil and heavydieseloil. Prohibited zones were laid down for the dischargeofcargooilintothesea.(50nm/ 44 100ppm/receptionfacility)

International Convention to Control the Marine Pollution

1958 IMO assumed OILPOL54 and entered into force. The depository/ secretariat function in relation to convention were transferred to IMO 1967 Torrey Canyon incident and the biggest pollution incident at that time and IMO decided to convene on 1969 in response to the incident. They raised question about the technical and legal aspects.
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International Convention to Control the Marine Pollution

1969 IMO decided to convene an International Conference on 1973 Amendments on the requirements regarding the quality of the effluents. Limitations on the quantities of oil which tankers were permitted to discharge into the sea.
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International Convention to Control the Marine Pollution 1973 IMO adopted International Convention for the prevention of pollutionfromShips(MARPOL73)and incorporatedOILPOL54inresponseto TorreyCanyonincident. - Agreement was made on the contamination of the sea, land and air byships. - Twoprotocolsweremade - It needs to be ratified by 15 IMO member countries with 50% gross tonnageoftheworldfleet
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International Convention to Control the Marine Pollution

1976 Only 3 IMO member countries ratified the Conventionwithonly1%GTof the total world fleet. (Jordan KenyaandTunisia) 1976-77Twotankerincidents (UrquiolaandHawaiianPatriot)
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International Convention to Control the Marine Pollution

1978 IMO held a conference on (TSPP) TankerSafetyandPollution Prevention and it includes tanker designandoperationinresponseto thetwotankerincident They incorporated the 1978 Protocols to 1974 SOLAS Convention and adopted on February17,1978.
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International Convention to Control the Marine Pollution

Theconditiontoentryintoforce: States become party to the convention by first implementing ANNEX I and ANNEXII. 1983 October 2, MARPOL 73/78 entered into force for AnnexIandII
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MARPOL 73/78
InternationalConventionforthePreventionof Pollution from Ships adopted on November 1973modifiedbyaprotocolof1978. It contains comprehensive provisions comparedtothepreviousconventions An abbreviation derived from the words marineandpollution It is directed towards limiting marine pollutioncausedbydamagedtoshipsand daytodayoperationoftheships.
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MARPOL 73/78
Objective of the MARPOL 73/78 MARPOL73/78desires toachievethecomplete eliminationofintentional pollutionofthe environmentbyOILand otherharmfulsubstance andtominimize accidentaldischarge.
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MARPOL 73/78
MARPOL Convention consists of: 20 Articles 2 Protocols and 6 annexes MARPOL Annex I contain: 39 regulations 7 chapters 3 Appendices
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MARPOL 73/78
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships adopted on November 1973 modified by a protocol of 1978. It contains comprehensive provisions compared to the previous conventions An abbreviation derived from the words marine and pollution It is directed towards limiting marine pollution caused by damaged to ships and day to day operation of the ships. 54

MARPOL 73/78 Annex I Chapter 1 GENERAL Regulation 1Definition 2Applications 3Exemptionsandwaivers 4Exception 5Equivalents
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Chapter2SurveysandCertifications Regulation 6Surveys 7IssueorEndorsementofCertificates 8IssueorEndorsementofCertificates anotherGovernment 9FormofCertificate 10DurationandValidityofCertificate 11PortStateControloperationalon requirements
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MARPOL 73/78 Annex I

MARPOL 73/78 Annex I


Chapter3RequirementsforMachinery spacesofallships (PartA-Construction) Regulation 12TanksforOilResidues sludge 13StandardDischargeConnections
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MARPOL 73/78 Annex I


(PartB-Equipment)

Regulation 14oilfilteringequipment (PartCControlofOperational DischargeofOil) Regulation 15ControlofDischargeofOil 16Segregationofoilandwaterballast andcarriageofoilinforepeaktank 17oilRecordBook(PartI) 58

MARPOL 73/78 Annex I Chapter4RequirementsfortheCargo area ofOiltankers (PartA-Construction) 18Segregatedballasttanks 19doublehullanddoublebottom requirementsforoiltankersdeliveredon orafterJuly6,1996 20doublehullanddoublebottom requirementsforoiltankersdeliveredon orafterJuly6,1996
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MARPOL 73/78 Annex I Regulation 21Preventionofoilpollution fromoiltankerscarryingheavy gradeoilascargo 22Pump-roombottomprotection 23Accidentaloiloutflow performance 24damageassumptions 25Hypotheticaloutflowofoil
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MARPOL 73/78 Annex I

Regulation 26 limitations of size and arrangementofcargotanks 27Intactstability 28Subdivisionandstability 29Sloptanks 30pumping, piping and dischargearrangement
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MARPOL 73/78 Annex I

(PartB-Equipment) Regulation 31Oildischargemonitoring andcontrolsystem 32Oil/Waterinterfacedetector 33Crudeoilwashing requirement


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MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (PartCControlofoperational

dischargeofoil) Regulation 34Controlofdischargeofoil 35Crudeoilwashingoperation 36OilRecordBook(PartII)


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MARPOL 73/78 Annex I

Chapter5Preventionofoil Pollutionarisingfromanoil pollutionincident Regulation 37shipboardoilpollution emergencyplan


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MARPOL 73/78 Annex I

Chapter6ReceptionFacility Regulation 38Receptionfacility Chapter7Specialrequirements forfixedandfloatingplatforms Regulation 39Specialrequirementsfor fixedandfloatingplatforms


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ARTICLES OF MARPOL 73/78 Regulate the relationship between statesandforeignships. Regulate the extent to which a port stateinterferewithaforeignships.

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ARTICLES OF MARPOL 73/78 Cooperationbetweenstateswhen investigatingviolation Protocol1concernthedutyof Mastertoreport Protocol2dealswitharbitrationin casesofdisputes


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Technical Annexes of MARPOL 73/78 Annex 1 Oil (Oct. 2, 1983) Annex 2 NLS (April 6, 1987) Annex 3 Harmful Substance Carried in Package form (July 1, 1992) Annex 4 Sewage (Sept. 27, 2003) Annex 5 Garbage (Dec. 31, 1988)
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Party to MARPOL 73/78 Coastal State main function of whichissurveillance Port State mainfunctionofwhichis for inspection and if necessary detention Flag State main function of which iscompliance
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Vessel Regulation Terms


Flag State - Nation where a vessel is registered - Vessel is essentially granted nationality Port State - Nation where a vessel intend to dock Coastal State - Nation within which a vessel passes through a territorial sea or EEZ
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Flag State Responsibility


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Regulatessafety Manningofshipandcompetenceofcrew Sets construction, design, equipment and seaworthinessstandards Enforceregulationonhighseas Mustinspectatperiodicintervals IssueanIOPPcertificate

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Benefits of Port State control


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Improved efficiency for collecting evidence and finding violations Reduces needs for coastal states to interfere with ships whileintransit
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Regulation 11 : Port State Control on Operational Requirements


(1)

A ship when in port or an offshore terminal of another party is subject to inspectionbyofficerdulyauthorizedby such party concerning operational requirements under this annex, where there are clear grounds for believing thatthemasterorcrewarenotfamiliar with essential ship bound procedures relatingtothepreventionofpollutionby oil.
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Reporting of Incidents
Article8ofMARPOL73/78
Requires ships Master to report incident involving the discharge of harmfulsubstanceintothesea. Actions by coastal state is often necessary and it is important that states are informed of any incident resultinginthedischargeofharmful substance.

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Reporting of Incidents The reporting requirements apply not only to actual dischargesbutalsoto probable discharge

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Reporting of Incidents
Harmful substances covered by the reportingrequirements: a. Oil b. NLS c. Harmful substances in packagedform An initial report must be sent to the nearest coastal state as soon as possible by the fastest telecommunications means available.
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Contents of initial report as: - Nameofship,callsign,flag - Frequencyorradioguardedchannel - Name,address,telexandtelephonenumber ofownerandrepresentative - Typeofship - Dateandtime(URC)ofincident - Descriptionoftheincident,includingdamage sustained - Ships position, course, speed, as appropriateattimeofincident - Typeofoilinvolved 77 - Othercargocarried

Reporting of Incidents

Regulation1-definition
OILisdefinedinAnnex1aspetroleum in any form including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge,oilrefuseandrefinedproducts

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Regulation1-definition OILY MIXTURE a mixture with anyoilcontent OIL FUEL any oil used as fuel in connection with the propulsion and auxiliary machinery of the ship in which suchoiliscarried
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Annex1Oil
Annex1oilrangesformcrude

oil,heavyproductsoilandlight distillates.Itiseitherused onboardorcarriedascargo.

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Annex1Oil
ThescopeofAnnex1iswiderthan thatoftheprecedingOILPOL54 conventionwhichlimiteditselfto persistentorblackoils.Generally, Annex1prohibitsthedischargeof oilintothesea. 2sourcesofoil/waterdischarges are: - Machineryspaces - cargo/ballasttanksspaces
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Principles of Environmental protection


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Minimizethegenerationofoilandwater mixtures Separateoilfromwaterwheremixtures cannotbeavoided Setlimitstothequantityofoilwhichmaybe dischargedintothesea Seteffluentstandardssoastorenderany dischargeharmlesstotakeextraprotective measuresforspecialareasandcoastal zones
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PrinciplesofEnvironmentalprotection Carrying oil in tanks which are protected from direct impact by collision and grounding - Limit the size of the cargo tanks - Carrying oil in ships which have a greater survival capability in case of damage
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Principles can be implemented through:

Construction requirements Equipment requirements Operational requirements

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Construction, Equipment and Operating requirements can be verified by the following:

Survey and certification flag state control Boarding and inspection port state control Airborne surveillance coastal state control
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Oil Record Book port and flag state control record of oil content produced by oil Discharged Monitoring and Control Systems Port and flag state control
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Regulation 38: Reception Facility

The government party to MARPOL 73/78 must ensure to provide the reception facilities in all their ports to collect ships residues and without causing undue delay to ships
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Control of Oil Discharges from Machinery spaces

Waste Oil generated in machinery spaces by a number of sources such as crankcases and gear cases which used lubricating oil and oil purifiers which creates oil sludge.
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Measures to minimize the generation of oily waste


It can be minimized by: - Reconditioning (purifying) - Incinerating (onboard incinerator) - Disposal to shore reception facility

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SPECIAL AREAS
Means a sea area for recognized technical reasons in relation to its oceanographical location, ecological condition and to the particular character of its traffic, the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution by oil is prohibited.
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SPECIAL AREAS
1. Mediterranean sea 2. Baltic Sea 3. Black sea 4. Red sea 5. Gulf sea 6. Gulf of Aden 7. Antarctic Area 8. North West European Waters 9. Gulf of Oman

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SPECIAL AREAS

InrespectofAntarcticarea,anydischargeintotheseaofoil oroilymixturesfromanyshipshallbeprohibited.
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SPECIAL AREAS

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Discharge Provisions
Regulation 15 ( Control of operational discharge of oil ) MACHINERY SPACE
- OUTSIDE SPECIAL AREA

Discharges of oil or oily mixtures from ships shall be prohibited. From ships of 400 gross tonnage and above shall be prohibited except for the following conditions: 1. the ship is proceeding en route 2. the mixtures are processed by filtering equipment 3. without dilution does not exceed 15ppm 4. does not originate from cargo pump room 5. not mixed with cargo residues
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DischargeProvisions Regulation15(Controlofoperationaldischargeofoil) MACHINERYSPACE-INSPECIALAREA

Discharges of oil or oily mixtures from ships shall be prohibited. From ships of 400 gross tonnage and above shall be prohibited except for the following conditions: 1. the ship is proceeding en route 2. the mixtures are processed by filtering equipment 3. without dilution does not exceed 15ppm with automatic stopping 97 4. does not originate from cargo pump room

Discharge Provisions
MACHINERY SPACE
Outside Special area Regulation 15 1. En route 2. Oil filtering equipment 3. 15 ppm 4. Not from cargo pump room 5. Not mixed with cargo residues Within Special area Regulation 15 1. En route 2. Oil filtering equipment with level alarm and automatic stopping 3. 15 ppm 4. Not from cargo pump room 5. Not mixed with cargo 98 residues

Construction and Equipment for Machinery Spaces for Environmental Protection ( Reg.16) Ships delivered after 1979 should no longer be provided with dual purpose tanks (ex. to hold fuel oil or ballast)
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Construction and Equipment for Machinery Spaces for Environmental Protection ( Reg.16)
If dual purpose tanks are necessary, such as the deep sea tugs, any oil water mixtures may only be discharged into the sea in compliance with the discharge provisions.
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Construction and Equipment for Machinery Spaces for Environmental Protection ( Reg.16)
Prohibition

on the use of forepeak tank or tank forward of the collision bulkhead to carry oil since they are considered to be vulnerable to damage.
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Regulation 12 Sludge Tank


Every ships of 400 gross tonnage shall be provided with sludge tank to receive all residues from machinery spaces. Piping to and from sludge tank shall have no direct connection overboard or to reception facilities other than the standard discharge connection.
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Fitting of one or more bilge water holding tanks which collect the bilge water generated in port

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Regulation 14 Oil Filtering Equipment


Any ships shall be fitted with oil filtering equipment approved by the administration based on IMO specification. For ships of 10,000 gt and above, it shall be provided with alarm arrangement.
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The administration may waive the requirements for Filtering equipments to ships:
Engaged exclusively on voyages within special area and high-Speed Craft provided that the ship: - has holding tanks - must retained onboard the oily bilge and be discharged to reception facility - port of calls must have reception facilities
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Oil Filtering Equipment

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Types of Filtering Systems


Coalesce type filter The filter tank contains a hydrophilic material i.e. a material with a capability for absorbing or taking up water rather than oil. 107

Types of Filtering Systems


Absorption type filter The bed consist of a material which is oleophilic i. e. with a capability for taking up oil rather than water.
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Oily water separators and auxiliary equipment possible problems

The first problem centers on the capacity of the oily separators. The second problem is that the separation process is adversely affected by detergents used in cleaning the engine room and its bilges, or by emulsifiers present in lubricating oil. Another problem is caused by the deterioration in the quality of fuel oil.
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3 Ways of Disposing Residues


1. Mixing with bunkers 2. Discharge to shore reception facilities 3. Incineration
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