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ANCIENT EGYPT
^^"TAe

"^r.

1920.-192 3
CONTENTS.

Part

1.

The Nile

Return
Boats. Treasure W.

to

Research.

2.

Somers
of

Clarke.

3. The

Antinoe. Flinders
Petrie.

M.
of

4. A

Mace

Head

Hierakonpolis.
M.

A. Murray.

5. An

Early

Portrait.

6. Georges

Legrain.

Somers

Clarke.

7. Reviews.
8. Periodicals.

EDITOR,

PROF.

FLINDERS

PETRIE,

F.R.S.,F.B.A.

Yearly,

yx. Post

Free.

Quarterly
MACMILLAN
LONDON
AND
AND

Part,

2s.

AND
NEW

CO.,
YORK;

EGYPTIAN

RESEARCH
Boston.

ACCOUNT,

Ancient

Net price of each number from booksellers is 2s. Subscriptions for the four quarterly parts, prepaid, post free, ys.,are received by Hon. Sec. Ancient Egypt University College, Gower (H. Flinders Petrie),
Egypt.
" "

Street, London,
Books

W.C.

1.
news,

for review, papers offered for insertion, or

should be addressed

:
"

Editor of

"

Ancient

Egypt,"

University College, Gower

Street, London,

W.C.

1.

Subscriptions, received in the United States by : Rev. Dr. Winslow, 525, Beacon
"

Street,Boston.

An '/

THE

TREASURE

OF

ANTINOE.

PL.

I.

GOLD

NECKLET

ABOUT

A.O.

540.

SCALE

1/2.

ANCIENT
THE
RETURN TO

EGYPT.
RESEARCH.

At

last it is

justifiable again

Our perils as a nation are every kind of energy that was from the flood of destruction.
the world was broken. his son Jean Maspero,

for writers to meet their friends in these pages. but they do not need to be met by by no means over,
our required two years ago, to save civilisation Great have been the changes since the peace of are

worn out prematurely, and the face Barsanti. With these the the ever-useful passing of of affairsis changed. Ruffer, Horace Thompson, On the English side other losses are felt : Sir Armand

the main actors the indefatigable Legrain,

In Egypt

gone

Sir Gaston Maspero,

James

Dixon,

and

K.

T. Frost,

Egyptology

; and at home

were all victims of the war, the early death of Prof. Leonard King

to the loss of has lefthistory

of sites in Syria and Palestine was carried out by two former workers of the British School in Egypt, Capt. Mackay and Capt. Engelbach, under the orders of Field-Marshal Sir Edmund Allenby. This was the firststep towards preservation, and their reports give details of the work and
necessary on each site. restrictions is that for The latest School of Archaeology

and archaeology crippled. The necessary inspection

founded Jerusalem,

by

joint

committee of Prof. Garstang of Sites, and Registrar. The

the British Academy. and has actively organised it, Capt. Mackay will be Chief Inspector probably another of our former excavators will be Librarian and the Palestine Exploration Fund

British School in Egypt, with a large staff,hopes to have as full a season basis of work has been of excavation as in the past. In the United States a new Chicago, Institute University Oriental under the efficient of started as the of the In his recent address he takes his stand on the management of Prof. Breasted.
importance position touching the
care as a

of all kinds of evidence for history, and places philology in its true interpreter of some an evidence of historic times, but only thus brief part of man's past. The whole evidences of the past are to be

in line with what has Oriental Institute, which thus comes of the new always been the system of the British School in Egypt. With much regret it is found that the present costs of production, being difference to the issue of this Journal. At the about doubled, must make some
to meet the cost, present time it is unreasonable to expect anyone to pay more So soon is necessary. and therefore some reduction in pages and illustration as our readers will expand the circulation to its former extent, the previous scale issue The summarising of what has been published abroad of will be resumed. during the war is the prime requirement to place readers in touch with present following The conditions. reviews will therefore be fully carried on in this and

numbers.
A

NILE

BOATS

AND

OTHER

MATTERS.

We

have been told many times how unchanging is the East, and undoubtedly is but little the there root of things change ; but the statement must be taken at as directions things go on in Egypt even In many with considerable reserve. they did in the times of the Pharaohs, in others fresh fashions are eagerly sought after, fresh methods succeed one another with considerable rapidity. We have but to compare the appearance of Cairo to-day, with its aspect as shown
to
see

to

us

in the drawings

of David

Roberts,

Prisse d'Avennes,
some

that, except in the eastern quarters of the city where the changes are radical. streets are yet untouched, Glass windows have chased away the beautiful Mushrabiya open shop front is dying in all directions ; The old style of costume so pleasant easy to keep
nor

and others, of the older

; the picturesque

does the change


see,

to

so clean, has almost disappeared. now to admit that he belongs to this wonderful old country ; he will ashamed in the old style ; he must not appear and dirty ape the ugly, inconvenient European coat, trousers, starched collarsand uncomfortable hat.

stop here. so well suited to the climate, The Egyptian of all classes is

The taken

which To

changes have of late become but twenty years since, show see to-day. we

so
a

of street scenes rapid, that photographs crowd quite differently dressed from that

give some particulars of changes in the region of fashion and clothes. Within the last twenty-four years I have observed considerable variation to take place in, for example, the material of which the qallabiah, the universal garb of the This convenient and comely garment, of cotton, was fellaheen must be made. usually dyed either of a light blue tint or of a blue so dark as to pass for black. The
is the Arabic Laban native term for the light blue tint is labany." for milk. We may suppose that the Egyptian saw in the colour of the blue dye but I on this speculation not venture something suggesting the colour of milk, without fear.
to make usually dyed locally. It took but a few months That mean a change. looking stuffglazed calico was introduced ; in this material new wore all off, qallabiahs must be made : the shining surface, which soon
" " "

The

cotton

was

immensely In the

another change, which spread through the country as quickly as the preceding had done. Although the shape of the garment was retained, fashion decreed that the it dressed " on its surface be be must stuffof which made must of a material so it was new, to look not unlike silk. as, when
course came
"

pleasing the purchaser. of a few years there

Head-gear turban

also underwent
was

('"wwa)

variation. The soft and charming white of the its colour washed voted old fashioned, next time it was
a

Nile Boats
was

and
"

Other

Matters,
"

overdose of ; indeed all white garments washing blue and are, spoiled by this nasty stuff. Another thing. It is the mark of distinction in these days to wear boots or shoes, no matter how burst, splitor disreputable they may be. Socks, or the relicsof them, are very essential to a complete effect. Cast-off European clothes have had a deplorable influence, especially since sadly changed
an were,

by

the

war

began.

Egypt list has


now

The King's livery is everywhere dragged in the mire. does not possess a long list of native musical instruments, but the been increased by one. The Scotch bagpipes have been enthusiastically

welcomed by the native population, and are on sale in Cairo. We now to sailingboats, especially those of small size. come The old latine rig is passing away ; the lugger takes its place ; justas many years since the latine saildisplaced the horizontal yard and square saU. Before we touch upon the build of the boats we may be permitted to say a few words on the rig. There is not any need in this Journal to do more than refer to the numerous sculptured representations and models of ancient Nile boats, which show us the
square sailstretched between upper and lower horizontal yards. At what period did this type of sail disappear ? The earliest observation which I have been able to find, by a European A Survey writer, relating to types of rig, is by De Lannoy. of Egypt and Syria undertaken in the Year 1423 by Sir Gilbert de Lannoy, Knt., from a in the Bodleian De Lannoy
"

manuscript
F.S.A.

Library

at

Oxford,by

the Rev.

John Webb,

M.A.,

XXI, {Archaeologia,

281)
:
"

states

sur ceste riviere tout du pay's du soudan une si tres grosse quantity de barkes alaut de lun a lautre en marchandise qui s'appellent germes' les aucunes et le plus avoiles latine et les autres voiles quares." Perhaps some reader of this paper may know of a writer more ancient than

Item.

Y'a

from whom we may gather Nile, on but it is the habit of most the account, overlooking the fact that what
or

de Lannoy

some

about the rig of boats travellers to leave such details out of is commonplace to-day, becomes more
statement

less of ancient history in a very few years. My search has been for illustrated books,

my best chance of information. A Description the East and some of


on

in them I felt I should find as The earliest book I have met with is Pocock other Countries. Vol. the first. Observations
"

"

1743." representation of a boat with three masts, the mainmast From a little the tallest. Across this, part of the way up, swings a yard. the it is way canted one may suppose that the yard carried a triangular and not a square sail. The other masts are without yards or indications of saUs. On
PI. VIII is
a

Egypt,"

by Richard

Pocock,

LL.D.,

F.R.S.

London,

we

Pocock does not give any other representation of a boat. On p. 69 he teUs us as follows : The large boats called marshes, such as have on, a the mast about embarked middle, and another towards the prow."
"

much the wiser for this as he tellsus nothing about the sails. The I know next sent out by the French of is by Norden, a Dane, who was in 1737. He died at Paris in 1742. Government
are

We

not

book

'

This

name

of the Levant,

in cargo boat was Edition, 1850. p. 18, 3rd for


a

use

in the

time

of Curzon,

1838.

See Monasteries

4 The book

Nile Boats and

Other Matters.

edition, Paris, Didot, 1795, in three volumes) is well supplied with engraved views, in which the Nile is frequently depicted with many boats thereon. There is always difficulty in estimating

(I quote from

the second

the value of the evidence given by engraved plates. In many, if not most, cases the travellers knew but little how to draw ; this is notably the case with regard to Pocock. The engraver, on The traveller had, at any rate, seen the

objects.

the other hand, had no knowledge whatever of the original ; but he did his best " " invest with artistic to the clumsy handiwork of the author. merit Scenes in Egypt were Uncertain tricked out with European adornments. indeed may be the value, as evidence, of an engraving that has been thus produced,
are
now

which and yet it may be better than nothing or than the foggy smears so usually printed as photographs. In the case of the engravings in Norden's book we find the Nile dotted with
an

boats of
on

extremely
plates,
a

European

the

same

as

boats carry the latine sails,but rig. Many for example LII, LIII, LXXII, Pis. XXXVI, etc., we square
square

find boats of
sails,one

carrying two considerable size with a very tall mainmast above the other, on horizontal yards ; a mizenmast with one
we come

sailand the plates

bowsprit

Heiff). On this plate


heavy

a called view of Philae (also zontal the horizontal yard and square sail, also the horiIt seems very improbable that a boat with such a yard on the bowsprit. hauled, standing, up the cataract. All further plates of places top rig was
"

horizontal yard and with to that numbered CXXXVI


a we see

sail on

it. As

we

look through

south of Philae show boats with latine sails. to conclude from what is above stated that there were square rigged boats in use on the Nile and at a date as late as Norden so far up the river as the First Cataract, or may we assume that the engraver had enlivened Norden's drawings with a marine type of square rigged boat which was not really to be Are
we

in Nubia

seen

in Egypt

In 1780 C. S. Sonnini brought to a conclusion certain travels in Egypt which An illustratedtranslahe undertook at the instance of the French Government. tion in of his travels was published in England in 1800. Boats are to be seen several of the engravings in this book, always with latine sails. Then follows Denon, the French who expedition, and published accompanied before issued a book This travels. the was monumental of several years Denon draughtsman by no means a was appeared. Not a yngle horizontal yard is seen in the engravings the engraver. in his book. This type of yard seems completely to have disappeared by the year 1798, the date at which, with the years 1799 and 1800, the materials for de V^gypte Description
on

dependent

being collected by the French savants. It is easy to observe that in many very engravings in this great work some " indifferentdrawings have been largely by the engravers, but ever howmade up
the
"

de V^gyptewere Description

that may

If

we

be, square rigged boats in consult Gau (published

are

not represented.
are

1822),a book in which


prepared
seen, none

beautiful and

scrupulously careful engravings, evidently from admirable drawings, very few boats are
observant 1826 ascended the Nile to the Second delightful book Manners and Customs
"

Few

men

were

more

than Edward

under the author's eye of them square rigged. William Lane, who in the year

of

Cataract, and afterwards published that the Modern Egyptians. In Chapter XIV,
that the boats

Industries," he refers to the navigation of the Nile, and tells us have two large triangular sails.

Nile Boats atid Other Matters.

of Lane's drawings are preserved at the British Museum, amongst them those made during his voyage up the Nile. I admit that I have not studied disposed to believe them with a view to the methods of rigging boats, but am that had there been horizontal yards depicted, my attention would have been
Many

arrested. On the exterior of the little temple of Rameses II which liesin the desert El-Kab the east of may be seen, perfectlywell-preserved,incised great walls at horizontal boats drawings of yards. with I am not able to recallany other place where I have found this type of rig depicted as a mere rough drawing. It is evidently an ancient piece of work. but they are common, Scratchings of boats with latine rig are sufficiently first drawing described. than the more modern undoubtedly Mr. QuibeU tellsme that at the monastery of S. Jeremias at Saqqara he found a rude painting of a ship with three masts and horizontalyards. This painting he attributesto the sixth century a.d. Sir Gardiner Wilkinson gives a drawing of a sailing boat which he names to the dahabeah of to-day with its cangia." This was evidently a near relation latinerig.^ I am much indebted to my friend Mr. G. Walter Grabham, of the Sudan GeologicalService,for notes he has collectedduring his extensive travels on the Blue and White Niles," notes as careful as they are accurate, and relatingto the types and names of the types of boats he has found in these distantplaces. Of the gyassa," which we see so commonly on the Nile as far as Haifa, builtwith ribs and planked, he says : Of this type of Egyptian cargo boat few are seen higher up the river than Berber, most of them apparently belong to the Government. The type isessentially exotic." It isprobable that these boats are the relics of the Gordon expedition, 1884. He then speaks of the type of native-built boat, naggr," the common beam a often riblessand with approximating to half itslength. The width of These boats range in size bottom curved, the sides continuing the same curve. from small feluccas to large craft, can as such carry 500 ardebs. ment, The naggr type of boat was evidentlyin use in the times of the old Governlater but I have been by pictures in the books of travel, as shown unable to find pictures or descriptions of any boats in the early books at my disposal.
" "
"

**

"

"

With the establishment of the Egyptian regime the need for rivercarriage must by boat have increased, and we know that travellersand goods generally came from Berber to Khartum. " on arose the White Nile. At present It was only after 1840 that traffic
find the largestboat we (1917) up eitherthe White Nile or "Kawa and Shawal are important centres on the White Nile from which boats ply up the river. Considerable numbers are to be seen as far as the mouth ' ' The sunt wood of the Sobat, and a few penetrate the lower part of the Zeraf of which the naggr is made, grows on sandy soilin damp situations. On the White Nile sunt is not met with beyond Kosti, but on the Blue itisfound as far up as Roseires, and that is the limit of navigation. It also grows near the river At present the main centre of boat building is certainly north of Khartum.
.

at Omdurman, and their craft are sailed the Blue, according to season and demand.
owners

1 Manners and customs Murray, 1878.

of the ancient Egyptians.

New

edition by Sam.

Birch, Vol. II,

6
Omdurman,
"

Nile Boats and

Other Matters.
is chiefly obtained from
the large

and, for this purpose, the wood


Dueim

forests between
The

craft, and are the only kind of boats used naggrs are by the inhabitants for carrying merchandise. The for ferry and fishing purposes. The Nilotic negroid tribes use canoes Shilluk on the White Nile possess rather large built canoes which are put together
"

and Kosti. Arab-owned

They have a rising of rope. somewhat after the style of the naggr, but by means that the point of bow and stern like the gondola, and a V-shaped section, save flatbottom. the V is cut off leaving a narrow

only met with on the White Nile ; not on the swift The Shilluks also make use of the hollowed treewaters of the Bahr el-Jebel. the Dinkas, Bari, Madi, trunk, which is almost the only type found amongst Alur, etc., who inhabit the river banks as far as Lake Albert."
"

These built canoes

are

attention to a book by Legh, Legh's Journey in Egypt, second edition, 1817. He was travelling on the Nile in 1812-13 and remarks that there are three kinds of boats used in the navigation of the Nile. " " He hires a at Rosetta to convey him up the river (p.15). This boat maish Mr.

Grabham

calls my

is large enough to take Legh, Smelt and their servants, also three British officers. They were nine days from Rosetta to Cairo. This has two masts, but not a Legh also mentions a djerm (p.
" "

14).

cabin ; it is chiefly used for the conveyance " He also refers to the cangia," which

of merchandise. he describes as having but


" "

one

mast,

but from eight to fourteen oars and two cabins. Mr. Grabham tellsme that he heard the term maish used by the Reis for the capacious barge attached to the steamer side on his journeyto Roseires.
of the boats here referred to, bear square sails. Must we not conclude that several centuries back yield to the triangular ?

None

the square sail began

to

At the present day we see evidences of an important change. About twelve in boats few Cairo, lugger a their appearance years ago private sailing made to be seen Some were soon at Aswan. rigged and provided with a centre board.

In the secluded regions of Wadi Haifa a similar type of boat and rig appeared. " " The type was found where groups of British officials lines were stationed. The of the boats were quite different from those of the clumsy craft which then, and they probably have been for centuries by the natives called London," which has we At Aswan there may take as a compliment. grown up quite a profitable business in building boats on these improved lines,with centre boards and lugger
now,

produced by native hands.

are

and The

reproduced, new type was

as

"

" felucca AU are with ribs. The old rig. None of these boats are of sunt. has in many parts of the river almost given place, for light work, to the new " London " ; the improvement is so manifest that even the conservative Egyptian
"

before it and adopts it. So far as I have been able to observe no boat Having raised the question, carrying cargo has yet been built in the new mode. but failed to trace the time or manner of disappearance of the old square rig,

bows

let us go back to

type of boat still built and very largely used, but which belongs to remote ages of antiquity ; a boat nearly as primitive as that described by Herodotus, if not in many essentials the same.
a

This type of boat is called a naggr." We see but few specimens of the class until we have ascended the Nile as far as AsyOt, but from that place southward it is met with very frequently and

"

Nile Boats in the Sudan is far more


common

and

Other Matters.

than boats of any other type. It may be known its rotundity and clumsiness of form, the ancient appearance, slowness of progress, the absence of ribs in its construction, and the fact that it is never tarred or painted, the wood soon acquires a silver grey tone which adds

by its exceedingly

very much to theflkppearance of age. A more primitive contrivance unmanageable, be imagined. moves right before the wind, cannot

than

the naggr,

As an example, in favourable to half an hour crossing the stream N.W. a with wind I have been four hours getting back a spot but a little above the starting point. with us and the ever-blowing N.W. wind by no means and yet the current was

except I have,

it

Sudan,

been

violent. Before describing how


most ancient boats that now It will be appreciated that

the naggr is built I will give a few words to the two exist in Egypt, to be seen in the Museum at Cairo. the naggr is a very direct descendant of the boats

found at Dahshiir by M. de Morgan These boats were of the Xllth dynasty. during his excavations in 1894-5.^ The boats, on their arrival at the Museum deal a good were (thenat Giza), in that institution repaired, and like so many repairs carried on then and now they incline very much It is indeed most of repair should be and what is new.
so

important

in the direction of skilfulforgeries. in a museum that any

standing object

in need

No

we are of the objects to them by way of repairs. When these ancient boats

treated that the student can teU at a glance what is original the actual condition register exists telling us what was found, or what has been done considering, when they were in the Museum
at Giza I made
were
some

were

notes

(in 1894); they had


are

then but

justarrived

unfortunately very much diificultto distinguish new pieces of wood entertained (in1916)of correcting my years has made passage of twenty-two inserted and surface of the pieces, which

Cairo they

exceedingly from the original. The hopes I had to little. The studies of 1894 have come
a

and in the dark.

in

good
now

careful light. At

It is

considerable difference in the colour


now

approximate

pretty closely to the

colour of the old. The two boats


one

are

so

nearly alike in allrespects that itis sufficientto describe

of them. As the section shows, Fig. i, they are built entirely without ribs. The two boats are described in the officialcatalogue, but the measured drawings which accompany the description have been so reduced in the printing
to lose much

as

of their value. Certain of the terms made use of in the description are, no doubt, correct It is in the United States, but the words have not similar values in England. unfortunate that this is so, or that equivalents are not given by Dr. Reisner, than We will, a more whom patient and painstaking archaeologist cannot be found.
however,

go back

to

more

and

see

what evidence we In Lepsius' Denkmaler,

ancient times than those of the Museum find from tomb drawings. can

Catalogue,

hetep.

II, 126, is found a drawing from the tomb In this the building of a boat is shown in progress. Fig. 2.
see

of Khnum-

We
breaking
'

clearly that the sides are made of short pieces of wood, set together, At least one described by Herodotus. as of the (likebricks), joint

Fouilles k Dahchour,

Mars-Juin,1894.

By

J. de

Morgan.

Vienne,

1895.
A

Nile Boats and

Other Matters. If this boat had been built with an seen them standing up above the

is shown standing inside the boat. workmen inner frame of vertical ribs we should have

planks, and to them we should have seen the workmen attaching the outside skin of planks ; but nothing of this sort is visible. The planks are shown one lying boats, or as, in building a naggr, we above the other exactly as in the Museum
see

done at this day.

One workman

holds

an

adze.

Others have hatchets.

The

implements

bulbous

at the end

are

mallets ; the way

in which

they

are

held have

suggests that use. The tomb of Khnumhetep before


As
us a

be

met

well-developed the very unwieldy Catalogues with, I will venture to give

is of the reign of Senusert II, so that we picture of boat-building in the Xllth dynasty. of the Cairo Museum a short, but by no
are means

not
as

often

to

complete.

Nile Boats and Other Matters.

Dr. Reisner has done. I also give measured a description of the boats, as i, drawings ; a plan with a longitudinalelevationand transverse section. (Figs, 3, 4.) The transverse section, Fig. i, shows clearlyhow the boat is buUt up sions, of planks,and without a keel. The two boats are not exactlyof the same dimenthe plantsforming the hull of the largerboat average 9 cm. in thickness ;
the planks of the smaller,7 cm. The planks vary both in length and in width, but are wide as compared with those we should use to-day in building boats of the sizeof those in the Museum. The middle bottom plank which takes the place of the keel is 25 cm. in
1 are of the same width. The total length width, those immediately adjoining is ID 10m. boat of the We now come to consider the method of construction. The planks vary a good deal in theirlength. In allcases the sidesand ends of the planks butt against each other without any overlap. See the section Fig. I, and the drawing from Beni Hasan, Fig. 2. The boats are, in fact,as we callthe method to-day carvel buUt." The Beni Hasan drawing indicatesvery to one that the sidesof the planks are not parallel well the Egyptian peculiarity the other, but undulate according to the configurationof the grain of the natural wood. A lower plank having been set in the place the plank which rests upon it has itslower sidecut into undulationsto fit. In masonry likewise the irregular by letting into another. one thickness of courses was adjusted butting joints one The boat buildersnever placed vertical over the other, being for reason, internalribs there the not of the stability any and with good hull rests entirelyon the success they their aim of accomplished with which making a continuous skin, each part supporting and supported by the parts
"

I"

adjoining.
'

Why,

in the Museum

Catalogue, the middle plank is called a

"

beam

"

ishard to say.

SoMERS Clarke.

(To he continued.)

lo

THE

TREASURE

OF

ANTINOE.

Some
the

found in Upper Egypt ; was a hoard of personal ornaments in the ruin of a monastery likely report is that, they were at Antinoe. That city was undoubtedly a wealthy centre of foreign influence,and a monastery was the safest place during the Arab invasion, which closely followed on the making of this group ; so the probabilities are in favour of this report. For the
ten years ago
more

present, at all events, the name of the Treasure of Antinoe is the best that we can It suffered the fate of most finds of valuables in the present give to this hoard. it law the finders, they sold the was state of ; violently broken up among it surreptitiously to dealers, it was bought up in scattered lots by private collectors, and it is now Morgan collection. The
weakened

Berlin, Detroit and the Pierpont archaeological value of the hoard has been much from other sources, so by the admixture that there is no of objects
separated

in London,

found together. certainty as to what was Under these disastrous results of Government
than it preserves, the best
course
was

control, which destroys more to have the material all published together.

Thanks

College, of the late Prof. Walter Dennison of Swarthmore Pennsylvania, this was successfully done ; but most unhappily his death in 1917 frustrated his seeing the issue of his work. It is a sad loss for archaeology, that
to the labour
a

who might have done much age of forty -eight. The volume
man

to develop
on

our

knowledge,

Gold Treasure

in Egypt (85 pp., 54 plates, 57 figures,Macmillan, immortality on the shelves of museums and will give his name and scholars. Besides the full illustration,sometimes on an enlarged scale, of all the of objects for to known illustrated serve the hoard, many are similar pieces already also The comparison. results in Ancient
author

was cut off at the Late-Roman Period the of is his best $2.50) memorial,

generously gave
that objects

permission

for reproducing

the main

Egypt.
probably

belong together, we may note The greater part of the articles are dated by coins what should be excluded. to the time between Justinian and Mauricius Tiberius, the latter half of the
sixth century, two necklaces
or

Before describing the

else are
are

(8,9)

in the third century, bracelets (24, 35), which

Dr. Dennison of similar work and age. agrees that from another source, the second and early probably of and he puts as possibly earlier a pair of spiral serpent
seem

earlier still. on the which pattern may set aside a pair of armlets (21, shell 22), is probably of the second century (see the necklace and gold ring in Heliopolis, XXXIX), also a pair of bracelets with a wavy vine stem for the elastic circle obviously
or

of the first century,

With these

we

After excluding these hardly be dated after the third century. is can we only say of the remaining bulk that there nothing against their having been buried together before the sack in the Arab invasion of 641.

(32, which 33),

can

The whole hoard contained, then, two necklets with groups of coins attached, three gold coins set in linked framing, five necklaces or coUars, a long chain for the body, six pairs and one odd bracelet, a small cross and a crystal figure. The

"

PL

II.

HALF

OF

GOLD

COLLAR

OF

LINKED

PLATES.

FULL

SIZE

The

Treasure

of Antinoe.

II

absolute dating by the attached coins is only in the two necklets and the linked is coins. In these three cases, the earliest date for the making of the jewellery (528-556)for one necklet and the coins, and under Mauricius under Justinian debased necklet, which is obviously of later and more As it i^ unlikely that such wealth of gold would be displayed after the work. Arab conquest of 641, the limits of date are fairly close. To this we referlater. for display is the great necklet (PI. The finest I here)with fourteen
other

(582-602)for the

object

inserted coins from Theodosius to Justinian, a pendant medallion of Theodosius, imitation barbaric Valentinian III as a centre piece. This of a gold coin of and a imitations of coins for ornament taste for making is very familiar in the North
of

Europe

(see Montelius,

Civilisation

; Worsaae,
are

Pre-History

also alike in Northern

garnet inlays, and

origin, and by the bands of northern troops in the Roman garrisons. A fellow necklet, copied from the previous about fifty years later,has coins to Mauricius, and therefore after 582. The middle piece ranging from Justinian is a struck medallion more intelligentlymade than the previous imitation of a
the wearer," coin, as it has a rational Greek inscription, Lord, succour alike on both sides. The pendant, however, seems to have been an entirely independent work, converted to a pectoral, and too large for the necklet. It has on one side the Annunciation, and on the other the Conversion of water into wine ; the style is distinctly early Christian rather than classical. is the A pleasing detail in these pectorals, which seems to be post-classical, filling like flowers, or water up of spaces with the small three-petal arrow-head plantain The
"

work large discs of ornament on this class of ornament probably aU

dosius 134, copy of Theoof the North, Figs. 6-16). Some other features and Romano- Egyptian, as the crystal fibulae and

of Sweden,

Fig.

necklets. These are northern brought into Egyptian was

in
use

Fig. (see

22

here).

have borders cast around the coins, three linked solidi of Justinian apparently by cireperdue; inscriptions were then punched on a band of the border. These are Greek, and read " For He shall give His angels charge over thee " ; next,
"

to keep thee in all thy ways


us."

"

; thirdly,
as

"

Emmanuel

is of small balls linked together, with No. 11 of eight lengths of each of four pearl and sapphire beads. woven pendant, wire chain alternating with beads, and a large circular openwork four interiorcirclesforming a cross. No. 12 has alternate stones with the ugly with late device of beads threaded on a wire around ; but the other alternatives are No.
10

with well prophylactic charms, to protect the The necklaces are very varied.

God

These,

as

the medallion
wearer.

which, being interpreted,is in the pectoral, are therefore

fifteencrosses

six-leaved rosettes in circles, of the fresh geometrical style which arose on the ruins No. 13 is a common form of wire links with beads, and a row of classicalwork. No. 14 is a remarkable wide collar, of bead dangles. passing round three quarters of the neck, of eleven open-work gold plates hinged together, with seventeen PI. The sapphire pendants (see II). plates are in pairs, on opposite sides, there

being six different designs. The patterns are good, descended from Greek palmetto for foliage, is far but too the wearing. stiffand awkward and whole effect The large body chain is very unusual, and the most satisfactory and original discs, design in the whole hoard (see PI. III). It consists of two large open-work
the chest, the other on the back, as shown on terracotta figures. These were by a chain of small discs over joined each shoulder, and a chain round There are only two patterns in discs each side, twenty-three small each chain.
one
worn on

12

The

Treasure

of Antinoe.

for the discs,but the whole effectis varied, and the two designs look quite distinct, The use of such a body chain was yet harmonious. probably to retain ample flowing robes near the body, and prevent the garment bagging out awkwardly. There are three pairs of earrings, all of which have long dangles of beads, a
style probably coming from the North with the barbaric invasions. Two pairs of bracelets have elaborately pierced openwork discs. These are ingenious in design, reminding us of the marble-work screens of San Clemente, or
to be the result of the rather later ones All of this style seems of Saint Marks. belonged the northern introduction of wicker-work screens, to nomadic which life. Another pair of bracelets, or rather armlets, are made of hollow hexagonal

tube, notched to imitate banding, and with two imitations of aurei of Honorius at the fastening. A single bracelet is of twisted wire pattern, with a fulsome bezel of thirteen set stones. This gold work from Egypt, and other examples that Prof. Dennison has published for comparison, supply a good basis for dating details of ornament. The employment to give an anterior of gold coins set in later framings serves limit of date for the work, and it is unlikely that the posterior limit is more than
three generations later. The mixture of coins of various ages in the large breast ornaments shows how far such material precedes the ornamental setting. In one group, PI. VIII, the coins are two of Theodosius I, two of Theodosius II, five of Anthemius, between or one about of Basilicus, and four of Justinian,
two
or
"

five 390 and 530. In another group, PI. XIV, there is one of Justinian, II, one of Tiberius II, six of Mauricius, or between about a.d. 550 and of Justin 600. Thus, in one case, half the coins are within sixty years, in the other case
A.D.

half

are

of the last two

age of coins when used dating jewellery by single coins to within half a century in most cases. The elements of the ornament here separated, and classed by their are motives (Figs. 1-22).,Thus the degradation of design is shown, and this wiU help in dating other jewellery. The dates placed after the emperor's name are
was

reigns, or a very few years. less than half a century.

Thus This

on

the average the gives ground for

the earliest to which the work would be reasonably assigned, allowing a few is The date of the ornament years for coins to circulate into the provinces. be dates here given. therefore to taken as probably within fiftyyears after the

Different dates
on Justinian

are

given for Nos. 6 and

19, according to the age of the head of

the coin. foliage work of Nos. i, 2 and 3 is obviously like that of the first century This foliage work architecture debased, such as on the great Altar of Peace. is familiar on the sculpture of the Severan age. to be the back No. 3 seems The of
an

openwork

design like No.

2 ;

but,

from judging

the photograph,

Nos.

and 2 are of wirework on a sheet-metal basis. In No. 4, perhaps a generation later, the foliage work has lost its tradition and become irregular and senseless. The revival of openwork on an entirely different about a.d. 600, No. 5, was being built instead a system, "sut out of up of soldered wire. of continuous sheet The foliage,or running vine, pattern in Nos. 6 and 7 is made of detached
curved wires soldered on to a sheet-metal basis. In a.d. 530 they stillhad a binding put across to hide the junction ; but by 600 a.d. the separate wires are down, lost, detached The old sense was stuck of structure and unashamed. but this may have been iue to a workman below the average of his generation.

Small neat scrolls, to fill up spaces, The row of pelta-shaped

are

also of

(No. 8). Justinian


form
a

which objects

border

under

Caracalla

The

Treasure

of Antinoe.

13

to have originated a favourite device of the seem and 10), sixth century. On No. 10 the dotted lines are placed to suggest how the designer came to regard the pattern, and from this to make it in wirework, with a pile of globules up the

(Nos.9

It was middle to stiffenit, as in Nos. 11 and 13. simplified, as wire on a sheeton metal basis (N"r under Focas (Univ.Coll.), and this element is common

13),

earrings and small work

of that age.

1-3

RACALLA

2.Z0A.D

4,6

SEVERUS

ALEXANDER

2.40

A.D.
0000000

MRURlCIUS

600

AD.

6-8

JUSTlMlAN

530

MAURICIUS

600

JUSTINIAN
9-13

caracalla

a 2.0

JUSTINIAN

SSO

MAURICIOS

FOCAS

610

14-18

2.4-0

3SO

\""^
H0N0RIUS4-3O

"'V

35-0 CONST.
II

5EV

ALEXANDER

CONSTANTIUSII

380 VALENS

19-22

^^P
J

nSM5\S\
I

TIN

IAN

55'OA.D

border of flowers. No. 14, was copied very formally under^Alexander. By the time of Constantius II the flower forms are scarcely recognisable (No.15). Under Honorius the flower is reduced to two lobes,with a concave hollow between ; Similar this might, perhaps, be a degradation of the Greek dart-and-egg.

14
concave are

The

Treasure

of Antinoe.

used for a border (No. 17)under Constantius II, and modified to a zigzag line pattern (No. 18)under Valens. The continuous scroll was carelesslymade in several modifications all at the
a

hollows in

row

are

same to settlewhich form is used, as time ; in fact, on small work it is difficult it varies so much In No. 19 the scrollsare clear, in to lighting. the according become No. 20 they line, in No. 3i they form a series of pendant a running

of covering filling small spaces of ground. Whenever it may be possible to put together all the dated examples of to more jewellery, and analyse the different elements, we shall be able to recover to fix This later in serve the the the stages of change of will various patterns.
22,
was a

curls. The
up

little flower. No.

favourite and graceful mode

junctions and

self-evident dating. A curious figure in rock crystal,nearly four inches high, is supposed to have It is a female figure, dressed in chiton and peplos from the hoard. come The aspect is the whole person : round her neck is a high band. swathing greater part of

jewellery which

has

no

Christian rather than classic. It is on a silver gilt base that has been broken from a larger sions. object.This obviously is not an empress or a person of pretenThe meek aspect, almost deferential,rather suggests it is intended for a
it might have been the crowning figure of a reliquary. The rage for so it likely to in fourth that a the the relics quite sixth century would make reliquary might be hidden along with other treasures in the seventh century. The fate of all valuable antiquities under the present law is a melancholy

saint,

one.

The Egyptian

Government
even

work at Zagazig, though present hoard of Antinoe,

claims to have seized two great groups of silver from these some But the pieces went astray. the great group of gold medallions from Abukir, the

large gold hawk from Dendereh, the great find of a royal burial of the XVIIIth dynasty with much gold work, and iimumerable lesser discoveries, have all been lost to the Government, lost to all knowledge by being melted up, and many owing to the fear of Government claims. This suicidal policy, which is a loss of
If the is also an irreparable loss to archaeology. values to the Government, Government would give local values for everything, such as a dealer pays, the be secured at a small part of the full European whole would value. The

for everything confidence of the people should be gained by a liberal payment for be the that is declared at once, concealment penalty and and seizure should in a had to pay out "10,000 not declaring any discoveries. If the Government
they paid the larger year they would make a large profit on the result ; the more Let hope that Palestine us the gain, which would otherwise fallto the dealers. in the shortsighted way that prevails and Mesopotamia will not be mismanaged

under the English and the Egyptian

laws.

W.

M. Flinders

Petrie.

PL.

III.

GOLD

BODY-CHAIN

OF

LARGE

AND

S2

SMALL

DISCS.

SCALE

5 6.

( 15 )

THE
The

FIRST

MACE-HEAD

OF

HIERAKONPOLIS.

great carved mace-heads of Hierakonpolis have been the subject of much in the case of the second and third,which are now in the carefulstudy, especially Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. The firsthas received less attention,owing to its damaged condition. It isbroken into several pieces,but though a great deal has been preserved, the surface of the stone is corroded in many places, and flakes lost. The sculpture have splitoff,so that much of the sculpture is irretrievably falls into three groups, of which two are thus left 1. The first group represents the king who
on

fragment. the largest

the crown of Lower Egypt is in hand to or a one appears and to hold a and wrapped cloak shawl ; project, is He is beardless but on a throne, the sculpture is so worn and seated whip. lines away that only the square box-like of the back of the throne are visible.
wears

The figureis placed under a curved canopy supported at the front by two slender immediately under the canopy, and shafts ; on each shaft there is an ornament in Both a terminates the canopy and the figure of the each shaft sharp point. king are of the same It is interestingto note that type as on the second mace. on the maces the king when wearing the crown of Lower Egypt is represented being smaller,both actually and in proportion, than when wearing the White On the third mace-head the Scorpion King is considerably larger than the figure the figuresamong whom he stands ; whUe on the first and second maces
as

Crown.

of the king is actually smaller than the others ; this is markedly the case in the mace-head under discussion. This disproportion in size is against the usual rule

of Egyptian art, which makes the principalperson larger than the other figures in a scene. A possibleexplanation is that these are representations of the king's statue, and not of the king himself. As the figure is placed under a canopy of the type of the early shrines,and isdressed in the close-wrappedgarment peculiar his people are to Osiris,it may represent the dead and deified king to whom
paying homage. 2. On the same

but removed from itby a wide the king's figure, Only is figure man. space, originally sculptured and now blank, a of a pig-tailed the back of the head and the back of one leg are visible, the rest being utterly
fragment
as

destroyed. is an
was

above the head is a curved rope, and above that again little remains that itisimpossibleeven to guess at what it of which object intended to represent. Behind the rope and almost touching it is a rectangular ; these apparently the ground or base of other figures or
so

Immediately

object,

objects

would be on a levelwith the king's face. The figurestands on another peculiar is running ; the angle of the leg suggests that the man and indeterminate object or dancing. Two points in this figure are noticeable : the firstis the pigtail, which I win discuss below ; the second is the size. It is the largestfigureon any
; and if the canon of the maces of Egyptian art held good at that early period Taken together with the be this should the principal personage in the scene. on which he stands, and the above his head, he fiUsthe whole height object object The size of this figure should be compared with the bearers of the mace-head. of offerings, and especially with the king. four Three fragments or together give part of a scene of bearers of 3. joined

16

The First Mace-head

of Hierakonpolis.

from the middle and lower part of one side come offerings. These fragments the mace, but do The scene the main piece anywhere. of not join unfortunately is divided horizontally into two registers,in each of which there are the remains of three figures. In the upper register, one leg and arm only remain of the first he is man dressed in kilt a short ; and carries a fox-skin (?)in his apparently hand. The second and third figureshave skirts to the middle of the calf, the skirt being ornamented There indications or are either with patterns with rope-work of some suspended from the hand of the third figure.

object

In the lower register, there is practically nothing remaining of the first figure except the back of the head and the plaited pigtail. The second man is, short beard, apparently fastened to the at the back of the neck while the upper part is plaited into a short pigtail. His dress consists of a short kUt from the band ; down the ^vaist to above the knee, fastened at the waist with a narrow front is an ornamented piece which may perhaps be a piece of pleated cloth such
a

He wears however, almost complete. hair, which is arranged in a heavy mass

In his right hand he the loin-cloths of the late Old Kingdom. holds a vase of the type of the second Prehistoric Period, a form very closely to the heart-sign of the laterhieroglyphs. The which approximates fist leftarm the with clenched is raised above the head. The legs and feet are
as occurs
on

barrel-shaped

knee is raised as though in the act of dancing. The third man bare, and one differs from the second only in attitude ; in his right hand he holds a fox skin (?) hangs at his side. The right knee already conventionalised in form, the left arm is raised above the level of the waist as ifin an active dance. Again these figures
are

all considerably larger than


rare

the king.

Below

their feet is

curved

line,

apparently a rope. PigtaUed figures are

are of pig-tails twist or plait just above

in Egypt, and even discernible. The first type is when


or

two types those known among the hair is gathered into a thick

Abydos, II, PI. head and neck.


as as

IV).

In these

below the nape of the neck cases the hair covers the

I, PI. XI, {Hierakonpolis,


curve crown

stiffening material amongst it fallsquite clear of the head and neck. When the hair is dressed in this fashion it is sometimes all gathered into the plait as in Figs. 2 and 7, leaving the nape bare, this may perhaps be caused by shaving the back of the head under

In the second type, the pigtailstarts at the the Chinese, and is apparently plaited with some

of the back of the of the head,

the plait ; in other cases, as in Figs. 3 and 8, the hair fallsin a heavy mass under the pigtail, which is plaited only from the hair of the upper part of the head. Pigtailsof any sort appear to occur only in the beginning of the historic period, and at no other time. The only exception is perhaps the nms king (Fig. 9),where, however, the pigtail is obviously made hair. of From

headdress of the
of cloth and not

the comparative size of the figures,itis evident that they were of more than the king. The type of face is not that of the aborigines as, in the slate palettes. Not only is the hair differentlydressed but these shown people are clothed, sometimes in a short Idlt, sometimes in a long robe, whereas The long-robed the aborigines are either very scantily clothed or quite nude. importance
as prisoners : on the contrary, the battlefield palette being driven forward by a shows person whose garment captive aborigine beard suggest the royal reaches to his ankles. The short kUt and the artificial so costume, also perhaps does the pigtail. If then, the royal figure is that

people

are
a

never

represented

of the

dead

and

deified king,

are

these

the

competitors

for the throne ?

The

First Mace-head

of Hierakonpolis.

17

ThotkmcsHI
Prof. Newberry
on

has pointed out that this is probably the meaning of the scene by the presence the mace-head of Narmer, and that it is there complicated

the successful candidate of the heiress to the throne, by marriage with whom legitimised his claim. Another possibility may be kept in mind, that the piece as piece 3. with the king (i,2) did not belong to the same mace-head

M.

A. Murray.

'8

AN
Among

EARLY

PORTRAIT.

York Historical Society's collection there the antiquities in the New some so unusual that Mrs. Grant Williams has kindly allowed us to reproduce are here. These have been published by her in the them other and many

objects

Bulletin of Quarterly
very
name
"

the New

York

from which the is known at Saqqarah, have is it Vth to dated or come the the : early in the Vlth sculptures end of The type is so far from that of the usual Egyptian that we have more dynasty. its being a careful portrait. The detail of the profile differsfrom the in certainty the long upper lip, the sharp usual type in the sharp brow, the pointed nose, form The the the retreating chin. of the nose is closely like edges of mouth, and face is not like any other. that of the wife of Ka-aper ; but the heavy, morose, in it two wooden ushabtis, A remarkable coffin-box in the same has collection
one wrapped, and a rollof inscribed linen, probably part of the Book of the Dead. These, and a scarab, being all bedded in pitch, are not modern insertions. The dynasty ; the name is unusual, style of the ushabtis is of the early XlXth The burial of two ushabtis in a coffin descends from the beliefof the Sebaur.

remarkable portrait head His tomb of Atu-shep-er-onkh.

Historical Society in the last two years. A is that of Smenkhu-ptah, who had the good
"

dynasty, when XVIIIth Yet the ushabti was a figure of the deceased person. is that as one an overseer these this burial must be just time, after with whip, of dynasty had by and the other is plain, showing that the serf idea of the XlXth in. this time come W. M. F. P.

GEORGES
The

LEGRAIN.
the late

following notes upon the really remarkable work carried out by Georges Legrain at Karnak, are offered as a tribute to his memory.
there be set forth ungrudging of the immense description with some amount labours to be at aU estimated. Let
a
us

Unless

for his of detail,it is difficult

agglomeration

the condition consider what was in he was put charge in of ruins of which

1894.
years before that time Mariette had removed great masses of general investigation, and the recovery of the buried of earth, with the object A was afterwards published, and if it has proved very incorrect in plan. plan The undertaking was one at. respects, that is hardly to be wondered many

Quitetwenty

to carry greater,than Mariette, over-burdened as he was, had either time or means through. M. Jacquesde Morgan was appointed Director-General of Antiquities in should be made ; 1893. He decided that a systematic investigation of Karnak

Legrain and in 1894 he nominated Georges Legrain to preside over that work. then made a programme of what to do and how to do it,which has proved really its foresightedness. for He did not approach the subject only from remarkable the side of the excavator, and of one who had to repair and maintain as he went

Portrait

of

Smenkhu-ptah.

Vth

Uvnastv.

Coffin-box

with

Ushahtis.
B
2

20

Georges Legrain.

seeing through to the end so iilong. He realised the impossibility of one man immense He saw an that he must thoroughly register the progress undertaking. found, so the the that his notes and observations of could works and

objects

be taken

up by those who followed, and thereby the history of this prodigious He viewed Karnak as a vast historical monument. place could be properly built up. He set to work so to arrange the system for tabulating the immense series of inscriptions and sculptures, that a complete record of the whole group of temples could be published. His he was Legrain was but twenty-six years of age when appointed. methods have proved perfectly sound after twenty-three years' progress.
The works
an

From

increasing very greatly in volume and in interest. often great, but such engineering point of view the risks were
went
on

was

I believe, never an the forethought and care taken, there was, accident, although blocks of stone to be moved, there were workers by the hundred, and immense than 25 tons apiece. taken down and reinstated, some of them weighing more Maspero, was succeeding De Morgan, unhappily very unsympathetic " " Legrain. lay in fact Here the opposition and difficulties referred to in with But Egypt, 1917, p. 142. the short notice of Legrain already published. Ancient Maspero is dead and cannot defend himself. It would therefore be undesirable M.

What is past is past. more. It is a thing not a little to be deplored that of all the work that has been done at Karnak since the year 1894, of all the remarkable discoveries that have been made, no consistent or scientificaccount has ever been published.
to say

exist a few notes and records buried in the Annales du Service des Antiquity. These, a few pages at a time, are scattered about in the aforesaid Annales extending from the year 1900 to 1914. If we wish to study a plan of There

Karnak

we

must

turn

to that published

by Mariette

as

long since

as

1875, and
been

now

completely out of date. We not suppose must allthis time.

that the Department


on

Portly volumes

Saqqarah, Lower

of Antiquities had Nubia, Les Temples documentary


on

idle

Immerges evidence, at hand,

de la Nubie, with many and much plans, photographs had been published the materials for several volumes but Karnak was kept in the shade.
"

Karnak

were

The reader must

be leftto draw his

own

conclusions upon this curious state of


SoMERS

things above mentioned.

Clarke.

21

REVIEWS.

Empire of the Amoriies. Albert A. Clay. University Press.) Milford, London, 1919.
The
"

Sm. 4to.

192 pp.

(Yale

As to the term may be felt,but a facts. The broad

"

"

empire
mere

for the dominion


a

question of

position is that Babylonia, and that the fertile Syro-Babylonian region was far more likely to be the home of a race than Arabia, which is a semi-desert : itis,therefore, likely that in Northern Syria rather than in Arabia. the Semite centre was As to the prominence thousand personal names

of the Amorites, different opinions must not hinder our acceptance of the Semite names are as early as Sumerian in
term

Further, the elements in these early names, Abu, Akhu, Semitic rather than Arabian. Another evidence is from the figures of the Sumerian gods who are hairy and bearded, as Semites, and not like the shaven Sumerians, pointing to the Sumerians having taken over the earlier Semitic gods of the land. So far as opinions go, Briinnow thought the Semites

of the rulers' names Berossos are Semitic.


are

are

than a hundred of Semites in early Babylonia, more in are known, the this early part of and material many Semitic, and the names of the antediluvian kings in

Ammi,

Western

to be the original Euphrateans to be invaders : Meyer holds and the Sumerians before Sumerians that the Semites were in the there South Babylonia and settled drove the Semites northward. The mixture of Sumerians Jastrowsays and
"

in the oldest period revealed by the documents pronounced, even that a differentiation between the Semitic and non- Semitic at our command, ideas in the conceptions formed of the gods is not generally possible."
was

Semites

so

That this Semitic influence belonged to Syria and not to Arabia is shown by the elements of the names, Abram, or Abraham, stated above, and by the name is found in inscriptions, Arabian but is known in the Euphratean which not The Cappadocian tablets are naturally North Semitic in names and gods, Arabian. The and not view that successive waves of emigration had flowed from Arabia is discussed. The distinction should be drawn, however, between movements tablets. of people from of
a
a

half-desert land

but few pressure of population in a be to hardy but overcome they they out, not strong, people pour will will scarcely by only in a fertileland. a full population The Islamic conquest of Egypt was 12,000 20,000 or men ; they succeeded not because they were strong, but because Egypt provinces generally were miserably weak, drained by taxation for centuries, harried by the Persian war, and preferring liberty under Arabs to taxation under Romans. This success not be taken as a type of must

it dries up, and movements fertileland. The desert land will have
as

because

and the Roman

Dr. Clay well maintains that the reason of the all emigrants from Arabia. does lands, in Semitic Arabia in being more than not civilisation other primitive imply that Arabia was the source, but that it was isolated as a backwater, and so to other retained early ideas and forms less clianged than in lands

subject
B

influences.
3

22

Reviews.

The question of the Khabiri is noticed, with the fairlyconclusive fact that Boghaz-koi Gods of the Khabiri." The there is a listof gods called the at but to be Hittites, if is Hebrews, the were that they cannot related conclusion
"

letters the Khabiri may also notice that in the Amarna invade Damascus east of Jordan,opposite and Ashtaroth, that is,they move to Galilee. It seems least were that they therefore, time east at some at possible,
not Aramaeans.

We

to the mountains of Judaea,and gave the name Khabiri may represent the initial ayin of Hebrew,

If the cheth of of 'Abarim. it may equally represent that


as

of 'Abarim. The limits of Amurru

in

iioo

were

on

the Mediterranean,

Tiglath Pileser I

" Asshur-nazir-pal the great sea of Amurru." sailed in ships of Arvad upon to the great sea of Amurru, went (885) and received tribute all along the coast. between Adad-nirari III names Amurru as the Hittites and Sidon. Sargon

in Amurru. Sennacherib (720) included the Hittites and Damascus (700) Edom. Asshur-bani-pal Phoenicia, included Philistia Moab included (650) and and The tendency Palestine in Amurru. was, therefore, to include only Northern

Syria, and between

iioo

and 650 to extend the

name

south

untn

it included all

Syria.
look at the position as it affects Egyptian history. From as it is been has Age a centre claimed that there of Semitic early as the Pre-dynastic influence and government in North Syria, that it had a full share in developing Now
we can

Babylonia, and that it lasted down to classicaltimes, embracing what is known On the Egyptian side we find a large invasion from kingdom. as the Aramaean East, founding likely the second prehistoric civilisation the more ; but this seems A clearly Syro-Mesopotamian to belong to the region east and west of Suez. invasion
as that which overthrew the Old Kingdom, shown by the buttons be noted the examples of symmetric with foreign devices ; with these must Hyksos but influence, later as are were scarabs, such which produced under was

dynasty at Ehnasya There is (PI.XIa) and Harageh. for from having Syria invasion North come as or this good ground regarding Then, after the Middle Kingdom, the Euphrates, and therefore as being Amorite. the
same a

dated before the Xllth

wielded
who
seem

influence appears in the Hyksos invasion of Semites from Syria, who Beside those recognised as Hyksos there are others widespread power. to have been their forerunners, Khenzer the latter of and Khandy,
over

whom

ruled

Syria and conquered

Egypt,
on

as

Thus, there is good ground (Univ.Coll.).

shown on his triumphal cylinder the Egyptian side to look for a

strong Semitic power in North Syria at the close of the Old Kingdom, and again This is in accord with Dr. Clay's position, at the close of the Middle Kingdom. it therefore historicalview. on this side we welcome as a gain to our and
La de la

Fin du Moyen

Etude Empire Egyptien,


la XII'
et la XVIII'

sur

Ics Monuments

et VHistoirc

periode compriseentre
has

dynastic.
"

Raymond

Weill.

8vo, 97; pp., 2 vols.

Picard, Paris, 1918.

appeared in sections in the JournalAsiatique, 1910-1917, As this is the only and the whole is here put together in a convenient form. detailed attempt to contract the period dealt with, in the brief space of 210 years, by Berlin, it should have the fullest attention. As a collection of demanded
the scattered material remaining

This work

of permanent value, even is it deterrent, and rather of

of that period, it will in any case prove apart from the author's conclusions. The it might have been

work length
;

less prolix with

advantage

Reviews.

23

for instance, twelve lines of inconclusive argument deals with the identification Neferhetep, is the as the direct proof on a stele cartouche of which all useless of is stated in six lines more. A single line quoting the stele would have been

all-sufhcient. Also many examples of the simplest repetitions of set out in hieroglyphs at full length.

name

are

all

The serious question is how far we can foUow, and rely on, the reasoning, and accept the conclusions. The main thesis is that a type of literary composition, devastation by foreigners, was started in early times and drawn from is that such statements the this re-used conclusion have no historic value. This is a position possible from a purely literary point The art of view, but the least knowledge of material history refutes it at once. In and monuments of every land show a seriesof stages of growth and decay. and frequently
:

deploring decay

prehistoric ages, in the VllthXlXth-XXIIIrd, the and the Roman Age ; in all these we see great decadence, and in all these historic ages there is the absence of public monuments and the shortness of reigns, proving the disturbance, poverty, and trouble in the country. The evidence of foreign Xlth types of production, the new connections with surrounding lands, the new names From every material and characters of the people. evidence we see that it is hopeless to claim that the re-use of classicalexpressions shows that the complaints about the times are unhistorical. How often have the
seen new

Egypt

the periods of decay are obvious dynasties, in the Xlllth-XVIIth,

in two

invasion is

in the

declarations of
by
the

Jewishprophets
party

Puritan

in England

of our expression of many in which the phrases of Psalm or Prophet are used ? The material every account facts of repeated invasion of Egypt are externally attested ^from the West the
"

re-used as applying to the fallof Rome, or ? They are still felt to be the most vital Shall we deny the historicaltruth of troubles now. been

Fatimites, the Greeks, the Libyans, the Persians,


"
"

from

the East

the Tulunides,

the Arabs,
"theme

disorder facts.

to say nothing of remoter times. is only a rhetorical exercise, is to shut It is impossible to accept this conception,

To
one's

claim

that

of

eyes to all the proved

which

occupies

large part

of the work, and underlies its whole fabric. Another serious objectionperhaps more documents. The account by Hatshepsut reads
"

"

is the
"

way of treating basic I have restored that which

in ruin, and was Asiatics who were

was that which completed in the lands of the North

unfinished, since the stay of the and in Ha-uaret with the Shemau

king for themselves in a them, occupied in destruction ; they made among ignorance of Ra, and he did not act according to the orders of the god until the coming of my Majesty," according to Weill ; or the latter part according to " did not do He (the Hyksos Breasted they ruled in ignorance of Re.

ruler)

this is not a claim according to the divine command until my Majesty." Now to the conquest of the Hyksos. physically, but to the conversion religiously, There is nothing to contradict It isthe obedience to Ra that Hatshepsut obtained. Hatshepsut from Egypt the previous expulsion ; only claims the restoration of
in Palestine or to Ra, whether and the obedience of the Hyksos has Hatshepsut the Asiatic : Weill Capt. on conquered elsewhere. goes Therefore Hatshepsut destroyers installed in the Delta and in Ha-uaret lied. She usurped without any right the merit of having expelled the document. Asiatics (p. 38). This is a false rendering of the historical in a book professing to discuss A most strange treatment of a document, Not content with ignoring its history, is that accorded to the Turin Papyrus.
monuments,
"
. . .

"

24

Reviews.

historicsequence, the whole of the lengths of reigns remaining in it are omitted. Yet there When publishing the text of it (pp.590-3)not a single year is named. Xllth in it dynasty, be the are to totalling twenty-four reigns still read after 191 years, or an average of eight years. Can we take seriously any view of an
document, tlie most essential facts are omitted in when edmost contemporary ment in question, namely, the years covered by the docudiscussing the very matter better, it would appear that no years were no ? To any reader who knew ment, impossible to accept any conclusions drawn from such treatstated. It seems
nor

can

we

take this elaborate work

as

more

than the effortof

an

advocate

who

distorts and omits evidence. If in 1910 it could be said (p. 25)that " drama an of weariness entirely personal is not the sense of the world in 1919, when

"

social disorder has nothing to do with of trouble and wish for death, that know what social disorder means. we

closely the miseries of social disorder touch the personal lives of those wlio suffer. The lamentations of the Egyptians might all be used by Serbs, Poles and Russians. We
can see

before

us

now

how

that they

is taken (p.i8a) In discussing the record about the Hyksos kings, objection in Egypt. described as destroyers, and yet they set up monuments are
100 one

This ignores the

years of confusion of the conquest, before they were united is is this period under rule ; also overlooked when objection made to interregnum in Africanus (p.553). recognising an In pursuance of abandoning material, the dynastic divisions are awkward

"for us, who entirely thrown aside (p.183), Manethonian dynasties in studying the divisions
are

intend altogether to lose sight of the Yet these dynastic monuments."

by the monuments, not only in style and place, pointedly shown but by the founders of dynasties copying the titlesof previous founders, and also by marked divisions in the Turin Papyrus. by what are termed the Any a scarabs A fundamental classificationis made

used for all those with symmetric symbols and devices (p.742). it is conBecause a scarab of Kha-nefer-ra Sebekhetep has such symbols (246), cluded far but Apepi, Sebekheteps have that the not at a short off ; preceded distance or, in the index, the epoch of the group is that of Kha-nefer-ra (p. 248),

(p.191) ;

term

"

"

"

ception. 453). This position seems to be an entire misconFirst, the word (thoughusually badly is not Anra, but Da-ne-ra, copied) "gift of Ra" (" Heliodoros "), found on scarabs about the Xllth as commonly dynasty, and on examples figured here (p. 744); or in other cases perhaps Ar-ne-ra,

Sebekhetep

"

(p. 932, and

see

p.

"

on

and continues 745), isshown dynasty Xllth the such scarabs of by the peculiar light blue glaze of some, dated later than the early which is never dynasty. How indication that can part of of age be founded on a any close
to Tahutmes

of Ra," as on Sebekhetep adduced


IV

bom

p. 250.

(p. 246), (p. 739). That

Second, the symmetric style, as isfound as early as Senusert I (p.


are

on

the scarab of

to the middle of the New style which lasts from early in the Middle Kingdom Kingdom ? Anyone has on who sites will know that symmetric collected scarabs

scarabs

are

found

almost
a

wholly in the Eastern

Delta

their style is that of

region, and not of short period. A further theory is that the symmetric made in scarabs of Anra type were Palestine (p. 732),because they are often found there. On the contrary the

material, the glaze, the signs,are allEgyptian, and a far greater number are found in Egypt than in Palestine. That the Pdestine scarabs are mainly of this type is to be expected, as it belongs to the Eastern Delta, nearest to Palestine ; but to

Revieivs. suppose

to be taken to Palestine, in order to materials and workmen export into back Egypt is fantastic. most of their products important The more is the discussion of the part of the work (pp.

276-514)

by the parallel names type. various families or groups, as shown of the same This is a useful |jrinciple ; yet as the author has to continue a single type of name, Sekhem-ra, over more than half the period between the Xllth and XVIIIth

dynasties

(p. 819)
due
use

no

close delimitation
ot genealogic
to students,

can

be

material, with be of permanent

connection

sources

claimed. As a collection of (asEl-Kab tombs),this will

We

may Hathor,

with the additions on pp. 226-251, 768-804. in insertion Ra-sathat the as note of Ra with a personal name, passing is not merely a mistake of a scribe (p. but occurs on con422, note 194), temporary Ra-neb-taui, Ra-amenemhat, Ra-sebekhetep. It of and

objects
are

seems

to have

been added

this discussion

The general resultsof token of descent from Ra. in Livre des Rots a (pp.818-880),which must be put together
as a

used

to subject

all this material leads up, is the history of the Turin Papyrus reduction of the documentary and Manetho from to between a period a the Xllth and period of 210 years, of about 1,600 years XVIIIth dynasties. One or other view must be accepted, if the Sothic cycle and The
crux

all reservations as to methods. of the whole work, to which

radical question is whether Egyptians dynasties in succession in a continuous list. The evidence placed contemporary is seen in the Xlth dynasty, which lasted that overlapping was avoided by Manetho has only forty-three years allowed, because a century, but which certainly over
continuous
are

kalendar

not

The rejected.

the

Xth

Taharqa,

Manetho,

Again, earlier part of the Xlth. who really reigned thirty-four years, is only allowed eighteen years by because from that point the legitimate line was in Stefinates, greatgrandfather
was over

dynasty

legitimate

the

I, and the XXVth dynasty of Psamthek could not be allowed to XXVIth. The test the that can we therefore overlap show that overexamples lapping was that a continuous single series of not allowed in the history, and legitimate rulers was is further evidence if we There accept the compiled. Antef, and others, as being of the Xlllth dynasty. kings, and could not be placed as late as the decadence after No. 29 of the Turin Papyrus ; yet they are not in that list,nor is there any deliberately omitted, and gap sufficient for them in the earlier part. They were as not being the legitimate line. If such kings were omitted, we presumably Sebekemsafs,
were

Nub-kheper-ra

They

important

cannot

suppose

far less important

kings to have

been

inserted overlapping

the

reigns of others. The Turin Papyrus

is obviously

in accord

therefore be taken as supplementing each other. is of sixty kings, and in the Turin Papyrus after sixty kings is a break, beginning " dynastyis of seventy-six there reigned." Next, theXIVth again with the formula kings, and in the Turin Papyrus after seventy-three (orperhaps a few more) there dynasty of begins the change to Semitic names, which correspond to the XVth Hyksos in Manetho. The average of reigns of the Xlllth dynasty is seven and Papyrus. in half in in the Manetho, and seven a the ten reigns surviving years years

with Manetho, and they must In Manetho the Xlllth dynasty

average is two and a half years, and the average A closer correspondence is about three years. of seven of fragmentary material could not be expected. on is made the The main attack on the continuity of the Turin Papyrus Apply this to ground that a different type of name shows a change of dynasty.
Manetho's

In the XlVth

dynasty

reigns left in the Papyrus

26

Reviews.

dynasty there are well-known dynasties and see the result. In the XVIIIth two kings with Ra-neb-.r, three with Ra-oa-kheper, six with Ra-A;-kheperu ; Ra-ne-ba and Ra-nein the XlXth Ra-user-;t;, Ra-men-A;, three with three with On the question of types of name we akhu. should have to splitup each of these dynasties into three separate lines taken in irregular order. No canon ment of arrangebe applied to obscure dynasties which will not give true results when can applied to well-known periods. Another line of attack is on the resemblances between the lengths of some dynasties. Elaborate theoretical stages of alteration of the text are presented from some The to show how the existing figures arose very different form. lengths of the dynasties in Africanus' version of Manetho, from the Xlllth to the XVIIth, are 453, 184, 284, 518 and 151. The only relation here is that the in last is a third of the first. A change is made by adopting 259 from Josephus place of 284 ; then 259 is half of 518. After this we find such theories as, although have suppressed we the Xlllth dynasty, yet take the sixty kings stated for
" "

dynasty, making that, add thirty-two kings of the XVIth ninety-two, double " is theredynasty, XlVth no the this (for fore so which get 184 years of and reason) likewise, about a period let us play with numbers artificial (627). Now dynasties known. XXVIIth The are XXIInd well each 120 years ; both and
"

is sixty-one foreign in origin ; evidently a duplication in history. The XXVth foreign but foreign. one was Therefore there years, also period of sixty years Egyptian (XXVth) ; that doubled, for the reigns of the contemporary rulers,

made 120 years, and that is the origin of 120 years for the fictitiousforeigners of better than the dynasties. This really fits much the XXIInd and XXVIIth numerical games played on the Hyksos Period ; and aU being foreign dynasties the for the whole, according to Capt. Weill's Theme of disorder would account
" "

principles. Such absurd

cordant of historical records is what is set against the contwo Papyrus, or Turin three the centuries statements written only of drawn from the material after the age in question, and the record of Manetho is had an unbroken available while Egypt still continuity of literature. What
treatment

arbitrarilysubstituted for the ancient record ? Contemporary


Thebans Theban

The kings

,600
. .

years is cut down

to

:
"

Upper

and

Lower

Egypt

of Sekhem-ra group Sebekheteps and Hyksos


and later Hyksos and end of Hyksos

Later Sebekheteps

'

'

Theban

years there must be compressed 133 kings of the Turin Papyrus, Several of these kings dynasty. the great and lesser Hyksos and the XVIIth know to have had long reigns, enough of them to fill we up the whole 210 years. Mermashau is placed as a Delta king, though his statues are of black granite from
210

In these

Upper

Egypt.

agreed to have whole of the great Hyksos suppressed, though The wholesale reigns stated

Khian and reigns recorded for the Hyksos reigned over all Egypt, p. 207) alone occupy in kings total to 259 or 284 years. it is certainly Manethonian histor}'.

The

Apepi

(who

are

years, and the All this has to be

disregard of the records, the suppression of the lengths of (both in the Papyrus and Manetho), the fanciful theories of

Reviews.

77

construction of the texts, the unhistoric treatment of the records of disorder and invasion, all prevent our regarding this work except as we regard the Egyptian history in Josephus, very valuable for reference, but without any reliance on the This seems to be the best that can be done to destroy Egyptian conclusions. history in favoift of an arbitrary shortening that has no support in documents or in probabilities. Le
20

Musee
2

du

Louvre

pendant
the back

la guerre, 1916-1918.

"

Edmond

Pottier.

pp.,

pis.

1919.
have mob of statues clustering in the have and who read of the strange holes in have been secured from air attack, will like to hear how the With them it was more a risk of plunder than of destruction.
seen

who bay of Demeter

Those

view

of

at the British Museum,

which French

our

treasures

have

fared.

met his colleagues of French mobilisation the director of museums to put their treasures in safety for fear of Zeppelins. The and instructed them German before troops the a the orders rapid advance of month end of changed to removal, in Toulouse the was centre, packing and placing southern cities.

On the day

shows the rows photograph of cases and of railway wagons run into the for cover. Then, when immediate risks were less,the public church of the Jacobins demanded France could do its business without taking as their museum ; and,

and

for offices as in London, re-opened after February, several halls were bomb Paris, to began Gothas the 1916. all valuables were put under the floor. Next the Bertha bombardment began, and solid vaulting of the ground
museums

When

the pictures and marbles were sent off to Blois, and When the last struggle threatened at the Louvre.
a

more

sand-bagging was done to involve Paris, there was

scramble of museums and dealers to get packers, boxes, cotton and straw or hay to clear off everything, and near a hundred cases were got off in the last fortnight of June. After the armistice, in December and January,the cases
were

returned, and order

was

gradually restored.
and Monuments Academy, (British 1918.)
to preserve brutal, have

Italy's Protection FiLippo


DE

of Art
8 pp.

Treasures

during the War.

"

Sir

FiLippi.

We
treasures

yet wished taken to protect were active measures The bronze horses of St. Mark's were taken down monuments. and placed in The culty the Doge's Palace in a single day, sand-bagged great diffiand waUed up. in Venice is the quaggy foundation, which prevents adding any great weight for fear of displacements. St. Mark's was covered with sand bags and sea-weed months

read here of the endeavours which no invaders, however in the

froni modern

barbarians
to destroy.

the

Two

before Italy's entry

war,

light,elastic,and almost incombustible, also very effective for glass or mosaics. Canvas curtains are also a useful screen of explosions. All portable At the Doge's were removed. and the stained-glass windows
mattresses,
case

which

are

in

objects

Palace the portico arches were pillars,and the loggia with supported by masonry the wooden props ; the sculptures were sand-bagged, and water pipes laid all over on buildings in case of fire. Venice was the bombarded times, specially eleven churches. At Padua
the Giotto frescoes
were

melata statue, and Charles at Charing Milan, Parma,

the

Colleone

Cross.

of Venice, In all the other


monuments,

buried in sand bags ; the Gattaburied and boarded up, like were cities, Verona,
Bergamo,

Brescia, had
to

Bologna,

the

pictures, and

treasures

be

protected.

28

Reviews.

Ravenna
use

was

an

of especial barbarism. object

There

was

no

trace of military

no any population to be destroyed as civilians; there was ideal destroying in Germanic that the all of gives national purpose attack, except is a interest and historic sense to a people. To attack the churches of Ravenna by development is the depth of savagery scientific of only reached which

there, hardly

Nuovo, broke which fell into S. ApoUinare psychological cruelty. The bomb did destroy in the corner happily the basilica,but the not mosaics. The of for protection, and whole tomb of GaUa Placidia has been completely enclosed heavy At Ancona throughout. Vitale and the Baptistery strengthened it. The fired at the Duomo, high on the hill, and severely damaged shells were

San

Arch of Trajanhas been thoroughly built up with sand bags. After their hideous depth of savagery, against allart and history, the Austrians A letter reached London lately from a Viennese stating that as he are unabashed. in British work there. he would be glad to join had excavated in Mesopotamia The reply was that the destruction of the library and apparatus of the University That in British work. of Belgrade made it impossible for any Austrian to join

the clearest case savage attempt to root out the intellectuallifeof a nation, was be no degradation person could civilised associated. of the with which F. P.
The New The

Catalogue

ofBritish Museum

Greek Inscriptions relatingto Egypt.

in the British editing of Section II of Part IV of Greek Inscriptions has been carried out by Mr. F. H. Marshall Hall, M.A., and the texts Museum from 1063 to 1093 are those acquired from Egypt and the Sudan, numbered including one inscription obtained as late as 1914. beautifully printed and the facsimiles,or photographs (withthe exception of that of the Rosetta Stone) finely executed ; it will be a records readily great advantage to scholars to have this series of Egyptian available, and to know where the originals may be inspected. The volume
is most

in the collection is that from Syene, or Aswan, upon a column of red granite, which originally was erected at Elephantine. Much of the wording has been lost, but by the effort of several specialists a good deal has been restored, and it is found to comprise no less than ten documents

One

of the most

important

texts

concerning the later Ptolemies and their relations with the priests of the Chnoub Nebieb temple at Elephantine. The records are either petitions from the temple servants to the king, or grants of privilegesfrom the latter to the priests. The Syene quarrymen also put in their plaints ; probably, as worshippers of Chnoub, they also had their residences upon land leased from the temple, and thus sacred soil. Although kings as late concern the documents
as

Ptolemy

VIII

and

Ptolemy

X, the latter in

equivalent to Egyptian mentioned, Hermokrates

Dasios, month Epiphi. Two generals commanding at Elephantine are from known Phommus. They are other papyri or and
a

letter dates

it in the

Macedonian

inscriptions as being
Another

over

the forces in the Thebaid. which was erected by of Tiberius Claudius Balbillus, prefect of Egypt the dining hall of the Weavers' Guild at Theadelphia is that found
at Gizeh,
as

historic monument the citizens of Busiris in honour

The text from under Nero. interest by the evidence has been made of more by Oxyrhynchus Papyri. the supplied

to such

associations recently
a

curious text is from

the roadstead

of Abukir,

containing

dedication

Reviews.

29

of

of the Phoenician deity Herakles Belos to Sarapis. The donor was not but a native of Askelon. One inscription is incised upon a gold Egyptian an deposited been have under the temple of Osiris at Canopus. plaque, and must
a

statue

It is

dedication of Ptolemy
was

III Euergetes

and

Berenice

his wife, daughter

II, whose first wife was daughter son of Ptolemy of II subsequently married his sister,Arsinoe, who adopted Ptolemy III, as her son. her stepson, afterwards This historical fact is now by Euergetes this son memorial, which calls of Ptolemy substantiated and Arsinoe."

of Magas of Cyrene. This Ptolemy

Lysimachus.

Ptolemy

"

A similar votive plaque is in the Alexandria Museum. to Philopator and belonged to the Alexandria temple.

It preserves

tion dedica-

inscription chronologically is No. 1514. It is an offering to Ares, Ptolemy IV, dated about 206 b.c, and gives a text of as a deity of hunting, by It to lines. refers elephant hunting, which sport the Macedonian monarchs six The
next

much

favoured, as it also supplied them with tame elephants for war equipment. In this inscription Pisidian soldiers are mentioned, being another instance the Ptolemies secured mercenaries. countries from which of the numerous be considered as the final edition of the Rosetta Mr. Hall provides what may

Stone, but does not refer to its partial duplicate of the Egyptian text, known It is a decree of the Council of the Memphis the Stele of Damanhour. priests V. documents light Ptolemy All that throw this recent upon superbly under
as

instructive text year period

are

utEised.

Thus

the hitherto mysterious

is cleared up, by noting that that was Egyptian instead of version of the stone ancient royal 5e^ -festivals. The " " Se"f thirty years reads -festival." The allusion to the priestess of Berenice Euergetes, the child of Magas alluded in to above, is illustrated by the Amherst papyri, whilst the financial matters
"

mention of a thirtythe duration between the

the Rosetta Perhaps

text

are

the review time ago, because is to to Lesquier for Otto, or concerning priestly privileges, given reference The worship of Arsinoe is illustrated by ostraca and a demotic military matters.
no

compared with the Tebtunis Ptolemaic of the Rosetta Stone was written some

revenue

documents.

document. inscription concerns the record in a British Museum letter It from Paphos, in Cyprus, Lagides. a comes the and quotes eleventh of was appointed who governor of of Alexander Grypus to Ptolemy Alexander, Its BasUeus in text. Cyprus by Cleopatra III. He is, however, the styled

The

last Ptolemaic

A single line king in Egypt till 108 b.c. I, Egyptian the liii) {Memphis, statuette upon river god Nt'Xwt entitles yovin(i)Ta(^T This expression is easily explained by the deity's statues depicting date

is 109
a

B.C.,

though

he

was

not

base

w)i.

him

by his surrounded A partly preserved

numerous

offspring. slab from Antinoe, only obtained


a

justbefore
said to
have

the

war,
a

gives the introduction to Platonic philosopher named and


was one

was also a councillor, for fortunate was their the ones erudition maintained at, who of by, Museum. the and Other epigraphical records and papyri refer to people so supported, including a text from Thebes and a Rylands papyrus. " Oceanos," There is one text from the Sudan which entitlesthe Nile making

personage, panegyric upon He Marcius Dionysodoros.

been

the river

double of the CelestialStream.

3"

Reviews.

Several inscriptions, allshort and fragmentary, are from Naucratis, including died just previous poem poorly-composed upon a certain Herakleides who

I, xxxi.) (Naukratis, which he was to have been married. These inscriptions, of pride to any great museum, which would be a source have been obtained by voluntary gift,purchase, or expensive explorations, and mation They form such a corpus of inforwars not as the loot of of conquest.
to the day upon

unjust

history of that country in Graeco-Roman times will be complete without fullconsideration being given to them, and their editor is to be congratulated upon his work, which is a model for such a treatise. regarding Egypt, that
no

Joseph
Cronologia Egiziana. This essay
attempts
"

Offord.

LuiGi Peserico.
to

8vo, 71 pp.

Vicenza, 1919.

link various astronomical results with historical Results from Greek and Italian statements which would not usually be accepted. here Parian sources, connected with Egyptian dates. chronicle, are especially the
a great victory The eclipse of 141 1 B.C. is the date when the Pelasgi near Spina won in Pelasgic Sus the over the natives. Eighty years after, 1331 B.C., reigned, called by Greeks. Then Perseus by the Romans the we Evander read of the and

invasion under Merneptah taking Tanis, a Pelasgic captain violating the queen of Merneptah, the plundering of the store citiesof Pithom and Ramesses, a Pelasgic I. We may only son and co-regent of Meneptah captain killing Seti Meneptah, it in be is the Parian is found none to ; there of wonder where all this detail

Chronicle.

to be set out
course we

If it is in the author's translations of Etruscan documents, they need In due be applied to history. and established before they can " some whom reach the immigration of Abisha in the Xllth dynasty
"

identify with the biblical Abram ; is to Ab-shadu elevation equivalent


" "

After going through Assyrian and Noetic Rubble drift," which we usually call the the there comes in four deluge," beginning at some the time years 3048-3045 B.C.
"

father of adds that Ab-ram " Ab-sha. father of height," which was Biblical chronology and the birth of Phaleg,
a

footnote

"

or

universal After this

it need hardly be said that the writer has never heard of the Egyptian chronology, Meyer depends for the and upon possibility of a deluge at that date. As a minor matter, the reign of Ramessu II is placed as beginning in 1325 B.C., impossible. The date of 1300 B.C. agrees as well with the occurrence which seems of
a

full moon

365 days, and months a table, and is wanted


record.
The

16. As the relation of lunations to Egs^ptian years of be easily worked except by compiling of 30 days, cannot for any question of lunar dates, it is well to put it here on below are 30 days. years 365 days, months
on

Mekhir

5 years 8 years
II

la

months

7 months
2
10

2,185 days 3,130 days 4,075 days 7,235 days

: : : :

2185-22 3130-23
4075-19

74 lunations.
106 lunations. 138 lunations.

years

months
months

19 years 25 years
III

o 2

months
months

years

7234-99 9,125 days : 9134-95 40,575 days : 40574-99

245 lunations.
=

309 lunations. 1,374 lunations.

day of the Thus, every 25 years the lunations of a given month recur to the same 8, day. At shorter intervals of 5, 11 year, within -05 and 19 years a lunation day of some occurs on For reducing longer periods the cycle of the same month. be III years 2 nionths may used as correct to -oi day, in the Egyptian kalendar.

3"

PERIODICALS.

Acaddniie

des

et Belles-Let tres. Inscriptions CotnptesRendus, 19 17.

The stele published by M. Legrain in Dieu. is It has at the top a scene here retranslated. 161, of priests bearing the barque of the divine Aahmes and Nefertari, and a priest Pasar standing before it adoring and praying " Oh judgewho dispenses justice,
"

MoRET,

A.

IJn

Jugement de

the Annales

du Service,XVI,

let the

Below is " Year 14 (or thanks to thee." of the house be justified, 18, or 26 or 34),25th day under the Majesty of the king of South and North Usermaa-Ra, son of Ra, Ramessumeriamen, possessing life, the day when came the priest Pasar with the priest Thay to enquire before the good god Nebpehtira.
owner
"

Came

As to this fieldit belongs to Thay, the priest saying to the children of Hayu.' The god remained unmoved.

'

son

He

god saying 'It belongs to the priest Pasar, son of Mesmen,' with his head very strongly, in presence of the priests of the good god Nebpehtira, the prophet Paaru, the front priest Yzanubu, the front priest Thanefer, the back priest Nekht, the back priest Tahutimes. Made by the priest, artist-scribe in the temple of Osiiis,Nebmehyu." of the temple of Ramessumeriamen This is a couple of centuries before the various other judgmentsknown under the priest-kings. The from Saqqareh. Pasar is son
Mesmen

and returned to the the god approved

of Sedemnef

named Nesha tried to partition the descendants of Nesha, and some quarrels had arisen among Mesmen, had succeeded but in father the property, the direct line Huy, the of in keeping possession. II the collateralsattacked with Again under Ramessu

in question is connected with other documents I an ancestor of of Mesmen, and under Aahmes In had received lands from the king. the time of Horemheb
case

false deeds, and got a decision against Mesmen, Here in in favour of Khayuy. is the sequel, that Pasar, son of Mesmen, this stele from Abydos got a divine decree in his favour, against the claims of Thay and the children of Huyu. The dialectic change. to H in Upper Egypt is a known modification of Kh at Memphis The name Thaui is known in the Memphite family,"corresponding to Thay in the Abydos text. Beside the conclusions of Prof. Moret, that divine decrees long there preceded the priest-kings, and that such could supersede civU judgments, is another extremely important It has been usual to sneer at the conclusion. Here decrees by the signal of the god as obviously only a trick of the priesthood. have believed that have two priests appealing to the god-king. They must we neither priest would have agreed to be bound interference, but was by it. In some way the decision did not depend on human for an appeal to King Aahmes equivalent to drawing lots for a reply. The reason there, being recorded on a stele at Abydos is doubtless because his pyramid was
the decision
was

not manipulated,

or

and his worship would be carried on by the priesthood image to which the appeal could be made.

with

sacred bark and

32 The

Periodicals.

SculpturedStones found at Hal Tarxien, Malta, in their relation to Lexow. Cretan and Egyptian Decoration. Einar 4 pp. 14 pp. Norwegian, Aarbok, Museums, in English. (Bergen summary 1918-9.)
"

Dr. Lexow there are to him.

starts from the latestdating of Egyptian

history, and accepts that

no spirals before the Xllth dynasty, that is 2000-1800 B.C. according Hence he concludes that the spiral patterns originated long before in This isvery doubtful, according to the dating used the Balkans, and not in Egypt. Next he proposes that the beautiful branching patterns found by the Egyptians.

the stones in Malta, were the earlier stage of the spirals also found there, Certainly it is very improbable is that the such origin of spiral ornament. and that the formal spiral would give rise to the tree patterns, and therefore his to bring in the dating to the likely. There is no reason thesis seems main
on

question, as on any dating it seems the spiral appears in Egypt. A


"

that there

was

large foreign admixture

when

Stamp Seal from Egypt. Winifred


Egyptian

of the Manchester

Crompton. 6 pp., Society, Oriental and 1917-8.)

plate.

(Journal

This seal of limestone has a rudely cut figure of a man and antelope. Seals likely that this is before the Xllth of similar design are quoted, and it seems The limestone stamps of the Xllth dynasty, and perhaps of the Old Kingdom. dynasty are less distinct in style and show a later stage of such work, which is

clearly foreign. 16. The interest scope. of the papers here is almost entirely classical,and so rather beyond our Lieut.-Col. in Tubby Col. the The James of suburbs of excavations and is Ptolemaic Alexandria unfortunately miss the main question, as to how much
Bulletin de la Societe Archeologique d^Alexandrie.

No.

and how
are

much
over

Roman.
as

passed Anyone knowing

This might have been settled by the coins found, which "a "unrecognisable," few coins hopelessly oxidised." and coins could say within a century what their age was by the fabric

alone. The pottery, lamps, etc., would likewise have to have been searching for notable only idea seems historicallythe age of what was found. Clear statement whether the
were objects

settled the
and objects,

date.

The

contemporary

not settling be to as made should in the surface with the graves, or only

rubbish. Dr. Granville gives an interesting biography of Henry Salt, the consul who figures largely in the early discoveries in Egypt. A thoughtful looking man,

with something that recalls Burns and Blake in his expression, he went to India and Egypt with Lord Valentia in 1802-6, as an artist and secretary. In 1809 he was sent on a British mission to Abyssinia. In 1815 he was appointed ConsulHe there fellin with Burckhardt and Belzoni, and employed for latter the many years in excavations, from which come many of the older in bad health, Salt Collection." He was entries in the British Museum marked
"

General in Egypt.

but could not leave Egypt owing to his duties. He died in 1827 at the age of forty-seven, and is buried at Alexandria. He was one of the valuable men who interests of his times, and was in to help to the newer the rose thus early able growth of research in Egypt.

"^

r.

jTHE

MALLON
DEIR

STATUE, EL-BAHRI,

4.

2.

[
'

FROM EBONY.

5. ) 6.

THE

VIENNA

HEAD. II, GEBELEYN.

3.

MENTUHETEP

"

ANCIENT

EGYPT.

A There
has

MENTUHETEP

STATUE.
Paul Mallon,

has
some

lately been

including

published by M. fine Egyptian figures. One

kindly allowed the head The pose of the standing position is more twenty-seven inches high. thrown back The head has had inlaid from the waist upward. than in the Old Kingdom, eyes, now missing. The expression is marvellously vigorous and full of vitality,
figures not only thus, but also in the type. and it differsfrom other Egyptian The very wide jaw,short chin, and high cheek-bone have hardly a parallel in

of Paris, a portfolio interest, and he of these is of much to be reproduced here. The figure is of -ebony,

other statues. work. What

It is clearly

one

of the great masterpieces, and of

rare

style of

period can be assigned for this ? So far as external evidence goes, it is stated to have come from the Xlth dynasty temple of Deir el-Bahri ; and looking at the large slabs of sculpture which passed from the work there to the dealers, such a figure might more easily be taken surreptitiously. The nearest stone. parallel for it is a head in Vienna, nine inches high, of green metamorphic
from Hissing's Denkmdler) here placed parallel are views of this (borrowed Allowing for the differentschool, working in different to the Deir el-Bahri head. loss in the inlaid see a we the the material, and close resemblance of eyes, features. The wide short jaw, the proportion of the outline of the nose on the

The

face, the high cheek-bone, the slope beneath the jaw, the squareness of the The limits. temple, all agree within near sternness of the work in polished stone naturally makes a different treatment and expression to the vivacity of the wood is by Bissing, head concluded to be of the Middle Kingdom carving. The Vienna
who points out that the uraeus firstwore it as in our Fig. 6.
on

it shows

it to be after Mentuhetep

II, who

Which of the Mentuheteps might the ebony figure represent ? We wiU to accord better with the here follow the arrangement Gauthier, as it seems of than that of Naville, which puts Neb-taui-ra after Deir artistic development is as follows,stating The temple. el-Bahri order of Gauthier for the Mentuheteps
the distinctive Aa-name and Ra cartouche
:
"

I. Neter hezt. II. Neb.taui Ra.neb.taui.

Ill ? Sonkh.ab.taui. IV? Sma.taui Ra.neb.hept.


Ra.sonkh.ka. Ra.mer.onkh.

V. Sonkh.taui.f

VI.

Ra.skho.ne.

34

-^

Mentuhetep Statue.

Of these I is found at Deir el-Bahri, on sculptures from Gebeleyn, the head IV is the king of the Deir el-Bahri Hammamat. here No. 6. II is at Wady by the oar temple ; according to Naville divided into two rulers writing the name VI is Sonkhkara. V is the well-known and by the square, two homophones. is here last king The by Legrain. from a statue found at Karnak not placed
by Gauthier. from the portraiture, though over ninety plates have been pubUshed the temple, the royal portraits, unfortunately, have not been collected and the reproduced efficientlyon a full scale together. The complete heads on For British Museum that
are

sculptures do not all seem photographed in The Xlth Dynasty

to have

Temple of

been pubUshed. Deir el-Bahari

The heads
are

in Vol. I,

to have the seem of them xii, xiii; Vol. II, v, vi ; Vol. Ill, xii. None in having a figure, as these all agree pretty closely prominent nose of the ebony in some now a type seen with littleprojection, sUghtly aquiline, massive nose, Deir have the Sudanis. Vienna head, The agreed with when perfect, may

figure. el-Bahri type. If so, the nose would not accord with that of the ebony The Fig. 6 of Mentuhetep from Gebeleyn appears to be that in Xlth dyn. Temple, I, xiiA. The general resemblance of this type to that of Ra.neb.hept shows that Ukely it the family seems, that then, was a there type ; and most ebony figure,

by its resemblance
who

to the Vienna

head, belonged to

successor

of his ancestor. is taken away found, much for the without any not well rewarded objects If to knew its we the which position record of original place and connection. the famUy shrines the royal shrine the burial chamber this figure belonged

dedicated his statue

in the temple

of Ra.neb.hept, When are workmen

"

"

"

"

elsewhere we might have fixed the historic value of portraits known from Egypt.
or
"

one

of the most

striking

W.

M. Flinders

Petrie.

35

ON

THE

USE

OF

BEESWAX

AND

RESIN TOMBS.

AS

VARNISHES

IN

THEBAN

mixed for this purpose with the colours used for the wall-paintings. The use of wax has not been mentioned before, to the knowledge of the writer, but on turning fragments of mud over plaster from the walls of the tomb of Antef (No. which had been buried in rubbish for some considerable time, he found that many the were colours of covered with a thin grey coating or skin. A brief examination on the spot proved this to be a wax, investigation further a by and

In

some

of the tombs

in the Theban

Necropolis it appears

that

wax

was

155)

close examination of the fairlyfrequently used was walls of other tombs as a fixative or as a varnish in tombs from I to the time of Amenophis ranging II. That the use of wax that of Amenophis should be limited to this short period is interesting, but up to the present it has not been detected in tombs of either an earlier or a later date. remains upon the tomb walls as a greyish and partially opaque skin which is readily detachable from the colour beneath, and thus gives impression at firstsight that it was merely applied as a kind of varnish.
wax

Mr. Robert

Mond

in London

gave the same result. A then revealed the fact that wax

At the present day, the

found in the sample submitted to him that the substance in the plentiful middle and bottom layers of the colours as on the surface, before being applied to which suggests that the paint was mixed with the wax the walls. The melting-point of the wax in the samples examined 64" C, was
was as

Mr. Mond

has however

the melting-point of beeswax is 61" to 64" C, it seems probable that it beeswax was Beeswax is. one which was of the materials imported employed. into Egypt from the Sudan at the present day, and doubtless was in ancient days. The wax produced in Egypt is of a very poor quality and dark in colour.

and

as

is strong evidence that in some cases was the wax applied to the surface of the colours instead of being mixed intimately with them. In several tombs, and notably on the walls of the inner passage of the tomb Kenamun (No. 93),the wax has been applied in this manner rather carelessly, of
scenes.

There

and slightly darkened, the white ground of the painted the painter did not trouble to go round of Antef (No. 155), the small patches of the grey ground to avoid darkening them, but covered them also with wax. There is no doubt that the application of wax found greatly to improve was
and
on,

has encroached In the tomb

The re-melting the brillianceof the colours, especially the reds, blues, and greens. on of the wax small painted fragments leads to the colours brightening up in an extraordinary way.
c
2

36

On

the Use

of Beeswax

and

Resin

as

Varnishes in Theban

Tombs.

in a hot climate The question arises how this wax was applied, for even in like that of Egypt it would never be a more naturally melted condition than just solvent, such pasty. It is, therefore, probable that it was mixed with some to the walls, as a volatileoil like turpentine ; the process of applying heated wax of the Hawara portrait panels would have been extremely tedious and uncertain. It would also take a considerable time to cover the walls of a tomb in this manner. held close to the portion of It is possible,of course, that an open brazier was
as was

done in the

case

the portion thus then rubbed over the wall to be treated, and a lump of wax heated. A second application of the brazier locally to parts thus prepared would If this method to be well absorbed by the paint and plaster. cause the wax
were a

being found right through adopted, it would perhaps account for wax as the limits intended. overrunning colour and not only on the surface, as well The following is a listof those tombs in which the waxing of colours has been the
one
:
"

observed Tomb

179. 251.

Nebamun Amenmose

Hatshepsowet.

Early Tuthmosis TUTHMOSIS


Tuthmosis Amenophis

III

(?).

155.
39. 81.

Antef
PUIMRE

III. III. I-Tuthmosis III. III.


II.

Anena Amenemhet
Menkheperrasonb

III.

82. 86.
93.

Tuthmosis Tuthmosis
Amenophis
are

Kenamun

an

The colours in the tomb of Puimre intervening coat of plaster. In many tombs the wall paintings from
some

applied direct to the stone without

made
as

yet. In some in tone, but in others it has either scaled off through being applied too thickly, a badly cracked or it shows or fissured surface. Instances also occur where the has in become blackened more those tombs through varnish much age, especially have been inhabited, a resin varnish apparently having a great affinity which for smoke. applied to the whole surface of a wall, but more treated with it, these being principally usually only certain colours were to distinguish between colours so in some cases yellows and reds. It is difficult to the varnish darkening in tone (Tomb 150 and others). treated, owing
varnish
was

were covered with a varnish, which was kind of resin,whose variety cannot, however, be ascertained of these tombs, the varnish is well preserved, though darkened

Sometimes

There mixed show


a

is strong reason with the pigments

to
as

suspect that
as

well

slight gloss combined with a is totally unlike that of a colour which has had a varnish applied only to which its surface. It is to be regretted that up to the present only a few samples of varnished colours have been examined, owing to lack of material. It is highly undesirable to obtain samples direct from the tomb waUs (which has been done in the past)and the only way is to obtain them from fallen fragments found in the course of excavating a tomb, which are either too poor to replace on its walls or whose proper position cannot be determined. For those interested in this special question there is given below a list of
some

was varnish or similar medium colours applied to their surfaces, as some hard the surface, appearance of peculiarly
a

tombs

mixed

whose paintings have either been with their pigments :


"

varnished

or

possibly had

varnish

On Tomb
"

the Use

of Beeswax

and

Resin

as

Varnishes in Theban

Tombs.

37

40. 52. 64.

Amenhotpe
Nakht

Whole Varnish

walls varnished.
some

Hekerenheh

applied only to limbs of female figures. small Reds, blues, and greens, varnished.

74. -.Thanuny 90. Nebamun 93. Kenamun


,

130.

May Pere Nakht

139. 161. 175.

Varnish applied to some of the greens. Yellows appear to have been treated. Whole walls varnished and others waxed. Reds and yellows varnished. Reds varnished in places. Many
Reds colours varnished. and yellows varnished.

(Name lost)

mentioned above belong to the period of the late XVIIIth being of the time of Tuthmosis IV. dynasty, the Up to the present no majority been in have found Necropolis the examples of tombs of an earlier date that have been varnished wholly or partially, with the possible exception of yellows. compound was a white of arsenic (orpiment) generally applied over ground owing to its It thus acquires a glazed appearance transparency. which to the casual eye suggests a varnish. There is not any known
or

All the tombs

A certain yellow used in the Theban

Necropolis which

was

made

from

of the employment of varnish for the purpose in Ramesside tombs, with the one exception of protecting enhancing colours Probably varnish was found to be unsatissoon of Tomb 23, of Thoy or To. factory for tomb decoration, though it was as a medium extensively used in the XlXth-XXth dynasties and later, for the decoration of coffins and funeral
case

furniture.
The

question

now

arises

as

to where

the resin

or

resins

were

procured to

not produce any resin-bearing trees, manufacture such varnishes. with the exception of the acacia, and the nearest source of supply would be Syria and the North Coast of Africa, from which places sandarac and mastic are

Egypt

does

obtained. Prof. Laurie has examined the question fairly closely in his Materials of the Painters' Craft (p.31),where, in discussing a certain varnish found on a dynasty, he concludes that the varnish used was a natural coffinof the XlXth from tree, like as Venice Canada the or our turpentine obtained semi-liquid resin balsam, probably laid on He also states (p.30) that a solid after warming. by heat be liquified cannot resin evenly spread on a surface,and it at once cracks in Tombs Now female figures are thickly on cooling. 52 and 139, in which some coated with a resinous varnish, itwould appear that this was the method employed ; for the varnish, besides being laid on coarsely, is now covered with numerous
fissuresand cracks [see Nakht and Pere). In other tombs, also, the appearance is the to suppose that here again the of very similar, which leads one varnish resin was applied to the colours hot and not mixed with a solvent. On the other

hand, there are tombs in which the varnish is fairly evenly spread and quite free from the blemishes mentioned above. One is, therefore, forced to the conclusion that in some tombs the resin was applied to the walls after being liquified by heat, and that in others a solvent was used with the resin to make a varnish
it is impossible this solvent was mix with the colours. What If,as seems in is or turpentine resin only soluble alcohol, petroleum. been have likely,turpentine was the solvent used, it could only procured from c 3

either to coat
to say,
as

or

38

On

the Use

of Beeswax

and

Resin

as

Varnishes in Theban

Tombs.

of Europe, while petroleum, which is present in Egypt, have been obtained in an unrefined state. could only dynasty was Egypt's strong trade connection with Syria in the XVIIIth decoration in tomb for the marked at change observable probably responsible Syria at that period' and for the introduction of the use of resin as a varnish. to the that time was exporting a quantity of material which may have been new The Egyptians, and of which they did not properly understand the uses. for the or as a means pose purperhaps of protecting colours, employment of varnish last very long, did a radical change was brightening them, not which of fact that owing perhaps to the inborn conservatism of the Egyptian, or to the

S3aia and

the North

it

was

found it.

that

varnish

did not in the end improve

colour but actually


Ernest

darkened

Mackay.

of may be seen, mixed with dark green colour, as a filling III in the Louvre ; also in on the red granite coffinof Ramessu incised figures on the wooden coffins (Univ. CoU.). This was probably the earlier of the hieroglyphs

[The use

wax

over for portrait painting. The use of clear wax stage of using coloured wax Hawara Ankhrui this late on the ; at suggested sarcophagus of colours was noted hence by the wax, the excavators' system of using stucco and melted securing to a As as the use a turpentine as solvent for wax of preservative. paraffin wax

resin, the natural turpentine would be useless, being a thick syrupy resin. It Pliny describes two is only the distilled oil of turpentine that would be of use. it is pitch an oil is extracted rude methods of distillation. From
or
"
...

made by boiling the pitch and spreading fleeces over the vessels to catch the steam, tar is extracted from In Europe out." (XV, 7.) and then wringing them The wood of the tree is chopped the torch tree by the agency of fire into small billets, and then put into a furnace, which is heated by fireslighted on
"
.
.

steam that exudes flows in the form of water into a reservoir every side. The first made for itsreception ; in Syria this substance isknown as cedrium, and it possesses such remarkable strength, that in Egypt the bodies of the dead after being steeped

in it, are

that this it seems preserved from all corruption." (XVI, 21.) From in Syria for in the later times, at least, an was turpentine prepared oil of " From the to coat paintings is described thus : Egypt. The resin employed

colla (Penaea SarcocoUa, Linn.)a gum exudes that is remarkably useful to painters similar to incense dust in appearance, and the white kind is preferred to the red." (XIII,20.)"F.P.]
sarco
. . .

the
a

Witness among disc of the sun frieze.


'

other
on

things

"

Floral friezes and


ornament

ornamental
that

ceilings and
was

the

use

of
as

top

of the cheker

when

ornament

employed

( 39

THE

KINGS

OF

ETHIOPIA.

The

Sudan journal
devoted

Notes and

mainly The help to administrators. history of Ethiopia by Dr. Reisner, which is mostly familiar ground to our readers. The important new is the list of Ethiopian kings, as discovered and statement Expedition. Those with arranged from the excavations of the Harvard-Boston
an

to the customs

1918, is quarterly since January, folk-lore a tribes, most needful of various and only articles touching Egypt are a series on the issued Queries,

asterisk are

newly

found.

The
The

blances order has been settled by the principle of sequence dating, the resemone indicating to their of group of objects another order of connection. lengths of reigns seem to be approximations years, or of ten or twenty

five or fifteen,arrived at apparently by the amount sometimes of work observed in each reign. The beginning and end of the list is fixed by contact with Egyptian
sources.

Any
can

(January, which 1919),

Office,5, Northumberland basis of a national magazine

student of Ethiopic history will need this number Railways be obtained (3s.) at the Sudan Government This journal Avenue, London, W.C. may well be the

of the Sudan.

C4

40

NILE

BOATS

AND

OTHER

MATTERS.

[Continued.)
We
must
now

describe how
a

this constructive difficulty, making


one overcome.
"

of many

pieces into

continuous whole,
"

which could withstand


"

skin composed longitudinal large

and transverse strains without yielding, was Our wooden boats, whether carvel
"

or

cUnker

built,depend

to

the ribs which, however, would not maintain their verticalitybut for the skin of planks nailed to their outer sides : the ancient boat is a unit, a shell. The method made use of for holding the short planks one to the other becomes The keel plank (asI will call it) therefore a matter of the firstimportance. in the case of the Museum boats is made of but few pieces, so as to avoid the
extent

upon

weakness of joints. as that made The wood of which these ancient boats are built is the same hence in lengths, to but impossible hard, use procure straight of to-day, very the method of building up and fittingtogether of the parts as here described. of, perhaps not available in sufficientquantities. We might have expected to find pins or pegs driven into holes prepared for them in the upper and lower planks, but if they are present in these specimens In the present case we find only of ancient boat building they cannot be seen.i Iron
was

not made

use

dovetails with the occasional be described (Fig. 5). Countersunk


about
recesses are

use

of

species of tongue, which

will presently

half through

specimens. In the volumes before referred to on Beni Hasan, Part II, Plate XII, we see several boats differingin shape from those usually depicted. The hulls are deeper ; the greater draught must have enabled them to take considerable cargoes.

always on fastened together with large dovetails. I venture to suppose that we should go wrong were boats of the period were built precisely as are the Museum

prepared along the long sides of the planks and cut their thickness (seeA) ; into these the dovetails are forced, the inside of the hull. The butting joints of the keel planks are
we

to

assume

that all

In such boats the method of joining plank to plank with long pegs instead of with dovetails which pegs and dovetails are now replaced by long iron nails, cUnched, But, have been on the may employed. other hand, it must be kept in view
"

that
one

clumsy draughtsman hull and another.


a

may

be very responsible for

difference between

of the ancient drawings are to scale. In constructing a great barge such as that which is depicted at Deir el-Bahri 32*0 m. in length, the and capable of carrying two obelisks, each of them some construction of the hull must have been a matter of great care and no little science. Denied the help of iron, and without the command timbers ; with the cross strains the structure must straight
'

None

of a variety of long have been submitted

In

our :

oak pegs

own mediaeval carpentry for example at Westminster

we

find magnificent roofs, held together entirely by

Hall.

Nile Boats and


to in getting the two

Other Matters.

41

monoliths on board ; in taking the chances of down a on the way the river, and finally in sand or mudbank running on hull have been a the must needs really scientific combination unloading ; of in supposing Whence came the large timbers ? Are we at all justified timbers. that there mi|tht have been more science displayed in building a barge in the XVIIIth
We

immense

dynasty than in the Xllth ? should bear in mind that long before the Xllth dynasty
were

of granite the temples

brought

down

from the Aswdn

prodigious blocks for Pyramids the quarries and for

at Saqqara.

As regards ship construction, it would probably be less difficultto support in the case of obelisks, than as a large area, great weight distributed over be to support
a

similar weight concentrated, as in the case of a block, It would seem impossible that dovetails alone could have over a smaller area. held together the planks of the hull. The main strength of such a structure have been merely in the skin, but must have been within, by making use cannot it would skin. of trusses and similar methods, clothed with the cleverly combined I may be pardoned if I make a short extract from a letter written me by Construction to the British the late Mr. Francis Elgar, Director of Naval

Government.

He
on

could be carried
water

The two great obelisks of Karnak, 97 ft. 6 in. long, says, ft. long and 69 ft. beam, upon a draft of 220 a boat about
or

"

of about

4 ft. 6 in.

not

exceeding 5 ft."
on

He

was

much

interested in

this question. Some of the largest passenger steamers but differ exceedingly in beam, they move

considerably diminished ; but except at in navigation. As of 69 ft. beam and 5 ft. draft would present great difficulties have already said, merely to construct a vessel of such beam and yet of so we shallow a draft under the limitations which pressed upon the ancient Egyptians Whence came the necessary knowledge, matter. must indeed have been a difficult did begin to the experience which the people at what remote accumulate period

the Nile approach this length on the river after its volume has the very crown of high Nile, a barge

porting weights, lifting them, transculminated in their power to deal with immense in Xllth XVHIth or the them, unloading them, and this not only dynasties, but in the IHrd or IVth ?

It is not easy for those unaccustomed

to deal with

figured dimensions

to

of feet, how large a thing a of numbers realise merely by reading a statement barge would be, such as that mentioned by Dr. Elgar. Let me give an example. James Fergusson, in the monumental work, his History of Architecture, gives Hall : 68 ft. wide and 239 ft. long. the following dimensions of Westminster When dimensions we these with the compare required for the barge 69 ft. wide realise what a serious business it must have been to and 220 ft. long, we can build, to load, to tow, to navigate and finally to unload such a structure even under the best conditions. To return to the boat in the Museum, which would be of very light draft

and not intended to receive cargo. The dovetailing has been already described (Fig. 5). There is, however, another method by which the planks were held Fig. 5). together, more effective (see akin to pegs and perhaps more from the are Sometimes two tongues of wood one, sometimes projected in into the to them holes made plank below. receive plank above and driven down in length, 0.08 m. in thickness, and 0.15 m. In one case the tongue is 0.20 m. in

projection.

43

Nile Boats and

Other Matters.
1

cnij
4.0
nt.

Nile Boats

and

Other Matters,

43

section of the boat (Fig.i) shows that there is not, as we might have 6). expected, a stout rim, or gunwale, forming a top rail to the hull (Fig. In this we by the boat-builders to see the ingenious method adopted tie together in their length the planks which form the gunwale such as it is.

The

"

bound tightly round the central tongue. The No doubt a rope of fresh hide was hide contracts in drying and in result an exceedingly close and strong junction is stillmade The method is secured. use of. The great yard of a dahabeah, in in length three than 33.0 m., has the usually made pieces and averaging more
largest pieces covered at their junction with a fresh hide, which, contracting as it dries and assisted by rope, withstands easily the great strain to which the is boat was yard exposed under the tension of the sail. The yard of my own fully 35.0 m. in length. This yard was on one occasion broken in half by the
two

strain, but at the junction of the two heaviest pieces of the timber, one broken, and which junction fortified as usual by hide, no was of which was

wind

appeared. It will be observed that the hull of the ancient boat is assisted to maintain its shape by eleven thwarts or cross-pieces, which are the carried through thickness of the skin of the hull and firmly fixed in position. They are visible

damage

from the outside. They A notable example


construction
can

support the deck planks. of the way in which the thwarts were made use of in be observed in the sculptures at the temple of Hatshepsut at
we see a

considerable number of large rowing boats, which being made use of to tow the barge which carries two obelisks. The ends of are the thwarts are seen see we the great barge piercing the hull. On PI. CLIV itself The thwarts are in three ranges, one above the other, carrying the obelisks.
in the inner important proof that they formed most members large hull. construction of this In the case of the boats in the Cairo Museum, planks are laid, their ends forming deck. on the thwarts and thus a movable resting

Deir el-Bahari.i On PI. CLIII

which

is

This is a very usual method of forming a deck to-day. on the plan. Fig. 3, are indicated the places occupied by two posts to which Steering paddles the steering paddles were not rudders, attached. as we CLIV Deir Pis. CLIII them are on understand clearly shown el-Bahari and hX AA
"
"

above referred to. The steering paddles were attached by the upper end of the vertical poles (see PI. CLIV). In the Museum boat there is no indication that they
a

ropes

or

thongs to

were

provided

bottom

must plank such of the boat. It is to be regretted that another illustration of boat building, in addition to that already referred to, is not known Of boats already built and in use to us.
we

mast.

Had

there been

we

find sockets

on

the centre

with at the

have

many
not

short and

We must take refuge with Herodotus, who gives a examples. in the book illuminating built boats description how were very of

Euterpe.
Of the passage in this book relating to boat building, various readings have been produced, none of them very helpful. Let us refer to that by Sir Gardner Wilkinson, The Manners new the Ancient Egyptians, edition and Customs

of

"

The

Temple of

Deir

elBahari,

by

Ed.

Naville.

Part

VI,

Pis. CLIII

and

CLIV.

Egypt

Exploration

Fund,

1908.

44 by Saml. Birch.

Nile Boats

and

Other
"

Matters.

Vol. II, p. 207. The Egyptian boats of burthen lotus to are a the thorn of Cyrene, from which a tear wood very similar made of Of this tree they cut planks measuring about two cubits, exudes called gum. like bricks they build the boat in the following manner. having them arranged and They fasten the planks round firm long pegs and after this stretch over the

Murray.

surface a seriesof girths, but without any ribs,and the whole within is bound by bands of papyrus. A single rudder is then put through the keel, etc., etc." Wilkinson then gives a small woodcut (to which I refer the reader) which Museum boat above described, nor with does not at all agree with the certainly

On p. 209 he gives a drawing of a boat naggr is built now. is constructed with thwarts as in the Museum specimens. so beautifully sculptured in the reliefs at Deir el-Bahri,above referred to, suggest a method of construction such as that evolved from Herodotus by Wilkinson.
the way in which the hull of which None of the boats
a

pretend to penetrate the mysteries of Greek texts, I have of Oxford. referred the question to my kind friend, Dr. Griffith, He refers to a commentary Herodotus by How on and Wells, Oxford, 1912, Vol. I, p. 214. These commentators translate the passage in question as follows :

As

I do

not

to speak, the string on in driven vertically to the layers." strung, they were which the short pieces were The words are not to be taken in the sense of tied string strung and but find the word frequently used to-day. together, attached," justas we The bolts at frequent intervals were driven in vertically,as we see in the
were,
so
"
"

"

The

long bolts at frequent


"

intervals
"

"

Museum
If
"

boats.
"
"

layers assume that the word may should be taken to mean horizontally laid planks," we find ourselves to be very near to some parts of the boats, and also near to the method construction of the Museum shown at Beni
we

Hasan.

Furthermore,

we

are

very

near

to

the

method

of construction

as

practised to-day, as we shall presently see. How Carey's translation is as vague as that of Wilkinson. any boat can be bound within by bands of papyrus," it is hard to say, but if the translator has
"

bound word and has translated as which should really be caulked," he then describes that which is done have been done or the boat would not float. and must always

put

wrong

value

on

the Greek
"

"

"

word to-day

The Fig.
"

example
most
"

of

2)shows

vertical butting immediately comes

building before referred to from Beni Hasan (see formed the of short pieces of wood and the clearly planking one so distributed that, like bricks in a wall, no joint joints

boat

below. In this the description given by above the joint is Herodotus completely supported. Seeing how fast many are handicrafts making use of traditional methods in it interest how I dying out Egypt, to describe saw a naggr built in may be of

in use The way differsnot materially from the methods the year of grace 191 r. in the Xllth dynasty. I had the good fortune to see the business carried through following for Sweet brotherly love does not always the reason. eyes under my

flourishbetween

The two are the inhabitants of neighbouring villagesin Egypt. very ready to fly at one another's throats. If harm cannot be done on a large scale it can be done on a small.
are as thoroughly and lofty principles inculcated by Mahomed is difference Christianity There home. the the neglected at precepts of that the Egyptian is but emerging from the infamous misrule of the Turk ; he

The

noble
as

are

Nile

Boats

and

Other Matters.

45

places but littleconfidence in the administration of the law ; he prefers to administer hand. He begins with his tongue, his hands quickly the law with his own With us, happily, the law has a much greater follow, and violences are enacted. We are forced to behave better. power than in Egypt. In consequence of the above state of things and fearing that the wood, tools, etc., etc., might be stolen by way of revenge (no doubt the other side would call
it it was justice), suggested that below my house which, being just

the naggr
at
a

villages and having about it an aroma both the materials and the operations. halo of safety over I thus was introduced to some or less local,connected more customs, carrying through the business which are not without their interest.

should be built on the river bank considerable distance from the contending there would be cast a of the Government,

with

When
necessary

it has been determined


to select the builder,
" "

that
a

boat of this type shall be built, it is first carpenters craftsman who is classed amongst
a

and confines himself chiefly to boat building. The carpenter, being instructed in length the boat is to be, agrees on a price. The how many dira (yards) dira balady dira is 58 centimetres in length or country 23 inches. The carpenter is paid at per dira of running length. Nothing is said about
" " =

"

"

The carpenter carries in his head certain of the boat or its draught. proportions of beam and draught in relation to length : a traditional system. Judgingby the clumsy tubs these boats always are, whether we meet with Dongola, Asw^n Assist, we in believing or them are at Omdurman, justified the beam that the lines
two
masts
on
as

which clumsy

they

are

built

is

in its proportions

one mast. about in boats Museum. Cairo the of the

to describe,-taking

altogether traditional. A boat to take I am as a boat the building of which The proportions differmaterially from those
are

The draft and beam are, in pronaggr is built entirely for capacity. portion far length, boats. Of the greater than are those of the Museum drawings or ancient boats there are countless models from tombs and as many is In a considerable there shown sculptures upon the walls of tombs. all cases bow both The difficulty hull, the the the the at stem, water. out of part of and The
to

have been great (we have all of moving such a boat against a head wind must doubtless experienced the difficultyin a chandise, gondola).The boats to convey merwe see so of which examples carefully depicted in the Temple of Deir

el-Bahri,

are

built

on

the

same

lines.

The

naggr

of these days

differs considerably

I would In any case the existing form is evidently of very long standing. like to ask whether we are really justified in supposing that the models of boats in the Museums I do not believe that they are more than are at all correct. sketches.
or

The

same

remark

unquestionably

may

be made

as

regards the drawings

They are symbols. sculptures. know the on All students of Egyptology the beautiful sculptured scenes The of workmanship at Deir el-Bahri before referred to. walls of the Temple the sculptor is so fine, so exact, and many details are set forth with such manifest
accuracy that the impression at firstreceived certainly is that here, at least, we drawings: everything must be drawn to scale as in the stand before measured drawings of an architect.

But the more the sculptures are studied, the more manifest it becomes that it is the method of dehneation that produces the effect ; these beautiful works are, to the same in fact, not to scale. Dr. Elgar told me he had come conclusion as

4"S

Nile Boats and

Otlur Matters.

stated above and more especiallyis this the case with the dehneation of the great barge bearing the obelisks, and he gave his reasons to me, which were, quite but too here long to too are technical. state conclusive, and To return to building what I will call our There are sundry naggr."
"

which cluster round the proceeding. The carpenters go forth up and down the river to buy the wood. This is, in form trees, the are in of standing very usually, carefully examined which regard to the possibilityof cutting them into useful and handy pieces.
customs

bear in mind that none bent ; all the of the wood is artificially curved pieces, such for example as the planks forming the bow, must needs be cut to shape by the skilfulcarpenter with an adze, and wonderful it is to observe With the saw the certainty with which he wields this instrument. also certain

We

must

is obtained. The wood, trees or planks, are purchased by the slight curvature All brought belongs to the carpenter. surplus wood employer. upon the ground The carpenter is, further, entitled to be fed by the employer during the

progress of the works, and that not with ordinary everyday durra bread and such like,but pigeons, chicken and other luxuries must be provided. The neighbours of the employer are also placed under contribution ; they are supposed to consider that the building of a boat is a matter of interest and use
common

to all, so

they frequently
as

time in useless talk and bring

a great amount visit the work, consume of presents to the employer, but for the use of the

the case under consideration a as complete receive outfit two) of clothes, such people of their When the boat is ready to be launched, the carpenters degree usually wear. being freely administered to the receive a second suit. Coffee is, of course, during the time carpenters and visitors whole of construction.

carpenter, eatables of various sorts. Custom further dictates that the carpenters there
were

in (for

The employer, in addition to the wood, has to find all necessary nails and bring them to the site. The wood made use of is that of the acacia Nilotica, known on the Nile as sunt," a slow-growing tree hard and close in grain. The tree can grow to a it but A in a diameter stem seldom gets chance. of a metre considerable size,
"

is thought very large. After purchase the whole tree stem, large branches and small, is brought to the river side after being in part, cut up to facilitate transport. Having arrived, the pieces of wood are scientificallysorted, all the

timber to be used for the naggr being laid on the slope of the river bank, just within the water, so as to be kept always damp. The carpenter brings his own hammers, saws, adzes and big augers, also a pair of gibbet-like affairs which are used with much craft to prop the timber for sawing. A spot having been selected close to the river side (it be undermust stood
that the work is usually undertaken during the going down of the Nile : if the Nile is rising the spot selected is high on the bank, so near as to facilitate level, the naggr a sufficientpiece of land is made the floatingof the finished boat) built hut of durra straw being parallel with the stream. Justnorth of it a little is made to form a shelter from the prevailing north-west wind. In this the interested live keeping is finished, thus the parties until the work watch over materials and the progress of affairs. Let us say that the naggr, when finished, will be 24 ft. long over all. A straight line is laid down on the levelled surface of the selected site,by

the aid of

piece of string, its direction parallel with

the river, and

on

either

Nile Boats

and

Other Matters.

47

is fixed in the ground. In the side of it, alternately, a small stump of a branch is is before-named to on being keel, the the rest stumps, which prepared.^ meantime From small tree stems of a suitable size the longest available pieces are got : let us say three. These are, with the adze, worked smooth along the top. The two sides are drtesed vertically but not very true : the under part is left rough

and

shapeless.

The

three pieces

are

halved

from and mighty spiked nails procured is on keel thus formed the stumps and is fixed to them by long nails. placed It will be observed that in establishing a keel we have departed from the boats and it may be presumed, of the ancients, for neither method of the Museum in models nor wall drawings do we see anything that suggests a keel. As soon,

together, drilled with the auger Cairo are driven in and clinched. The

however,

as

paddle, a with this change the keel also was hardly have been made firm at the bottom.
The

decided to make use post became vertical stem

it was

hinged rudder and not of the steering be presumed a that necessity. It must introduced, as without that the stern post could of
a

prepares the stern post. It consists of a straight piece carpenter now of the adze, and halved at the bottom worked square in section, by means end to the keel. A spike nail or two is driven in, a fixing which seems very inadequate it not that by the method of building the hull and indeed would be so were

8). every part of the structure assists in supporting every other part (Fig. imposing The bow of the naggr is a more Having affair than the stem. from knees lying bank, three on some the the curved pieces are wood selected
by the adze : they form when set together a somewhat halved and nailed together in the way already are described for the keel and the stem post, are quite neatly fitted, being finally and then shaped imperfect quadrant.
cut

They

dressed down Where

piece projects it thus. I could not ascertain that the carpenter knew It why he made him but long imagine a one can tradition, that seemed with matter entirely of When was the keel strikes since the advantage of such a projection observed. island, a or a the upon would make groove in the yielding sand mud projection surface, through which the keel would more easily follow. Before procured, fixed, a piece of string is permanently also a piece of red ochre, which the sandstone hills in Upper Egypt The ochre, in water, provides a red liberally. It is called moghra." the stem post
or are
"

with the adze after they are fixed in position from the curved pieces for the bow start upward below the keel some four inches or downward

(Fig. 7).
the keel, the bottom
more.

bow

provide

so

The string is held sediment : this is the pigment in which the string is soaked. The along the middle of the upper surface of the keel and then plucked. is in deposited line. In lines a same thus the way straight ochre straight
times, as hundreds of tomb made, both vertical and horizontal, in remote interiors still show. By eye the stern post and rib for the bow are set up, a string is stretched from the top of the one to the top of the other, and by means of a plumb bob made of a heavy nail and a piece of string, the centre line or axis of the hull is established.
were

It is not a littlefascinating to watch these effective but primitive methods in the presence of the iron nail, there is Excepting being put into operation. not one of these methods that by a study of the ancient drawings and buildings to have been in use four or five thousand years ago. we see cannot
'

In Fig.

2,

from

Beni Hasan,

we

see

the sticks set up

so

as

to keep the hull in its place.

48 The which
screw

Nile Boats and

Other

Matters.

Egyptian knew

how

to execute

work, when
our

he
as,

in its perfection has never been exceeded, in some Great Pyramid. Except of masonry of the

called upon to do it, for example, the external finestmetal work of to-day,
was

gauges and

materials, what stubborn precision and of the mouth and cheeks of a statue did he not attain ! We are still modeUing he reached this perfection. at a loss to know with what means In other pieces of work where such accuracy was not required, he worked far more in a manner rough and undoubtedly the handiwork was, for the most part, guided by the eye alone. The naggr we are now engaged upon tests what the carpenter has done When one
comes

things of that sort, over the most mastery

we

never

approach

it. What

absolute fineness of

by

and observes the tools and methods made how so considerable a degree of correctness hand, a naggr of but a few years old wears Worked,
as

use

the last category. under twentieth century standard of, one is not a little astonished
a

has been arrived at. On the other an aspect of hoar antiquity.

all the surfaces have been, by the adze, the surfaces being or varnish, they acquire a silvery hue and distinctive without or plane never texture that wood from the saw gets. The rudder, although not ment belonging to the old order of things, is so rough in its make as to suggest a frag-

pitch, tar, paint

for wear. door, whilst the sails are usually the worse keel them connecting standing complete, a little post and flagbearing the name of Allah is set up at the highest point of the bow and remains there during further building operations. A reciter of the Koran, for a consideration, also attends occasionally : it is of an old bam The bow, stem

furthermore helpful to the


remarks The

success

of the operations that pious and compUmentary

comes already mentioned as brought by the carpenter now A trunk of tree, after the adze has reduced it to a section more or into work. or less parallel. This is less square, is marked with slightly curved lines, more the done by means (red string charged with moghra which is held of ochre) in by one of the carpenters short lengths of perhaps 9 ins., and then plucked.
" "

should large saw

freely be

made.

direction of the string is slightly changed after each plucking until, at last, a long line somewhat curved is clearly marked. Two fairlystout branches, to the erection of the sawing frame. We now come from have been the stock of wood, set vertically, their ends buried deep selected The in the alluvium of the river bank ; a cross piece joins them at the top, they are is tiltedup against the cross firmly roped together. The piece of a tree to be sawn piece. The "gibbets" above referred to are placed under the other end of the

piece to be operated A, B and C, D extends from the the gibbets A, C.

on.

The diagram

are

and is rested on the cross piece of One it appears, keeps steady. ricketty as whole affair, man the other stands below. A handy stands on the trunk or log to be sawn, is but The the established without pit. contrivance can be set up almost saw-pit
cross

roped piece first described

Fig. IX shows how the gibbets are used. together tightly. The trunk or log to be sawn

The

anywhere. The sawyer

below observes the curvature of the red ochre lines which along these lines,three or four stout planks above him ; directing the saw produced to the shape intended. In the and
as case as

are are

long

describing the planks were the trunk or log would permit.


am

about 4 ins.

10

cm.

thick

Nile Boats

and

Other Matters.
were

49
were

Sundry
bottom
The

planks, of the hull.

some

metres

long,

obtained which

used for the

planks are not nailed down on to the keel, but fitted against the sides have said above, were we got to shape not by sawing but by the adze. which, is The keel finished, but littlebelow the skin of the hull. when all projects, be supposed that by the somewhat It may rough method of work above described, the sides of the keel are not very true. is got over The difficulty in as it was done by the masons. The piece of material the old Egjrptian manner,
as

to be set in place is fitted to the irregularities of the piece already estabUshed.

of the keel is cut away. The way in which the of the planks to the keel is made is as adjustment follows. The sides of the keel are painted with a hquid mixture of Nile mud. is held in position against the Before this is quite dry, the plank to be adjusted mud paint. Where that paint comes off on the side of the plank, the discoloured

None

surfaces are dressed away, very deftly, with the adze ; the process is repeated until the two fit very closely. The same process is repeated for all the joints throughout the hull. ready way in which the demands skilful hand is delightful to watch.

The

of the eye

are

responded

to by the

The plank, ready for fixing,being held in its allotted position, the carpenter himself with a small paint brush made from a piece of fibrous stick chewed arms the at end.i He dips this in the red ochre and marks the places for the nails Fig. X, A.) (see
and a small circle indicate that the nails are to be driven or below at B, which when the hull is complete will be A the inside, B the outside (Fig. being The on the ground, set up edgeways plank lo). have for bored In this respect we the holes the nails are with A. large auger. straight mark in from above at A, A
come

The

far from the pegs. the ancient dovetails but are not removed is This by the adze. of the planks necessary curvature gained entirely in most statement applies to those of less than two metres in length, which were away
cases sawn
as

from

before described.

The nails are of wrought iron, not very hard, tapering in form and with large mushroom heads : the nail must not be so stout that it cannot at the small as all nails are ease, with some chnched. end be bent over is prepared as at A, Fig. XI, giving greater facility In some a recess cases
to drive the nail diagonally

into the next

board B.

the top planks of the hull, pieces in the nature of thwarts half the area set across Quite side to side and carrying a boarded deck. Across of the hull is thus covered in and the rigiditymuch strengthened thereby. There
are, near

from

the hull, just about the middle of its length,is fixed a stout beam, usually made from the stem of a tree, smoothed with the adze, but following all the inequalities The thwarts above named are passed through the skin of the hull of its shape. and are visible on the outside. The stout beam or tree stem is for making steady
to

the short mast which has it to the beam. secure

socket in the keel and

strap

or

other form of stay

wooden structure it to float. enable


'

The

of the naggr is

now

complete.

The

next

duty is to

See Visits to Monasteries

of the

Levant, by

the Hon.

Robert

Curzon.

Murray,
D

1850,

p. 96.

50

Nile Boats

and

Other Matters.

to boats being caulked from the outside, but in the accustomed find the same case of the naggr we method employed as mentioned by Herodotus, byblus the caulking is done from within ; but instead of old clothes are in hull To is do it, this S5retem. as we a great merit caulk a preferred. There the boat must be on land and attacked from the outside, but in the case of the naggr the traveller remedies the leak as he travels along, which indeed I have

We

are

"

"

assisted in doing. or camesa," by The proprietor sacrificesa strip of his or gallabea is clothes. This vigorously pushed into the preference, a piece of the traveller's becomes boat that the the remarkably water-tight. This crevice, with result
"

"

"

method of ca\ilking adds to the ancient and ragged appearance of the hull. Little bits of rag are seen flutteringon the outside. In these da}^ the carpenter occasionally fortifies the hull by a few ribs, but these are in no way parts of a system attached to the keel, but are fixed to

the interior of the skin, giving it desirable.

httle extra

strength where

the builder thinks

"

The sail is always latine. to be set afloat, but this is not a great piece of business The naggr has now in inequaUties the surface of the sloping bank left by the retiring waters any

The boat, its long axis parallel with the stream, is eased down. smoothed down firstat the bow, then at the stem, and so it wriggles its way until at last it is afloat : imperfections in the caulking are made good ; the mast and cordage are set up, the sail is attached, and the new naggr at once takes its place amongst
are

the antiquities of Egypt.


A study of what has been said shows that, as a matter of fact, the naggr of to-day must be a very direct descendant of the boats built some thousands of little but the construction method of changed. years ago, with

plays a not very prominent part ; pegs and dovetails have given place long since, the most important cutting to iron nails. The adze is now as it was has by Steering a tool. paddle given place to steering by a rudder. and shaping The progress of this type of boat, primitive as it is, depends stillalmost
The
saw

the sail,punting with a midra was, universal. The oar, when it is used, is flat at one end. little entirely
on

"

"

or no

it always long pole is still, as more than a bare pole, cut a

the sea paddle, like the crocodile, has entirely disappeared between Kareima, however, Gebel to Cataract. At Barkal, Second below the just close and being in I have had Cataract, Fourth the pleasure of the the ancient propelled it in the models and on the wall sculptures. The side of the manner see as we traveUing rose to exactly one metre naggr in which I was above the waterThe Through
was

some

loop of rope, twisted round a thwart and outside the naggr, projecting the the passed shank of paddle. The loop acted as a rowlock. The paddle consisted of a fairly stout stick two fixed the blade (Fig. one long, XII). The metres and at end was
a

The paddle was blade was tied to the shank. used nearly vertical. Observing how the Kareima people used it,one understood the ancient models in the Museums with the extreme verticaUty of the paddles as there to be observed. When in a swift stream additional strength was men required, two or more

pulled at a rope attached to the paddle shank immediately above the blade, the and thus, drawing the paddle towards them they very much augmented force of the man held the paddle. who

Nile Boats

and

Other Matters.
Across
from

51
Asia Minor
on

I ask permission to insert the following from I take the paragraph by W. J. Childs, Blackwood.

Foot
March

the

Spectator of

3rd, 1917.
right place,
"

It
we

seems

to
see

me an

may
"

of peculiar interest as it shows that, if we go to the ancient type of boat on the sea at the present day,
one

the coast of the breast, put Her hull from the shore. stem above the and was curved into a off projected form resembling roughly the head and neck of a bird preparing to strike. Upon the mast, hanging from a horizontal yard, was set a single broad square-sail,
summer

square rigged A sight of this kind I watched Black Sea, when a long boat, whose
"

bow

was

evening shaped like

on

swan's

foot could be seen five or six the black heads of rowers, bare-legged in the high a them men on steersman placed above either side, and Mr. Childs sees in this, with great reason, the direct continuance stem." of Greek tradition. May we not go further back and see the picture of this very Egyptian an tomb of far greater antiquity ? ship in many and under
the arching

There is yet one more machine for floating on the Nile which, exceedingly in It is called "ramus." It is very general use. primitive as it is, is still more than a raft which is merely a float ; it is shaped to a certain extent and can be propelled, indeed it usually is so, by an imperfect paddle.
the straw will take at least two people. It is made of boose length The half, two, two boose or metres. and a of of durra, which grows to a is tightly tied into long bundles, circular in section, diminishing towards one end, Three or more the bow of the machine. sticks, A, B, C, Fig. XIII, are tied The
ramus
"

across,

so
m.

as

to keep the structure steady.

0.90 about

in length.
m.

I have

It is not

The largest of these sticks are 0. 80 or all measured the length of several of these ramus, from bow The the the water at end. curved upwards

whole very rigid by being roped together, as shown in the sketch. A view of the fishermen working from these floats is given in the Journal of EgyptianArchaeology, IV, 255. thing is made passenger propels himself with a paddle made of a short piece of stick The thing is primitive but sufiicient. piece of flat board at one end. and The ramus is much in use when cultivable islands appear above the retiring
a

The

waters

of the Nile.
SoMERS Clarke.

[The old-fashioned ship-building


"
"

in England frame

was
on

not

so

very

different to

the shore of a river or Stocks. A the Egyptian erected method. harbour whereon to build shipping. It generally consists of a number of wooden blocks, ranged parallel to each other and with a gradual decUvity towards Britannica, 1797). Had we the facihty of a rising the water" (Encyclopaedia have been stillmore float to river off our shipping, no doubt the methods would alike." F. P.]
. . .

52

REVIEWS.

VrvES de Ibiza. Antonio Estudio de Arqueologia Cartaginesa. La Necrbpoli EscuDERO. Madrid, 1917. 8vo, 189 pp., 175 figs.,106 pis. (Juntapara
"

pesetas. for the extension of study"; noble work of collecting materials Museum, Iviza though based on the very varied contents of the all kinds of collateral materials from Carthage, and some other sites, are brought in, and The plates, 7^ by 4I ins., are all brieflyillustratedby sketches for comparison. tunately photographic, fine-grained half-tone or collotype, bright and clear. Unfor-

Ampliaci6n

de Estudios, Moreto

i,

Madrid.) 20

This is a

"

the industry of the author has had indefinite material to work upon. data ; The Iviza Museum appears to be a chance collection without any scientific a is in a single not single tomb-group, or association of objects evidence, not It is of the dating is known beyond what may be guessed from appearance.

curiosity stage, hke the Naples Museum, where no locaUties or groupings are stated. What might be done in a single season's work by an archaeologist who knew the dating in Greece and Egypt, would be worth all that is yet known and collected. which The
a
we

"

"

here do

In the absence of any dating, it is only possible to note comparisons, on the Eg37ptian side.

dated material is in the curious pottery made This finished above. off with head and arms and XXI) ; also style of figure is known from a tomb of the Xlth dynasty {Dendereh, Museum figures hands to breast from Cyprus the 5501(Cyprus with similar Seeing how Httle is found in Iviza before the 5542, Sandwith Collection).
on

earUest contact wheel, open below

with

Carthaginian period, it is very unUkely that such figuresare of the Xlth dynasty They seem to belong to some age in Spain ; nor are they indigenous in Egypt. in the Xlth Cj^rus into as Egypt brought were they centre such whence
" "

dynasty, and into Iviza perhaps a couple of thousand years later. Probably a similar connection accounts for the resemblance of the bird vase XII) of about the XVIIth d3masty, and the similar bird vase from {Qurneh, Gades
XLVII, {Estudio,
an

4).

echo of the early prehistoric Egyptian style in the bone XXX, 7-9, i);when spoons with circular bowls, and the long hair pin {Est., Algerian is considered, the close relation of the pottery of that age to the modem

There is perhaps

style of ivory work lasting on in North Africa, and passing thence to Spain, long after it ceased in Egypt. Another similarity is in the multiple vases with Hathor head and cow's head,
no

there is

improbabiUty

in

found at Carthage {Est., head and and the group of vases p. 130), with the cow's disc, from the deposit of Tehutmes XIV, 7). The Carthaginian III {Koptos, is also evidently related to the multiple vases ring as found in Egypt a on
XVI, 4) about the XVIIIth dynasty, and known in Asia Minor later. This tjrpe is foreign to Eg3^t, and may have been brought in there rather

(AbydosIII,

Reviews.

53

at

earlier date than it was therefore indicate trade in common


an

borrowed

All of these resemblances with centres of production, but not necessarily

in Africa.

equal dates.

fe^

DENDEREH

IV

I 2

CYPRUS

Q.U

IV

I Z. A

of Carthage.
are

is different when we dynasty, the early period reach the XXIIIrd known in Egypt Jarsof this period are well (theparallels here the nearest pubUshed, but others are as found in and are the same closer),
case common

The

Iviza and very

in Carthage

XLIII, {Est.,

21-23, P-

with variegated bands of colour found in Iviza later period of such glass, well known from the cemetery of Cumae, and The glass beads, coarsely made assigned to the ninth century B.C. XXXIV, are common colour {Est., about the eighth century B.C. 1-7) Cylindrical beads of coloured glass covered with knobs {Est., XXXV)
the
same

"S). [Est., XXXII)

The glass vases are all of the

generally of varied in Egypt.


belong
to

factories and period. A cowry of glazed pottery from Carthage {Est., Fig. 84)has the cartouche of Shabaka of the XXVth Thus before the dynasty. famiUar Greek age of the XXVIth dynasty, there are plenty of connections with to be of the ninth to the seventh centuries B.C. ; but there the remains known is no direct connection before that, only joint borrowings from uncertain third
centres

clearly to be that it was the Carthaginians of trade. The conclusion seems not until the Phoenicians had who brought Egyptian things westward, and it was that regularly traded from an5^hing was connections estabUshed the western
D

end to end of the Mediterranean.


3

S4

Reviews.

common. In the XXVIth d5masty the Egj^jtian products and influences were Fig. Glazed pilgrim bottles with new year wishes are found at Carthage {Est., 78); XV, XI, i, 4, 5); alabastra circularmirrors {Est., 5); triangular arrowheads [Est. Fig. 50)as found in Sardinia Fig. 62)found at Carthage ; a finger-ring {Est., {Est.,

and Carthage ; human head a

Fig. 83)and scaraboids with glazed ball with an uzat eye {Est., both from Carthage all of these show the general (Fig.

77),

"

in the seventh century. became familiar, and coarsely copied, in the West. That glazing was actually done at Iviza is probable from the occurrence XXXIV, exactly such as were produced of a lump of littleballs of frit {Est., 27), blue glaze. Perhaps, in Egypt, for the glaze factories to employ in making

spread of Egyptian things westward The usual littleglazed amulets

however,

this may

manufacture Fig. 58) {Est., by the


moon

it shows been for making blue paste amulets ; anyhow locally. A square amulet of bronze from Carthage of amulets shows a Phoenician adaptation of Isis and Horus, distinguished have

and sun respectively. Coming later, the series of lamps from the cocked-hat tj^e of a flatpan

through all stages as at Naukratis folded over into a spout, through the central
runs
"

"

pivot-hole type, to the closed-in top, and then the addition of a side handle. There seem to be very few of the types with figures, only the two cupids and of the multitude of frog or palm t5:pes which negro's head ; and there are none This seems to show that abound in Egypt in the second to fifth centuries a.d. Iviza decayed after the firstcentury, and ceased to import foreign goods, however There is no trace of the Byzantine types of lamps, so frequent at common. Carthage and in Sicily.
some

Of purely Roman box handles

age there is not much.


a

Carthage

(XVII, 3-6), glazed dish bone hairpins (XXX, some (Fig. 82),
a

XI, A square metal mirror {Est., 4), lions on the edge, from with littlefigures of cast glass

10-14),

(XXXIV, 20-23), and what may be are (Fig. allof them early Roman 36),

surveyor's mark, like those found in Egypt how flourishing rather than late. Knowing

in late Roman Carthage and Spain were does not times, it is strange that more to be of Byzantine One single earring from Cadiz, seems appear in this volume. Roman The is that purely work had so completely age (Fig. only conclusion 17). driven out local or national style, that nothing remains but entirely Roman

material, which the author Carthaginian archaeology. Some

has

rightly discarded

from
"

work

dealing with

indigenous pottery." good plates (XLI-XLIII) are given of the far it This differsfrom what we know of the Italian, Greek or Egyptian. How in be Of ginian CarthaAlgerian Spanish is common or the the may not settled. with forms drawn there is but one The which accords with the Iviza forms. pecuUar products are the large masks of pottery, about 6 to 8 ins. high, mainly from Carthage, but also from Sardinia and Iviza. These have no descent from the Greek Silenus and other types ; they can scarcely be intended as
most

merely

comic

absurdities, and rather suggest a use If Carthaginian literaturehad survived we

in regular plays or performances have seen the clue might

to these.

great characteristic of Spanish work in aU ages has been a fulsome The terracotta figures are examples of this,with headdress spread of ornament. LXXXVII, LXXXV, i ; and tunic covered with rosettes and spirals {Est., LXXXVIII,
so

The

This taste is what renders the mediaeval fatiguing in its details to those bred in plainer styles.

3).

architecture of Spain

Reviews.

55

The scarabs of the terms used here in classificationare hardly exact. Mykenaean by are means no so named early ; those called Egyptian are all Phoenician imitations ; the scarabs of so-called Assyrian style are rather the Persian edition ; and those termed Carthaginian are mostly local variations of Greek design. The figure (XCVII) seems neo-Punic rather to be pure Greek in a local called, Cyrenean. school, probably

Some

KDPTOS(SiMPuriED)

A B y

OS

C ARTHAGE

r\

\J
Q,UR,NEH I

\J
" VIZA

EGYPT

XXII

IVIZA

( Z

The general position then seems littleintercourse of the to be that there was East with the Western Mediterranean tillafter the Trojanwar ; the traditional drift of peoples westward in the reputed Trojancolonies, and the that, after
foundation
in 1050 B.C., began the movement of Cumae which the Phoenicians their trade that spread the taste for copies of Egyptian carried on, and it was Scarcely was work. traded West (thebust of anything make of Egyptian Sekhmet, Est., VIII, 2, is about the only but there was a wide fieldfor the

piece),

Phoenician much
as

sixth centuries. Then liferemained after the Roman conquest there was a great collapse, and what little in Carthaginian regions was completely dominated by Roman works. D 4 and

imitations, in scarabs and glazed ware, Naukratite imitations spread in the seventh

which

flooded

the trade,

S6
The Tomb

Reviews.

By A. C. Mace and H. E. Winlock. 4to. York, 1916. At last we the firstvolume of the results from the Expedition of welcome York, begun ten years before. The New MetropoUtan Museum Art the at of scale and style of the present volume is delightful, but if one tomb claims such

ofSenebtisi at

Lisht.
"

132 pp., 35 pis-,85 figs. New

treatment,

years ?
cavators. to work

will the Ufe of the explorers suffice to bring out the results of ten ex to be forgotten by most Respice finemis a motto which seems They

be

seen,

scarcely regard the fact that no one else is likely to find time selves. up and publish their discoveries,if they do not find time to do so themdoes not issue of his own Whatever a man will work probably never left be It been will useless to science, undone. and might as well have

and lost to sight, hke the plunderings by the European consuls a century ago. This volume is a complete account of a burial of the Xllth dynasty, which had been attacked anciently, but was saved owing to the plunderers being been had done. The chapters deal with the interrupted before much mischief
the ceremonial general conditions, the clearing of the tomb, the coffins,the jewellery, large lower The to dating. the the oblong pit, enough stores, pottery, and recess are a coffin, chamber, all of the and about 16 feet deep, and the narrow

The cemetery. usual t3^e, like dozens of such burials in any Middle Kingdom in burial a complete contained, showing what great value of the account is hundreds tombs now former the contents of of similar empty. and explaining Over the coffin,far from the loose rubbish that had fallen forward into This seems to have been a pile of bricks and the chamber, there was stones.
over the attempted attack on placed there by guardians of the tomb, to cover the coffins by the plunderers ; the same careful hands had filledup again the The down hole the shaft. coffinhad been considerably decayed, but plunderer's

carefully preserved by treating it inch by inch with inlaid eyes of alabaster On the outer coffin were shellac with paraffin of the usual rectangular form, with raised block and obsidian. This coffin was began in the third djmasty. Around the edges as top, such ends and rounded the original decoration
or was wax.

were women,

gold strips, and Sat-Hapi and


or

firstname, the
case

down the axis of the lid an inscribed band, naming two Senbtas ; there is no explanation of the occurrence of the for two names the same person, as was often whether these were

for

men.

of the bead girdle, the collar and careful tracing of the arrangement It is to our stock of information. other parts of the outfit, has added much be burial irony damaged more an that the minute record of a much worth should by incompetent diggers. The burials found the than the accounts perfect of The detailed discussion of the coffinsand fittings, with those from other compared important tombs, makes this volume a text-book of the subject. The inner coffin is claimed to be the earliest definitely datable example yet known of the anthropoid coffin. Two questions are involved here. First,
" "

the style of the decoration of bead collar and tresses of hair (frontispiece and from a starting point. The similar form of the PI. XX) seems to be far removed spiral at the end of the tresses and the marking of the breasts, shows that cop5dng

had gone

on long enough to lose the originalidea : the formality and want of attachment is below bead the the evidence of repeated of work collar, again, rectangular Second, how early is this coffin? Unhappily the evidence of date is cop)dng. to be dated with great certainty to the not given : it is only stated (p.114)
"

early part of the Xllth

d3masty,"

and

to be connected

"

with

the great wazir

Reviews,
"

57

in whose tomb buried she was (p.49). Sometimes relatives are buried in a family tomb considerably older ; and here it is agreed (p. 32)that the technique and appearance of the coffin of King Hor is identical with this. Such resemblance takes
us

to the end of the Xllth

dynasty,

or as

more

probably into the Xlllth.


whole

class of pottery. application of white edging and is usually dated as after the Xllth dynasty ; occurring here, it is claimed as beginning early in the Xllth dynasty. The styles in this burial which do not agree with what is usually

This question of date is important


or

The

affecting a is well known, stripes

dated to the Xllth


whose before

d5masty,
not

are

stated to be due to belonging to the ruling class,

yet generally copied. We need very certain proof can we thus formulate a difference of fashion of several generations between the styles used in different classes of society. Such social viscosity has not yet
were

fashions

however periods ; within a generation or two copying or a new takes through cheap style all classes. rough Let us hope that workers will devote their energies to publishing all their if less luxuriously than in the present volume. No one ought to results, even be allowed to turn up more is three years behind in publishing. material who

been

proved

in other
"

"

Etudes

sur

I'Origineet le Developpement de la Vie Religieuse. I. Les


la Perse.
"

Primitifs,
1919.

I'Inde, I'J^gypte,
i2mo,

Rich.

Kreglinger.

Bruxelles, Lamartin,

370 pp.

6.50 frs.

This work is primarily written from the point of view of the study of recent It gives nearly half its exposition to these, then long sections on Egypt peoples. the other great religions, including and India, and a shorter part on Persia ; Christianity,will be studied in subsequent volumes." If all the work is similarly it be The a text-book. most will carried out, welcome present volume is clearly logical development treatment. arranged, well written, with and sympathetic
"

It aims at reaching the point of view of the primitive thinker, and realising by those who are without our accumulated the aspect of life as seen experience. It is well documented, giving a reference for almost every statement, and quoting important passages in full.
primitive ideas, realism is firstconsidered, concluding think or perceive as we perceive and think ; with the more complex kind of life, experiences are multiplied and individualised,knowledge is widened, all the state of mind and mentality expands." To the savage mind impression constitutes reality, dreams are as real as waking impressions, drawings
on
"

In the first part, that savages do not

or

statues
same

are

of the

can basic idea of all these, is that man control Under his reach by imitative actions. the head of Materialism are collected the instances of eating powerful men enemies or friends to acquire their abilities. The bones of oxen placed with the dead in ^inorder Egypt are taken as being likewise to provide strength ; but as goats and other likely small animals are also buried, and offerings of bread and drink, it is more The transference of sin that the ox bones are also part of the food provided. The possibility of lands. or disease to an animal is also quoted from many
sun.

of command war, hunting, rain and that which is beyond

is the equivalent of the bodies which they represent, the name effect as the person, and may give control of the person, the word directs it. Magic rites are next described: of or creates the

object
The

"

"

sympathetic influence is fully accepted, and examples of physical contact in teaching and conferring powers.
telepathy and

are

quoted

58
A

Reviews.

full and important

emanating from the rudest sense

or the pervading influence section is that on mana, influence This be transferred, and can and tabu. sacred objects of it is as a fluid or wind which passes from the possessor to

New Hebrides, the recipient. The notion is found in Australia, Borneo, Annam, Madagascar, South Africa, and North America ; it also lies at the root of familiar also in Egypt as the sa, It should be added that this was Brahmanism. imparted by the god laying his hand on the back of the power, which was kneeling ruler. There was a class of sa-priests,who possessed this influence and imparted it. The essential value of it was protection by the gods, literally
or

influence." All kinds of well as the fire, trees and weapons. stones, wind, mountains, may contain mana objects The Dionysiac rites, and the eating of sacred animals, are parts of this system. The next section deals with the rites of contact with the earth, of fertility, and backing,"
as sa was

"

the

"

back

"

"

as

"

the marriage system. tions Totemism is a valuable section, comparing and criticising the various definiThe conclusion is totemism is a belief that, in a society, of the subject. or clans are connected, or identic, with species of animals or certain persons
"

marked vegetables ; and it implies all the rites resulting from such a belief." It is rethat nearly always a whole species,and not a single animal, is the totem. Here Egypt helps us by the names of early animal divinities being all in the bau khnumu rams, plural, anpu jackals, herons. The animal standards of tribes
prehistoric times, later fixed as the standards of the Nomes, seem footing as the animal standards of the Hebrew tribes and of the in Italy and Greece. The eating ceremonially and rarely of the various peoples in order to maintain is a totemism, the bond of unity rite of sacred animal be the it : to the examples annual eating of the with quoted may added that of in Egypt, from
to be
on

the

same

at Thebes, and the eating of the Apis bull at Memphis, of which only Some interesting points cases. fragments of bone were left to be buried, in some of primitive thought are quoted, showing the savage, like the child, disregarding his individuality and thinking and speaking of himself as a part of the species ;
ram

this further may throw light on the aspect that animals bear to each other. The social institutions of the present world find in these fundamental characters cation." of ancestral mentality, their distant explanation, and often their sole justifi"

The second part, on Egypt, deals with the soul, the king, and the gods. for fear Here the author follows the view that the disseverment of the body was in its true it This some impiety. an return, and he calls of act of view, coimtries, in Egypt. The dead were never was a motive with often provided weapons,

unbroken and effective, proving that no dread of their action was felt. Moreover, constitu carefully reafter dissevering the body and cleaning the bones, they were in their original order. To prevent any action they would have been left in confusion. In the early texts it is stated that the body was cleaned

in order to prevent decomposition, and to preserve it. The funeral prayers do be not pray that the head may not be removed from the body, but that it may it, to that the the bones this the returned shows unfleshing of and replaced ; body was not looked on as impious, but as part of a needful ritual of preservation. It is not the fear of division that prompts these prayers, but the fear of not being rightly re-united. The old idea is repeated that the contracted attitude of burial was embryonic ; there is no ground for this, as the attitude is that usual in sleep, and the dead were together as they lay in order to merely wrapped

Reviews.

59

bury them.
usual A

faced
entry

djmastic people brought in full length burial, and that is the the Egyptian times. peasants in modem attitude of sleep among is Gizeh Sphinx was the that given, without reference, curious statement by another on the east bank of the Nile, forming a guardant pair to the This needs to be verified,as it would clear up the of UppAr Egypt. The

meaning of the Sphinx, if correct. The division of the hieroglyphs of animals, at the legs or neck, is supposed to be intended to prevent their injurious This will not account effect on the dead. for the removal to show that of the feet of the harmless birds, which seems
mutilation was to hinder the animals from moving. The earlier type of the ushabtis, as single figures of the deceased, is ignored, and only the later modification as servant figures is stated, though that did not

The idea of giving one for each day of the year dynasty. begin tillthe XlXth case, was a late view in any and only rests on one or two having days named, which may be the day of death or of burial. The ka being the family spirit, of which all descendants partake, is briefly
family spirit should be quoted, as it stated ; but the African beUef in the same is the strongest evidence of such a view. In describing the gods, the local origin and worship of each is well enforced, and their local and tribal origin might be further illustrated by the compounding A worthy summary mixed. of gods together when different tribes were of the The usual wellgreat advance of Akhenaten concludes this part of the work. fixed lines of Egyptian belief are stated, and need not be repeated here, beyond

the matters just named, which require further consideration. The third part, on the Rehgions of India, is a clear and well-arranged historical account of the changes that can be traced. Several long extracts give authoritative of belief. The gods of the Vedas and their origin are fully the system of Brahma, and the philosophical subtleties into Lastly, the revolt of Buddhism, and the new morality and which it developed. it in. brought philosophy which
statements

discussed.

Next

The fourth part treats the kindred development in Persia. of Zoroastrianism The essentialof this is the duality of the conflict of good and evil,which pervades The date of Zoroaster is the deities, the spiritworld, and the actions of men. discussed, concluding that it cannot be later than about 1500 B.C., and that in invasion of before the Hindu the movement the Aryan homeland originated India. it reveals a violent antagonism Though so closely akin to Hinduism, in the opposite characters of the spirits. The Asuras are the good spirits in Persia, evil in India. The Devas are the evil spiritsin Persia, the good in India. in is the great god of primitive Hindus, Andra is the worst of demons Persia. Varuna the god of heaven in India is the demon of luxury in Persia. Vata, whose wind is the breath of lifein India, is the demon of storm, snow, and destruction to Persia. The religion of Zoroaster is one of the grandest doctrines Indra
"

been conceived, and which shines not only by the depth of the principles which the prophet discovered at the base of the world's evolution, but also by the admirable vigor of logic by which he subordinated all the details

which have

ever

eschatology to the first principles." After describing the We find thus in the religion strugglesof good and evil for the possession of man, Zoroaster is a of not met with either in the Egyptian grand conception which and
"

of his morals

The world has a history, in the profound speculations of the Hindus. it obeys the laws of evolution which from its present state lead it to an ideal

beUefs, nor

6o

Reviews.

it. Neither in Egypt stage toward which are tending all the forces that move in India is the world conceived as progressing or developing ; each man nor only future his own happiness or thinks of his own the annihilation survival and
"

"

which he seeks either in Paradise or Nirvana is only a distant future which he For Zoroaster the world obeys a plan, it is in historic waits to realise. battle field a growth, of where a passionate struggle is waged between opposing
.

forces,
one

the eternal and unquestionable opposition of good and evil, with It is on this foundation, solid hope that of the victory of the good. only and simple, that his entire morality rests." This littlebook, by its clear and sympathetic style, is worth more than history the most of the pretentious and of works which encumber
. . .
"

prejudiced

reUgions.

the Garden ofEden to the Crossing ofJordan. Sir William Willcocks 8vo, 4 maps. 93 pp., 1918. 5s. Cairo. When any work appears deaUng with a large number of debatable matters, the first question is whether we must accept it as a final statement, or as material for consideration, or as suggestions to be criticised. What value are we to assign to the statements of the author ? 6, There We are met on the firstpage by a strong statement. On Gen. ii,

From

"

"

went

up

mist from

mist undoubtedly means nowhere else in the Bible."


'

this Hebrew word occurred in Job xxxvi, 27, For He also maketh small the drops of water, they pour down rain according to the vapours [or free flow irrigation']thereof which the clouds do drop and distil." Now But

the face of the earth," we are free flowing irrigation,"and it does


occur

told
"

"

The

word

translated
"

what

has irrigation to do in
" "

went up a mist word irrigation. Were all this merely a but it "undoubtedly means" what Now are no even told, mist, not
"

purely natural cycle here described ? is unquestionably and not poureddown as


a

up,

Also the free flow

suggestion, it might pass as unfortunate ; to be impossible. Close to this we see we


a

garden alive." are the hills, grown entirely by dew, without crops of sesame more may this be the case in a low and damp situation. On p. 4 we rain ; still to our day the tree of life" ; how the date palm has remained even read that then could the idea arise that the tree of life was not eaten ?
primaeval

one,

will keep

Yet in Palestine
"

on

The letter E which precedes the names of the undoubtedly." is undoubtedly as iheyeh which every Arab uses the same Babylonia) shrines (in house Now or E temple, the yeh is the common as a vocative. means the the the lakes the salted lands near of the vocative Oh ! On p. 54 we read of Another
"
"

"

"

"

Delta

lakes at that time, as the sea broke in at the time of Justinian ; till then there were marshes of the Nile these must reduce us as stream, but no land under sea level. Such statements
in Ramesside

times.

But

there

were

no

to considering each

point

on

its own

merits, without

relying

on

the author's

judgment.
The be summarised. of this discursive work will now four rivers position assigned to the Garden of Eden is traced by identifying the line from be Euphrates flowed is to from it. The Pison the old which said Hiddekel, the Ramadie to Kerbela : the Gihon, the Chebar or Pallacopas ; the Tigris ; and the present Euphrates passing Niffur. The site of Eden, whence The main
matters

these streams

divide, is claimed to be N.W.

of Hit, the only position where

Reviews.

61

garden

could be placed which could be irrigated by free flow irrigation all the But ? how much of this depends on the above views on the mist year. is The rise of the flood waters fifteen cubits taken as showing an unusual Euphrates flood, which swept over the country, and stranded the Ark on a desert
" "

mound told.

Why or where a rise of desert is so named we are not named^Ararat. Arab gebel, meaning Much is said about the modem but not a mountain is but beside it land kind as desert does this the ; only not touch of any point, the meaning of the mountains named in the account of the Flood ; they are har,
a mountain, means while there is an entirely different word midbar for desert. a always used wilderness or Reaching the times of Israel in Egypt we are told of Josephand Potiphar being at Zoan, but there seems no proof of this. The Auaris or Ha-uar camp of in the Fayum the Hyksos is identified with Hawara this, and ; but

which always

probably

from the Howara A strong are tribe of Arabs. named other Hawaras, point is urged that the control of the Delta and Nile irrigation depended on holding the entry to the Fajmm, into which the Nile could be turned, and so cut many

from the country to the north of it. But the possibility of this view, the setting aside the ancient acceptance of Ha-uar in the Delta, depends on In Egyptian Ha-uar immediately that campaign they account. after taking besieged Sherohan, Sharuhen in the south of Palestine, and fought the Menti of
off water

Satet, or Bedawin

and not far away The plagues of Egypt are compared in detail with of the country, as Osborn did sixty years ago. The course traced in a northerly route on the Palestine road, and Mount

south of Palestine. This impUes south of Cairo.

that Ha-uar

was

near

Palestine

the seasonal changes of the Exodus is then Sinai is supposed to be

Kadesh

Bamea.

We

"

read

Elim

is undoubtedly

Katia,"

in the view of a of the main difficulties Paran, Wilderness as the modern of mention of the which is obviously the same Bamea, Feiran in Sinai, and carmot be the same as with word which the author its be This by name identified one seems can connection. site which suggests
to make

decisive. One

but this phrase is not is the northern Exodus

it fruitlessto identify unnamed


"

that

Sinai
more

and

untrue.

The sites on any other route. objection more by Egyptian strictly garrisoned garrisoned soldiers hostile to the wandering tribes of Asia than the Delta itself,"is entirely There never was a garrison in Sinai, only armed expeditions occasionally
was
. .

Further, whatever Egyptians went there were only visited the land for mining. a small handful of labourers and a few soldiers, and they only occupied the actual for the northern mines, and never controlled the desert. The only valid reason terranean. to pass far south of the Mediroute is the flight of quails, which are said never But Paran.

that is not

enough

to gainsay

the plain fact of the

name

of

irrigation and water control often appears here in different conideas, and such it is disappointing that a writer with so many but ; flections experience of the East, should not have seriously taken stock of the facts ; thus involved. he has missed making a valuable aid to understanding the many

Of

course

subjects

62

PERIODICALS.

Journalof the
Mercer, Dr. S. A. B.
"

Society

of Oriental

Research.

Sumerian

Morals.

(Vol.I, 2.) This is a long and


was a

careful study of the practical morals, as First the family lifeis considered. Marriage

distinct from

the theoretical ethics. " there civil contract and

This accords of showing that it had any specificreligiouscharacter." dealt Egyptian the as contract with with property usage, where affected by a legal The had no status. other union, which apparently penalty for divorce
means

is no

it could be performed at any time but Polyandry was being possible unusual. extinguished at the time of Urukagina, before 3000 B.C. on the shortest reckoning. had an important position, the kings having the queens' At that period women names often with theirs in decrees. This looks as if an earlier matriarchal system
was

fixed, as in Egypt,

at the marriage, and


was

by the husband.

Polygamy

still respected. In the matter of repudiation of a parent or a son, no notice is taken of the that these included cases Civilisation) observation of Miss Simcox (Primitive of adoption, and the separation of a child from his natural family by legal process
.

was

The system of adoption is described The business law was ample


carelessness which regarded
as

as

regards the future position.


and

caused the rulers acted in war and compacts made by the gods, under whom high according to our peace. The ideal character attributed to the gods was ideas, much higher than that of the Greeks. So far as this reflects the ideals of
" know. the people, it puts the Sumerian above most races that we Their gods were holy, righteous, just, truthful, pure, good, perfect, compassionate, merciful,

injuryto

detailed, and fully punished acts of between Treaties others. peoples were

to the need of change and repentance, just were subject " In the summing in spite of the presence of much materialism up, in their social life, their and of much regard for ceremonial in their religiouslife, ideals high." were moral singularly

"

mighty
men

; but they

"

as

are."

A similarly exhaustive statement of all the passages of texts referring to Early Babylonian Morals (Vol.II, 2) seems to show very littledifference from the earlierSumerian ideas. The older population had set the standard adapted to the climate and the conditions of lifein the country, and little difference

could be expected, unless Mercer,


Dr.

some

great

new

ideals arose.

S. A. B.

"

Egyptian Morals.

(Vol. II,

; Vol. Ill,

i.)

In by

these articlesthe general character of the Egyptians is discussed, as shown to the ideal as to the relationof the practical life their ideals of life; the difficulty

is hardly touched. If the idealsof a people are pitched much above the average is too there much hypocrisy ; but if there is no suggestion of hypocrisy, practice, or a double standard, this points to a fair correspondance between the ideal that we may fairly give the and the practice. From this consideration it seems There credit for most of the virtues that he claims or commands. is another line of evidence, not touched in these articles, the physiognomy of the kings, is known to times the the thanks early nobles and which great art of Egyptian
"
"

Periodicals.
to

63

In these faces of the familiarly as the portraits of modern statesmen. is best leaders of Egypt we see unmistakably and noblest in their ideals all that the dignity, foresight, patience, and vigour, with usually kindliness, of action
us as
"

We feel it would be an inspiration to worthy lifeto be and sometimes humour. led by such men; can we credit them with allthe virtues that they claim. The different standards of action are duUy realised by Dr. Mercer as limiting
He must be commended or the quality of the individual. not on condemned the basis of our code of morals, but on the basis of the morals of his own nation Yet it is said of the standard itself that we must judge of it as better and times."
or worse
"

than

our

own.

Here

there should be

more

reserve,

due to the different


The

conditions,

climate

and

necessities of

life in different lands.


on

circumstances. proportion different builds of character are now needed in New York or an English village, is a virtue in one What in Russia or in Spain, at the present time. country in be The a vice of character morality of the ancient Egyptian might another. is so closely fittedto the nature of the country, that it seems impossible to improve it for the present day ; all the faults of the people are so exactly reproved and countered in the admonitions, all the needs of character are so strongly stated in the claims to excellence, that any judgmentof the moral standard by that of upon ourselves is inapplicable. After classifying the various evidences of family qualities,social qualities, international and religiousqualities, the general idealsare dealt with, the standards of good and evil, of free will and of right. The early Egyptian is concluded to been " devoted to goodness, truth and justice have Considering the limitations of his time, he cannot be too highly praised." is on the same The second article,on the morality of the Middle Kingdom, lines. The main development since the early times is in the individuality, the feeling of personal right. The decay of society at the close of the Old Kingdom,

of qualities to each other largely depends

relative Entirely

left a strong sense of of the course of the hollowness, insecurity and injustice life. The strong rulers who insisted on a high standard had disappeared, and those who sought justice which stood alone. Falsehood, and the insecurity of life to The evils of lifehad driven men it produces, were the great evil of the time. look for future compensation, and the ideas of different kinds of future existence grew and spread. to take its place as
Dr. Mercer's

The
a more

Kingdom

began of Osiris, with the personal judgment, haunting of the graveyard. reasonable prospect than the
a

which will be especially useful to those It might be an advantage to lands. who make comparative studies with other to extend the bring in the sidelightsgiven by art and by ideals of the future life,

articles give

summary

view of character.

Report upon Archaeological Research in the College of Literature, Kyoto this does not concern Imperial University. Vol. II. March, 1918. Though
the rise of archaeological work in Japan. There are of 24 76 pages of Japanesetext, 24 plates, and then mercifully a summary Plans in thorough. English. The seems the and pages excavations style of fiintimplements are photographed, sections are given, the varieties of pottery and This detail in the the are photographed. skulls and and measured skeletons we is laying an excellent foundation for comparative congratulate studies, and has He director Prof. Hamada, is the the entirely also published of work. who

Egypt, yet

we

must

welcome

"

in

Japanese
"

volume of his travels in Greece, with many

photographs,

250 pages

in all.

64

NOTES

AND

NEWS.

troubles which have befallen Eg3T)t and the rest of the world have much of excavations undertaken here, though the conditions of reduced the number Prices of labour and of food are high, lifein Egypt are better than elsewhere. The

Gold and silverhave vanished, as in England. not risen quite as much is All to feel how the depreciated currency. classes of natives seem paper and in the outburst of a year ago, organised by Germany, and they misled they were do their best to regain their character for reason and politeness. The familiar
but have
station of Bedrasheyn to Saqqareh. The American

is

heap

of brickbats, and

there

are

no

tourists going

Qurneh,and

Mr.

work continues with Dr. Reisner in Nubia, Mr. Winlock at Fisher at Memphis. is represented by Mr. Carter, England

working School at Lahun

for Lord

Carnarvon

and Gurob. Museum. British for the pap5n-i The work of the British School has been carried on by Prof, and Mrs. Petrie, Captain Engelbach, Captain and Mrs. Brunton, Mr. Miller, Mr. Jefferies and
on

of the Kings, and by the British Dr. Grenfell has been out on a mission to acquire
at

the Tombs

duty of fully working out and recording ; and in clearing and planning the cemetery excavators found the Xllth dynasty tombs were exhausted, there was Miss Hughes. 1st to Ilird dynasties. A hundred

The

site is incumbent though at Lahun,

a cemetery of the the this stages of graves of period show development, from the prehistoric open pit grave, the pit divided for offerings, the shallow shaft and chambers, the stairway tomb with stone door slab, to the

deep shaft tomb,

which

pottery were and much of the Xllth dynasty

Many stone vases continued through all later times. found which will jdeld precise dating. One great tomb had been broken up ; but the fragments of inscription

left were

for Anpy, noble and chancellor, over all royal works throughout the Strange to say, he was a devotee land, the store of produce. whole and over of Sneferu, though living under Senusert II. At Gurob the sebakhin have removed so much earth that graves are now found ranging from the XVIIIth dynasty back to the prehistoric, with many have rewarded the work at both scarabs. A few large and important

objects

sites. Captain

is going to take up his duties as Inspector of Upper Captain Mackay Egypt. is in the army at Jerusalem, awaiting the development Service Antiquities, to fire, the hang seems though destruction is of of which in the Hauran. The weather at Jerusalem has been as wild as elserampant where,

Engelbach

with two

feet of

snow

and

great icicles.

G'

I : 1.

GOLD

URAEUS JAR

OF
OF

SEMUSERT ALABASTER.

II.

LAHUN.

1 :4.

MAGIC

LAHUN.

ANCIENT
THE BRITISH SCHOOL OF

EGYPT.
ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT,

1920.

five years of absence from Egypt, the conditions seemed to be suitable last winter. No difficulties to resuming the work at Lahun occurred, thanks has been kind enough to honour us by to the goodwill of Lord Allenby, who becoming the Patron of the School. The official world, both British and native,

After

did all that could smooth Capt. Engelbach, R.E.


to

The party comprised stay in the desert at Lahun. later Mrs. by Engelbach, (who was joined and went on
our

Ghurob),Capt. Jefieris, with Mrs.


we

had passed since


nearly all of The season
our

Mr. Eustace Miller, Miss Hughes, Mr. and Mrs. Brunton, It seemed impossible to realise all that Petrie and myself. huts. We had left there, when we sat at mess in the same three absent and doing other work. interesting discovery before reaching the winter's of Cairo, where the track strikes off for Gebel
or

older diggers, only two

opened with an At the north-east comer work. Ahmar, there are wide clearances of gravel, which has been used for road making. The flints are very large, mixed with blocks of fossil wood, much roUed, evidently from by floods down Forest Petrified the about twelve miles away eastwards. washed The high polish on these palaeoliths shows long washing with sand. A few very rudely flaked flints are among these, with large irregularshces knocked These seem to to be the earUest form. obtain an edge, without any definite away in Eg3^t. When arrived at Lahun, we visitedthe gravels, worked flintsknown full of boulders, which cap the hillsbetween the Fayum and the NUe, all cut to pieces with sharp denudation valleys through 80 ft. of thickness ; but not a single worked fhnt could be found of that age of High Nile. The working seems
the present level. about 100 feet over On the edge of the desert at Lahun our best digger, Aly Suefy, had found a patch of ground about a couple of hundred feet across, thickly strewn with broken flints evidently in position and many implements of Mousterian age. These were
to start when

the Nile

was

as

therethe surface, and had not been buried under deposits. The Nile, fore, has not been above its present level since then, and the fluctuations have all been within the 50 ft.or more filled up with deposits. of the valley now The entrance of the Nile waters into the Fa5mm was obviously a favourable find that from place for fisheries,which would attract a popvdation. We now

left on

prehistoric times onward there have been settlements on both sides of the valley, to have been poor, but by the The early people seem at Lahun and at Ghurob. 1st dynasty a wealthy class had arisen here, and the graves have a full allowance of offerings, and vessels of alabaster. At the edge of the Lahun desert, close to the station of Bashkatib, we found a cemetery which had been partly attacked in modern times ; on the lower ground, covered by denudation wash, there were
a hundred still graves which had only been attacked anciently. These burialscomprise the whole series of forms, from the plain open grave of the prehistoric

66
"

The British School

of Archaeology

in Egypt, 1920.

The primitive grave then sub-divided by lined with brick, as a was brick walls, with the body at the northern end, head north, face east, in a contracted from one to four in number, contained position. The other compartments, a continuance were of the prehistoric ritual stacks of offering jars.These jars in the grave, many containing black ashes, but of vegetable ash -of placing jars others having only black mud as a substitute. The next stage was that of making a side recess to hold the body, instead of a roofed grave ; this form began in the
to the deep shaft tomb

which

usual in historictimes. rectangular pit. This pit was


was

"

late prehistoric age, and complete chamber

it

was

carried

"

opening from a originalopen grave. This form was placed where a thin structure of harder rock lay over a softer marl, thus a hard roof of a foot or two in thickness covered the Not only was a place for the body provided, but also a second recess chamber. for the offerings. it was When the burial took place in a chamber obviously useless to make A was an deep over. therefore entrance made down to the all slope pit equally Thus a stairway formed into steps for easier access. chamber, and this was

here into the stage of providing a the successor of the shallow pit, which was
on

"

"

into a cruciform chamber, developed, which expanded with side From for burial vases the the stone and pottery, and the offerings chamber which are well dated to a single reign by the Royal Tombs of Abydos and allied groups, the age of these developments of the tomb can be fixed. The open grave

tomb

was

in this cemetery

was

shallow chambered tombs are of the same The


"

The made during the earlier half of the 1st dynasty. tombs are of the second half of that dynasty, and the stairway age.
was

sometimes closed by a thin slab of stone over the secured by easily pulled forward by plunderers, so it was This into in type, though being let the rock at the sides of the pit. grooves
stairway tomb

doorway.

This

was

to the close of the as early as the middle of the 1st dynasty, lasted on in Ilird dynasty, as at Meydum, was the even archaistictomb of the copied and The deep shaft,with one or more chambers chief architect in the Xllth d5masty. by begun bottom, This the was the was the type type. at next middle of also

begiiming

probably continued here to early in the Ilird d5Tiasty, by the form of the offering bowls and the head-rests. After that the judging Thus, cemetery declined, and nothing can be dated untU the Xllth dynasty. by the forms of pottery and stonework, which we know to have undergone rapid all started changes, we learn that the various developments of the grave were
the 1st d5aiasty, and

the middle of the 1st djmasty, and continued side by side,until the greater security of the deep-shaft tomb caused it to supersede the other types ; it was favoured also by the increasing wealth of the country which enabled more
as

early

as

This sudden appearance of several types of tomb development that had taken place elsewhere, and that the the rather suggests belonged to differenttribes,alliedin the dynastic invasion. various stages costly tombs
"

to be made.

of these graves are of the usual forms of alabaster, basalt and in the shallow The stone is mostly in the open graves, rarer pottery vessels. This chambers and stairway tombs, and absent from the deep-shaft tombs.

The contents

agrees with the scarcity of stonework elsewhere. Some unusual

in the tombs of the Ilnd and Ilird dynasties found: an alabaster vase were surrounded objects with lotus petals of slate and alabaster, the forerunner of the glazed lotus vases of Hierakonpolis and later times ; three pottery vases of foreign origin, like those found in the tomb of King Den, and a small vase with black band, like that in

The

British School These

of Archaeology

in Egypt, 1920.
as

6^
"

Tarkhan

II, ix,

11.

confirm

all this foreign pottery

being of the 1st

djTnasty.
on measuring the skeletons, that the group which invaders showed a stature 8 per cent, shorter than that appeared to be that of the Though the not many skeletons could be obtained in suffiearlier people. of ciently Lahun, the question was good condition at examined on six of the open-

At Tarkhan

it was

found,

The result was that the closed burials grave burials, against 18 in closed tombs. in leg, 6 As these the were per cent, shorter in the arm. and 7J per cent, shorter differences were three or four times the amount of the probable error of the contrasted
to accept them as quantities, there is good reason veritable. This burials being those of the prehistoric race, points to the open-grave and the invaders, dynastic those the thus the tombs of suggestion and closed corroborates that the various types of burial were already in use before they were imported.

The large cemetery of the Xllth dynasty was Much remained to be done in exhausting year.

work this discovery, chances of and in completely examining and planning the whole site. The interiorof the pyramid the dust and chips completely searched ; in turning over of Senusert II was found, which must have Ijdng near was the sepulchral chamber, the gold uraeus of object It is a massive casting, with inlay of camelian the front of the crown. a head of lazuli,and eyes of garnet in gold setting. Two stone lamps and lazuli, found in besides two three or the were pyramid, already obtained from there. also

the main

been

on

The

tomb

1914, was found, containing common was pottery and the great alabaster jarfigured in It bears a magical the frontispiece. Perhaps this is the finest jar known.

found in was of Princess Sat-Hathor-ant, where the jewellery further examined ; behind the fine hmestone lining a recess for offerings

inscription stating that the princess would have everything that was produced on earth, and all she needed, in this jar. Such a form of magic provision is' before ; it superseded all the offerings,the models, and the scenes not known of which carried magic and the power its to the extent. utmost word of Outside of the pyramid enclosure a great tomb was opened up, the tunnel beneath the enclosing of which ran toward the pyramid, ending in a chamber This a wall. splendid panelled sarcophagus of red granite, and a contained canopic box of granite. The sarcophagus, like that of Senusert, and of one
the tombs,
one

by

comprehensive

formula,

of the princesses, wels of exquisitely accurate work, with an average error of less The position found in this tomb. was than a hundredth of an inch. No name of the tomb shaft, 100 ft. outside the pyramid enclosure wall, suggested that other shafts might be hidden as far out as that. The whole ground on the north of the of chips pyramid wall was therefore turned over down to the rock, moving a mass to into a depth been there, had thrown of sometimes 15 ft., which old quarries found. In the face of the enclosure round the pyramid but no other shaft was inserted stone, resting on another block inserted in the rock floor ; an there was it proved all solid rock behind these. Opposite the queen's pyramid, a if it had been filled as length of the brick wall was separated by vertical joints, in later ; this was removed, but solid rock was behind it. Then the whole length cleared behind, to search of the brick wall, as far as the great stairway, was but the rock, which was in the position most in the rock, 40 ft. deep, likely to intercept any gallery leading to tombs under the cut from this to rock mastabas north of the pyramid ; and cross-tunnels were had Egyptians in both elsewhere made of the strata where the north and south
all solid. Lastly,
a

shaft

was

sunk

68

The British School

of Archaeology

in

Egypt, 1920.

galleries. All of these trialsnot reaching any passage, there only remains to be tried an extensive rock-drilling, to see if any chambers were actually cut imder the small pyramid and mastabas. While searching further in the platform built up of chips to the south-east found, running diagonally to the of the pyramid, a stairway of brick was This before was the comer. cut great enclosing wall which P5Tamid made
for the high officials during the course the approach of building, to avoid the inconvenience of climbing over the waste-heaps. On the top of the hillbehind the pyramid, the foundations of a large building
across

it, and

it

was

At that time, and in 1920, many pieces of diorite statues limestone sculptures and architectural fragments, were and of a circular altar, found scattered about here. A most complete search failed to show any tomb
were

found in 1914.

Considering not like those of the mastabas. shaft,and the fragments found were was on the top of the that the sed-heb chapel of the apotheosis of Sonkhkara hill at Thebes, it seems was that this the sed-heb chapel of Senusert. probable At the comers foundation deposits, with pottery, trays of reeds, and of it were bull'shead and haunch. further searched, on the was The town of the pyramid builders at Kahun in been few had a not 1890. A large number of cleared roads, and parts which to have been a place clay sealings were found, and a curious portico which seems of domestic worship. a On a hill in view of the pyramid stood a great mastaba of brick, over for sarcolowering a the tomb with a steep entrance great shaft phagus, passage, and The tomb-chapel on the side like the Vlth dynasty tombs of Dendereh. This curious of the hUl, in front of the sepulchre, was like those of Beni Hasan. Egypt, Anpy, who was combination was due to the taste of the chief architect of to the chapel by a deep pit, right across buried here ; he also cut off public access the court, and too wide to be jumped. Only some pieces of the inscriptions
for stone. Another and of two statues remained, for the place had been ravaged be Sneferu to to he is devoted is his statue, where seen on ; said curious preference this devotion to the firstpyramid builder may have been due to the architect's interest in building the Lahun In the XVIIIth dynasty

pyramid. there were

some

kings.

of scarabs were hetep I ; with these are several scarabs which are clearly of the earlier time by. The near dynasty, probably obtained from the mastabas of the Xllth II. cemetery at Ghurob continued in use down to Ramessu

Groups

found

dated

wealthy people, under the early to Aahmes, and four to Amen-

is a granite sarcophagus puzzling monument lord of the two lands, the king's son, Pa-ramessu." A
the
was sarcophagus entitled the king's
"

one nearly finished ; then on son (Ramessumery Maot) neb uben maot kheru." Here a ; while on cartouche is assumed, and the addition neb uben, "lord of shining has been an there Pa-Ramessu occurs, all the other places where the name it. On the lid, the middle band has erasure, and neb uben has been put over Pa-Ramessu, man with the squatting and whip determinative ; this is doubtless The lid,having some spare space, was altered what has been erased on the body.
"

heir of the of a prince his This was style until he is body the panel of

"

by

putting

on

each
"

Amen)
and

neb uben had come Pa-ramessu

the king's son side of the middle band It seems then that with a cartouche.
to the throne

"

(Ramessumery
an

heir-apparent

had

the alterations made

justbefore his sarcophagus was completed, Yet he caimot have reigned with cartouches.

The long,
or

British School

of Archaeology

in Egypt, 1920.

69

at the capital, because

his burial
can

provincial town. two statues were Haremheb

Who of
a

filledthe highest officesof state under be taken to be 1916, 35-6), and who may justly Raifiessu I. father same His the as was named Sety. He cannot be the prince Ghurob, known is as his Thebes, tomb Looking at of and he was not a king's son. later, there is no prince Pa-ramessu, and if we accept the shorter from Ramessu
who

this prince Pa-ramessu,

was only in the outskirts of a small have been it is difficult to decide. There

(Ancient Egypt,

son

on the there is no prince Ramessu except the second sarcophagus) Ramessu II, died between the twenty-sixth who of and thirtieth years of his father's reign, and who therefore have succeeded to the throne. cannot The later Ramessu III to XII, and therefore princes reigned fully, as Ramessu be known Their this obscure prince. tombs are cannot at Thebes, except

occurs (which

It is thus possible that this is the sarcophagus VIII. of Ramessu of Ramessu VIII, but unlikely, as his second cartouche does not appear. The IX, whose is unknown, is really Saptah II, son tomb so-called Ramessu of Sety II, and he would certainly have had Saptah in his cartouche. So far as that
we

know
was

who

belonged to some at present, then, this sarcophagus prince unknown the heir to the throne, and who hardly succeeded before he was overthrown. Possibly he was II. The sarcophagus an elder brother of Ramessu
as

sledge beneath it,carved all in one piece in the granite. work has thus given some entirely new results both of objects and of inscriptions, and the steady clearance of sites that are not reserved has been carried as far south as the entrance to the Fayum. now
a

is unique

having

The

season's

W.

M.

Flinders

Petrie.

(jKA.Mlh,

aAkcoPHAGUS

AND

CHAMBER,

LaHUN. E

( 70

THE

ETHIOPIAN

SOVEREIGNS

AT

MEROE.

Dr.

Reisner

has restored for

us

period.

His archaeological work

the history of Ethiopia during the Napatite in the province of Dongola has been a remarkable

achievement, and it has settled the chronology of the Sudan from the time to the epoch of Alexander, as well as when it began to be a world-power town But Ethiopia. over dynasties the racial affinities who ruled at the time of the the work done by Dr. Reisner at Napata mented and its neighbourhood, can be suppleby the work done by Professor Garstang at Meroe. Owing to the war only a bare outUne of this has as yet been published. A

discovered in the course however, were considerable number of royal names, of the excavations which carry back the history of Meroe to Dr. Reisner's Ilnd Here is a listof them : d5masty.
"

(i)Atlenersa

Ra-khu-ka,

"

king

of Upper
"

and

Lower

Egypt." Lower

On

blue

: faience found in the Great Palace. (Reisner B.C. 650-40.) king Ra-sekheper-en, Senq-Amon-seken (2) of Upper and

Egypt."

On

blue faience found in the Great Palace.


"

Also

on

blue

discovered object

640-20.) at Memphis, (b.c. Egypt." On stones king of Upper and Lower (3)Aspalta Ra-mer-ka, Sun-temple from he on a the Great Palace or the stela which restored enlarged, of which he built,and on blue faience, (b.c. 590-70.) (4)The
Horus
Amtalqa

Ra-uaz-ka,

On blue faience and small pyramids Great Palace, (b.c. 570-50.)

and Lower Egypt." of solid gold, probably tribute, found in the


king of Upper

"

the Palace which he restored or enlarged, on small gold pyramids and on blue faience. is sometimes (B.C. 550-40.) He never has his Throne-name, but the personal name

(5)Mal-neqen,

"

king of Upper

and

Lower

Egypt."

On

stones

from

is almost always attached written Mal-neq, and the determinative nefer in Meroitic.^ first indicating that to the malna signified good syllable, the to be Dr. Reisner's Netaklabat-aman, seems (6)Amon-kalbat, who
"
"

leader of his Ilird dynasty, (b.c. 535-15) On blue faience from the Palace. the second king of his llird (7)Amon-kalka, Dr. Reisner's Karkaman, On blue faience from the Palace, djmasty. (b.c. 515-495.)

(8)Sa'heri
of his

^
p=z^

Ilird

dynasty.

This must be Dr. Reisner's Saasheriya, the fourth king On blue faience, (b.c. 475-55)

(9)Amon-stykal.

This must

be Dr. Reisner's Astabarya-aman,


ox

the third

king of his Ilird dynasty, with the On blue faience, (b.c.

(ka)written instead of the sheep

{ba).

495-75.)
be malna,
the Osiris

'

The

Meroitic word 5, the


name

must
"

Pyramid

of

since in the inscriptions of Askhankherel Malna-[qen] written Ma/na-NEFER.


"

in the North

The

Ethiopian Sovereigns
is not

at

Meroe.

71

Dr. Reisner's IVth


. . .

dynasty

represented at Meroe.

But

we

have"

To

Han On blue faience. (10) who may be a queen. blue faience On from the Southern Palace. (11)Amon-ardu[s]. (12) Amon-matleka[n]. On a stone from the south side of the City wall. be distinguished from (4). Ra-khnum-ab, king of Upper and Lower Egypt," whom (13)Amon-ark
"

I would

identify with

great city wall. Amon-mer-Ast (14)

the classical Ergamenes, the builder, (b.c. 210-180.) Southern Pyramid 6.

as

I believe, of the

king of Upper and Lower Egypt." Southern Pyramid sand blue faience from tomb 298. On Egyptian a hieroglyphs (15)Ra-neb-kheper. scarab with deformed
in Latin letters.

Ra-nefer-ankh-ab,

"

and AUG

On yellow faience from the South Palace. On blocks from the temple of (17)Neteg-Amon and Queen Amon-tari. Amon It it. is the and sanctuary south of probable that Amon-tari also restored
the Sun-temple.

(16)Neb-hotep-...

Neteg-Amon

was

(18)Agini-rherhe and Queen Amon-renas. of Meroe, and on blocks from the Sun-temple. invasion of Egypt, (b.c. 24-22.) (19)Queen
was

buried in the Northern Pyramid 22. On two stelae from shrine south The stela records the Ethiopian
an

Amon-shahet. On buried in the Northern Pyramid

She obelisk in the temple of Amon. 6, where Ferlini found jewellery (now at
period. the Lion

Berlin) of the late Ptolemaic or early Roman Toqrerhi-Amon. On blocks from (20)
Pyramid
27.

Temple,

and

Northern

(21)Shen (?) On (22)Ark-kharer.

blocks from the Lion Temple. On


a

plaque

obtained by the late Mr. Bishop


and
was
a

from of

the

He appears as crown temple of Amon. prince at Naga, fragment On a (23)Ya-baleq. of stone (920).
"

son

(17).

To these may be added (24) Amon-khabil, the Sun-god of Qash,ever-Uving, the Horus of the Reservoir," at Basa, the site of a reservoir and temple, a day's from Meroe on the road to the Red Sea. journey Dr. Reisner has shown that the Napalite dynasties were of Libyan origin which explains the fact that in the sculptures of the Sun-god temple the Meroites high foreheads, Greek noses, are represented with the features of the blond race
"

are later sovereigns from Neteg-Amon negro or onward and negroid, and it is at this time that the queens take precedence of the kings. After the end of Dr. Reisner's Ilird dynasty (b.c. 450, according to his chronology), Napata Meroe either became independent of or, more probably, was destroyed by

thin lips. The

foreign invaders. be obtained from the form or position of the Little chronological help can Each of the three groups contains pyramids of very different existing pj^amids. In Western the periods. group of those that remain, six are stepped ; the rest have straight and, in six instances out of nine, fluted sides. In two of the the art belongs to a good period ; another with fluted sides was stepped ones
The chapel of another plastered all over, and surrounded by a walled court. In two other fluted pyramid contained three seated figures instead of a falsedoor.

instances

inserted in the centre of the false door, the tablet in one tablet was A Greek case of Amon-tari. (No.15)being in Meroitic, and recording the name In the Southern group all bronze lamp was found in one of these pyramids. E 4
a

72

The

Ethiopian Sovereigns

at

Meroe.

the existing pyramids are and boats. One of them


"

stepped, and the chapels have false doors, solar disks Kaltela the joint tomb of the Priest (No.lo), [kdni)
"
" "

Lord of the Lake-land," and of Kalka, the Ra-ar-ta(?)a, date ; another (No. is daughter the tomb of a of the 41) the Sun-god of the South (No.4)is the pyramid of Kenrethr,
"

king king
"

"

is of late ; a third ; it is attached


"

"

to another

pyramid

later date than the

adjoining

the chapel of which is destroyed, and pyramid of Amon-mer-Ast.

is of considerably

Amongroup the pyramid of queen Kentakit (Candace) Srti (No.i) stands apart by itself. That of Arkhenkherel Ankh-ka-ra (No.5), himself Malna-NEFER," king, The i.e., Osiris an who associates with older Malneqen, is also intrusive, and has straight sides of peculiar form. It may have
"

In the Northern

are

been the firstof the group to be erected. The other pyramids with straight sides No. 2, with four great bulls on each exterior side of the chapel, three images instead of a false door, and a representation of Hathor standing on the lotus ;
No. 6, that of queen chapel of which has his jewellery, the arched vault ; No. 8; No. 11 which is very late and barbaric ; No. 12, with late reliefs and blank cartouches, a standing figure of the king taking the place of a false door ; No. 13, with late reUefs ; No. 14 ; No. 17 Neb-ma-ra ; No. 18, with a court, of Amon(late) of king Amon-ton-m-Mari
an

Amon-shahet

(19), where

FerUni found

khetosen ; No. 19, of Triginal with full-facedking in place of a false door (very Amon Kheper-ka-ra, with seated king instead of ; and No. 27, of...tera (?) late) The a false door (very late). sides of Nos. 16, 17, 18, and 19, though straight,
are

not

fluted. The

; No. [Ra]-...n-ab)

lands," who pylon ; No.

seems

No. 3; No. 4 (ofAmon-...akha Ankh-zeto-mer-Ast "lord of the two 7, of Alu(qa)-Amon to have been a contemporary Ptoleny IV ; No. 9, with a of stepped pyramids
are:

with pylons and winged bulls ; and No. 22, of Neteg-Amon, with the bier of Osiris in place of a false door. That the Sun-temple the first stage on the road from Meroe to the Red built by Aspalta, we Sea was may conclude from the fragments of his stela
10,
" "

that

tion, subsequently restored, after partial destrucby Agini-rherhe (18), perhaps with the spoils of his Egyptian campaign. But it is probable that the list of conquered or tributary provinces which adorns the work of Amon-tari, since when the the eastern front of the temple was it first I to was was the able characters cartouche accompanying uncovered read
were was

discovered there.

It

the list was not quite correctly read from the photographs it, in Mr. Griffith's publication of and has since suffered severely from exposure, it it is worth while to give as it appeared immediately after excavation.

?]r. As [A]m[on-t

The first three cartouches


3. 2. 1.

are

: (orwere)
"

That

is

fl

' ' '

(i) Men a-wa-a-r. (2) (3) c-g-i.


are

"

"

? (abrin Meroitic)-' -g.

Since

-g and gi

plural suffixes.

the three cartouches introductory formula


something similar.

do
"

not

contain geographical The men {ahrg) of the

names,

but
"

are

merely

an or

countries

{awar' =gi)

The

Ethiopian Sovereigns

at

Meroe.

73

: the geographical names (or followed) (6)B-r-i-ha-a ; (7)P-t-r (?) [or kh ?]-'-! (5)T-'-s-n-a ; ; (4)G-m-t-a ; A-n-rh^-' ; (9) ...-rh-y-rh-y ; (10) ...-wa-sh-' ; (11) ...-...-n-q; (8) A a word signifying ; (13)... [perhaps (12) cities "] ; (14) ;
"

Then

follow

"

...-t-r-a

-rh-

...-g-to-'

kh-' ; (17). (i5)...-a (?) -q-' ; (16)..'.-.'........

-...-a.

Nastosen, who is placed by Dr. Reisner, B.C. 330-310, But no trace of his name Beniat, was a native of usually identifiedwith Meroe. has been discovered there. Can he be the Amon-khatosen of the Northern is further be Aktisanes he identified to the Ethiopian," PjTamid 18 ? And with

One

word

more.

"

Amasis the counted among and was according to Diodorus, overcame Ptolemy in kings ? We know V, Egyptian the troubled earUer years of that Ethiopian kings, Harmakhis two and Ankh-m-khu, ruled at Thebes, and the
who,

discordant medley of excerpts which take the place of Egyptian history in the pages of Diodorus would make anything possible. A. H. Sayce.

'

The
names
r

character

which

I transcribe
occurs

rh is represented

by sd in the transUteration
karhake

of

some

of the

and (M-rh-e-u-i) of Meroe and interchanges with remains Hence we Meroitic inscriptions discovered by Prof. Garstang. might corresponding in Greek to Anrh'. in the
name

in which

it

Merul (e.g.,

Mandulin,

and

though Candace), ordinary


a name
r

it

the have

in two

Uke A nd

74

NOTES

ON

THE

JEWELS

FROM

LAHUN.

The

by the British School of Archaeology or rather all of it except those pieces retained by the Cairo Museum recently arrived it New Art in York, was at the Metropolitan Museum where tion placed on exhibiof in December last. Without exception, those who have seen the treasure
at Lahun
"
"

found jewellery

by

have been struck almost as much by the conscientious care and ingenuity shown Prof. Petrie and Mr. Bnmton in its reconstruction, as by the marvellous

skilland taste of the ancient jewellers who diffidence that I suggested two

was therefore with considerable in changes stringing. I would not to dignify these suggestions with a published note, were it not that both care Mr. Lythgoe and Mr. Mace, who mounted for exhibition, have the jewellery This being the case tested them out, verifiedthem as correct and adopted them.

made

it. It

it

for the changes should be put on record in Ancient Egypt, especiallysince the articlewhich Mr. Lythgoe prepared to appear in the Metropolitan Museum Bulletin, December, 1919, at the time the jewellery to be the appropriate place to explain was put on public view, did not seem
seems

desirable that the

reasons

in New in detaU. These two changes, adopted in exhibiting the jewellery York, involve the stringing of the Senusert II pectoral and the cowries, and I have added a third, tentative, and as yet not finallyadopted, change in the stringing This last is not susceptible of the demonstration which I of the lions' heads. them

beUeve To

can

be presented for the first two changes. Mr. Mace I am indebted not only for many

details

on

but jewels,

for numerous references and suggestions embodied I finally, that this note is written before the arrival in pages. should state America of the definitive publication of the Lahun excavations by the British be to Prof. Petrie's School, and that, therefore, reference can only made preUminary descriptions^ with the consequence of interesting points.
The

the particular in the following

that I may

have missed

number

shells. double rhombic beads should be strung, eight large gold cowries, sixteen gold two in each interval. This arrangement is assured by the distance between the is beads a distance which thread holes in the cowries and in the rhomboid
"

the string of gold cowriepoint of departure for these suggestions was Prof. Petrie has demonstrated the that in the intervals between
"

"

"

"

practically identical in both


"
"

cases.
were

Now

there

can

be littlequestion that these

intended to be strung tightly together, and if cowries and rhomboids this is dene they make a string 20J ins. in circumference, clasped. Because of impossible the corrosion of the bronze cores of the cowries, threading them is now and the only photographs of them which can be taken without the dangerous deceptive. Each cowrie has two operation of re-drillingthem, are somewhat
Times, May
1914,
20,

1914;

The. Illustrated London

News,

June

20,

1914

Ancient

Egypt,

p. 97 ; Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1914, p. 185 ; and held at University College, London, 1914.

Catalogue

of the Exhibition

Notes

on

the

from Jewels

Lahun.

75

thread holes through it, one shghtly shorter than the other, but the difference in lengths between these two holes is so slight that it would take a string of inches in length to make a complete, cowries and of 40 or more rhomboids In short, closed circle with all of the beads l5^ng flat as in the photographs.
" "

string, when the clasp was with this 2oJ-iri. closed, the beads would all be standing If worn or less vertically. on about the neck such a string of cowries edge, more have for an the one, appearance would of upright collar, but a very ill-fitting the circumference of and this collar would
a

and under her chin.

woman's than from 12 to 14 ins., neck is usually no more therefore have hung almost upright an inch or so beyond, As all Egyptian necklaces were flatlying, except the tight

I.

Girdle

of

Cowries,

as

arranged

in

the

Metropolitan

Museum.

collars about the throat, it is evidently necessary of this string.


"

to look for

some

ment other arrange-

After this conclusion it was beads of camelian rhomboid


"

inevitable that

one

with

the

"

drop-pendants."
"

Prof.

and green amazon Petrie had


"

should turn to those other stone which had been strung bination, already considered this com-

but gave up the idea on two grounds.^ beads is such that, strung side by side, First. The size of these rhombic the space between the two threads would be greater than that between the two
'

Ancient

Egypt,

1914, p. 98.

76

Notes

on

the
"

frontLahun. Jewels
"

is true This in many cases threads of the cowries and gold rhomboids." ^in In fact these hard stone show a marked variation others itis not. rhomboids in size. While the gold beads were made mechanically either from dies or moulds, was tolerated in these stone beads were cut individually, and a larger error
" "

gauging them
made
not

than

was

to be expected

in metal work.

Some

of them

are

accurately

to take the strings of the cowries ; others will overlap shghtly, but
"

Fig. i). Finally ^and to the same on threads {see is is me the personally, this rhomboids conclusive the variations among not as great as that which exists between the big and Uttle lions'heads from this find. Although of gold, variations in the distance between string holes of from 2 to 3 mm. these heads, and yet there is no question but actually exist among if strung objectionably,
"

"

"

that they belong together. In Prof. Petrie's consideration the Second. for drop-beads," making the suspension of the needed
"

"

"

stone
a

are rhomboids long, fringe-like necklace

This difficulty can below and outside of all the other ornaments. worn I feel sure. be met satisfactorily Two pectorals were found and one of them has been suspended on a string I suggest as Even if these latter are not employed ball-beads. of amethyst for, however, to be provided below, the second pendant is still and there can be
to be

littlequestion that the drop-beads," combined with the 20 gold and 12 green ball beads not otherwise strung, belong to it. Examples of such suspending 2 and on the drop-beads are uncommon monuments^ (Figsat not all strings of 3), Dahshur, it were is to find interesting that at associated pectorals and extremely such strings. De Morgan found in the First Treasure, with a pectoral with just lapis of Senusert II, 30 gold ball beads and 37 drop beads of gold, camehan, ^ lazuli and amazon stone, and in the Second Treasure two pectorals, 43 drop

"

and 98 ball beads, all of gold.' I suggested, therefore, that the drop and ball beads of the Lahun treasure made a characteristicpectoral suspender. the drops Variations in the arrangement of spherical beads among and number left found in all examples, and therefore the arrangement of this string was are beads
to experiment.

There handed

were over

and

one

other

fringe-necklace," 73 drops strung together in the Graded separately to Mr. Mace by Mr. Brunton. evident that
one
more

"

and arranged lazuli drop were


were

by colours it was

camelian

and

one

more

and those two needed to make any consistent arrangement, beads was an The ball enigma, but restored. obviously small number of there is precedent for the omission of them between the drops, and they therefore is a double string of were strung provisionally at the ends. The result (Fig. 5), length lower to support the pectoral just over the chest where it exactly the

'

few

examples

at random

are

Xllth

dynasty

Griffith, Beni

Hasan,

III, PI. Ill,

drop and ball beads, coloured blue, green, blue, yellow ; XVIIIth drops alternating of Yuaa and Thuiu, PI. XII, double string of III, balls in L.D., pairs ; 77A, triple string of drops alternating with balls in pairs ; with double string of Mon.. RoseUini, M'on.. II, PL LXXX IV, PI. CCCCXXXII, Champollion, single string of alternating dynasty : Quibell, Tomb
=

Reisner, drops alternating with balls, coloured green, blue ; Daressy, Annates, 1901, p. 5 ff. Amulets, 12196-12201, double and triple strings of dark and light blue, red and gold drop dynasty : Caulfeild Temple of Kings, beads alternating with ball beads in threes ; XlXth
=

PI. XVI, Vernier,


'

quadruple

Bijoux, 52005,

string of drops PI. V.

alternating

with

balls in threes ;

XXth

dynasty

De

'

Morgan, Dahchour, I, pp. 60, 63, Pis. XV, Ibid., pp. 64-5, Pis. XIX-XXII.

XVIII.

Notes

on

the

Jewelsfrotn Lahiin.

77

0 A

I
2.

mmmmmt}
with

3.?Pectoral

with and

Drop-Beads.

(Tomb

of

Yuaa

Thuiu.XII.
Lisht.

Pectoral

Gold-capped
from

Drop-Beads.

4. Glazed

Figure.

(Fragments

Tomb

226.

Thebes.)

(Metropolitan

Museum.)

78
should hang.^ lazuli,cameUan

Notes

on

the

Jewels from

Lahun.

of which it is made gold, lapisare exactly the same stone and amazon materials as those used in making the Senusert II pectoral. This identity of colour scheme may be taken as evidence that the drop beads and this pectoral of Senusert II together make one jewel. If no other use be admitted for the amethyst string, it may be
the materials
"

Furthermore,

"

III pectoral, now in Cairo. assumed to have belonged with the Amenemhat Thus, with the drop beads provided for, we arrive at the point, where (i), in size of the be explained by the conditions the slight errors can rhomboids
" "

the stone beads are no longer ; where (2), of their manufacture rhomboid for drop beads the the threading they are in turn ; and, where (3), necessary of looking for a place. It becomes a matter of necessity, therefore, to try them

"

"

with the cowries, the previous stringing of which has resulted in an ill-fitting collar. beads, 31 of camelian and 30 of green amazon Sixty-one rhomboid stone, drop beads were one more the amazon stone, presumably and of strung with
It does not seem turned over to Mr. Mace by Mr. Brunton. totally beyond the bounds of possibility that, even the most conscientious work with in the tomb, two more likely, should have escaped detection. And stillmore by the Princess in life, if these beads were worn that the strings might have broken
at
some

found later,was

they

time, the beads been scattered, and two were restrung again. I see no strong

completely lost before to considering the set as objection of them

having been originally 64 in all, made up equally of red and green. Admitting this number, they divide readily into eight lots of eight each for the eight intervals With the double gold beads they make a total of 96. between the eight cowries. is left to For experimental stringing there was further guide, and one no
of gold attractive arrangement pair of gold cowries is : green, gold, Such is the arrangement be shown in Fig. i, and it may red, red, gold, green. in its it in one makes original colours of the most said passing that charming Egypt. in found e ver jewels

satisfy his and


stone

own
"

personal

tastes.

An

extremely

"

rhomboids

between

each

resulting string, when clasped, has a circumference of 33 or 33J ins. If actually threaded, the beads, and particularly the cowries, would stillstand more or less on edge when the clasp was closed, because experiment shows that there is not enough variation in the size of the rhomboids to make an inner row The photograph of the beads lying flat appreciably shorter than the outer. is therefore still deceptive, and there can still be no question of the string being In fact the one part of the human body intended either for a collar or necklace.
where
or

The

it would fit naturally and lie smoothly would be above the hips, for 33 a slender person around the top of the on 33J ins. is a normal measurement

pelvis. In other words, the cowries strung with the rhomboids girdle, and a very little research supplied the confirmation Metropolitan Museum
possesses
a

seemed to make a of this fact. The


" "

dolls of number of Xlth and Xllth dynasty faience and limestone, most of them from the excavations in Lisht and Thebes, of Fine Arts, possibly and I have found another of wood in the Boston Museum Boston date The doll (Fig. same the bead 6) all wearing cowrie of girdles.
"

"

"

is

There can be no hesitation in recognising remarkably striking example. the cowries, because they are both modelled in relief and painted yellow to In number identical they are represented gold. In scale they are correct.
a
1

Newberry,

Bersheh, I, frontispiece.

5- Pectoral

and

Bead

Necklace.

As

Strung

in

thB

Metropolitan

Museum.

8o

Notes

on

the Jewels from Lahun.

with the Lahun girdle, if in addition to the three shown in front and the three were behind, two more supposed to be hidden under the hands on the hips, which are unnaturally narrowed on the flattened doll." Even the distance blank between cowries is as it should be if we are to suppose that the spaces now
"

If filledwith dots of paint to represent smaller separating beads. that the dots we were must sometimes cowries suppose such of paint, were worn with bare threads between, a method of stringingbeads or shellswhich dolls represent the cowries is not without parallel.^ Most of the New York in very rudimentary form, but all are perfectly recognizable in the hght of the
were
once

there

never

"

"

Museum is already figured. The clearest example in the MetropoUtan is faience, in doll This museums. in Fig. like those of 4, other shown in black under has in this like the accessories shown material, all others of and the glaze. Here, not only are the cowries drawn to scale and properly spaced,
"

doll

"

"

"

To strings of separating beads are plainly marked. forestall a possible criticism, I should explain that the marks on the legs are Behind, one of them fallsexactly between the two legs in a way that pendants. intended, and as far as the belt itselfis would be impossible if tatooing were its doll Boston modelling in reliefdemonstrates the fact with concerned, the that the cowries are not tatooed. leads to its recognition The recognition of a girdle among the Lahim jewels but between
them
two
"

"

at Dahshur.
"

In the First Treasure


"

there

were

six large cowries, and apparently

beads of gold (in camelian, lapis lazuU and amazon rhomboid pairs), ^ In the interesting in the light of those from Lahim. The numbers are stone. Second Treasure,* there is no mention of rhomboid beads with the cowries and,

98

if none

forced to conclude that these cowries were as worn, (Fig. 6) may represent them, without connecting found nearly 100 Khnumit there were beads. In the Tomb rhomboid of be beads, but no cowries,* which probably should reconstructed as a bead girdle Buckles Uke that of Senebtisi. This last was only.* rhomboids made up of Tomb from Ita,* the in Tomb found the for two bead girdles were of of and buckle a girdle of the type the an comes Nubhotep not of which, while
were

actually found, doll the Boston


"

we

are

"

"

"

"

"

object

here dealt with, was seemingly the fastening of a kind of cloth scarf, or sash, which crossed the shoulders and encircled the waist.' thus was a girdle,and A regular item of a Middle Kingdom court jewel-set to have usually been made this girdle seems up of cowrie shells and rhomboid

acacia beans,* either together


1

or

separately.

Furthermore,

even

the less wealthy

the drop

was

Senebtisi, p. 63, and the ivort beads described in Mace and Winlock, PI. IV. III pectoral in Cairo, Vernier, Bijoux, suspenders of the Rameses " De Morgan, Dahchour, I, p. 60, PI. XVII. " Dahchour, " Ibid., II, Pis. VII-VIII. p. 65, PL XXIII. ' Mace The other girdle XXII-XXIII. Pis. Winlock, Tomb Senebtisi, 68, p. and of Osirian. purely
As for example bead
' '

Dahchour, Dahchour,

II, pp. 52-3. I, PI. XXXVIII,


even

C.

No

to be identical,

to the colours,

with

description is given, but the illustration shows it the sash buckle of Neferure', in Rosellini, Mon.,

I, PI. XIX,
"

23.

Mace

sometimes

necklaces the MetropolitanMuseum, 1914, p. 17, Fig. 8 ; Garstang, Williams, Jour.Egypt. Arch., 1918, p. 173, PI. XXVIII.

Small silver and gold cowrie shells are Senebtisi, p. 68, note i. and Winlock, they are found in the Middle Kingdom, but it would be difficultto say whether Winlock, Bulletin of : See De Morgan, 1, p. 66, PI. XXIV Dahchour, or girdles. Burial

Customs,

p.

222,

and

Notes
women

on

the

fewelsfrom Lahun.
the fashion passed
"

81
over

the jewellery pubUshed of buried at Thebes during the Hyksos Period around whose waist, a girdle of electrum beads, 26 of semicircular outside the innermost cloth, was
a woman

Kingdom

of the period wore to the Empire.

and girdles/
Thus

from

the Middle

Prof. Petrie has

6. Wooden

Figure

with

Cowrie

Girdle.

Boston

Museum.

form, copied from a disc of leather folded over and stitched ; the spaces between beads. these had two threads of six beads each, and in one case a space of seven Three spaces had been gathered together by a tie of thread, so as to shorten the
"

Mace
10

has found ins. wide

belt

Parva, p. 41, from Pit 90, which was : one published in Diospolis beads faience disk of and shell with a fringe of real shells ; the other
two

at

Naga ed-Der, which was twelve strings of disk beads of the same a belt of materials. XVIIIth Several others of the Xllth XVIIth Xlllth dynasties the early and and and of A preliminary report on his dynasties have recently been found at Thebes by Lansing.
excavations

is appearing

shortly in the Bulletin

Museum. of the Metropolitan


F

82

Notes

on

titeJewels from Lahun.

The whole girdle was 31 6 ins.long, and was circuitof the girdle to fitthe body. later, ins."i A to little 284 shortened about the middle of the XVIIIth dynasty,
a

young

woman

found by Passalacqua
" "

in Thebes

wore

his description, it girdle of gold, lapis-lazuliand camelian. to little the similar square-knots consisted of a series of gold clasps found at Lahun, spaced at intervals along a double string of smaller beads.* Finally, in modem even times Nubian girlsare occasionally seen wearing belts of cowries by their ancient ancestresses.' and beads very much like those worn charming

what From

must

have

been

in which the girdle was Personally, I worn. way her have never bas-rehef or statue of a woman seen a wearing a girdle over from Before Empire descends woman's the the tight-fitting chest clothing. shift line. In the Empire a cloth sash is often bound over to ankles in an unbroken it about the hips, but the many representations of bead girdles are always on To consider
now

the

by girls next their bodies, under transparent girls or occasionally worn The dolls," which, whatever their purpose in the graves, unquesgarments.* tionably Kingdom represent dancing girls, are striking Middle examples ; naked
"

bead belt at are so girls and maidservants shown attired in a woven in the XVIIIth banquets dynasty ;* swimming girls on the toilet ;* and it constitutes the sole article of apparel of the spoons wear nothing more be that all of these ridiculous caricatures of negress slaves.'^ It may

dancing

innumerable

objected

little persons can hardly be compared with propriety to the Princesses of Dahshur Lahun, but at the time that the dancing girls and servants were and wearing such girdles two of the young princesses of the royal family, Neferubiti and Neferure, daughters of Thotmose III, respectively, appear clad I and Thotmose in identical jewellery
"

with

that from
more.*

Lahun, And

including girdles very much

like

this one in the

of cowries statuette in Turin


same

On
one

then there is the very well-known little (Fig. girl of good family who is clad 7) of a charming Like Neferubiti and Neferure she has not yet passed adolesway. cence. the walls of the belvedere of the harim at Medinet Habu, where no

and nothing

women

full-grown see the royal family could penetrate in ancient times,* we in to the tell court represented whether of sufficientlyscanty clothing III are These decorations from the harim of Rameses they wore girdles or not.
but
" "

Petrie,

Qurneh,p.
having

9. PI. XXIX.

Passalacqua,
it
as

Catalogue been

describes

raisonnif, p. 159. form of the same

The
as

girdle

was

his necklace

stolen from him, but he No. 599 which is Schafer,


to

Goldschmiedearbeiten,
"

Roberts,

Egypt and
seen

p. 31, PI. VIII, No. 35A. Nxtbia (1846), II, vignette.


worn

Firth, who

called my

attention

this picture, has


"

Roselhni,

such girdles being Mon., II, PI. XCVIII

in recent Mon., Champollion,


in Nubia

years.
II, PI.

CLXXV

Prisse,

Mon.,

PI. XLIV,

and
a

L'Art
worn

PI. (Dessin),
over or

VII

What of
a

appears

to be

girdle

under

I, p. 501, Fig. 261. the dress in L.""., Ill, 42, 1 take for the hem
;

Wilkinson,

Manners,

short-sleeved shirt. ' Davies, Tomb Nakht,

of

frontispiece and
L'Art
and

plate XV

are

the latest published XXI, XXIII.

examples

of

very common " Prisse, Mon.,


'

scene.

PI. XLVIII,
Mace,

Maclver

and

and El Amrah

Pis. (Industrial),

Abydos,

PI. I. ; Wainwright, I, PI. XIX,

Jour.Egypt.

Arch.,

1915, p. 203, PI. XXVI. " The best copies Man.,


"

are

the earliest

Mon., (Rosellini,
are

23-24, and

Champollion,
; L.D., III,

II, Pis.

CXCIII-IV). The
I, CXII-III

later copies

Rosellini, Mon., Wilkinson,

all less detailed. II, Pis. CXCIX-CC Mon.. Champollion, ;


;

208

Manners,

II, pp. 59-60

Holscher,

Hohes

Tor

von

Medinet

Habu,

Figs.

8, 40-42.

Notes

on

the

from Jewels

Lahun.

83

7. Wooden

Figure

with

Girdle.

Turin.

84

Notes

on

t/u

from Jewels

Laliun.

in fact unique, but if we to take them literallywe are must conclude that in the seclusion of their private apartments the Egyptian ladies laid aside their hobble skirtsand disported themselves at their ease, clad only in their jewellery, in diaphanous garments, which were or at most represented in paint only and
have since been washed completely away. The fact that the ladies of this particular be harim wear no taken as proof that they, were not girdles, need not by higher-class women Empire.^ worn the of

Having, as I believe, estabhshed the existence of girdles among the treasures conof Lahun and Dahshur, I should like to conclude this paper with some sideratio It is a on some diificulty, the string of gold lions'heads. of

subject

purposely avoided in the preceding pages. With the exception of the similar set from the Second Treasure of Dahshur, these heads are unique in Museums and, In so far as I am aware, there is no representation of them on the monuments. fact they appear to have been jewels whose vogue lasted so short a time that into Egyptian found their way they never pictorial art, and thus for any forced to rely wholly are we on their explanation of wearing practical

consideration. In the firstplace, their condition is such that Prof. Petrie was able to have done, This them. the they clasp closed, every appearance string of and making an upright collar, and such they have been unhesitatingly called. Only,
when

in New

York the experiment

of normal
never

size, one glance was could have been such a

actually tried of putting them on a woman enough to convince everyone present that they collar. Again it is a question of circumference.
was

on should be worn do, as on they standing upright chin in a most unbecoming way.

Clasped they

a
an

throat measuring

i6|
they

ordinary
an
wearer

woman

ins. round, because, sag down under the

upright collar, to be attractive, should of this collar had a throat of such a size that the collar fitted closely, the uneven surface on the iimer side would make it most uncomfortable, and to draw it in if to 2 ins.,while clasping it, would be a painful operation if it was an5rwhere near the snug fitwhich one would to have been seems expect. The tight,upright Egyptian collar of the monuments Now

be

fairly close-fitting one.

If the

designed like a bead bracelet and must have been clasped hke in to be fastened. a buckle which does not have to be drawn

bracelet, with

Actual experiment, then, makes it seem improbable that the lions' heads should make a collar. Immediately one wonders how they could have been worn. The neck being practically eliminated ^arms, wrists and ankles being out of the
"

question ^the head and waist remain the only parts of the body to consider. This is assuming with Prof. Petrie that the large and small heads belong together an assumption which can be taken almost as an estabhshed fact. The suggestion was to made that they constituted a circlet. The answer for features both a this appears to be that they present circlet, uimecessary Egyptian known are, found Egyptian All never circlets and among circlets.
" "

having a clasp, and being modelled nor practically speaking, hoops, not jointed head is thus eliminated decorated on the outer surface only. The wearer's or to allintents and purposes, and there remains only her waist to consider. tion For the idea that the hons' heads constituted a girdle,naturally the inspirawas
"

in all that has been written above.


they

Again, size and workmanship


they

class

Were

by grown women, worn customarily under the garments be shown sometimes at Tell el-Amama, where the bodies are

shown

unwould questiona in fulldetail

through

the clothing.

Notes

on

the

from Jewels

La/tun.

85

them

with the cowries. And finally,it is only around the waist or hips that it anything that has to be shortened almost 2 ins. to would be comfortable to wear be fastened. To be sure, it is impossible to advance arguments as convincing in
this
case

of the cowries, but stUl it is an idea which has a great deal of probability. It remains necessary only to discover some method of stringing length a that the which would give approximating cowrie girdle. of
as
case

in the

The experiment was tried, therefore, of lengthening the strings and spacing Knots were the beads equally on them, leaving bare thread between. made to heads intervals, for as hold the this arrangement the fact at equal authority and

8. Claw

Necklaces

and

suggested

order

of

Lion-head

Girdle.

doll and the Second Dahshur quoted that the cowries of the Boston Treasure may have been so strung. To me, personally, however, the double line in keeping bare did seem threads not with the fineness of the other jewels. of The suggestion was that small beads, such as are used in the also made
was

"

"

But of the littlebeads there bracelets and armlets, may have been employed. are hardly enough for the requirements of these very bracelets and armlets even, could not possibly and a double string, of the required length of twice i6 ins. more, have escaped the painstaking and conscientious search of the finders of the tomb.
'

Hence, unless it is supposed


they
were

that the lions' heads


one

placed in the tomb, there is really only

not strung up when beads set of which could have F 3


were

'

86

Notes

on

the

from Jewels

Laltun.

been used. The solution that I suggest, therefore, is that the lions'heads were threaded with the amethyst beads which formerly were strung with the Senusert II and one which is for pectoral. This is a solution to be accepted with all reserve, The latter, the present, at least, held in abeyance by Mr. Lythgoe and Mr. Mace. because of the size of the for instance, to this particular arrangement objects amethyst beads, in relation to the smaller lions' heads especially,and raises the point that up to the present no ball beads have been found strung in any way Nevertheless, since there appear to be except as necklaces, in Eg3^tian tombs. grounds for considering that the lions' heads cannot be a collar,and are probably
to be some point in setting forth in this place the girdle, there seems beads. At least result of the experiment of stringing them with the amethyst by so doing I may be inspiring others to settle the matter one way or the other.

parts of

In the firstplace, when strung the Senusert II

32J ins.long, clasped.


have been
ten

puts the amethyst beads (on which was formerly between the lions' heads, a girdle is made up pectoral) The length is near enough to that of the cowrie girdle to
one

in the same worn way and the beads divide up excellently into sets, in each interval.^ For this arrangement be can no mechanical objection raised. The diameters of the beads are such that they go perfectly on the threads between passing through the lions' heads, and they stand, in thickness, midway the big and little heads. Secondly, when laid beside the claw necklace there is
which gives a wonderfully sumptuous of colour and workmanship S).^ One gets the impression that the multicoloured cowrie girdle effect (Fig. to be worn was string of beads, and that with the pectoral and its polychrome
a

harmony

worn with the gold from sideratio of effect,aside all other conbeads lions' heads the stringing of the and amethyst results in an incomparably magnificent jewel. Finally, the girdle so constructed conforms in type with the of those already quoted in having a series of large elements

this gold lion-head and amethyst girdle was As a matter claw and amethyst necklace.

intended to be

spaced along and

strings of smaller beads. As has been said already the lions'heads from Lahun are paralleled nowhere It is practically impossible, therefore, except in the similar set from Dahshur.

majority two joining

to demonstrate

either the truth or falsity of this suggested stringing as a girdle. There is, however, one circumstance correctwhich is at least favourable to its ness. The Second Dahshur Treasure, among lions'heads were the other which

found, contained two

ball beads.* Accepting 252 gold claws and 252 amethyst it is a minimum as (theactual number may have been considerably greater) lions' to head same the reconstruct quite possible combination of girdle and claw necklace in this case as well. Of course amethyst ball beads and claw necklaces enough without such girdles, and right in the First Treasure, 240 And found without any lions'heads.* amethyst beads and two gold claws were is Second from Treasure, be derived to there no the yet, while positive evidence at least it is suggestive to find that in the only two cases where lions'heads have
are common

been found the

same

combination

is a possibility.

' This One more takes up 140 beads. was strung with the pectoral, but there is a place for that in the claw necklace, making beads in the latter. a total of 152 amethyst " Showing If they the effect of a purely experimental stringing of the lions' heads.

were

thus

"
*

Hence in the photointended to lieflat on the hips. strung as a girdle they were graph, they lie flat on a table, the intermediate beads present an irregular appearance. I, p. 66, PI. XXIX. Dahchour,
where

Ibid., p. 63, PI. XVIII.

Notes

on

the

from Jewels

Lakun.

'

87

In conclusion, I should like to repeat that while I feel that it is possible to the new the the rigidly pectoral and stringing of existence of the cowrie girdle, the proposed reconstruction of the lions' heads as a second girdle to go with the claw necklace, is purely tentative.

demonstrate

H. E. WiNLOCK.

"

for of cowries in a girdle, seems good reason in the Lahun series. The close similarity between accepting that arrangement the cowries and the lion heads, in size and fastening, leads also toward these

[The evidence

for the

use

having

girdle. The suspension of the pectoral by long drop beads is, however, a difficult The dates of the examples quoted should be observed. matter. From Ilird down to to be no example the the Xllth dynasty, there seems of
a

been in

drop beads beads

long equiterminal are in funeral offerings the ; and the belt fringes are all of long and ball beads, (Lacau,Sarcophages, xlix-liii) In no case is there a drop bead in a long the strings for collars are the same. threaded
a

in

balls ;

in Beni

long string. At Meydum Hasan III, iii,the same

there

dynasty there was string. In the XVIIIth III ; then the old ideals after Tehutmes Tehutmes IV. The effectof the broad masses

great fall in taste, and a loss of drop bead strings appear, with of drop beads close to the minute is it to believe that the refined taste of killing, is hard the work of pectoral and dynasty a Xllth have the mistake. made such would
a

As to the absence of clothing along with jewellery, note the account by Lady Turkish large company Wortley Montague baths, a the of where of ladies in social functions, clad only in their jewellery. We must also remember will join

Mary

earth, but for lifein a future state ; even we should hesitate in a picture of heaven to introduce knee breeches, hobble-skirts. At Deshasheh or crinoUne (Vth dynasty) the actual dresses long buried for a woman were with tight sleeves like a modem ghalabiyeh, and not that the Egyptian
scenes

were

not

of lifeon

at all like the low garment

age.
of W.
a

The

festive

scenes

future life, and M. F. P.]

with shoulder straps figured in the tomb scenes of that d5masty XVIIIth the tombs joys represented of the in true be this as not accepted completely world. need
"

88

GENERAL

MAUDE'S

PROCLAMATION.

has been responsible for many things ^not allof them bad, and among the good ones in which archaeology has may be counted the wholesale manner been brought to the notice of the nation. Many thousands of men, who otherwise have thought of such a have found themselves among would never ruins subject, sent East with the various and other relicsof past civilisations, when they were
"

The

War

visited these remains, and have larger have been towns, and some the of to lectures in hospitals and elsewhere on the history, civilisation and subjected in be. to While doubt happen no the then they art of particular country which
men

armies. A large proportion of these even been conducted round the museums

have

such men exciting fare, there is always a could wish for more is keenly full interested a thirst for information on little minority which and of have before come their notice ; as for instance, where the points which happen to from, and when he firstmade his appearance in history ; whether it horse came the

of majority

possible to cut hard stones with copper and emery, and so on ; and it has been the writer's pleasant lot at the Cairo Museum to be searched out by even in his to members of previous week's audience, order certifythemselves on various
was

points, which had been so hotly debated during the interval as to have become somewhat confused. This unexpected spread of interest in archaeology has its dangers, as the preservation of the past is essentialto understanding it ; and no one is competent be observed without to know a must most what proper training. It was fully August 6th, in to Basrah Times see as as a the satisfactory 1917, early May It Sir by late Stanley Maude on the 22nd. conclusive proclamation signed reads as follows :
"

Whereas

it is convenient

to take

over

both for the preservation of


"

ancient monuments, and ancient objects of vertu, and relics movable immovable antiquities," and also of ancient times, hereinafter styled for the prohibition of traffic in forged articles falselyasserted to be antiquities ;

I, Lieutenant-General F. S. Maude, authority


as vested in me in Forces Mesopotamia, Majesty's

K.C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., in virtue of the His Britannic General Officer Commanding do hereby proclaim
as

follows

:
"

(i)Throughout
monuments,

the occupied

ancient objects the property of the Ottoman times, which formerly were of ancient Government, or shall hereafter be discovered, are the property of the

territoriesall antiquities, to wit, all ancient and immovable of vertu, relics movable

Administration of the Occupied said Territories.

Territories acting

on

behalf of the

(2)The

for the purposes of this proclamation shallbe deemed to signify antecedent to the year 1500 a.d.
term

"

"

ancient

General

Maude's

Proclamation.

89

(3)Whosoever
a

the nearest

having discovered any antiquity fails to inform accordingly Assistant Political Officer in charge of a districtwithin period of 30 days shall be liableto a fine not exceeding 50 rupees. having
to his

{4)Whosoever
the
same

discovered any
own

shaU be liable to times the value of the article discovered.


use

antiquity unlawfully appropriates a fine not exceeding ten


destroys, defaces,or
or

(5)Whosoever
damages

negUgently any

or

mahciously
monument

ancient

any

to believe to contain antiquities,shall be liableto


10,000

site which a fine not exceeding

in any way he has reason

rupees.

(6)Whosoever

trafiicsin or abets the trafficin antiquities,except under a licence duly issued by the Ofiicer appointed hereto, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding 10,000 rupees. whether

(7)Whosoever,

licensed

or

not

licensed, sells or
reason

antiquitiesany article which he has not shall on conviction be liableto imprisonment


six months his stock of antiquities
or a

offers for sale as to believe antique,

to

fine not
or

exceeding pseudo-antiquities shall be Hable to be

10,000

for a period not exceeding rupees, or both ; and

confiscated. Whosoever (8) tration reports the discovery of an antiquity over which the Adminisdecides to exercise its right of property shall be duly sated compenis relinquished by the ; and when any such antiquity Administration, the Administration shall deliver the said antiquity
of the person appearing to have the most proper therein, together claim with a certificate enabling the said antiquity to be transferred in accordance terms the with of this Proclamation.
to the possession

The (9)

vested in the Administration under this Proclamation together to perform with power all necessary acts subsidiary thereto are hereby delegated to the Chief Political Officer or such person or power

persons as he may appoint to act on his behalf. Signed at Baghdad 22nd day of May, 1917. F. S. Maude,

Lieut.-General,
of Occupation.

Commanding

the Army

in conception and it is to be hoped that it may be effectivelycarried out. Apart from the depredations of the mere plunderer, who goes to obtain saleable loot. Article 5 is framed to combat the ravages caused by the ignorance of two distinct classes of destroyers, at whose mercy antiquities only too often lie. These are, firstly, the ignorantly callous ; and secondly, the ignorantly keen. The wrecking of the earliestsculptures a of Egyptian history in Sinai was case the They were destruction by modem sad men. wanton of practical too ignorant to know historic the or the either value market value of what they
" "

The

law is admirable

The late Inspector without any benefit to themselves. Antiquities had great trouble with some of at Luqsor engineers practical no for what they knew nothing about. use At Silsilehthere is the who had great bed of sandstone which the ancients largely quarried, leaving numerous examples of their methods, and inscriptions of historical value, etc. Extensive
" " "
"

deliberately destroyed

90
as

General Maude's

Proclamation.

cover the whole these records of the world's doings are, they by no means Yet when these engineers needed sandstone for for quarrying. available area in declined starting on a fresh piece of hand, they some had they work which

the cliff,but insisted on quarrying on the ancient sites, thus quite needlessly be replaced. destroying for ever records of the world's progress which can never interfered in Antiquities Most fortunately the Department time to prevent of doubt the necessary sandstone was being done, and no any serious damage

obtained from the immediate neighbourhood. Another kind of danger is also to be prevented by the clause about any who in anyway damages or destroys any site." The negligently information than he preor destroys more serves, amateur excavator usually damages
"
. . . ...

for something pretty or valuable is as destructive when done for the profit of a dealer. A quantity as when an done to amuse amateur printed, with the melancholy of hunting is reported from various sites, even

and the hunting

result that the hunters

working at, could not in the least date what they were or give any useful account of it ; while the date and proper record would have Even if everybeen an elementary matter to anyone thing educated in the subject. is preserved and put in a local museum, the value of it is destroyed if there

no statement whether record of the relativepositions and ages of the objects, found in original position of deposit, or in ancient rubbish, or in modem tip-heaps. Action such as this,while excellent in itsintention, isdeplorable in its results,

is no

for the novice full of his search all unwittingly does what is probably furthest than he saves. removed from his mind or wishes, he destroys irretrievably more facts be observed have to a It is not generally understood what great range of be all promoted in excavating, how many together, how varied must

subjects

be the interests and view of the excavator, how ready he must be to succeed in preserving all he may find. Recently some who were not great scholars figures, bead-work some as trained excavators of coloured splendid ^found
must
" "

they could not preserve it,and it all fellto pieces. Anyone who knew his business would have easily preserved the whole of it complete ; but the great scholars heard of using paraffin wax. even had never is

The encouragement of plundering by the purchase of antiquities from dealers The to buy anything that is not difficult a only proper rule is never subject. of great importance to be preserved, where the information must not be lost. The ordinary recently broken, and specially any pieces of monuments objects, The encouragement of the chance finder should be left on the dealers' hands. his accidental discoveries is most important ; it will put all honest notice to the Government, and provide possession on a legal basis, give the earliest The foreign to museums. tourist the the an and above-board supply of
to proclaim

objects

law in Palestine also recognises given for the new recommendations officially fully the rights of every chance finder,and encourages the open sale of all that be honestly sold. can

activitiesof the forger are also heavily penalised. Large quantities of cylinder seals and cuneiform tablets have been produced in recent years, and a be put on such frauds. The manufacture of false antiquities stiff hand must in Egypt, that it may be considered one of the has reached such proportions now Thp
of Technical Education includes national industries,and indeed the Department its exhibits of the crafts of the a collection of modern antiquities among The is that are there result numbers of antiquity shops throughout country. Egypt in which a very large percentage of the exposed for sale are
"
"

objects

General

Maude's

Proclamation.

trade in forgeries has not only reached extreme has improved proportions in quantity, but also in quality, for the workmanship in line a heads that new in or some so statue recent when years much other is likely it to deceive he has the comes the on market, quite expert novelty until The it long one writer well remembers accompanying examined and carefully. forgeries. Moreover,
the Egyptian leading experts on Before long two dealer. up-country of the caught his eye. date, but after They purported
a or a visit to antiquities on three fine alabaster vases
a

well-known of large size

or of early dynastic, long and detailed study of their form, material, and workmanship, by a criticalcross-examination of the dealer, the prospective accompanied Twenty purchaser passed them over years ago I would have with the remark : but I it." for dare to-day them, not risk given you "25
"

to be of late pre-dynastic,

The most obvious lesson of the whole wretched heavily to encourage the destruction of monuments
the loss of all archaeological excavation
museums
or
our

paying position of museums for plundered spoils, with

history, is that properly recorded observation and is the only right channel for either of certifiedand objects The moral to those who stay at home, the public to draw upon. dated

local and national museums, is that every effort should be made to and train excavators and to carry on the largest amount of proper excavation in to to history little us the save what of order and treasure of the past. remains
to

G. A. Wainwright.

92

REVIEWS.

Frangaise d'Archdologie Orientate. Cairo, 1918. Bulletin de I'Institut friend, regret that this will be the last contribution of our good He did to Mr. Joseph Offord, who died at the beginning of this year. much spread the knowledge of the French works on Egypt ; both for his work and his genial personality he will be much missed and

[We

much

regretted.]

An

important
some

It contains d'Index
au

princes, to each

fascicule of the Bulletin is that of the firstof Vol. XV, 1918. 140 pages, with about 25 hieroglyphic titles of Pharaohs and Repertoire Pharaonique pour servir page. It embodies the
"

of M. Henri Gauthier, that is to say, his Memoires de I'Institut Fran^ais great five-volume work in the series of the By issuing Caire." this Index in the comparatively d'archeologie Orientale du inexpensive format of the Bulletin, with every royal name again reproduced in
Livre des Rois

d'^gypte

"

"

its hieroglyph form, the Institut has placed within the means of many the opportunity of acquiring what is practically a catalogue of Egyptian
from Menes
to the Emperor

students

royalties,

Decius. Read
has
a

In Vol. XIII

Mr. F. W. of the Bulletin de I'Institut,

paper upon

the precise

sense

of the word
"

in an articleupon The foreign languages." of

^^^^^' j^^ Egyptian Word for


of

'^^^^^ ^^" "

^-

^as

Gardiner,
"

Dragoman,"

had rendered

teacher

Mr. Read's view is that would be a nearer scholar for basis this rendering is a passage in translation of the title, and his main Chapter 125 of the Book the Dead, wherein it is applied to Thoth the Scholar god

par excellence.
Another

Gauthier,

is that by M. Henri essay of interest in the thirteenth volume tions La Necropole de Thebes et son Personnel." This refersto the inscripbelonging to a considerable number attached to of personages who were
"

certain
"

priestly and

lay

offices for

site near

Thebes

known

as

buried in the hill of Deir elMost of these people were The place of Truth." Medineh, and a quantity of funerary and records of them have for many objects been Museum. in the Turin years In the spring of 1917 the French Institut at Cairo carried out excavations at hill the site and found further tombs of members of the association or fraternity of the Place of Truth, enabluig M. Gauthier to explain who and what they were
more

years ago, when treating of able to do, some completely than Maspero was them chiefly from the material at Turin. I, and Many of them were attached to the cult of the deified Amenhotep it appears that his worship was certainly the origin of the confraternity of the Place of Truth.

Reviews.

93

Many They
wore

of

the

office holders
and

were

also entitled sotemu


as

oshu

i
^

depicted upon the sepulchre the domestic for simply servants of Amon, paintings and for weighing silver and gold, and so on. hand washing, aod the official One was la de de I'administration bois la de au du (?) serviteur cuisson patisserie palais," which reminds one of the chief baker in the story of Joseph.
special garments

headdresses

steles. Some

were

"

M. Gauthier's researches show that the members of the Place of Truth were in Pharaohs, living the administration and temples, or at least permitted to serve as being sotemu so. that those determined oshu were As far
as

we

at present know,

M. Georges Arabic

Daressy, in

work, which Precieux," an edition of which, based upon three manuscripts, Ahmed fourteen years ago. Bey Kamel some

been a member. long article, makes excellent archaeological use of an he entitles the Livre des Perles Eufouies, et du Mystere
no seems
a
"

female

to have

was

published by

Among
a

pupU The
sun

of M.
are

object

the articlesin Vol. XV of the Bulletin is one by Mademoiselle Chatelet, Loret, which is entitled Le Role des Deux Barques Solaires." Monzet and Mesketit of the thesis is to prove that the well-known
"

the vessels Ra occupies from sunrise to midday, and from noon is used for a complete day, and the other for night. to sunset, but that one The first evidence is from M. Jequier's Le Livre de ce qu'il version of ships
not
"

dans I'Hades," which states that at the twelfth night hour the great god departs Monzet." from Hades that he may embark the upon From the inscriptions upon the tomb of Sety I, close to the representation This god in the of the events of the firsthour of the night is a line reading
"

"

Mesketit barque which navigates in the arerit of this domain." Another literary proof is obtained from the phrase in the Book ofthe Dead^ XV, PI. He in Monzet, Chapter he ties up Papyrus Ani, 20, reading the sails in Mesketit." the {amarre)
"

A final proof is given from three of the pyramid texts given by M. Lacau Thou passest the night in Mesketit, thou passest (Rec,XXV, 153), which read in Monzet." for so rendering this sentence Good day are cause the quoted,
"

was that the exchange claims that the real myth but that, of vessels occurred at sunrise and sunset, modestly adds perhaps accidentally have at certain periods in variant theological schools, other views may been current.

Mdlle. Chatelet summing

up

is that by M. Gustave interesting essay in this fifteenth volume Funerary Ritual." The first Some to the J^quier Objects upon appertaining Piquets d'amarrage or the mooring of these symbolic relicshe treats of are the Another
"

"

"

Illustrationsof these are to be foimd upon pegs for the dahabeahs of the dead. the Sarcophagus of Sa-Uazet, published in Riqqeh and Memphis VI, Plate XXIIL These special pegs thereon depicted, instead of having merely a knob, or spreading
a

flattened top to support the driving blows of a mallet, terminate in a human head and bust. It seems manifest without any literary proof that these sepulchral form They are to be seen in the same sense. mooring posts are deified in some the firstas tombs, but in two connections of emblazoned upon Theban objects due to the funeral cult, secondly, as accessories at a ceremony some relating In the Book the Dead, presentation of the deceased to the gods of the dead.
"

of
as

in

some

down

of these human-headed the bird-catcher's net in the Elysian fields.


one

illustrated papyri,

pickets is shown

securing

94
A
more

Reviews.

frequent picture of these is to be found in the representations objects (afavourite Theban theme at the XlXth of the Nile-boat voyage of the mummy d5masty to the shrine of Osiris at Abydos, of Anubis at Siout, and Amentit

era),

In the rubrical texts for these scenes two pickets are mentioned, into driven They are the that shown and of the poop. Then another scene soil,and priests are rendering offerings unto them. shows the boat being moored with ropes to the pegs, and libation offerings being made that of the prow
to them.

in Lower

Egypt.

In these

with which doubt, M. Texts, They

heads to them, but the rites the pickets do not have human as they are worshipped are the same those for a deity, and without Deesse-piquet these the are Jequiersays, of the Pyramid
scenes,

objects

limit

(L

^^"^A
ci

first recognised by

M.

Lefebure,

the

great

Menat

" (J

"

"=".

are inscriptionsidentifiedwith Isisor Nephthys. also in some Finally, these mooring pegs are as might be anticipated, in mentioned, descriptions of the voyages of the Solar barque. M. Jequier called at also writes upon the regal item of decorative costume

by the worn various times Uatet, menkeret, and khebset, that is the animal's tail, Pharaoh upon ceremonial occasions, as shown in so many paintings and reliefs. He proves by careful consideration that these tails are so accurately drawn that the usual idea that they are intended for lions' tails is erroneous, and that

of a bull. This is confirmed by the frequent assimilation in Egyptian literature to a bull, and especially so by the figure of the king as a bull upon one of the prehistoric slate palettes from The tail is always shown being worn as Hieraconpolis. suspended from a
they
are

undoubtedly

intended

for those

waistbelt. derives from a root sed or The syllable set of its name Khebset, M. Jequier The Feast It forms heb-sed,festival. tail. the moiety of the word set,meaning Sed Festival, so often alluded to in Egyptian writings, and poror trayed of the Tail
" "

in reliefs, certainly of royalty or its appanage,


M.

seems

act of enthronement. article upon the title given to various and its diverse attributions. The question of personages of Ami-Ra-Akhnute as title of Ami-Ra interest he deems to have decided is not so much the official

overlordship, and being a similar performance

of the assumption symbolical ceremony the putting on at that function of the belt and
a

to be

to

an

Henri

Gauthier

has

lengthy

that of the complete significance of the term Akhnute, which many years ago a or a definition for a particularly private chamber, Egyptologists decided was generally that of a royal palace. select portion of some edifice, M. Gauthier agrees with this rendering, but is also able, by carefully collected
a number textual quotations, to prove that there were of other places, such as known bureaus, deposit chambers, which were registrar offices,and safe official In fact, he succeeds in citing from inscriptionsthe to the Egyptians as Akhnute.

titles of

belonging to as many differentdepartments of Ami-Ra officials qualifiedas an A khnute chamber, or department, in buildings of various characters. The Akhnute, of which this personage was presiding officer, or custodian,
some score

appears to have been or of such forbidden

Selamlik," and so not a saloon of such a private nature, to the public, as the word usually signifies. For it is for some special certain that as a rule admission to an Akhnute was only obtained It should be mentioned it was or by privileged people. reason, sometimes used
a access

"

as

name

for the royal nursery

Reviews.

95

M. Loret wrote upon the he only enumerated four or five some subject from the Hood-Wilbur different Akhnutes, but starting papyrus, edited by Sir Hierarchie," M. Gauthier gives some Gaston Maspero as the sixty instances of but to the nature of their as these of"cials, without any distinctive statement Akhnutes.

When

"

he gives those whose names followed by determinative are Ami Ra Prepose Pays du Nord," as au the qualifications, such of and White House Golden House." those of the and to us is that of the Ami Ra Akhnoute of the Kherp hatu, which One titlenew In his second
"

chapter

"

"

"

further special palace apartments. M. Gauthier thinks applies to some texts, to define what of numerous chapter endeavours, by a comparison duties of the various grades of Ami Ra of Akhnutes.

Another
were

the

The second fascicule of Vol. XVI, 1919, of the Bulletin de I'InstitutFrangaise d'ArcMologie Orientate of Cairo is mainly occupied with the completion of Mr. K. A brief Chronology of the Mohammadan ments MonuA. C. Cresswell's articleentitled
"

of M. Henri Gauthier there is a description of a inscribed Funerary Cones, found upon the eastern slope of the large number of The inscriptions upon them hUl of Goumet at Thebes. and upon el-Medineh museum now or those previously edited in various journals catalogues present Of these no less than six are derived from some thirteen variant types of texts. He for the firsttime reproduced by M. Gauthier. specimens now de bureau, Amonemapit (or Amonemat), who, named reproduces those of a chef Egjqitian importance, like many of people other especially officials, enjoyedthe the
numerous

of Egypt to A.D. 1517." From the industrious pen

honorific title of S) "^^^


meaning it may
was

[p^^and

M. Gauthier thoroughly
"

threshes out the probable

to say, he had

That is of it, rendering it khrd kep, child of the nursery." in youth been one of the playmates of the royal children, or perhaps to a royal infant, he mean that his mother having been wet nurse
"

also reared in the court nursery. Pour la Conquete Two very valuable essays are provided by M. Jean Cledat, firstis The ITsthme de a full account de rfegypte," Notes Suez." sur of and
"

methods of defence and offence upon the present Suez Canal route frontier, in ancient times, including the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. The Delta and Palestine geographical peculiarities of the district between the eastern are explained, quotations from papyri and inscriptions utilised,and notes upon
Egyptian various campaigns which opened or closed within this area are given, as well as frontier officers quotations from the reports and diaries of travellers and ofl"cials, and fugitives,such as Saneha.

is profoundly impressed by the splendid British engineering is conveyed fresh across the desert mounds and water achievement which It carries the precious fluid to El Arish. valleys, all the way from Kantara times. for 150 kilometres, and is one of the most beneficent works of modem
M.

Cledat

by

Yet British-like we have never described its design and equipment, even much less boasted of the matter, though the French journal Illustration has done so. importance than their The notes upon the Isthmus of Suez are of much more titlewould suggest. The firstis upon a Persian stele at Qabret. But few words bore ; one of these is that for Satrap, and some remain of the inscription it once The remains of a Byzantine fortress at others refer to the Tamahou country. the same locality are illustratedby a plan.

g6
Two steles of Rameses II deitiesof Sutek, Anta, Baal and
a are

Reviews.

Sopdt,

described ; they mention the semi-Asiatic master of the Orient land," who in
"

presents those countries to the Pharaoh. relief Section 4 of this paper gives a ground plan and a detailed account watch tower fort,the innermost of three halls in which was employed in the time of Rameses II. Part was used as a storehouse, seven

of
as

Migdol

a temple large vases

being provided for holding grain. Section 5 refers to the Israelitepassage of the Red Sea, and because of M. Cleat's special knowledge of the districtsconcerned, is of very great value ; He has been impressed by the very excellent work he gives an exceUent map. but M. Cledat addresses and traveller, of the late M. Leon Cart, a Swiss archaeologist himself to ascertaining the true situation and the Egyptian titlefor every placein the Bible narrative. His work is additional to the previous attempts name of this kind by Lieblein, Naville and Daressy, and previous to Dr. Alan Gardiner's treatiseupon the City of Rameses, published this year in the Journal Egyptian of Archaeology. M. Cledat does not mention the topographical papyrus in the

Cairo Museum
him,
nor

The

by Dr. Spiegelberg, but it is doubtless well known to the geographical details in the Arezzo manuscript of a Palestine pilgrimage, but he gives every important old Egyptian record its place. final paper is by Prof. Edouard Naville upon the First Words of summarised
"
"

After a long and convincing argument of the Book of the Dead." I Atum, I was for he decides am alone (orthe imique one) rendering them from Nu. I I rose am the (yesterday) and I know what shall be past when up The resemblance of the phrase to the I am yesterday, the future (to-morrow)." Zeus was, Zeus to-day and to-morrow," and the priestessof Dodona's dictum,

Chapter XVII

"

"

is,and Zeus is to be," will naturally occur to many. M. Naville takes the opportimity to enlarge upon the manner as well as He Egyptian monumental and matter manuscript writing. concludes that of because inscriptions were or executed vertically engraved wall painted from a ladder, and shows by the arrangements when copied upon papyrus, that the roll was placed upon the knees of the scribe,as is the case in Egypt to-day. He also gives valuable information as to the method and the results of the adoption of Demotic scripts. What he says about the appliance used for scribes or sculptors writing upon chamber or temple and palace walls is interesting,because if the Hittites used scaffoldsgoing the whole length of the space to be covered, instead
of ladders, it might accoimt for their boustrophedon plan of writing. The scribe having got to the end of the wall, instead of walking back and recommencing at the other end, simply continued his text, working backward beneath (or above) the previous line. The final essay is by the veteran

M. Loret,

"

A propos d'un pretendu verbe

irr^;ulier."

Joseph Offord.

NOTE.
regret to say that owing to the length of negotiations about the division of discoveries at the Cairo Museum, it has been impossible to have an exhibition our but we hope to this year. The boxes have not yet arrived by the end of July, from include the this year in next year's exhibition. We

objects

W. M. F

P.

0\

KHEKER

FRIEZES.

W -ttir

//AW r/A\V l/AV\//

1.

XU, LATE XX

XVIII

DYNASTIES, XIX

p. III.

2.

MID

XVIII 78. 71.

DYNASTY,

p. 112. XVIII, p. 117. p. 120.

3. 5.

XVIII;

DYNASTIES,

p. IIS.

4.
6.

TOMB TOMB

LATE
MID

DYNASTY,

p. 118.

XVIII,

ANCIENT

EGYPT.

THE

GENESIS

OF

COPTIC

TWISTS

AND

PLAITS.

is as decorative motive a of the development of plaited ornament in interest, full has the one and one which, past, of occupied the attention of far too few. Work is often useful, and may by-paths these research along of
STUDY

always

be

considered

as

legitimately supplementing

the pioneer work

of the

one might almost term it epidemic spread of the use of in Europe been the has, throughout motives early centuries plait of course, But Prof. Lethaby is,I think, the only one who upon. noticed and commented
"

archasologist. The wonderful

"

has suggested^ that it is to Egypt we truly wonderful development. This considered opinion of a man evolution of design needs no support certainly lends insomuch as we
a

must

look for the rise and spread of this

greatly added know now that

who has made a life-long study of the But, on from me. the other hand, it interest to our art, study of Egypto-Roman
are

we

at work

upon

things

more

rare

than

usual, the early links of a chain of rich fancy, which has given us the beautiful interlacing of Celtic and Scandinavian art, the knots and borders of Longobardic pavements and Byzantine panels, no less than the sculpture, of the Roman clever grotesques of the MSS. of the Slavic races. It is really a matter of regret that the Professor left his enquiry where he did, for clearly there must be an origin for the elements which are so frequent in the art of Coptic times.

The present paper, then, is an attempt to glean a sheaf of scattered vestiges from more though imperfectly, will nevertheless ancient times, which, even from indication sources the whence the Copts drew their early give of probable
ideas of plaited ornament. That the invention of the plait is not to be ascribed to the Copts themselves Nevertheless we are here but a step removed from the centre must be premised.
art, and an enquiry whence the plait went forth to the enrichment of European Coptic frequently found on into the origins of some of the forms as they are time deal with the broader question of the cultural cloths, will at the same influences at work in Roman times in Egypt.

from which it would seem obvious that simplest motive, and the one is twist developed, have originally the simple the plait must (Fig. i). It is The

surprising, indeed, that


"

so

obvious

and

simple

decorative contrivance
The Burlington

should

Lethaby,

W.

R.,

"

The

origin of Knotted

Ornamentation,"

Magazine,

X,

1907.
G

98 be
so

The Genesis

of Coptic Twists and Plaits.

that it is entirely persistently absent from archaic art. Not, of course, for frequency but, the of, example, the meander great and absent ; considering fret in Greek, and even dynastic Egyptian art, it is notable that examples of the twist are curiously few and far between. in preNevertheless, there are well attested examples of the occurrence Coptic times of twists not only of single strands, as in Fig. i, but also of double in Figs. 2 and triple strands that parallel the two twists of Coptic age shown

and

3. It is significant that, although not very frequently, it is found in Greek as well as Egyptian design, as witness Fig. 4, a twist of single strands from an New York (first half of the Vllth early Attic vase in the Metropolitan Museum,
in the Louvre (Vlthcentury, Fig. 5, from a Corinthian vase The be exampled a twist of double strands. single twist in Egypt may B.C.) by Fig. 6, found rarely on scarabs of the Middle Kingdom, and Fig. 7 from a Hyksos 8, Kalum dynasty). Fig. a scarab of the period may pot (Xllth-XIIIth be looked upon as a link with the Xllth dynasty scarab. Fig. 9. century, and B.c.)^

it is to the Cylinder seals of ancient Babylonia the earliest examples of the twist. In Syro-Cappadocian

But

that

we

must

look for

is of frequent something
more

occurrence.

Yet

here

we

are

significant than a mere the cylinders on significanceone cannot tellat present, but usually when it occurs it is not as a border. It is a complete figure, a twist of several nodes, the number varying from three to eight. Fig. 10, a twist of five nodes, is from a Sumerian

and Sumerian times it with confronted, it would seem, is What decoration. the exactly

cylinder^ and is therefore at least as old as the Vlth Egyptian dynasty ; fig.12 is from the cylinder of the pre-Hyksos king Khandy, and 13 from a scarab of Apepy. As Having found no twist of earlier age than these we are compelled to pause. it be for its ultimate origin and symbolism it would seem that may closely probable Of the Fig. 11) from a Sumerian vase.^ associated with serpent worship {see At Figs. to more we I have say. something present may compare serpent shall 12 with Figs. 14 and 10, II and 15 from Coptic cloths. I think the deduction
is inevitable. of influence, the twist in Greek art would suggest it. Fig. 16, from Medailles, Bib. Nat., Paris,* is of Vllth century,

As for the channel

occurrence

of the complete des a plate in the Cabinet from Fig. B.C., an 17 and
we

dating from the Vlth century, B.C. amphora in the British Museum, Passing from the twist to the plait one must recognise that therein

have

evidence of a distinct advance, not only in conception, but also in designing skill. This cultural step being obvious, it is all the more surprising to find that, if not cylinders, the genuine plait is actually on Sumerian, yet on Syro-Cappadocian and 19)^. Strangely enough, except for one example, be to the true plait seems quite missing from Egyptian decoration of pre-Roman dajre. As in the case of the twist, the vehicle of its introduction into Egyptodoubtless the art of ancient Greece ; for it is not infrequent on Roman art was already evolved

(Figs. 18

Grecian, mouldings, the guilloches from is fragment a Fig. 21 of a vase


"
* '

(Figs. and 20-22),


from Naucratis

occasionally

on

pottery.

(Vllthcentury, B.C.)* and


Fig. 154.

Jour.Hell.
Delaporte, King,

Stud., XXXII,

1912,

L., Cat. des Cylindres

L. W.,

Sumer

and

Akkad,

p. 370. Orient, 1910, Fig. 29, p. 76.

PI. XIII,

* '
"

Delaporte,

Bull. Corr. Hell., 1895, p. 74, Fig. 2. L., Cat. des Cylind. Orien., 1910, PI. XXIX, Hell., 1895, p. 81, Fig. 5. Bull, de la Corresp.

Figs. 418 and

425.

The

Genesis

of Coptic Twists

ana

Plaits.

99

^ Fig. 24 from a Proto-Corinthian vase of about the same I give here a century. four-strand plait from a cylinder from Aiden which is perhaps a trifle older and Fig. Phoenician for {circa 25 origin, 700 probably and comparison illustrate B.C.), four-strand from threeand plaits taken E^ypto-Roman and Coptic specimens of

(Figs. cloths in the Victoria and Albert Museum 26-28). Vladimir Bok in his monograph Coptic Textiles ^ states that "The plait on is met with on ancient Egyptian monuments beginning with the Xllth dynasty."

This statement it published in any would be more misleading than it is were less difficult inclined to think that he must language than Russian. As it is I am have had in mind the twist rather than the plait. And yet there is one undoubtedly be Egyptian can seen that any genuine example plaitwork of ancient day
at

the

British Museum.

I refer to the plait design


Stiid.,XXXII,

as

it appears

on

the

'

Jour. Hell.

1912,

p. 341, Fig. 18.


miiaiiu.

'

BoKT", B. r., KonmcKin

yjopHamua

MocKsa, 1897.
G
2

100

The Genesis of Coptic Twists

and

Plaits.

fragment

Fig. 29 gives the scheme of plaiting which of the beard of the Sphinx. is clearly visible on the specimen. frequently on We will next consider an interestinggroup of figureswhich occur Coptic date, they textiles of Egypto- Roman and which, although and vary in many ways, are yet apparently all related. A typical example of the Illrd-IVth

is shown in Fig. 30. A portion of a similar design century on a fabric from Akhmin in Fig. 31, while Fig. 32, although quite dissimilar, of IVth-Vth century is given its less pronounced is most probably a derivative from the same parent source,

cruciform shape being probably due to its earlier date (Ilnd-IIIrd century). The relation between these forms and the quite simple form. Figs. 33 and 34, will, But I imagine that in this simple form we have it in its I think, be apparent. pagan aspect. For it has persisted and is found in Celtic and Scandinavian
ornament,

where
corners.

it

its four its mouth,

considered by Worsaae^ to represent the earth with Surrounding this Danish example is a serpent with its tail in
was

To revert the great sea-serpent lying in the all-surrounding ocean. to the Coptic examples. Figs. 30 and 31 have this form interplaited with the cross, no doubt used as a Christian symbol. For the origin of this motive we must, I believe, again look to Sumer, although there are practically no directly connecting links, that I know of, if we except Xllth dynasty), and I scarab designs of the type shown in Figs. 35 and 36 (after
think these
are

inconclusive. symbol
or

An

with the Buddhist Glorious Emblems

shown

interesting comparison may, however, be made in Figs. 37 and 38. This is one of the Eight

auspicious symbols frequently figured in Buddhist art It also occurs Srivatsa,the symbol of the as the lucky diagram and iconography.* knot (Chang), in China Buddhist or as the tenth Jina (Sitala) and of the Jains,
the sacred entrails (Fig. 39). This Chinese sign was doubtless introduced by the Buddhist

reached India one


was

China
can

in the 1st century only surmise ; but

a.d. one

How
cannot

missionaries who the symbol arrived in Buddhist help remembering that Buddhism

inroad, stillin its infancy when, in 329 B.C., Alexander made his momentous Also Indian we impressed decoration an most strongly. art and event which know that commerce was carried on between India and Babylonia from quite early times, and we find that in the Ilird century B.C. the famous Buddhist Emperor

had resulted in that missions sent by him to Greek kingdoms intercourse facts Buddhism. These an amount quite conversions of prove And although apparently sufficientto account for the passage of this symbol. not to be found in Greek ornament, yet if we look from these examples to that Asoka claimed
to

shown

Moreover, I in Fig. 40, we cannot but notice their striking resemblance. that in this Sumerian figure we think I may suggest (with probability on my side), have the prototype of even the Coptic examples. The figure is taken from one ancient specimens of of the three most Sumerian glyptic art yet known, one of the seals of the patesi Lugalanda (about Vlth-VIIth tation The somewhat laboured attempt at an interpreEgyptian). It is far be I Allotte by M. de la Fuije^ think, put aside. may, of this sign Ukely to be the expression of a religiousidea than a cryptic rendering of the more It may even contain the idea of Worsaae of the four corners name. of the artist's dynasties
'
"

Danish

Arts." Buddhism in Thibet, p. 392.


4, p. 117.

"
*

Waddell,

Rev. d'Assyr., VI, No.

The

Genesis

of Coptic Twists

and

Plaits.

lOl

earth, but I believe that all these knot figures embody at least, longevity.

the idea of eternity, or perhaps,

There I have

is one more motive found on Coptic textiles of which I must speak. left it uijtil the last because it is perhaps the most interesting of all. Figs.

41 and 42 show it as it appears on Egypto-Roman and Coptic textiles,and it will be recognised immediately as a familiar motive not only on these fabrics but also Roman It is also of frequent on mosaics from the Ilnd century a.d. onwards. later among Celtic and Scandinavian plaitwork as noticed by Dr. H. occurrence Colley March. in fact, is found
World Ravishing Gems of Buddhism, of the seven and, far afield as among builders of the American the Mound continent. in English, It is sometimes the duplex, in French I'entrelac, called, and
so
"

It is one

Lieblingsmotive." Sarre enigmatically terms it the in This motive, more archaic art than any, has yet I believe a history elusive For it that may well be said to be more ancient than any other known symbol. is, I am from directly derived days, Swastika. that ancient of the convinced, That this is so can best be demonstrated by examples. Figs. 43 to 46 show the
be proven stages of development in as simple a form as can be. It could, of course, The Swastika is, of at greater length, but the present is hardly the occasion. a universal symbol of fireand motion, i.e., course, the sun ; and its derivative must be allowed to have, in some measure at least, a similar significance in pagan

sjmibolism. I have mentioned for our

Roman on mosaics, and this is most significant right thus art swept past Coptic and Egypto-Roman enquiry. without touching it,so to speak, and we find it on a 1st century mosaic at Pompeii in the Isis temple, which was (Fig. rebuilt after the earthquake of A.D. 63. 47)^ For
we are

itsoccurrence

entire absence of this motive from both Greek but I give an illustration of a gold ring from ornament, and Selinous^ {circa which is sufficiently like to afford comparison 1500-1000 B.C.), There would seem ancient Egyptian from latter
to be an

(Fig. 48). And dynasty).*The


and
our

Egypt

I give an impression of a Kahun sealing (Xllth is between Swastika form half the (Fig. way 47) certainly

figure.

for the identical motive we must last. Again we go to ancient Babylon for

But

indeed the simple duplex, but an same theme (Fig. 50). Incidentally it may be observed that this is,so far as my It might investigations have gone, the earliest example of knot work yet known. Celtic from so be Scandinavian be cross some or thought to excellent is it. well
in the circa 1926-2225 B.C.), seal (dated the than fact that this is a design more complex But it. period, have preceded simple duplex argues that the latter must, at some Crete. to find it in an earlier age we must look to pre-mykenian European Sir Arthur Evans* tells us that of the origins of our complex

times than this illustration,and we find here not our artistic conception obviously based upon the
come

to

more

recent

But it is taken from


Bibliotheque

Syro-Cappadocian
The

Nationale.*

"

culture this much


sources

at least can

on

which

it drew

be confidently stated. The earliest extraneous lay respectively in two directions in the valley of the
"

1 * * '

Trans. Dorset Field Club, XXV.

'

From

Riegl, A.,

1893, Stil/ragen,

p. 310.

Fougferes, G., SMnonte,


Petrie, W. Babelon,
"

1910,

p. 42. Delaporte,
PI. XXXVIIIt

PI. X, No. 190. M. F., Illahun, 1889-90, E., Guilde illus.du Cab. des Med., 1900, p. 32, and

Fig. 649.
*

New

Archaeolog.

Lights

on

Orig. of Civilis.in Europe,"

Smithsonian

Report, 1916.
G

I02

The
on one

Genesis

of Coptic Twists
"

and

Plaits,

side,and in that of the Euphrates on the other." This being so we doorstep of European civiUsation need not be surprised to find that here on the the duplex may be traced a step further back into the past. Fig. 51 represents the design of a steatite seal from Hagios Onuphrios,^ and considered to date from
Nile
"

will be seen that this design consists of the simple duplex with the addition of an interlaced glance at the next figure we shall observe that the figures square. If we now identical, are ment paveand yet this latter is from the IVth century Romano-British the Early Minoan

III period

(IXth-Xth dynasties Egyptian).It

(Fig. 52). That the Cretan example is the prototype of A seal of ivory found at Hagia Triada, be there cannot any doubt. and dating from the second part of the 1st Minoan period, is illustratedby Mosso,* which appears also to be inscribed with this form.
at Wellow
near

Bath

the Roman

be referred to. It is shown in an asphalt reliefdiscovered by de Morgan at Susa.* idea, and it must be Dr. Capitan considers this to be an expression of the same it is composed than probable, for undoubtedly of two admitted that it is more

Before concluding one Fig. 53, and is taken from

more

illustration must

representation of two serpents is, too, in my opinion, a point in favour of this. It is ascribed to the epoch of Naram Sin, equal to the IXth dynasty. Looking back over the field of enquiry that has been covered it seems interplaited ovals. The fact of its being
a

obvious that certain general conclusions may be deduced. before them, derived these decorative The Copts, and the Egypto-Romans from Roman in if sources, their art, at any rate from a not actually motives In this connection the significance of the evidence with Rome. For we know be overestimated. that the the mosaics cannot provided Romans obtained their art of mosaic from the Greeks about 80 years B.C.
common
source

by

of inspiration was rule at that time. passed under Roman The decorative features we have been considering
Moreover,
we

know

that the

source

Alexandria, which
are

town

in Egypt

greatest frequency on the textile fabrics. But in Roman So much closely identified with the mosaic pavements. from derived them, with the art itself, practically no doubt that the Romans Alexandria. We must therefore conclude that Egypt obtained her art inspirations from

found with most art they are so that there is

but much to Romano-Alexandrian thence, also owing nothing to purely Roman is more influence. What natural than that the city of Euclid should be the designs should proceed, designs which, these advanced centre from whence based upon the symbols of archaic cults, were revivified and developed in the it a focus of influences hands of skilled artists. Alexandria's position made Not only Greeks, Romans from East and West. sentatives and Egyptians, but repreis doubt There its no lands eastern precincts. within of

congregated

that many ancient cults were tolerated, and may have brought into itsdecorative the art the symbolism of archaic faiths. Of these quite the most popular was Isis. Serapis to Uraeus, Agathodaemon Serpent, the the and sacred and cult of Shrines existed there whereat the cult was practised, and the two serpents are frequent features
on

coins of the period.


p. 107, Fig. 84. Crete, 1907, p. 249, Fig. 117A. of Recherches. Del. Perse, XII, Fig. 394, and XIII,

*
" "

Evans, Mosso,

A.

J.,Cretan Piclographs,1895,

A., Palaces

de Morgan,

PI. XXXVII.

The

Genesis

of Coptic
30

Twists a?id Plaits.

1,04

^'^ Genesis But


we

of Coptic Twists

and Plaits.

a prominent that serpent worship was cult in the reUgious back to Fig. and with the ancient Persians system of the Sumerians (refer ii), Hnked into two the were have seen that the we prototype of the duplex. Space

know

will not allow of exhaustive proof, but I been considering all originally embodied

am
some

convinced

that the motives

we

have

The

twist, the plait and

the interplaited

cross

phase of the cult of the serpent. all part of the of ovals were

ritual of the archaic counterpart of Isis and Osiris. lost their pagan On Egypto-Roman and Coptic things they have, of course, decorative as are motives with one probably used merely significance, and This, by virtue of its being cruciform and dual, was exception, the duplex.
"

probably, as Dr. CoUey of Christ. Whether this


was

March

sajre,adopted

as

an

emblem

of the two-fold nature

early a date is not certain. But it is certain that both in pagan and Christian art these non-terminate plait motives had the Particularly idea the of good-luck. power of auspicious symbols, conveying its in these days, this the case was popularity with the duplex ; but we find,
so

at

so

has waned

"

its parent, the Swastika, has outlived it. Cyril

G. E. Bunt.

being the earliest forms of the twists facts distribution. The formula which their of and plaits accords with other is that the twist and plait is a Central Asian to agree with all the cases seems in Kirghiz tents) the wickerwork screens ; that from there it passed motive [see

[Theseconclusions

on

the Sumerian

down

the Euphrates, also into Syria, and firstinto Egypt under Hyksos influence. brought in Italy until the Dacian captives were Plaits and twists were unknown into from brought the basketin and set to mosaic work ; plaits were the north work capitals of true Gothic work osiers.

in the round plait in architecture only occurs in Italy, the Lombard and not plait being angular, rushwork In Ireland the spiral is alone in the pagan age, and the plait only comes

Justinian, and

in after Norse

influences of the Christian period.

"

W.

M. F.

P.]

( 105

THE

SPHINXES

OF

TANIS.

In the Annates du Service, 1917, M. Daressy opens the question of the peculiar in the sphinxes of Tanis, the fish-offerers type of art fouj^d statue. and the Fayum For figuresof these see Ancient Egypt, 1916, pp. 188-192, and plates. He points out that Zon or Zoan is distinctfrom Hauar or Avaris in the Memphitic list, and
; and that the absence of any mention of Tanis, on the monuments of and of any works of the great XVIIIth dynasty in early times. Suddenly to show how unimportant there, seems the place was dynasty it was in the XlXth as a II, and started northern capital by Ramessu filledwith sculptures brought from other places. Of the early statues five have
reason

that there is no Zon

to identify them

dedications belonging to Onkhtaui at Memphis, the laterworks of Ramessu II were made for the Heliopolitan gods, and a statue is dedicated to Upuat of Siut and Hathor of Dronkah by. From El Kab has come a near sphinx in white silicified limestone exactly like the Tanite sphinxes in work and dimensions. All these facts result in detaching this peculiar style of work from Tanis, and suggest that it is more probably southern.

Head

of

Tanis

Sphinx.

Head

of

Galla

Woman.

ground is thus cleared of an hypothesis that has confused the subject for fiftyyears past. The southern source of such work at El Kab paves the way in Maspero's for our recognising in the head of a Galla woman (published Struggle of the Nations," p. the same type as in the sphinxes from Tanis.
The
"

"

"

233)

and limits of this type in the south. bodywas struck by the similarity to the Tayesha, who were the guard Osman Semitic African Dagna, a tribe. of If now to regard these sculptures as representing a Sudani people, it we are is clear that they belong to an invasion between the Vlth and Xlth dynasty, as

We

require now Mr. Wainwright

an

enquiry

as

to the

sources

other period likely before the Hybros age when these figures were pressing appropriated. The break-up of the Old Kingdom was due to Mesopotamians from the south, Sudanis to in from the north the button-badges, and using

there is

no

"

who

took up Egyptian

art for their

own

second prehistoric civilisationwas Bubastite age was invasion from Ethiopia and Libya.

both

purposes. Elamite

Similarly the break-up of the and Nubian ; the end of the


To the weak, misfortunes

seldom

come

single.

W.

M.

F. Petrie.

106

ALEXANDRIAN

WORLD

MAPS.

As

of geographical learning where the world maps 200 were {circa of Eratosthenes {circa 150 A.D.) and Ptolemy published, B.C.) it may not be out of place to insert a short note on the possible survival of the former. The question of the authenticity of the actual maps accompanying discussed, but no one so far as the text of Ptolemy has recently been much
was

Alexandria

the centre

possibility that a copy of the earlier Hellenistic world scheme may stillexist. There is in the Harleian collection in the British Museum a very remarkable map of the world drawn in the gth or loth centuries. It seems to be the work of an Anglo-Saxon that is,it must be his copy scholar has suggested
the
"

I know

The way the cities are represented within their walls has earlier map. mosaic plan of Palestine, and the prominence of resemblances to the Madeba Constantinople a Alexandria was that as there all show such places and of
an

Hellenistic original. Another point of interest is the fact that or the of places in North Africa, to which Prof. Petrie called attention as being mentioned in the old tradition of the peopling of Britain, are named on

Byzantine

some

this map. as The map of the world given in Prof. Breasted's Ancient Times (1916) to have to me more than an seems the world according to Eratosthenes, In it we have an to our Saxon map. oblong world accidental resemblance
; India is at one end, and the Mediterranean Sea enters surrounded by ocean It is more at the other. still remarkable in comparison with the Harleian map by an inlet from as that the Caspian Sea is shown connected with the ocean this Sjnia Mesopotamia the are near the north. centre of world, which and on lies on the ocean the Saxon map as a rug rests on the floor. Furthermore,

of loosely-drawn lines, which are frequently roughly parallel, The names another. of countries and cities seem and at right angles to one in relation to these lines, which indicate boundaries or to have been set down His map of the known position. Now Dr. Breasted writes of Eratosthenes : world, including Europe, Asia and Africa, not only showed the regions grouped the first geographer with fair correctness, but he was about the Mediterranean latitude and able to lay out on his map a cross-net of lines indicating who was Harleian in the It seems longitude." collection must evident that the map be that the a map have had for its source with such lines upon it. It may there
are
a

number

"

less in harmony or with the map follows some original constructed more Alexandria his Cosmas, the 6th century traveller,who published at theories ,of It is probable, however, that Christian scheme of geography about 550 a.d. Eratosthenes Cosmas reverted to the flat-land of rather than inventing it afresh, to depend and in any case the Saxon map is too detailed and, indeed, too correct is There a on photographic reproduction of anything but a classical source. Encyclothe Harleian map in Trail'sSocial England and a small text block in the paedia

Saxon

Britannica

("Maps ").
W.
R. Lethaby.

107

THE
Ancient

SUBTERRANEAN
Aleppo

PASSAGES
Khalebu,

OF
the Greek

ALEPPO

CITADEL.
to have

(the Egyptian

is supposed Bercea)

known now as the stood entirely on the partly natural, partly artificial mound Citadel, which measures m. the X m. at 275 160 summit, and about 40 above the This seems level of the town. probable since no pre-Arab remains are to be from Egyptian in the town, although Aleppo is known and Babylonian been have to of extreme records antiquity. fortified, or more Under the Arab rule of Malik ez-Zahir, the mound was deep it dug was ; a moat round probably re-fortified and a strong defensive
seen

The wall of Ez-Zahir still stands, but the built round the summit. wall was interior of the Citadel is in ruins, the only modern building of any size being barrack. The remainder is a mass a Turkish of debris of Arab and Roman age which

could

easily

be

excavated

now

and

would

well

repay

thorough

examination.

Aleppo

Citadel

from

the

S.S.W.

The

Arab

Commanding

Officer told

me

that he had

was the barracks, and invited me subterranean passages near Lieut. Lee-Bross^ I accordingly called on him with not keen on doing it alone. He first to a chamber Spahis. led the us 1st (A)close to his quarters, at the of

the entrance to explore it as he

found

to

east end of which

about 4.50 m. The Arab

large rectangular well, the top being solid masonry and by m. west. east and 3.75 north and south, to a gallery built against the Officer then showed us the entrance
was a

This gallery was almost stopped up outside of the east wall of the chamber. It soon 20". downwards turned an at with rubbish, and sloped angle of about to the left at right angles, and began to follow round the outside of the well in a opening into the well at intervals counter-clockwise direction with windows in each circuit. At first this gallery was in a very bad condition, but became to a better and freer of rubbish as we went down. After two circuits we came now much small vertical shaft which we climbed down, after which the passage, larger, and with a well-cut staircase the whole of its breadth (about3J m.) longer built no At 16 m. depth the gallery was continued to wind downwards.

Io8

The Subterranean

Passages

of Aleppo Citadel.

in the rubbish, but cut in the soft limestone. This gives an approximate idea deposit on the Citadel. Although the passage was now of the depth of artificial in the rock, its tendency to crumble has necessitated arches and patches to hold
up and hold back the dangerous portions. As we went stilllower, the patches to be were made in pottery bricks, 0.23 m. long by 0.03 m. deep, which seem The level of the commencement Roman. was 26 m. of the pottery revetting below the ground level of the Citadel. About this level a gallery,now obstructed, appears
masonry
to
run

southwards.

At

30

m.

we

again

came

to

is now

arch at the entrance, and then apparently running totally stopped up with stones and rubbish. At 37.80 m., a very small passage opened out on the right of the main passage ; the roof had fallenin many I crawled in for about 25 m. almost due north and places and was very rotten.

gallery having a It north in the rock.


a

found the end. It apparently was a trialgallery leftuncompleted. A few metres farther on the main gallery ends in a pile of rubbish, though it may continue littlefurther. Here we went a down a small vertical shaft, which could be covered by stone slabs which lay beside it. At a depth of 3.50 m. we reached a small horizontal passage (H) which went back under the main gallery for about Here a larger gaUery ran left and right. We firstturned to the right, 1.50 m. to the well, being now almost at the bottom of it and after about 3 m. we came
into it and could see straight up the shaft ; this was 41.34 m. below the surface of the Citadel. The curious part of the shaft was that the four sides were corrugated, and gave the effect of looking up the The bottom of the well was concertina extension of a kodak. partly filled with

(i.e., within

I was ft.).

lowered down

stones

above, and beneath the shaft the depth of the water varied from a couple of inches to a foot. On the east, south and west sides of the bottom of the well, large galleriesabout 2 m. high and i"50 broad, distance. The entrances of these had masonry arches, ran away for a unknown
and

filthdropped

down

from

keystones, and the galleries themselves were well rendered I could not follow these more as the water than about 10 m. with cement. became deeper owing to there being less rubbish the farther one goes from the well-shaft. The stench was bad, but with thigh boots one should be able to follow made without
these passages to their ends wherever they may be. These are shown at (M,N, O), in accompanying It seems if these were as gigantic water conduits for plan. With sufficient time I believe that the exits of these the supply of the town. be discovered even conduits could without following them internally, as they
must

"

"

communicate disposal so it was work


to do.
was

We

We only had three days at our with the river somewhere. for to us the search further, as we had other out of question then returned to the branch passage at (B)which, as has been

remarked,

passage (BD). is very finely After proceeding north for 58.50


"

about 2 m. above the water level of the well, and followed the The section of this gallery is shown at (Q), and the whole of it being obviously a water-channel. rendered," its primary

object

m.,

it is paved with large blocks. Below these blocks there is a small channel, 0.35 by 0.35 m. protected by a strong iron grating running forward. The whole gallery is obstructed about 1.30 m. At this place further on, and no jnore progress was possible without excavation. found a limestone block 0.75 by 0.60 by 0.28 m., having a cufic inscription we
turns
m. on

as and west-south-west to the sharply right.

shown Here after 6.60

it turns west for 31.40 m., and then southwest at (DE, EF and FG). At (G) the passage

it in relief, the block being upside down and not Lieut. Brosse copied this as far as he could, and I can

belonging to the masonry. furnish a copy to anybody

The

Subterranean

Passages

of Aleppo Citadel.

109

who specializes in this class of inscriptions. At the point (J)there is a small hole opening out of the gallery. I squeezed through this, and found myself at i m. the bottom diameter, of a circular shaft running vertically upwards (about I by m. found large this the top high). 5.10 climbed up and and covered slabs of stone which

T could

not

shift.

crumbling and earthy, which distance below ground level. This shaft, 1.20 diameter, opening led into another shaft running vertically upwards. At m. high. the top was the on the there was a sort of 7 of north shaft doorway of limestone about 0.80 m. wide, the jambs being smoothly dressed. We could not
rubbish.
see

I noticed the soil here was softer and more that top the the no shaft was of showed great We then returned to the point (G) where a small

the height

owing

to

its being
a

partially filledup
mason's

with

stones

and
the

The

right

jamb

of the door has

mark,

much

resembling
IS

MOftT
"
O
m.

20r

V"*L".

Of

M""-'"

"2

^""'"

A-Sm.

tnlntut.

BflRR/"CKS

w"B

fMooCRN)
MoSyuC

(Ruin)

CITADEL OF ALEPPO
'onkh, 0.23 m. could easily be cleared.

;^ooo

The chamber was almost entirely^filled up, but the other side of the shaft running up at an angle of a large gallery roughly cut in the earthy about 50" and 150" east of north, was limestone and 10 m. long. At the top of this, turning to the left,we could just long. On

Egyptian

(H) This was separated from an squeeze into a small masonry antechamber apparently larger chamber by a heavy basalt door, leaning at about 60" outwards from its frame which consisted of four blocks of basalt. The dimensions of the
.

door

were 1.38 m. high ; 0.75 m. wide and 0.17 thick. On the west and on the inner side there is a cruciform recess for a bolt. Above this lock recess is a hole for the door pivot ! The roof of the antechamber consists of a circular column

was of basalt. The inner chamber very much obstructed by rubbish, but by crawling in I could see that the roof by the door consisted of basalt 0.42 m. The inner chamber diameter, and a square sectioned block of the same material.

smaller chamber roofed with slabs. This place was thoroughly, unsafe of clearing and without a certain amount examine shoring, which we had not time to do. In the accompanying chart the dotted parts show the buildings, etc. above been ground ; they have enlarged from a military map, and I do not vouch for
seems

to lead into another to

too

no

The Subterranean The underground fairly accurate.


of
a

Passages

of AUppo Citadel.

their accuracy.
compass

and

are

nearly under the foundations slope of the Citadel. Point

surveyed by us with a prismatic passages were It will be seen that the chamber at (H) comes Arab tower, in now ruins, on the small square
must
more

however, (H),
a

be at

the connected to the north Tower was Citadel. This was blocked up, and
entrance

ancient side leading straight up into the we could not find itsother end in the Citadel.) At the point (J) the level of the moat is distinctlyhigher than elsewhere, and I level. It is very do not think that the gallery at (J)is very deep below moat town. probable that the passage runs out under the
on

be

to

foundations

of its south

lower level, and much building. (The Arab

This the moat. I think the function of the gallery (B D E F G J) was to fill in to height rose the well. sufficient would be done automatically when the water to The subsidiary passages and shafts (J and H) were cut connect probably double serve a Citadel, the buildings then standing with the making conduits is That danger of invasion from these passages was apprehended purpose. obvious, since in the spiral well passage small shafts, mentioned earUer, were be easily blocked. constructed, so that the passage up into the Citadel could have Arabs the date, As to the added and adapted certain parts may although It certainly would repay this was I their think that it, work. cannot original of be basketed as the a detailed examination, along into the well all rubbish could and removed from there. chamber before ; information as to whether this has been examined no I can
get the local inhabitants
are

that the Citadel was war may have possible that the Turks or Germans during the hear if anything is known passages. I should be very glad to
matter.

entirely ignorant of it, except that with the Bab connected underground

one

old Arab told It is Antakiyeh.


these examined further of this

R. Engelbach, Capt. R.E.

(T.R.).

III

KHEKER

FRIEZES.

Topographical Catalogue of Private Tombs of Thebes," by Gardiner and Weigall. A.E., Ancient Egypt, C.F.Y., Carnarvon, Five Years' Explorations Thebes. Davies, Ptah-hetep. K. King's Tomb. D.P., at

[Number refetences are

to the

"

L.D., Lepsius, Denkmdler. The


extreme

P.D.A., Petrie, Decorative Art.

Q.,Queen's Tomb.]

in the Xllth

upper portions of the walls of painted and sculptured tombs dynasty, and also more and XVIIIth rarely in later times, were finished form decoration, a known as the off with usually peculiar of commonly Kheker ornament. glyphs and in later hieroin form Khekeru, as the plural with the toilet, and also has figure Kheker its determinative. the a as ornament, meaning which word of It is this word for ornament to this distinctive variety of that has given its name
occurs

The word Kheker in connection

fairly often both in Old Kingdom

ornamentation. form of the Kheker most often thus employed in the Theban Necropolis is that shown in Fig. i, where it seems to represent a series of reed or plant tied the tops together at stems and gathered in again close above the base, below The Another suggestion for the meaning of this more. which they spread out once decoration is that it represents the fringe or tassel of a carpet or mat, the roundel The plant theory is probably the more above the base being a knot. satisfactory form first Prof. Petrie, by was the explanation of who wrote : and suggested
a screen of papjTus stems, the roofing stems tied on to the uprights and the loose wiry leaves at the head tied together to keep them from straggling Here we have all the details of the Kheker ornament over and looking untidy.
"

Egyptian

Suppose

simply resulting from structural necessity. The leaves are gathered together at the lower tying ; and there the end view of the concentric coats of the papyrus stems of the roof are seen as concentric circles,above which the leaves bulge out (P.D.A., and are tied together at the top." 101-2.) This view of the origin of the Kheker ornament finds support in the fact that
the Kheker
occurs,

frieze is practically always in painted scenes moreover, as


are

found
a

at the top of

doorways

(iii and shrines when such and Q. 36, 44, 52, In instances Amunezek, Menkheperasenb, and perhaps more), three (Puimre, 55). however, a row Khekers kind a as serves of low square fence or enclosure in the of It funeral in inner scenes the of 39, 84 and 112. ceremonies chambers of Tombs is also to be seen running down one side of the interior of a shrine in Tomb Q. 52,
Thyti.
is known no example of the use of a of the Old Kingdom frieze to ornament the upper portion of the walls of a tomb, although it is employed to decorate the tops of shrines and doorways, etc., when such are depicted

depicted

free standing on tomb walls

It wall in a tomb. to the tops of ornament


a

In the tombs

Kheker

on

the tomb

that shown

walls. The Kheker is always of the pointed variety, very similar to in Fig. 4, in shape but not in colour, but usually with two roundels

112

Kheker

Friezes.

below the other, of which the lower one takes the place one ii, base an the of of ordinary Kheker (L.D. loi). In the tomb of Ptah-hetep. however, a Kheker with the base as shown in Fig. 5 is used for the sign WSHT I, {D.P., xviii).
by dancers in scenes in the tombs A peculiar headdress sometimes worn of the is also suggestive of the Kheker ornament, Middle Kingdom its especially upper portion (C.F.Y. viii; A.E. 1914, 126). the Khekers began to be employed as a frieze form was in use (Fig. that most commonly walls, the splay-topped i). in tombs of the XVIIIth This variety is also the most common dynasty in the Theban Necropolis, though the pointed variety is still employed in minor positions. During Ramesside times, the pointed form reappears again as a frieze, but only in when

at the bottom, placed

In the Middle Kingdom

for tomb

the Royal

Tombs,

the splay-topped
are

form stillremaining

in

use

in the private

tombs. Splay-topped Khekers

alwa)^ drawn at the top of a tomb wall in a row, The colouring until with their bases touching, or almost touching, one another. XVIIIth is beyond dynasty the the constant, namely, blue outmiddle of rather side, bands being similarly coloured with bands red inside and green between, the tie of blue and green above and below a middle band of red, five bands in all. The roundel at the base is also painted with
one an

outer circular band

of blue,

an

inner

of green and a red centre. Towards the end of the XVIIIth dynasty and also in the Ramesside period, were the roundels of the Kheker ornament commonly painted of one colour Kheker or was only, red yellow, though the remaining portion of the coloured in
the old way.

have, however, six exceptions in the Necropolis in Tombs 38, 76, In the last of these tombs the Khekers forming the frieze K. 22. 77, 91, 147 and are at the northern end of the outer chamber coloured blue, green and white. It is possible, however, that it was intended to eventually add red, and thus give the frieze the normal colouring. In the roundels of the Khekers in Tombs 76, intended and used, i.e., 77, 91, 147 and K. 22 only two colours were red and blue, the red being in the centre and predominating. In some of the tombs of the end of the XVIIIth dynasty, and in most of those of Ramesside date, instead of being painted with the usual stripes of blue, green and red, the tie of the Kheker is painted entirely in yellow and the stripes or bands are indicated by lines of red or black (Fig. 2). The earliestdate at which the yellow tie first appears in Khekers in the Theban Necropolis is the time of Thutmosis
it appears more frequently in the time of Thutmosis IV, as may be seen in Tombs 58, 75, 76, 77, 89, 90, 91, 116, etc., though in some tombs of this date, and even later, the usual five coloured bands are still In three tombs (76, 84, Khekers with the usual blue, green and to be seen.

We

III

but (Tomb 112),

112)

red ties are found on some of the walls, while on others the ties are coloured sent yellow. It is interesting to note that the linesdrawn on the yellow ties to reprethe former bands of colour are not always true as to number, showing that the old features

already being forgotten. In most cases, as shown in uncompleted tombs, the Kheker pattern was set mined ones out with the aid of six horizontal lines,the top and bottom of which deterThe two lines below the top one marked out the the height of the Kheker.
were

proper width of the tie,and the remaining two fixed the position of the roundel These lines were always set out with the aid of a at the base of the ornament. in 22, red ruddle (21, 43, 78, 82, 112, King Haremheb). cord soaked

Kheker

Friezes.

"3

Owing
were

to the irregularity of the ceiUng, only

drawn

in

some

tombs,

the height of the Kheker

five of these horizontal lines the usual top line being omitted, with the result that frieze varies considerably on the same wall. The usual

7, Tomb

8, Tomb

255; 9, Tomb

51 ;

10,

11,

Tomb

45.

reasons

for this
a

prevented

either poor work level ceiling being cut.

were

or

the excessive hardness of the rock which


H

114

Kheker

Friezes.

82 there are seven horizontal lines provided for the proportioning frieze, the extra one running through the middle of the roundel. of the Kheker lines in Tomb There are also seven 78, the seventh line marking the width of a In Tomb disc
over

the Kheker.

to these lines. The top of the that the artist kept strictly line the the top roundel is frequently below above and projects fore, the space provided for it between the two guiding lines. It would appear, therethat these horizontal lines sometimes served as rough guides only and not as Hence the great variation in the position of the roundel and definiteboundaries.

Kheker

It rarely happened frequently

tie that is often met with in the Khekers on the same wall. The distance between the topmost and lowest horizontal lines is found to of these distances and averaging them, it has vary greatly. Taking a number been found that the three heights for the Kheker in
use

friezethat

were

most

commonly

on

180, 196, and 204 milhmetres. In careful work, three, and sometimes the proper width tomb wall to ensure
were

In every case these lines were fine brush, which lead to their being easily obscured when three lines were used the middle one painted in. When

Kheker.

five vertical lines were also drawn and proportion being given to each carefully drawn in red paint with a the background
ran
Wcis

down
In
cases

of the Kheker and the remaining two fixed its outer limits. lineswere employed, the additional two marked the inner edge in cases top of most splays outwards at the extreme which in lines were these that most vertical of the utilised probable
better workmanship, background, which but, if so,

the centre where five

of the blue stripe, It is the Kheker.

tombs which show in been have cases they most obscured by the as a rule was painted in last, doubtless for this purpose. be seen are Nos. 22, 87, 88, 112, 201 and 251. Tombs in which these linescan still in in be seen can Lines for the spacing of pointed Khekers (four

number)

be noted here that as pointed Khekers have no ties,four lines are sufficientto set them out. the Kheker On one wall at least in the inner chamber of Tomb 42 (Amenmose), for to the drawn on similar squares frieze was those used purpose of figure Necropolis, and This was a very unusual drawing. proceeding in the Theban

Q. 38,

and it may

there is apparently only the one example. In rough work, the whole Kheker was merely outlined in red before the but in more the were carefully finished tombs additional lines applied, colours
were

added In most

to

89, mark the limits of the coloured bands (Tombs 42, 72, ']'],

201,

etc.).
painted in, a white line after the colours of the Khekers were was and also placed over the edges of the stripes of colour to hide their junction to emphasise their colours. These white lines were very carefully put on in some tombs and in others very roughly, so that they vary much in thickness and
cases

regularity.

rarely outlined in white, with the outside of the Kheker was exception of the margin of the roundel. In one tomb (42) the artistevidently ran short of red paint when drawing the outlines of his Khekers and employed blue instead for the purpose.

The

few of the better finished tombs was figures. For instance, to definite proportions, as in the case of human subject from the tie upwards should be equal in height to that the top of the ornament from the bottom of the roundel ; also the of the base as measured downwards

It

seems

that the Kheker

ornament

in

depth of the tie should be the

same

as

that of the top and

base.

The

diameter

Kheker

Friezes.

115

of the roundel was generally half as wide again as the height of the upper portion, base and tie of the Kheker when drawn perfectly round; in most tombs, however, it assumes The body of the Kheker appears not to a sUghtly ellipticalform. have been to any definite proportions, hence the Kheker in ornaments

subject
tdu

apparent divergence in proportion, some in form. appearing slightly attenuated and others the reverse The Kheker friezes in Tombs 45 and 260 present a peculiar feature which various tombs"

comparison

show

an

the writer has not been able to find in any other tomb, namely, three small black spots placed above the three middle bands of colours at the apex of the ornament and also a series of five similar spots down each vertical edge of the tie (see six
on
was

left of Fig.

i).

It appears

to have

been

very rarely carried out, as, in the two in which As the two tombs treated in this manner. not all the Khekers were Khekers these spotted than a mile apart and, curiously enough, appear. are more it does not seem he together, near tombs nearly always probable that similar they
were

refinement in the decoration that tombs in which this addition appears,


a

artist,neither do they agree in style. A curious addition was to the splay-topped Kheker at the close of made dynasty, namely, a round ball placed on the top of the ornament the XVIIIth The earliest date at which this is met with in this Necropolis is that (Fig. the work of the
same

3)
.

and Ramose,^ and of one tomb in which the name of the tombs of Surere Ramose is erased, the first III, and the third and fourth two being of the time of Amenophis IV. As this addition to the Kheker is not found in any of that of Amenophis above, it might well be possible that of earlier date than those mentioned There seems foreign influence had something to do with its appearance. no doubt that this ball at the top of the Kheker represented the sun, or rather the tomb disc of the
was

sun,

and

always and into general use in Ramesside addition to the Kheker came shortly before ; the new times, when the Kheker ornament, with other friezes,was used in conjunction II. feature in tombs, especially in those of the period of Rameses a common

that account This undecorated.


on

it
was

was

invariably painted red probably due to the Aten

or

yellow, influence

in the period of Amenophis It would appear that it became the custom III-IV to colour the roundel of the Kheker either red or yellow and no longer to decorate it with the usual circular bands and centre of blue, green and red. are The sculptured roundels of the Khekers in Tomb 48 (Surere) unfortunately in but, incised as are the they not painted, concentric rings, it not chisel with intended to be painted one colour only. The would appear that they were
however, both sculptured disc form of the roundel This and ornamented with coloured concentric rings. was tombs, with the exceptions that in Tomb 216 the also usual in Ramesside 220, is in blue, Tombs 112, roundel 148 and 259 the 19, 35, 134, 135, painted and from the graceful shape of the old colouring is retained. A marked deterioration early Kheker is noticeable in Ramesside times in the Theban Necropolis, not only in For instance, probably important ones. the smaller tombs, but even in the more owing to the non-use of the usual five or six horizontal lines which helped the

roundels of the Khekers

in Tomb

192

were, (Kharuef)

"

There

are

two

tombs been III.

with
In

the

name

of RamSse.
Dr. Gardiner the

One

of these

(No. 46) cannot

be

strictly dated, the Kheker


or

but

has

period of Amenophis
with

assigned this tomb


and

by

in consideration

of style, etc., to the

yellow roundel

chamber and

corridor of the tomb

with a yellow roundel and ordinary Kheker the former in the outer both disc are employed, yellow (Nos. 48, 46, 55 and the latter in the inner chamber.
H
2

188.)

1 16

Kheker

Friezes.

the Kheker tends to become more artist to proportion his ornament, and more in it is in drawn by the tie. slender appearance, especially at the top, where Sometimes, also, the very order of the colours which was insisted on in the

altered by inserting an extra band of colour, as in Tombs 19, 31, 45, 106, 134, 135, 255, etc., or by the reversal of the greens and blues, being found in only one tomb (No.30, Khensmose). the latter error There are two interesting examples in the Necropolis of Khekers outside XVIIIth d5Tiasty
was

the periods of the XVIIIth, Tomb 60 (Antefoker), which

In every respect the later periods, with those the corresponds with of blue the one exception that the outer band, now almost faded away, is outside the tie and not within it. The second example is in Tomb 36 (Aba), which is of XXVIth Kheker to dynasty, where the the the usual shape but the conforms

dynasties. and XXth belongs to the Xllth dynasty.

XlXth

The

firstis found in

Kheker

ornament

in this tomb

being coloured arrangement of the colours is different. Instead of the ornament blue, green and red, reading from the outside, the order of the colours is in this blue, red and blue, the roundel being correspondingly treated. In other case, tomb the Khekers are painted entirely yellow. parts of the same It has already been mentioned that the Kheker ornament ran along the but found in a to be Tombs top are there extreme of wall, 35, 161 exceptions is placed below a floral frieze and and 254. In the first tomb, the ornament separated from it by a broad band of blue. The second tomb, on the western end, also has a floralfrieze with a Kheker frieze beneath it, and the last tomb has a broad band of Chequer pattern above the Kheker frieze, consisting of seven
rows one

of small coloured squares alternating with white squares, each row being of colour only, blue, green and red. On the two side walls of the western end of this tomb there is also a band of yellow above the Kheker frieze. A similar use of yellow may be seen above parts of the frieze in the inner
owing to the irregularity of the roof, a in places between the top of the frieze and the ceiling. Rather wide gap occurs than leave this bare, the decorator of the tomb coloured it with yellow. In the tomb of Queen Nefertari a border painted to resemble sand is placed above the Khekers on some of the walls. chamber of Tomb

147

(noname),where

below

64, 76 and (40, 253)there is a thin band of ornamentation just line, f Tail-edging." This form of decoration is known as ceiling as though it is common very rarely placed above a Kheker ornament, vertical bands for the corners tombs. of
the

In four tombs

the Kheker frieze is painted on the walls supporting a barrel-shaped or arched roof, it is sometimes put wholly or partially above the spring of the it vaulting, which makes appear to be part of the ceilingdecoration and not that of the wall. In such barrel-vaulted chambers, it should be noted that the

When

friezefollows

height as on the the two end walls at the same straight line across of the ceiling, side walls, no attempt being made to make it follow the curve left in is, A the therefore, above the except shrine of 93. semi-circular space
a

friezeon

the end walls which deceased for whom the tomb


a

is generally filledin either with two figures of the was made, adoring a figure of Anubis couchant on or with various figures pedestal of gods and emblematic signs. is In a few cases the Kheker ornament (38, 40, 43, 75, 90, 253, 254 and

258),

of the walls of a tomb, the corresponding portion of the only found on some walls being decorated with floral friezes. Both the pointed and splay-topped

forms of Kheker

are

to be found together in three tombs

42, (Nos.

106 and

253),

Kheker the firstcase

Friezes.

wj

be

seen

on

the

wall of Tomb to end with Kheker

being especially interesting because the two kinds are actually to same wall. In this connection, it should be noted that on one a length of the Kheker frieze is found end 75 (Amenhotpe-si-se)

but there are white or grey background, in thirteen tombs exceptions, which may (21, 26, 40, 46, 51, 55, 76, 89, In these tombs the colour of the background 106, 130, 147, 253 and 259). of friezes is either red or yellow, in spite of the fact that the scenes the Kheker

strip of floral frieze. friezes usually have a

be

seen

below
or

the usual white shrines of certain tombs,

have

or

light-grey ground, except in the inner chambers in which the background is yellow (21, 26, 40, 51,

55, 76, 89 and 253). find in We even


Kheker
and The
ornament

some

tombs
same

in the

both coloured and white backgrounds for the 89 chamber, though not on the same wall (76,

253).

pointed form of the Kheker was the only form used in the Royal Tombs Ramesside date, except in that of Sety I. It is also met with in nine of the of tombs but, with the 40, 42, 78, 85, 93, 106, 178 and of the Nobles (39,

253),
a a

exception of four of these tombs (42, 78, 106 and 253)it occupies position. The pointed form first appears in this Necropolis as
,

very subordinate frieze in tombs

II (42, 85 and of Amenophis 93). colouring of these pointed Khekers varies considerably, and in no case does it resemble the colouring of the splay-topped, or ordinary type of Kheker, K. 22 and Q. 52. In with the exception of Tomb 106 and the two Royal Tombs five of the tombs of the Nobles (39, the 40, 178 and pointed Khekers are of about The the time

253)

only in two

blue, yellow (or red in 40) and blue, red being or the a broad mass yellow and green, and green of one of arrangement in Kheker, bordered by a narrower the middle of the these colours on all the edges The roundels are band of a second colour. treated in the same way, the colours, either red

(?) and

centre

of

tombs

colour being surrounded by a thin band of another colour. In two (106and 178)the roundels of this form of Kheker are painted wholly in
one

yellow. The

78 (Fig.4) deserve special attention as the nothing colouring is known elsewhere in the regards Necropolis. The middle portion of the upper part of the ornament is coloured in horizontal bands or rather blocks of blue, red and green separated by thin lines of yellow. The outer portions of the Kheker are painted yellow and the
as

pointed Khekers quite like them

in Tomb

base is coloured in alternate bands of blue and yellow. The roundel, as will be noticed in the illustration,is a very elaborate one and consists of a blue centre surrounded by a ring of red with decorated with white radii. The of those belonging to the roundel, In the Royal
as
was

Tombs

ring of blue outside that again ; it is further various bands of colours, with the exception are edged with thin lines of dark red. the pointed Kheker is coloured in much the same way
a

those noted in the tombs of the Nobles, that is,in two colours, one of which These are, however, two variants which are not to be found used as a border. in
a

used

of the Nobles, the first being decorated with thin vertical stripes of blue, red, blue, green, blue and red, the last being in the centre. The roundel and base are similarly treated with these colours. Here we have an arrangement of colouring very similar to that of the ordinary

Kheker

frieze in the tombs

Kheker, splay-topped except instead of the normal five.

that

there

are

eleven

vertical bands

of colours
H

ii8

Kheker

Friezes.

The second variety is that shown in Fig. 5, a blue Kheker ornamented with fine lines (either dark blue or black) and edged with yellow. This can be seen in Tombs K. 11, Q. 43 and Q. 55, except that the colouring is in the first of these
yellow, and in the second and third blue and red, green In the tomb of Amenophis III, and blue predominating in the respective cases. Khekers in are are the columns and pointed only present on ornamented exactly the same way as the ordinary Kheker, the roundel being painted red and edged
two

tombs

green and

with blue. As a general rule, the colour of the roundels of the pointed Khekers agrees but in seven with that of the remaining portion of the ornament, of the Royal Tombs the roundels are coloured red, III) (Q. 42, 43, 51, 52, 55, Siptah, Rameses
in three of these tombs (Q. 43, 51, K. 11), and edged with yellow in the remaining four, the body of the Khekers being painted either green or blue and In the case of Tomb Q. 51, however, the Kheker edged with yellow or white. is blue and edged with red.

wholly

so

It is curious that

Tombs

are

purpose dominant
In
as

of the roundels of the pointed Khekers in the Royal so popular for the wholly painted yellow, seeing that this colour was in the splay-topped Khekers. Yellow was also never used as the
none

colour in
case,

no

is so

common

pointed Kheker, but was solely employed as an edging. a ball or disc placed on the top of a pointed Kheker, either, was the type. with splay-topped
a

In the Royal backgrounds,

the former

employed as a the splay-topped form. In tombs in which


the Kheker

pointed Khekers are provided with either red or grey being the most never popular colour. Yellow was background for this form of Kheker, though it was so used with

Tombs

are the scenes the tombs of the Nobles, carved among is ornament usually either merely painted on the smooth rock face or the bare outlines, and sometimes the divisions of the colours, are incised. In some cases the frieze is carved in relief,as may be seen in Tombs 48, 57, 55,

sculptured tombs, the Kheker friezeis merely painted on some tomb is both carved and then painted. walls and on other wails in the same for this was The reason the as probably necessity of finishing a tomb as soon found the cost of sculpturing the whole of the possible,either because the owner decoration of his tomb too much for his resources or because he died before his

106, etc.

In many

tomb

was

completed.

are very heavily plastered, the Khekers are of the Royal Tombs frequently found to be cut in this plaster as well as being merely painted. This in the tombs of the Queens. is most common

As

most

Tombs
Tomb.

in

which

Khekers
Colour Disc.
of

are

found

with

Disc

at

the

Apex

(asFig. 3).

Seti I.
Haremhab.

Yellow. Yellow.

19.
23-

Red.
Yellow.
Yellow.

26. 30. 31-

Red.

Red.

It will be seen from the foregoing list that out of a total of 25 tombs, after excluding the five, which are either blackened, uncoloured or doubtful, there are eight tombs with friezes of Khekers surmounted with a disc that stillhave blue, green and red. In their roundels painted in the old colours, namely, in the tombs the that nine of roundels agree colour with of their discs, and in five tombs the roundel is painted red if the disc is yellow or vice versa. It may be gathered from this list, therefore, that the colouring of the new feature of influence disc did the the colour of the roundel. not always In two of these tombs (Nos.148 and 189)it is difficultto tell whether the for the discs was colour employed originally red or yellow, owing to the tombs having been badly burnt, thus causing a possible change of yellow to red.
At the close of the XVIIIth

in

with other symbols. conjunction the splay-topped form that is the 51 (Q. and
new

Ramesside is
so

tomb

ornament often appears it is always it is used in this manner two but being one there examples employed, in Thebes where the pointed of Foucart,

dynasty When

the Kheker

1918)

used. design in friezeswhere Khekers are used with other figures is a Hathor a head alternatingwith figures of Anubis couchant on pedestal, Khekers. the figures and heads being separated from each other by two or more Next in order of popularity is a row of figures of Anubis being divided by groups of Khekers. Only
one on
a

variety of Kheker The commonest

pedestal, the figures

heads has up to the present been found where Hathor example the southern wall of a frieze on as appear alone with Khekers, and this occurs frieze is The Kheker form a Tomb to ornament with the symbols also used 45. H 4

I20

Kheker

Friezes.

frieze, other a 65. Sometimes and Thet in the inner chamber of Tomb in Kheker floral the a was than one, any way, as made up without employing With the exception of one tomb (No.71, be seen in Tombs can 14, 16, 45, etc. date, and for convenience Ramesside are sake the Senmut),all such tombs of appear are given in style of ornament and the order in which the ornaments Khekers are list, which also deals with those friezes in which an appended Dad combined
with other figures.

Kheker

Ornament

in

conjunction
couchant

with
on

Representations
a

of

the

God

Anubis Tomb 30.


I

Pedestal. vertical band of inscription,

Kheker,
I

Anubis,

Kheker,
etc.

Kheker,

Anubis,
2

31.
"

Khekers,

Anubis,

Khekers,

Anubis, etc.

35. 189.

(Inner chamber.) 3
Same
as

Khekers,

Anubis, 3 Khekers,

Anubis, etc.

"

35. Anubis, 3 pointed Khekers, Anubis, etc.

..

Q- 51-

3 pointed Khekers,

Kheker

Ornament
couchant
on a

in

conjunction Pedestal,
with

with or

Hathor
without

Heads Vertical

and

Anubis Bands
of

Inscriptions Tomb 41.

8, (Figs. 9). Hathor head,


i

i Kheker, (Shrine.)

Kheker,

Anubis,

Kheker,

Hathor
"

head, etc.
Anubis,
i

51.

Kheker,
I

Kheker,
etc.

Anubis,

Kheker,

Hathor

head,

Kheker,

Anubis,
Hathor

"

135.

Khekers,
Anubis,

head,
etc.

Anubis,

Khekers,

Hathor

head,

3 Khekers,

"

148.

3 Khekers, band of inscription, Anubis, band of inscription, Hathor head, band of inscription, 3 Khekers, etc.
3

"

157.

Khekers,

band of inscription, Anubis, 3 Khekers, band of inscription, Hathor head, band of inscription, 3 Khekers,
etc.

,,

158.

3 Khekers, band of inscription, Hathor head, band of inscription, 3 Khekers, band of inscription,Anubis, band of inscription,
etc.

"

159. 178.

Same

as

No. 158.

"

3 Khekers, Hathor head, etc.

head, 3 Khekers, Anubis, 3 Khekers, Hathor

"

255.

Anubis,

2 2

bands

tion, Hathor head, 2 bands of inscripof inscription, Khekers, 2 bands of inscription,Anubis, etc.

Kheker Tomb

Ornament

used

in

conjunction

with

Dais

and

Thets.

65.

(Inner chamber.)5
2

Khekers,

Dads,

Thets,

Dads, 5 Khekers,

Dads,

etc.

Kheker

Friezes.
with

121

Kheker Tomb

Ornament

used

in

conjunction

Hathor
head, 3

Heads

(Fig. 10).
Hathor

45.

(South wall.) 3
head,
etc.

Khekers,

Hathor

Khekers,

"

58.

(Inner chamber.) 2
band
2

Khekers,
2

band

of inscription,Hathor
etc.

head,

of inscription, band

Khekers,

"

163.

Khekers,

of inscription, Hathor of inscription, etc.

head,

Khekers, band

Kheker

Ornament

used

in

conjunction
Anubis.

with

Figures

of

Deceased

Adoring

Tomb

134.

(Inner chamber.) Deceased,


3 Khekers, band

2 bands of inscription, Anubis, inscription,deceased, etc. of

Frieze

made

up

of

Figures

of

the

Deceased

Adoring

Anubis

(Fig. ii).

Tomb

16.

(Northwall only.)

3 bands of inscription, deceased adoring Shen sign. Anubis, 3 Nefer signs, Utchat eye, incense jar, length the the (Thesesymbols occupy wall and whole of therefore not are

repeated.)

"

(? 7a). Anubis,
45.

of inscription, deceased inscription, Anubis, etc.

band

and his wife, band

of

"

(Eastern and

western walls of southern end of tomb.) Band of inscription, figure of deceased, band of inscription, Anubis, band of inscription, figure of deceased, etc.

Frieze

made

up

of

Small
Anubis

Figures
and

of a

Deceased
Head.

and

his

Wife

Adoring

Hathor

Tomb

221.

Band

of inscription, deceased and his wife before Anubis, band of inscription, deceased and his wife.

Frieze Tomb 31.

made

up

of

Daci Signs

only.

(Two walls
2

in outer
etc.

chamber.) 2

Dads,

bands

of inscription,

Dads,

Frieze

of

Anubis

couchant

on

Pedestal

alternate

with

Hathor

Heads.

Tomb

58.

(Inner chamber.) Hathor


etc.

head, Anubis, Hathor


Tomb
2

head, Anubis,

"

166.

(Jamb of
Hathor

entrance
2

to

Same shrine.)

as

58.
bands

"

149.

head,

bands head.

of inscription, Anubis,

tion^ of inscrip-

Hathor

122

Kheker
made

Friezes.
on
a

Frieze

up

of

Anubis

couchant OTHER

Pedestal

with

Dad,

Thet

and

Signs.

Tomb

14.

Anubis, Thet, Dad, Thet, Anubis, Thet, Dad, etc.

Frieze

of

Hathor

Heads

and

Coloured

Cones

6). (Fig.

Tomb

71.

(Outerchamber.)

Frieze Tomb 6.

of

Hathor

Heads

with

supplementary

NeferSigns.

(Secondchamber.)
three tombs 13, (Nos. first one Anubis is
an

There
friezes
are

are

destroyed.

The
an

and the front portion of of the frieze in the second

166 and 184, outer chamber)in which the has only a vertical band of inscription figure left of its frieze. The sole remains eye on a Neb sign. In the third in groups of three formed part of these Khekers are now symbols between Utchat

tomb
see

tomb

it is

justpossible to
intervening

that Khekers
or

the frieze. The

signs

entirely gone.

Numbers

and

names

of tombs

mentioned

in this article :
"

15. Shuroy. 19. Amenmose.


21.

User.

22.

Wah.

31. Khons. 35. Bekenkhons.

38. Zeserkarasonb. 39. Puimre. 40. Amenhotpe 42. Amenmose.


or

Huy.

43. Neferronpet. 45. Dhout, usurped

by

Dhutemheb. 48. Surere. 55. Ramose.

57. Khaemhet. 58. Unknown.


64. Hekerenheh.

123

1^
REVIEWS.

Die Annalen Geschichle. Ludwig


"

und

die zeitlicheFestlegung des Alien Reiches der Agyptischen Borchardt. 1917. 64 pp., 6 plates. (Berlin, Behrend.)

In this study of the Palermo stone, and other pieces of the similar Annals, there is certainly one solution of the problem ; but we must ask, is this the only solution ? The main idea is that the five rows of year-spaces, each of different in divisions, the can only rarely coincide and therefore the terminals spacing, of these different series can position. This will be seen Dr. Borchardt be found by continuing them Egypt, described in Ancient

up

to

coinciding

1916, pp. 116-118; doubt no already on that track before protests that he was English been had in The here the method 1902. of 1916 and already worked the irregularitiesprevent accurate conclusions that at verdict in 1916 was This been by Dr. distance. has ignored Borchardt, the who states any great
"

"

"

"

breadths of spaces to five places of figures,while his actual measures were only in 83-6, in 83'0, in 11 11 to three figures (11spaces in 78-25 mm., 9 yo-i, 8 in by the lower four registers, the firstlength was 63*5 ; and, judging 77-25 and is Much in more the was the variation serious regularity of the

misread).

spaces, which vary as 65 : 70, 53 : 58, 45 : 50, 57 : 62. Hence there are several solutions fairly possible for coincidences of the lines of the registers; such as the numbers 24, 18, 22, 26, 21 ; or 81, 61, 75, 89, 71 ; or 146, no, 135, 160, 128 Herr There is yet more or 122, ; (nearly Borchardt's) 162, 150, 178, 142.
uncertainty there is an each Until being derived from photographs. all the measures accurate direct measurement made of every line and thickness of is for The best determination to it try refinements. wasted time of the stones, between the various possible number of spaces is the general character

due

to

of the spaces

on

the back,

agree to the length which the front ; so although in favour of the probability A
source

These belonging to the kings of the Vth dynasty. is proposed, of 146, 112, 138, 163 and 131 spaces on be various solutions, there is a strong there may
one

here

set out.

of dating which is developed here is the high Nile being recorded in the latter part of the year, when divided between two reigns. As the times more 18 September of high Nile are usually between and 7 October, and never have than three weeks beyond those limits, hence that part of the year must
This gives the most effective coincided with a few months before the New Year. dynasty, in Vth thus dated between 3120 and the reign of Nefer-ar-ka-ra, result has been made Objection 3460 B.C., or perhaps a century further either way.

due that this writing of the high Nile in the second half of divided years was to convenience ; but that could only be true of one case in the four which occur, the other three could equally well be written in either space. This date on the

124

Reviews.
"

Sothic period eariier would be 4580-4920 B.C., or the one system limits of 4480-5020 B.C., the first of which would justagree with extreme Manetho's history. The result of the spacing of the Annals deduced above is
Egyptian
"

also shown to be closely in accord with Manet ho, and Dr. Borchardt concludes Manetho had really good sources, that and his copyists have not altogether him." however from the 1st to Yet he much rehabilitates Manetho spoiled the Xllth dynasty, he will have none of him from the Xlllth to the XVIIIth,
"

but keeps to the arbitrary setting of eight contemporary period, to bring it down to two centuries.
One

lines of kings in that

evidence against shortening the time stated for the IVth dynasty is Even if those kings built twice the prodigious amount of building quoted.
quickly as Sahura, they would need 50 years each to get through the tasks Khufu or Khafra. The mention of 955 years in the Turin Papyrus Sneferu, of is inconclusively discussed. The uncertainty of reading (755,955, 1755 or
as

and 1955)
more

the very fragmentary

state of the document

prevent

any result being


in the

than An

a guess. interesting matter

is the

recurrence

of

zet heb.

It appears

70th, 190th and 350th year-space. The 70 and 190 being 120 years apart give rise to taking this as the festival of a shift of Sirius by one month ; and the 350th would be 400 from a hypothetical start at 120 before the 70th, and thus
festival of the shift of 100 days. But there is no sufficient explanation of here Uazet term the ; and as regular zet may be thus written, it would be more to take these as festivals of Uazet; the last example being also side by side with Nekhebt, the parallel goddess, would bear this out.
a

doctoring serious shadow on this work is the has the two A tablet one on gratuitous p. 53. second version of of insertion of TT put in for the sake of argument, of which there is no trace on the original. A second version of another tablet has a break smoothed out, and A
which ivory tablets
matter
casts
a

"

"

perfectly clear incised line obliterated along with it, in order to make out a Neither of these proposed readings has the least similar hypothetical group. fictitious readings only throws a shadow on all the rest ground, and to propose
a

of the material. We may say then that there is here put forward ; but it is much
some

fair case

less exact the omission of passages would have position. The dating concluded from all the

for the rendering of the Annals and certain than it is stated, and in a stronger left the remainder

sources

discussed is : 1st dynasty,


3430
; [4890]

4186 B.C. [or5646]; Ilnd, 3938 Vth, 3160 [4620] ; Vlth, 2920

; IVth, ; Ilird, 3642 [5102] [5398] ; Xllth, 1995 [3455][4380]

Imperial University of Moscow,

Egyptian Collection I.
"

B. A. Turaeff.

Sq. 8vo, 84 pp., 12 plates, 10 Figs. text. Petrograd, 1917. that emerged A melancholy interest attaches to the last works of civilisation As the 48 heliogravures are the part easiest for from the welter of Russia. I 3, a half-length reference,we note the inscribed and important pieces in order. III, like the Karnak statue, of a king of Xllth dynasty, attributed to Amenemhat the other statues redeem this king ; also four anonymous a bad style from which heads. II, a gracious seated figure of a Vth dynasty priest of the Sun temple, Pernerek, larger than the man A pair of seated figures,the woman Uzot-oher. child between them, legged figure,holding a papyrus across

Sneferu- men,

IVth dynasty. the knees, no

Ill,
name.

very early crossA seated figure of

Reviews.

125

a tablet with adoration to Seated figure of and prostration to Horakhti, by Tetares, early XVIIIth. IV, two boys wrestling, Xllth. Ren -onkh -em -o. Small figure of Amenhetep III Squatting figures of Asek, XXVIth from a group. (?). V, four wooden figures,

Sen-nefer, Xlllth

dynasty

(?). Seated

figure holding

Amen,

not fine or inscribed.

of a woman inscribed of Naiay by man.

on

in very front.

VI, cross-legged figure,papyrus on knees, Xllth. Statuette tight ribbed dress. Statuette of a Xllth dynasty woman VII, pair of figures of Mut. worn ; amulet mid XVIIIth

fine pair of late XVIIIth his sons Userhet, of ...akhu, naming hour Aay, At-uah Tu-uaa, ("the and multipHes "). VIII, three wooden Pu, Rennay by Raher daughter aa. kheper- ka- senb, statuettes of and Amenhetep These last two by the same. are good examples of the transition from the early XVIIIth style. figure of Maot worn of Hor-sa-ast under Nekhtnebef, with X, head, as an amulet. probably of Ethiopian queen, Upper half of statue of XXVIth. Squatting statue of XlXth. Head of Nekhthorheb, nose unfortunately battered, a front view is to be desired. XI, Ptolemaic
torso

and Another

Statuette of Sebek-hetep, son Ast, daughter of Nefu ; fine work,

IX,

Basalt

headless figure of Imhetep, Naophorus son kneeling. of Sam and Heronkh. Horusa. Thent Squatting figure,headless, son -ua, mahes, wife of Horkhab ^Peda XII, anonymous heads, and Roman for statuette holding robe, of good work is text in Russian. The the that age. There is a full index of names ; entirely
"

collection so far is what any dealer's shop for historic or artistic importance.

might

supply, without

any selection

The

Magic

Papyrus Salt 825, of

the British Museum.

"

B.

A.

Turaeff.

8vo, 13 pp., 5 plates. in Russian. We hope


renew

Petrograd, 1917. A discussion and complete translation that Prof. Turaeff may survive the present disasters, and his contributions to this journal, which would be most welcome.
Chronology Brief of the
Muhammedan
Monuments

A
"

Capt. K. a. C. Creswell.

128 pp., 18 plates.

of Egypt to A.D. 1517. de ITnstitut Frangaise (Bulletin

d'Archeologie Orientale, T.

xvi.)

For the work of the Arab period of Egypt this study will be an invaluable tions guide. The inscriptions and architecture are here viewed together, and the quesof the development of structural forms are placed on a firm foundation by the dated The buildings are noticed in historical order, with the dates in The author states : I have seen and examined A.H. the margin. and in this list (with four in chronological order every monument exceptions) in order to acquire a true historical perspective. In this respect Cairo
monuments.
A.D.
"
.
.

...

is unrivalled by any other city in Islam. What town, indeed, can show a series of before in IXth over 220 the monuments which, commencing century, numbers More than half of these monuments are actually dated the year 1517 is passed ?
"

by

date of alterations and rebuilding are here collected and discussed ; for instance, 11 dates for the Mosque of 'Amr, 8 dates for the Mosque of Ibn Tulun, 20 dates for El Azhar.
an

inscription. Every

we journal, may interest such as the use of pillars as projecting roundels due to requiring bonding for a wall with a rubble core

Though

not

in the usual scope of this

note
on
:

points of general the face of walls is the earliest armorial

bearings

tion, buildings are 1300 a.d., a time entirely under Central Asian dominafrom badges introduced there the the ; and earliestmonumental and perhaps date in figure is 1321, but on coin weights figured dates are found three centuries
on

1 26

Reviews. A matter

before.

of much interest,which the author does not touch on, is the close relation of style between Western Europe and Egypt ; the gateways of the Xlth century at Cairo might belong to France or England in almost all points ; the pendentives of the XVth century show the love of short vertical lines of our

century in colour perpendicular style ; the illuminated Qurans of the XlVth is like its Each be French. more line flow might century contemporaries and of in the West than like the next century. Capt. Creswell has shown what a diligent student can do in leisurehours of
two

have hundreds or three years ; what long that they have been in Egypt ?

done in ten times of English officials

as

Schmidt. 4to. og D"pde i del gamle Aegypten. By Valdemar frs. kr., or figures. 120 Copenhagen). (Frimodt, 1919 90 265 pp., with 1519 At last the veteran curator of Ny Carlsberg has put forth his great collection
Levende
"

Roman period, of material relating to burial in Egypt from the prehistoric to the immense While to on the from of value publications all extracted subject. details be to as to it be enabling styles and experts very useful students, will also The figures are very readily compared. description and reference to its source

clear and legible, and


"

which

may
as

Danish.

Such

collectivework

is the

more

needed

each has a full encourage the study di the literature increases,

400 serialsand publications being listed here as references. The scope includes funeral figures and statues, the tomb-plans, coffins of all kinds, mummies, figured on the coffins. It will save many a weary and mythology and the scenes to be one the most useful works of recent of search for comparisons, and will prove times. Ancient Survivals in Modern Africa.By G. A. Wainwright. Soc. SuUanieh de Gdographie, Caire). plates. 1919 {Bull.
"

8vo.

46 pp.,

10

These papers amplify the comparisons which were made in this Journal, 1914, forms figured between The and modem ancient resemblances 159. 115, pp. here are (2) Bows with reflex curve, as in (i) Throwsticks, as in Monbuttoo.

(4) Leaf-shaped dagger of Greece, (3) Falchion, as in Monbuttoo. as in the Sudan. (5)Narrow leaf-shaped bronze spear-head, as in Eritrea. (6) the Baggara. iron Wide (7) Barbed arrows of ancient spear-head, as among bracing used anciently Nubia, as on Upper White Nile. (8)Drums with cross in Eritrea. (9)Harp with wide bowl, and head on the top, as by Nubians, now the Niam-niam. (10)Ljtc with diverging sides and bent top bar, as in among volving Head-rest, as in Eritrea, with pillar and Eritrea. (12)Resaddle forms. (11) basket, identical in Wide palm-leaf carrying fan, as in Nubia. still (13) in Nubia. lid, Sandals as The (15) Egypt. of (14) coiled oval store-basket with (16)Game trap of converging spikes, as on White palm-leaf, as in Somaliland. bag-bellows, as on White Nile. (18) Semicircular feather Nile. {17) Double fans on long handles, as in North Cameroons. (19)Black-polished pottery, as in Central Africa. (20)Cups and bowls with a small spreading stem, as in Unyoro.
Eritrea. Finally there Such papers
as

are

the composite bows, and bows reversed when these build up the study of the descent of civilisations.
notes
on

strung.

Une Station Aurignacienne


18 plates. The

d Nag-Hamadi.

"

By

E. Vignard.

4to.

20

pp.,

Inst.,Frangais d'Arch. Or. 1920 {Bull. is on

Caire).

It is claimed the west side of Diospolis Parva. that the chelleo-mousterian work is only found on the plateau, and the aurignacian station reported

Reviews.

127

site is

the low desert. The aurignacian is stated to be also the age of many Ramleh Khan Yunis in Palestine. But we are told from and about pieces " in Egypt." were the solutrean, the magdalenian, the campignyan unknown Yet the very forms here published in pi. xiv 3, 4, have been found abundantly, found in the Naqada Ixxt; 31, 35, 40, 43 ; and these ovoid forms were see never
on

well graves, but only in a site with ashes on the desert. The solutrean seems knowTi already in the great quantity of surface flints west of the Fayum ; the magdalenian flake is the type found in the prehistoric graves. Though we cannot thus accept all that is stated, we welcome these drawings of 116 flints from this final remarks on the steatopygous site. In some in Tunisia. has found it still type, it is stated that Dr. Capitan

Bulletin

Museum ofthe Metropolitan

ofArt, June,1920.

(New York.)

is valuable as giving photographs of important specimens in This number A figure of Koptos ; a diorite Museum. diorite the group of Sahura with a nome basalt figure Osiris, holding an of Harbas portrait sphinx of Senusert III ; a

XXVIth
Fayum
not

head ; and sculptor's model of a ram's lines boy, of writing upon with three portrait of a
;
a

on

cover a charming dress, the unfortunately

the

transcribed The
Museum.

or

noticed.
"

Margaret

Talbot

Jackson.

8vo.

280 pp., 7 pis.

mans, Long-

1917.
book for trustees and curators, much" or most of it and will appeal to any archaeologist. The questions of the site,buildings, fittings, discussed, besides the are matters about staff and students, which are exhibiting fully developed in America It is instructive to more than in Europe. so much
Though

this is rather

"

read of the

new

museum
"

in Berlin,
an
a

made elsewhere trains past it. It is

; it is on
on

been mistakes have probably never heavy be so cannot enlarged, and with express feet depth to 200 concrete of quicksand, requiring

"

So many

island

Some usual it, the digging out of which almost upset the next museum. fill Lighting should always be direct fallacies are not cleared away by the authoress. from sky, and not diffuse from ground glass or ceilings. Floors should be of tUe,

Picture galleriesneed dark screens placed so of slippery waxed wood. and never Labels bright so them, can that the pictures reflections. and avoid should reflect not spoil the effect by harsh contrast, a brown label with darker ink is quite clear as A dust-trap, with free ventilation is needful for cases, enough. all airtight
fastenings and
museum

are

fallacious.
frequenters

Though should

these points read this book

are

omitted, yet all curators for the systematic view of

management.

8vo. 131 pp. Thirtieth Annual Archaeological Report,1918. (Toronto.) This is naturally occupied with Canadian history, and pre-historic remains. A long paper by Dr. Harris deals with the ideas about a lost Atlantic continent. The undoubted civilisation of Peru and other countries is only evidence of a The real difficultylies in the disproportion in remote occupation of America.
age of any civilisationor tradition with the hundred- or thousand-fold age of any geological connection of land. The traditions are quoted from Central America and the Antilles, from Plutarch, Plato, Proclus, Diodorus ; but all of these
cannot
cover

more

than

migration

of animals

The age when the 3,000 or 4,000 years at the most. is late Eocene or early indicates a land connection the

128

Notes

and

News.

or

Oligocene (Gadow, Wanderings four miUion years, probably


as

ideas
can

evidence of
a

more an

that is a matter of at least three hopeless to look at the traditional than local disturbances of the coasts, unless geologists

and ofAnimals), It seems

more.

allow of

change of

entirely differentorder to anything


Research, Kyoto

now

granted.
"

Report upon Archaeological


Hamada.

8vo.

72 pp.

iii+ (Japanese),
we

8 pp.

Imperial University. By K. (English), 30 plates. 1919 (Kyoto

this gratifying extension of archaeologists must welcome were research by Prof. Hamada ; the prehistoric tombs carefully excavated by him, the sculptures are reproduced in collotype with 5 plates in colour, and all the pottery is drawn accurately in section, giving a corpus of 173 types. The example by European has friends our to given started work equal it with their usual has also published his travels in Italy and France, with ability. Prof. Hamada large number of photographs, as a popular volume, unfortunately for us entirely in his own language.
a

As University).

NOTES

AND

NEWS.

have already returned to Egypt to start on rock drilling in search of any chambers in the queen's pyramid at Lahun. and mastabas Mr. MiUer and Mr. J.G. West will join the work, having obtained passages already. The rest of the party hope to obtain passages, namely Major Hynes, M. Henri

Mr. and Mrs. Brunton

Bach,

Mr.

Montgomerie-Neilson,
southward

continue the work

and Prof, and Mrs. from that of last season.

Petrie.

It is hoped

to

In Palestine the new School of Archaeology has begun work under Prof. Garstang at Ashkelon, where Minoan pottery has been found in the sea face of
the mound there is of ruins. Unfortunately Roman be before to the more removed material The
a

of mediaeval great mass and important strata are accessible.

Egypt

Exploration

present, and Prof. Peet is to excavate Capt. Engelbach, stationed at Luqsor.


Mr.

Society has left the great work at Abydos this winter. at Tell el Amarna
Chief Inspector for Upper

for the

R.E., has been appointed


been

Egypt,

Wainwright

has

appointed

Chief Inspector

of Middle

Egypt,

stationed at Asyut. It is to be regretted when societiescriticise as in a statement each others' affairs, in a recent presidential address ; this compels us to consider the facts. is practically alone It has been remarked that the Egypt Exploration Society in the'^studyof Egyptian archaeology, with the exception of the Egyptian Research Account, and the Egyptian wing of the Liverpool University, both of which perform
"

useful functions." Looking at the last fifteen years, since the Egyptian Research Account became the British School of Archaeology in Egj^t, it has published, 1018 plates, nearly all discoveries of antiquities, while the Society
is practically alone in the study of Egyptian archaeology," which it is said has published 654 plates, mostly copies of known monuments and not discoveries.
"

ANCIENT EGYPT
1921.
CONTENTS.

Part

1.

The

Alphabet Dynasty. W. M.

in

the

XIIth

Flinders

Fetrie.

2.

The

Lahun

Caskets. A. C. Mace.

3. Burial

Rites

of

West

Africa. Thomas.

N. W.
4. A

Negro

Captive.
W. M. Flinders Petrie.

5.

Queen

Tetisheri. H. E. Win LOCK.

6. Reviews.

7. Periodicals.
8. Notes
and

News.

EDITOR,

PROF.

FLINDERS

PETRIE,

F.R.S., F.B.A.

Yearly,

7/. Post

Free.

Quarterly
MACMILLAN
LONDON
AND
AND

Part,

2 s.

AND
NEW

CO.,
YORK;

EGYPTIAN

RESEARCH
Boston.

ACCOUNT,

A -^

Egypt. Net price of each number from booksellers is 2s. Ancient are Subscriptionsfor the four quarterly parts, prepaid, post free, ys., received by Hon. Sec. "Ancient Egypt" (H, Flinders Petrie), UniversityCollege, Gower London, W.C. 1. Street, Books for review, papers offered for insertion,or news, Editor of Ancient Egypt,"
"

should be addressed

:
"

UniversityCollege,Gower

Street,London, W.C. 1.

Subscriptions, received in the United States by : Rev. Dr. Winslow, 525, Beacon Street,Boston.
"

/^

NEGRO
BRONZE.
XVIII

CAPTIVE
DYNASTY.
NEW

FROM
YORK

A
'

THRONE.
iSTORICAL SOCIETY.

ANCIENT

EGYPT.

THE

ALPHABET

IN

THE

XIIth

DYNASTY.

eight years ago that the Formation ofthe Alphabet placed all the materiar Mediterranean in Since the then further evidence alphabet of primitive order. has not appeared until this year, except on the much later Semitic arrangement. Two
seals of limestone

It is now

that

were

obtained

from

the town

mound

of Illahun

are

holding obviously of the Middle Kingdom, and one figured here bears a seated man four a bird, fret-pattern head, the over signs (fig. and with a rough i)which are repeated here enlarged (Fig. 3). When clearing and re-arranging all the unCollege this summer, University the box-full of pot marks exhibited material at collected at Kahun thirty years ago
was

sorted ; among

them

some

pieces of

The Alphabet in the Xllth

Dynasty.
form
a row

2) 4). The word of five letters (Fig. in 1889 (Kahun xxvii, 85). published There are thus three inscriptions,each of which is dated Xllth dynasty ; Fig. i by the style of the limestone to the means

line of inscription were (themiddle line of Fig.

at last put together, and

of nine letters found and was by different

seal ; Fig. 2 in dynasty, Xllth known the by being cut on a wooden tool which is only and town, and on a jar found in a town of that age ; Fig. 4 by being from the same in the preknown historic certainly of that age. The signs are nearly all far older, being were owners' dynasty those they or times marks, ist ; at probably ages But it is now evident that the use of these as and may have acquired sounds.
letters for consecutive writing was dating, is, on the Egyptians' own them. three systems of writing in Egypt, fairly clear that there were The geometrical marks of known with a different race. and each of these is first to seem the alphabetic system appear with the firstprehistoric people, who the the source They belonged to the west, and were have been Libyans. of all

fully established in the Xllth


as

dynasty
as we are

"

that

long before the Phoenicians

after

It

seems

now

Mediterranean
have
come

group of which a word was spelled phonetically. The latter two systems mixed together became the later hierogl5q)hic sj^tem, while the oldest western alphabet continued in use among the foreigners settling in Egypt and perhaps among the lower classes. Long after all this, the Semite
a

which brought

to alphabets. Secondly, the later race of prehistoric times, seems in from Syria, and brought in the word-signs, or ideographs, several of Lastly, the dynastic race in later Egypt. common used by them were

by in letter-signs,

got hold of the alphabet and proceeded to spoil it. He degraded the vowels to stead be variable, owing to his phonetic inflections ; he used vague cursive forms infrom the similarities of the clear uncial signs ; and he invented fancy names irrelevant This to his the naming of the signs has signs shapes of of objects. but is like the Irish naming of all the lettersfrom nothing to do with their origin,
to to the Mediterranean names there are enough resemblances from common both a source. come show that How far is it possible to read these signs, may be asked ? The group. Fig. 2, has been read by Dr. Eisler, and accepted by Prof. Sayce, as AHITUB ; this
trees, in which
seems

as the middle sign is not known where, elsetended inFig. be to The seems name, consonant. 3, seal vowel either from B, V, BH(?),G; to be read on the impress, or the left on the seal, the third sign is not exactly known historic, elsewhere, but is most like a sign of the prerelated to the South Spanish B, perhaps and Xllth dynasty, which seems

rather

jump at
a

well-known
a

name,

as

or

The large inscription.Fig. 4, begins with a line of the usual aspirated form. "year the line of alphabetic formula then comes of Shemu"; 29, ist month is broken, TH(?) GOIF PORO ; below are Egyptian signs, the firstof which
an

hieroglyphics again, nes{?), per nesut ; Is this g. bilingual version ? Can PORO

"

belonging to the house of the king." be Pharaoh ? The O sign isfound with

this value in Karian and the Runes, and it does not appear in any other alphabet As there can be no question of the O and I, the third and with a known value. to prove that the signs are alphabetic and not syllabic fourth letters,this serves
at this period.

tion the long priority of the alphabetic signs in Egypt leaves the tradihow it is to hopeless case, Phoenician the as well point out origin out of of it would be to cling to it in any form. Even Diodoros did not believe in it,for he Although

The Alphabet in the Xllth


"

Dynasty,

says
whom when

There are some from who attribute the invention of letters to the S5Trians, to Grecians the Phoenicians learned them, and communicated them the into Europe ; whence they came the Grecians called them with Cadmus letters. To
these

Phoenician

that hold this opinion, it is answered, that the Phoenicians were not the firstthat found out letters, but only changed the form into other characters, which many afterward using, the name them and shape of of Phoenician grew to be common (v. iv). This account which Diodoros prefers
"

is quite in accord with what can be traced. The Mediterranean alphabet by the vowel-endings of the names shown modified by the north Syrians (as letters), and the Phoenicians changed the forms from uncial to cursive.

was

of The

order of the short Phoenician alphabet of 22 letters,in place of the full alphabet imposed on the world by their being used as numerals which of 60 letters, was became essential in trade. how widespread When was the full alphabet, it is plain that the we see

There are 23 letters that Phoenician had only a small part of the whole. in Phoenicia. There were in Egypt, Karia and Spain, all unknown
letters which the South Arabian

were

used

10

with the Mediterranean in Phoenicia. It seems Runes of Northern Europe, yet all unknown obvious that later from a time the a very there was at much which widespread alphabet, formed. Phoenician selection was
common

had in

other and the

maintained a part of this in the five letters which followed the Phoenician other details, series. The evidences for these, and many close of the be seen in The Formation can and brieflyin an article in Scientia, ofthe Alphabet, fresh have proves fully how the The now December, that we material 1918. The Greek Mediterranean dynasty. alphabet
was

in regular

use

for writing

as

early

as

the Xllth

W.

M.

Flinders

Petrie.

) ;

THE

LAHUN

CASKETS.

The

caskets plates show the Lahun jewellery accompanying A few notes in the Metropolitan Museum, New York.

as as

reconrecently structed

to the evidence

on

based may be of interest. which the restorations were Ancient from Prof. Petrie'saccount of the discovery (in It will be remembered left Nothing was that the wood had almost entirely disappeared. of the Egypt) ivory broken mass the but handful dust, a a remains of and of of ebony caskets

the gold decoration. The preliminary sorting of the material was carried out boxes College, the University the and at and outlines of general character of first to in York, New Arrived the determined. there step was restoration was soak the ivory in water, to rid it of the salt which had already begun to work out

soaking greatly increased the work of mending, for the cases split into a number of thin slivers,and it was necessary to pieces in some the water very carefully into the soaking dishes to prevent the smaller siphon however, of fragments from floating out of position. It had the advantage,
to the surface.

This

according cleaning the surface, and making possible a much closer classification to colour and grain. It was estimated that upwards of two thousand separate involved in the restoration. pieces of ivory and gold were

Large Casket

(Fig. 2).

The wood had almost entirelydisintegrated,but the powdery remains showed ^ This particular variety that it had consisted of light streaky Sudanese ebony. has been used throughout known in the American trade as marble wood of ebony
" "

had

determined by the gold feet-coverings,which was been preserved intact. The length and width between corner-posts were Fig. 2), settled exactly by the dimensions of the ivory slabs above the panels {see were confirmed by the cornice ivory, of which and the over-all measurements hardly any had been lost. For the size of the panels themselves exact measurements by determined the 20 was in cases, some their were and number possible

in the restoration. The size of the corner-posts

for the gold dad signs for the larger panels, and the 16 gold and carnelian squares One of these carnelian squares was tops of the smaller ones. missing, but the in in the for it remained (filled with coloured plaster gold frame restoration). blue glazed strips that had filledthe smaller panels were stillpreserved, inserted. but they had lost all their colour, so imitations in coloured plaster were itself The width of the dividing strips of ebony between the panels worked out difference the into by dividing the number of spaces required automatically, between the slab lengths and the combined panel widths. For the height we The

had

as

certain factors the ivory cornice, the gold torus-moulding, the width of the
Recueil de Traveaux, few ancient 1897, p. 77. word that have The
"
"

"

See Beauvisage, being


one

ebony
come

ing, itselfis interestinto


our

as

of the

Egyptian

words

down

own

language

(m'^jT'i)-

Facitig

4.

FIG.
FIG.

I.

LESSER GREATER

CASKET, CASKET,

RESTORED.

I :4.

2.

RESTORED.

1:4.

Facing

^.

5.

FIG. FIG.

3.

LID LID

OF OF

LESSER GREATER

CASKET,
CASKET,

RESTORED.
RESTORED.

4.

4.

4.

The

Lahiin

Caskets.

slab, the length of the panel, and the height of the gold foot. The ebony strip below the panels was shown to be necessary by the fact that the ends of the panel left rough : the one above was ivory and of the gold ciaci" were needed, both for ajid for providing a space for the side fastening-knob. The height symmetry, Fragments of the legs was copied from a box of the same period in the Louvre. left of the silver struts at the bottom of the box proper, and the exact shape were was given by the rounded ends of the gold feet. The extra bars of ivory below
a puzzle for the ends of the casket were by the Louvre box (No. 1392). It was a

time, but their position also evident also from marks on

was

shown the ivory

The narrow ivory strips at to be covered. that the ends of the bars were meant the top of the cornice could have gone nowhere else,for on fitting the pieces the on together a length was measurement any other obtained which exceeded

part of the box. The shape of the lid seems at first sight strangely unfamiliar, for on the the tops of such shrine-shaped boxes always have the curve monuments running There was, lengthwise to the box. however, in this case no question as to the for the ivory that formed the ends of the lid came together almost perfectly. The Hathor heads (Fig. 4)were spaced out on the lid,and the from the their tiny out shape of wigs worked strips of gold. The discs are of carnelian, with encircling rings of gold and silver. The blue of the wig, six of the direction of the
curve,

eyes, four of the carnelian wig-pendants, and the coloured part of the pectorals
are

restorations. In addition to the ivory already mentioned (i)Two slabs about 28 x 7-3 X -2 -3
"

there remained
cm.

over

"

(2)Two
(3)A

been sunk

bars 25-5 x i -8 x -4 cm. into the wood for

Both
a

ends of these bars had apparently distance of about 3 mm.

quantity of strip similar to that used at the top of the cornice. Of this at least 16 ends which showed marks of having been strip there were let into the wood.
no

place in the exterior decoration, and must have belonged to the inside fittings. The casket may very likely have had a tray at the top for ^ the mirror and razors, and a drawer to pull out below for the toilet vases. These had
There with gold
or were

also preserved
a

silver (?) and

copper fastening knobs bolt and staple. copper


two

"

covered originally

Small Casket
Here there points frankly
was

(Fig. i).

less evidence to go upon, and the restoration is in some irregular and The bottoms of the ivory panels were conjectural. face be to a defined the on obviously meant showed clearly covered, and well ridge Similar ridges at the bottom of the strip panels the limits of the covering wood.
much made evident the position relative to the wide panels which they occupied. It then became manifest that in order to complete the design the introduction This we of a third element, in addition to the ivory and ebony, was needed. supplied by making use of a red wood, very similar to rosewood, which is common The covering of the bottom of the panels on other known twelfth dynasty boxes. called for an ebony framework, similar to that on the large casket. The gold torus-moulding involved the addition of a cornice of ebony this time, as there
"

For

an

example

of such

drawers

see

Carnarvon

and Carter, Five Years.


A

6
were no

The
"

Lahun

Caskets.

pieces of cornice ivory and the ivory lid-ends determined the shape of The three ivory name-plates on the lid (Fig. seemed lost in the the cover. 3) dark wood, so the ivory and red rectangles were expanse of added, though their presence is purely a matter of opinion, belonged to the interiordecoration.
as

the ivory strip might equally well have

In this casket also there was a good deal of ivory that seemed in decoration-rthe place exterior

to have

no

The ends of this sheet were levelled thin sheet ii-6 X ? X -i cm. from This have the a tray. were come off,whereas straight. sides may (2)Two complete bars 14-5 X i-i X '35 cm., and two incomplete shorter lengths. Of these bars one have shown : the other end only can irregularly, have been buried. was sawn and must

(i)A

(3)More strips similar (4)Strip 12 -f X -4


"

to that

on

the lid.

as
was

This must have been laid on edge, -5 X -35 cm. face One end of this strip was the the only regular one. irregular. cut straight to show : the other was
narrower

(5)A (6)3 (7)I

few small triangular pieces, -5 X complete oblongs 3 X 1-9 X


complete
i-i

"3

cm.

-3

cm.

X -3 cm., oblong 7-2 X and remains of at least two They were more. to rough at one end, and were apparently meant be buried 2-5 cm.

Many of the details of these restorations were worked out in consultation with Mr. Winlock, and to Miss Cartland I am indebted for much help in the actual work of reconstruction.

A. C. Mace.

THE

BURIAL
IN

RITES RELATION

OF
TO

WEST
EGYPT.

AFRICA

very various in West Africa, as in other parts of the world, and there is no fieldin which the variations are greater than in burial rites ; this is owing partly to the fact that burial is largely a family matter in most tribes, to be seem and partly to the extraordinary facility with which burial customs
customs
are

Native

borrowed

people that will thereafter practise them unchanged for centuries A comprehensive survey of West African burial customs would be an enormous for information is for detailed areas which undertaking, many almost wholly
a even were

by

lacking ;
custom

this not so, the great number of of tribes, and the diversities is a an termed tribe, commonly within what such would make taking underof necessity encyclopaedic in bulk, for at a low estimate there are probably at least a thousand distinct negro tribes. The term tribe is a vague one in Africa and does not really imply any political unity
or

even,

in many

cases,
are

the possession of embracing

common
a

language ; for when

we

refer to the Ibo tribe,we

congeries of peoples so under diverse in language that two towns within a few miles of each other could hardly communicate with one another in pre-European days ; as the Ibo territory covers fom: millions, it is clear thousands of square miles and the people number some that the term commonly A cursory examination of the burial customs as recorded in the literature, old burial in new, the the the customs and coast, reveals of existence of elements able to be of very diverse origins. Some tribes practise rites indistinguishwhich seem from mummification as found in Egypt ; others formerly had similar customs

this head

tribe is, strictly speaking, a misnomer the sense given to the term in Africa,

none

the less, this is

but gave them up, sometimes after under the stress of foreign invasions, soon West Africa became known to Europe at the close of the Middle Ages. Side by find unwe side with these rites, but associated with them in a single complex disguised intrusion as an can older cannibalism, which we of perhaps explain tribal customs

the sphere of the borrowed rite. A third set of practices, often associated with burial in an underground chamber, and therefore, primd facie to be connected with the mummification the cf complex, is the custom portion of
on

orienting the corpse, usually facing east. Again, there is a large and important group of customs associated with the practice of removing the head of the corpse, before biu-ial take the form of exhumation or at a later period ; this may either
and storing the bones in a charnel house, of depositing the skull in a sacred grove^ where ancestral cults have their home, or of handing the skull to a king or chief as the emblem of sovereignty and also the visible embodiment of the spiritof his predecessor. In certain parts of West Africa we find associated with this custom a well defined practice of head hunting, that is to say, of taking the heads of enemies
A

The

Burial

Rites

of West Africain Relation

to

Egypt.

for the sake of the magical to be regarded are customs imported


or

powers associated with them ; how far these two independent, how far as associated, either both lineallyrelated,itis not easy to say.
as

means a complete catalogue of allthe burial ritesof importance no ; in have, human for Nigeria, a we ; example, widespread custom sacrifice of termed a totem is sacrified at the burial west of the Niger, what is commonly ceremonies, or at least killed and eaten ritually; and there is in most tribes a

This isby

custom of second burial, that is to say, the actual interment is followed at an interval of months or years by a second rite,in which there is a second interment It is a matter of great interest to of some representing the dead man. object determine the relation of this element to the features previously mentioned ;

for it may be interpreted as in order to take the skull regarded however,


as a

ceremony possible that these two interpretations are in reality one simply two but further is same on the this needed. sides of rite ; point evidence in the cult societies, We come to a wholly different cycle of customs most
"

burial of the remains which were originally exhumed likewise be or bones for ritual purposes ; but it may intended to send the dead man to his own place ; it is,
a

frequent perhaps in Nigeria, where they form the germ of such powerful secret societies as Oro in the Yoruba country, and from small beginnings have spread beyond immediate area, their own growing in power until they have like the Ogboni, actually become the supreme government of the realm. In some tribes these customs take the form of dressing up the dead man, in others we get a stage further and find that for the corpse is substituted one figure takes the place of his relatives ; on another line of development a masked
,

of the corpse. All these customs practice of dismissing the dead house
to take

his place among

way with the appear to be connected in some to his own man place, or of calling him to his They are therefore the worshipped ancestors.

a wide area ; for over up with one aspect of the rite of human sacrifice in West Africa is found a custom of selecting a favourite slave or other person, in other being bound was with whose well up the life of the person concerned words as a double or human representative of the genius, which was on the Gold

bound

"

In view of the widespread Egyptian influence aklama. less in burial to traceable in reincarnation beliefsno than rites, this word seems be referable to the Egyptian ka ; there is a common suffix li, of uncertain meaning, its to that of the root ; the root vowel is not vowel which often assimilates

Coast known

as

kla

or

infrequently dropped, derivative of ka. In connection

and

it is therefore clear that kla is

regularly formed

be mentioned the Kisi the reincarnation belief may or the custom grave steatite other statuettes, regarded as the of putting upon representatives of the dead man. I have mentioned may above the use of an underground chamber ; we with

perhaps regard as a variant of this the provision of a side chamber to the grave, often shut off,before the earth is put back, by branches or logs ; the usual native explanation is that it is intended to keep the earth from coming in contact with In a variant of body, but this may be of the nature of an aetiological myth. "the find what I propose to term a hood grave, in which a lateral we this custom Also connected with the underground chamber cavity is provided for the head.
complex sometimes of a hut. is perhaps the tumulus,

above In certain

the body
areas

commonly of earth, raised above the grave, or on deposited the surface and covered with the roof find monoliths and stone circles associated with we

The

Burial
no

Rites

of

West

Africa in

Relation to Egypt.

burial ; but there is that these burials were In


a

evidence, except in the Northern the work of an indigenous race.

Provinces of Nigeria,

burial is found ; in others the corpse canoe certain number of cases in is placed a^pot, or covered with a pot. In a few cases, the Mandingo, notably that of the griot or musician among in is hollow tree, being a if it were the explanation the corpse that placed placed

in contact griot is an

with the earth, immigrant, and

mode of burial. bad diseases," or those who die in debt and in pregnancy, those who die of have no relatives who will undertake the responsibility of disposing of the corpse and shouldering the burden of debt, the dead body is exposed.
"

drought would be the result. It is possible that the that in this rite we have a reminiscence of his native In certain other cases, for example, those of women who die
a

of the Niger put cowries or gold in the mouth of the intended to as deceased the the custom corpse, and explain supply with ferry In cne case gold the river of death. money with which to pay his passage across were are or nose the the over and plates put eyes, mouth corpse ; but this is of

few

tribes west

clearly associated with a different cycle. As regards the position of the grave and similar questions, there is a good Some in his own it, deal of variation. house and abandon tribes bury a man

or

bury in the fields others bury him in the house and continue to use it ; many bush, some by the way side, some, in case the especially of chiefs, in the bed There may be a vault for all the members of a running stream. of a family, or
an area a

set apart for their graves,

or

certain localitiesmay

be reserved for those

of

of all these elements varies the actual position be extended on its back, upright, squatting, lying on of the corpse, which may its side in a contracted position or otherwise. It frequently happens that the body is for lack data to a the posias not ascertainable precise orientation of tion of the fact that we cannot compare, in respect the a tribe that lays the corpse on its back with those customs of orientation, of of a tribe that lays it on its side, at any rate without direct evidence as to what If a man is buried with his head to the view the native takes of the matter.
;
a

certain rank or age. More or less independently

further difficulty arises from

it may or may For to be facing the east. not be true that he is supposed if at one time the corpse was laid on its side, for which was substituted at a later burial on the back, it is clear that the orientation would be period extended a simultaneous changed unless the orientation of the grave underwent alteration.
west,

It is impossible

to discuss here in their relation to Egyptian

practices

even

here passed in review. It will be enough to deal small proportion of the customs four items, or decapitation, three with mummification, orientation and the like. Regarding mummification it is perhaps hardly necessary to argue at customs length the Egyptian
will account possible that one

gence origin as an alternative to convergence ; no theory of converfor agreement in non-essential details, though it is of course ever, howtwo or are such cases pure coincidences. A few cases,

as Bulombel, of mummification may be cited. In Sierra Leone, then known died his body was opened early in the fifteenth century when an important man at the side and the entrails taken out and washed ; the cavity was filled with sweetsmelling herbs like mint and the body rubbed with palm oil ; meal and salt were added to the herbs introduced into the body cavity.

This custom

disappeared

longer practised, so far as I know ; it seems invasion of the sixteenth century, which after the Manes
now no

is

to have

imposed

10

The
most
or

Burial

Rites

of West Africa in

Relation to Egypt.

on

all indigenous tribes paramount chiefs of alien birth, whose burial in that still use at the present day. This present system is the burial of the body in the bed of a running stream, and we may suspect that it was also accompanied with decapitation ; for in the or some present day the Temne chiefs, of them, preserve the head of their immediate rite was predecessors as a magical instrument. On the Ivory Coast the Baule take out the entrailsof a dead man, wash the introduce to a mixture of alcohol and salt cavity with alcohol, and replace the the eyes, of the body are plugged and gold plates put over entrails ; the orifices
nose, or are fied mummiof Ida and other potentates, were bodies is interest in for it their to the case that ; note of and preserved years latter, is bodies four Ata the Igara tribe, the who of of remain unburied ; of the for it is the custom, it appears, for the dignity to pass in rotation to four families,

etc. The Asanti kings, the Ata

and the Ata of each family must have in his keeping the body of his immediate family. predecessor of the same Among the Jukun, whose king is or was the entrails slain by his successor, are removed, and the corpse is smeared with butter and salt ; then it is dried
over

slow firefor two or three months ; finally the death is announced to the takes his place, stepping over the corpse people, and the slayer of the dead man in the course the accession rites. of
a

is inhumed for a fortnight after country the king of Ijeba being rubbed with alcohol ; this temporary measure may or may not be related to the custom The more of mummification. widespread practice of simpler and drying the body over a slow fire,recorded among the Gambia tribes, in several parts of Nigeria and probably elsewhere, is also of uncertain origin. I have alluded above to the hybridisation of customs ; this is very marked in in On the Gambia the case of some the the mummification complex. of rites the corpse is dried over a slow fire, then buried in a side-chamber grave, the
house ; a few days aperture of which is closed by the door of the dead man's later it is exhumed, boiled with rice and eaten by the relatives. There can be doubt that in this case there are traces of customs belonging to several very little distinct systems ; this is equally clear in the case of the Baya of Central Africa,

In the Kukuruku

bury the corpse in a stream after disembowelling it. In the present day we often find that smoke-drying the corpse is resorted to, if the burial is delayed for any reason, such as lack of funds for the necessary feasts ; in other cases the body is quietly buried and the rites postponed till
who funds accumulate.

This may

be

one

of the origins of the custom

of second burial

of these rites are indigenous, but it seems possible that some hardly possible to maintain that the procedure of mummification disembowelling by a lateral opening, treatment with alcohol, sweet-smelling herbs, salt, honey,
"

mentioned above. It is of course

At the same time there is scope for evolved independently. for is into there Egyptian origins ; the possibility that both sets of enquiry If the Egyptian origin of the complex so\irce. customs go back to a common to the is very different when we come case discussed above seems manifest, the decapitation rite ; there appears to be evidence that the same practice prevailed
etc.
"

^has been

early period ; but there is comparatively littleevidence that it to associate it in historic times. In any case there islittle reason was also common We cannot therefore argue that the ascription complex. with the mummification
in Egypt
at
an

The
an

Burial

Rites

of

West

Africa in

Relation

to

Egypt.

ii

of

Egyptian

entrains the typically Egyptian,

as practised in West origin to mummification, attribution of a like origin to other customs, nor

Africa, necessarily not in themselves and beliefs for

associated with

those Egyptian

customs

have good primd facie the transmissiwji of which we evidence, merely on the a decapitation, custom of which outwardly resembled ground that at some period known in Egjrpt. that of West Africa, was

grounds have been assigned for the Egj^tian custom of decapitation ; to facilitatethe entry of the deceased into the other world ; it was intended firstly his So far as can be seen, neither of to this world. to return prevent secondly,
Two
these motives is operative in West Africa. The corpse which is beheaded is that of the witch, and the motive is to prevent its return to the scene of its malefices ; invitation is given him to enter his house an but in the case of the ordinary man,
to whom prayers and sacrificesare addressed. of ancestors ance admission of the negro to the other world is facilitated by the due performby Where burial including the corpse. sacrifices,not mutilations of of rites, the latter take place, they are associated with the preservation of the skull in

and The

jointhe

body

connection with the cult of ancestors. On the whole it seems probable that the Egyptian explanations of the custom for it If the are rite was practised at an earlier period, the reason secondary.
must

ideas. West

been forgotten, or lapsed with the introduction of a new cycle of It is virtually impossible to derive from Egypt the skull customs of the if we only include in our survey the rites that have to African area, even have impossible to associate the nected also of the ceremonies confar
as

do with the heads of relatives. It becomes stillmore customs with those of Egypt when we take account with the skulls of enemies ; for there is, so
that head

I know,

no

evidence

hunting

was

ever

an

Egyptian

practice.

As regards orientation, it is well to remember that the orientation of the from is different the the facing) necessarily of the body, grave orientation {i.e., unless the latter is on its back ; in the latter case the term orientation isused in
a

vague and somewhat would be facing if it

confuse this point ; one grillthe body with rice, remove grave ; but when side-chamber
that burial takes place with
means.

for the direction in which the corpse It is noteworthy were that some stood upright. authors for Mascagnes that the author example records of Senegal
anomalous

way,

the skin and bury it in a pot, which is put in a he adds that the grave runs east and west and the face to the east, it is not quite clear what he

Generally speaking, when the corpse lies on its side, it faces east ; this is the case with the Mosi, the Mandingo, the Wolof, the Serer and the Bambara in the west, and with the Dakakari, the Hona, the Kerikeri, the Nupe and other
tribes of Nigeria ;
west.
as

exceptions, the Kilba

and

Marghi

bury

their dead

facing

on

Where we have to infer from the wording of the report that the corpse is its back, there is more variation ; the Gbandi bury with head to the west, The Dukawa so do the Mumbake and Mumuye of Nigeria. of Nigeria bury the body with head to the east, the Kamberi While the head to the with south. Miriam turn men's heads to the north, women's to the south, the Kajeturn men
to the west,
women

to the east, and the Kisi

on

the borders of Sierra Leone

reverse

the positions. If it is true that the orientation of a corpse is in the direction from which the tribe originally came (orpossibly in the direction from which the custom

12

TJu

Burial

Rites

of West Africa in

Relation to Egypt.

practised by the tribe originally

came),it

is of much

importance

that, in the

is comparatively small collection of scattered notices, complete agreement found among the western tribes,and that the tribes of Nigeria should for the As to the significationof the direction in most part foUow the same custom. is laid, it is possible to speculate at length without arriving at First and foremost we need to know the native view on results of much value. If the statement to the direction of the dead was the matter. as made sua informant, it is one thing ; it is quite another if the answer was sponteby an which the head elicitedby a leading question. I do not propose to discuss here the relation of the ritesbrieflydescribed in desirable to note the close agreement this paper to those of Egypt ; but it seems of many of them with the customs of Indonesia, which has, on grounds of material
culture, been

First of all, connected with the West African area. the skull cult and associated head hunting finds itsexplanation far more naturally in this culture than in Egypt or North Africa, though it must be forgotten not regarded
as

that head hunting is also a Balkan amusement. The preservation of the body pending the performance monies of the final cereis likewise Indonesian ; and it is the practice to close the apertures of the body as a protection against evil influences of a magical nature ; we have seen
that this is also done in West Africa, though the grounds for the custom are stated. The treatment of the body by fire is practised in Timor as a means
not

of hastening the process of decomposition, i.e.,in order to separate the flesh from be performed, which send the the bones, without which the final rites cannot its to own soul place. Cannibalism, associated with rites of another order on the Gambia, is a of disposing of the flesh in Indonesia, and likewise a ritualrepast. The for not consigning the body to the earth before decomposition is ended, reason is that the earth is holy and may not be polluted ; this recalls the side-chamber method

This grave and the precautions taken to prevent earth from touching the body. is in interest interpreted West in Africa being as the ritual commonly of the corpse, but this may well be an afterthought.

In Indonesia

finally ended. death of the old chief not mentioned, These customs find their natural explanation has been mentioned above. case in the Indonesian rite and its explanation. An interregnum for the death of the king is also common to J)arts of Indonesia and West Africa. Finally, ossuaries,
to the Wolofs in the far west, which are known of the Lower Niger, are an Indonesian custom.

the chief's successor In Sierra Leone the new

appointed till decomposition is chief is secluded for a period and the though it is probably no secret ; an analogous is not

and also to

some

of the Ibo east

elements of West I put forward like Indonesia. area comparatively remote the hypothesis tentatively in the firstinstance, conscious as I am of my ignorance Egyptian ; but if Egyptologists find it impossible to explain the rites of matters

It may appear Africa belief from an

bold

hypothesis

to

derive important

Indonesia by reference to well-established Egyptian date that makes transmission to other parts of Africa customs, practised at probable, I submit that the Indonesian hypothesis may be accepted as a working explanation of the data. I need hardly recall the fact that musical instruments, weapons, architectural
common

to

Africa and
a

features, and
to

Indonesia.

other elements of West Africa culture have also been traced For these the question arises whether they were transmitted

Negro

Captive.
We
have

13

direct, whether part,


own
or

or

via the south

coast

of Asia.

they

day

carried by people of whose they were transmitted as whether much manufactured from hand to hand. Architectural resemblances pass
were

also to solve the problem of culture they formed an integral

goods
are

in

our

easily explained' in this way like weapons ; but it seems

perhaps less than similarities in readily transportable material difficult to account for the transmission stillmore
of peoples, in large or small to be on the whole a favourable I put forward these facts and furnish valuable material for

independently of the movement of burial customs field burial The of rites therefore seems numbers. for arriving at a definite decision, and one suggestions the final solution of the problem. in the hope that Egyptologists may

NoRTHCOTE

W.

Thomas.

NEGRO

CAPTIVE.

Frontispiece.) (5ee
Pieces of royal furniture are so rare, outside of the Cairo Museum, that we should notice a figure in the collectionof the New York Historical Society. This figure behind him, evidently has been for of a kneeling negro, with his hands bound
some

II as a boy is shown royal footstool. The king Amenhetep five beardless feet his on a negroes and Hittites, and resting group of captives, four bearded Syrians, making peoples, often up the traditional nine subdued king's feet. The footstool, bows beneath this as the shown negroes of nine like a object figured in the tomb of Ra and are kneeling as here.
to provide

Denk. (Lep.
The

Ill, 62), have the elbows tied behind them, between the feet was bar doubtless a casting of

to be ranged for attaching them to the furniture round which it was with other captive figures. The casting, from its complexity, must have been modelled in wax, and cast it to be a to is be to "=eems It heavy show cire perdue. which exceedingly said
" "

The specific gravity would settle that. The head solid casting without a core. is left has been biu^nished, the front partly so, but the back between the arms knees From on the the the the with casting. absence of polish original skin of it does not seem to have been actually mounted ever and used, as any wear of Probably handling and cleaning would have smoothed the prominent this part. has been found as leftbehind in a workshop. The illustrationhere is of the actual

Williams, who size, for which I have to thank Mrs. Ransom describing the collection of the Historical Society.

has lately been

W.

M.

Flinders

Petrie.

14

ON

QUEEN

TETISHERI,

GRANDMOTHER

OF

AHMOSE

I.

In

I recounts how he erected in the Sacred Land a mother of his mother and the pyramid-chapel Wife Great his father, Royal phant," the mother of and Royal Mother Tetisheri,triumin Theban Necropolis, the and whose cenotaph was already whose tomb was
a

well known

inscriptionfrom Abydos,

King Ahmose

to "the

King firstexpressed a desire to accomplish this his act of piety while talking with seeking the welfare of wife Ahmose-Nefretiri to how long the There is, it is true, no definite statement as the departed."
built in the Thinite
nome.^

The

"

had been dead, but one gets the impression that grandmother of King Ahmose she had died several years before, and that the cenotaph already erected in Abydos was either beginning to fallin ruins or that it belonged to an earlierreign and was In Ahmose as thought fitting for his ancestress. therefore not as sumptuous

fair to say that she was not only genealogically two other words, it woiild seem Ahmose, but that historically generations earlierthan she belonged wholly to that
earlier age. I must time ago in beginning a study of the XVIIth confess that some dynasty I started on this supposition, but I eventually concluded that such an impossible. About interpretation of this text was twenty years ago Erman

dynasty Book p. 150)that an XVIIIth ofthe Dead from in Cairo, had been written upon a piece of papyrus which had farm accounts. already, at the beginning of the dynasty, been used for some At the end of these he could make out :
discovered

{A.Z.1900,
now

Abusir, and

Erman judgedthat reference was here made to actual estates of Sitkamose Tetisheri rather than to their chapels or tombs, and nothing to the contrary and Taking this as the case, then Tetisheri and appears ever to have been advanced. Sitkamose were with estates presumably near Abusir, for it would not endowed be very likely that a scrap of paper of this sort would travel a great distance from its point of origin. I The interesting point is that the only villages to-day called Abusir in the Fa'yum and north towards base this statement on the Baedeker maps are
"
"
" "

records isdoubtless and that of these the Abusir of the Cairo Museum Necropolis. As late as the reign of Kamose in the Memphite the well known one

Memphis,

"

"

"

Gardiner

Urkunden

in Abydos III, pp. 43 ff ; Breasted, Ancient des iSten Dynasties, p. 26, translations, p. 14.

Records, II, pars. 33 S ; Sethe,

On

Queen Tetisheri,Grandmother

of Ahinose

I.

15

this region was well within the domain of the Hyksos whose southern frontier A., 1916, p. Cusae-Meir {J.E. was 108-10).Since Tetisheriwas a Theban princess have held titleto land in the North until after the expulsion she could scarcely

I was therefore forced to the conclusion that Tetisheri survived of the Hyksos. the expulsion of the Hyksos, or in other words, that she lived into the reign of The only alternative solution of the difficulty Ahmose. would have been to Kamose was leagueri pushed to the point of taking or besuppose that the campaign of Memphis and thus freeing Abusir and its neighbourhood, but of this there is other evidence. Having until the reign of Ahmose, it was
no come

to the conclusion that Tetisheri survived very gratifyingto me to have it confirmed

unpublished fragment of a stelein University College,London, pointed out by Prof. Petrie, who bought it in Egypt some to years ago, and through whose courtesy I am able to bring it out at this time. by
an me

t^

^U
"

"Ag
.-.-,

" xr.j

"""

-;""

The stele has a semi-circular top with the usual winged disk in the lunette. Its width is thirty-eightcentimeters. The lower part is entirely broken away. The very briefinscription announced that IVth Month Year], [Inthe
. .
.

of

Summer,
,

of Montu Lord father of Thebes,


can

tetre' Son

The King lyth Day, ofHis Majesty ofUpper and Lower EgyptNebpehRe' Ahmose, given life, to his anew thiswall as his monument built] [he
"

the Bull in the midst ofHermonthis." On the left Montu, Lord the the tops of plumes of of Thebes." On the right is The Good God, Lord by the peak of the White Crown worn ofthe Two Lands Re' [Ahmose] Son [Nebpehtetre']
be
seen
"
"

of

properly, shorter is given as The Royal Mother Tetisheri than that of the King, and whose name in which the firstd and the () are unquestionable, as Prof. Petrie demonstrated to me, lacunae impossible to fill satisfactorily and the except with another a and Here Tetisheriissurviving the coronation of Ahmose and participating in the The Abusir farm accounts show restoration of the Temple of Montu in Thebes.
"
"

Behind

Ahmose

there stood

Queen whose

figure

was,

"i.

that she lived to

expelled, and on that occasion received from her in the took estate royal grandson reconquered North. Her death, of course, before before the reign was out, and even Ahmose contemplated building place in Abydos ; because a first cenotaph was an extension monument put up there in her honour at the time of her burial at Thebes. It was only toward the end of
see an

the Hyksos

l6

On

Queen Tetisheri, Grandmother

of A/ttnose I.

the reign, while the King was erecting his false pyramid and tomb in the Sacred Land, that he erected the second cenotaph found by the Egypt Exploration Fund in In what we must presume was an point to be remarked. function, Petrie important official Stele shows the Dowager the Queen Tetisheri king to In the the the same reigning exclusion of all others. accompanying way built for his Ahmose Nubia, a temple on the viceroy has shortly after conquest of Queen Ahhotep alone (Buhen, caused the King to be shown with the Dowager
more

1903. There is one

p. 87,
a

cally practi^ In short, the terms of the document shown himself. Temple of Karnak) sound very much like the (anendowment of the Amon declaration of a regency during the king's absence from Thebes, or a republication
the
same

that in Karnak Ahmose and one is naturally led to remember of which he decreed that Ahhotep be shown proclamation, in the course

xxxv)
,

set up

deference

as

was

of the temple. of the proclamation of regency on the occasion of the endowment Late in the reign this prominent place in affairs was taken by Ahmose-Nefretiri, It is she who shared with the King the honour of the wife of King Ahmose.

building Tetisheri'ssecond cenotaph, and she who appears with the King on a * dated monument of the twenty-second year, and following her husband's death I, the reign of her son Amen-hotep she occupies the place of honour throughout
I.* Taking the clue appears on the coronation stele of Thotomose by Ahhotep, we that these appear on the queen-mothers given may conclude This because they arethe regents or potential regents at the time. monuments Year would be Tetisheri'sposition in the of the Petrie stele, a year to

and

even

"

."

which we must unquestionably give Tetisheri must be looked upon therefore, as in every way a predecessor of that remarkable line of XVIIIth dynasty queens whose rights and prerogatives were Presumably it was in them so high that they were virtual rulers of the country. that the family strain was purest and through them that the inheritance passed. held enhanced influence. Most of them survived their husbands, and in widowhood to all intents and purposes a virtual For about a century the royal family was The active, warlike functions and the ritualistic the officeswere matriarchate. they took precedence, but a large share in actual government and officially evidently lay in the hands of this line of women. has survived Tetisheri is nut only the earliest of this line whose name she fur it, by birth a commoner have actually headed must she was whose parents
men's,
"

low number.

by the simple styles of the Honourable Tenna and the Lady Neferu {Ann.Serv., 1908, 137). Lowly as her origin may have been, however, she was famous in Egyptian history : Ahhotep, Ahmosethe ancestress of a line of women
were

known

Nefretiri, Ahhotep

and finally Hatshepsut with whose ambitions the female line of the royal family reached its climax and suffered its eclipse.

II, Ahmose

H. E. WiNLOCK.

' '
"

Legrain, Ann.

Serv. IV, pp. 27-29 ; Sethe, op.cit., p. 21 ; translations, p. Breasted, ^. R., II, pars. 26 ff ; Sethe, op. cit., p. 24 ; translations, p. 13.
Sethe, op. cit.,p. 80 ; translations, p. 41.

11.

17

^
Lemons
sur

REVIEWS
I' Art 8vo.

^gyptien. By Jean Capart. (Vaillant-Carmanne, Liege).


"

1920.

541 pp.

20s

This is the text for the 200 plates which appeared in 1911 as L'Art Iigyptien: in the world a special series of illustrations are when conditions improve is promised, and this called a provisional edition. After an historical introduction,
is described, the oldest monuments, the eaily civilisation the sources, materials, forms ideas The and of architecture, the conventions and of the Egyptians. temples, tombs and statuary of the Old Kingdom described. The architecture are Kingdom come next, and then a fullertreatment, on the lines, same of the material of the New Kingdom and the later period. New ground is broken by the to as the connecton of the scattered statuary without a enquiry history, which was dispersed by Mariette and others without record. The work is full of remarks or criticaldetail, which cannot be summarised, but need full consideration ; such reading will well repay attention, however much others and feel a different may appreciation of the questions. index, and only a scantj^ table of contents. Le
"

art of the Middle

Unfortunately

there is

no

Pseudo-Gilgamesh
By

"

sur figure

Louvre.
Rendus

"

J.Capart.
Ins.
are

And

le couteau Egyptiende Gebel el 'Arak du Note de M. G. Bdnidite. 8vo. 15 pp. (Comptes

Acad.

1919). The

hunting

scene

on

qes of Cusae, on the handle.


"

produced as Egyptian Further, the personal names are Qesmer and Qes-em-hot quoted as evidence is, however, like that Qes was The phrase Cusae leads a deity. that of Memphis for ever," This a god. yet we do not say that Men-nefer was
"
"

here

the seal of Den, and the sign parallels to the hero and lions

endeavour to regard the hero and lions as Egyptian in origin entirely ignores the striking dress which is northern and not Egyptian, and the cold-climate fur of the lions. These alone would prove a northern origin, regardless of the form of the'

group. M. E. Pottier remarked that the aspect of the group was Asiatic, above all in the hair, dress and long beard of the figures. To this Dr. Capart replies inconclusively. replies that the qes figure is the old group of restraining the panther, as on the palette of Narmer, and is not a lion-hero : also that the royal figure in a quilted robe {Abydos II, is more Asiatic than Egyptian xiii) in style. He asks how can we escape from the fact that the more Egyptian art
long-necked M. Benedite

is seen
"irt ?

in its primitive aspect, the more evident is its relation to Mesopotamian In this, however, only the art leading to the dynastic age is considered ; the art of the true prehistoric is outside of this comparison. Bericht uber die grabungen By Hermann 1910-1911.
.
"

Siid. Winter

El-Kubaniehvon auf den Friedhiifen Junker. 4to. 1919. 227 pp., 56 pis.

Wissenschaften (Akad.

in

Wien).

The site of this work was the west bank of the on nine miles north of Aswan Nile ; the periods of the cemeteries described are prehistoric,Xllth dynasty, and
B

18

Reviews.

Of the prehistoricage 24 plates are occupied with views of 96 burials 8 plates are of pottery of dynasties o-i, all common ; 7 plates are of slatepalettes, ivory pins, comb, and falcons, finger rings, beads and shells,flintflakes,and a Byzantine.
two bracelets, tweezers, fish-hook and needle, all of rectangular copper axe, Of the Xllth dynasty are 8 plates of burials, 3 of beads, a few scarabs copper. Five plates are of and cylinders and bone armlets, harpoon, wand, and user. not such excellent and careful work was lavish importance, by a the concerning publication only rewarded single object of is a white-lined bowl (in the material quite familiar and usual. The best object with a spotted disc in the midst, from which radiate 23 palm branches. text)

Christian burials.

It is sad

that

A few pot marks are mostly of animals, and a few signs. The catalogue of graves is not in any order, so reference is difficult, typed. and the pottery is insufficiently shallow rectangular pits in the rock, graves of the Xllth dynasty were III, another of the XVIIIth lined with bricks. A cylinder of Amen-em-hat or found. There were dynasty were dynasty, and 5 usual scarabs of Xlll-XVth
The

of many cartormage masks, pottery, and four small alabasters, all as cartonnage, probably extends to the usual. The date, by the cylinder and one important sitesstill When XVIIIth dynasty. there are so many needing record, be here it seems that the care given where it is should and publication spent fragments needed, rather than to
a

poor cemetery of this kind.

Prehistoric Cultures and University 88 pp. (Calcutta


This paper concludes that by
"

of India. By Dept. of Letters, 1920). Journal,


Races
"

Panchanan

Mitra.

8vo.

the professor of prehistoric archaeology needs notice, as it the pre-dynastic Egyptians and the chalcolithic Indians very Erythraean race to a common belonged ; the home of that ancient probably in Africa, located finally likely Punt in Ta Netar, which though was race most
'
'

had also a counter-part on the Indian shore of the Arabian sea ; and Ta Neter, southern India the land of gods, was probably an early colony from pre-' Aryan and Punt from the Pounnata of Ptolemy in Southern India."
'

in India, but as it is all existence of a long age of copper is recognised Iron is named in the pre-historic it attracts less attention than the iron age. does B.C. but this than as the Vedas are not 1200-800 not earlier earliest writings, iron age in South India was here is It iron in the that the west. claimed precede but no evidence of active in 1600-1500 B.C., and spread thence to Mesopotamia, so early an agricultural,had weaving, age is given. The iron-using people were

The

gold and bronze

and kept buffaloes,sheep and goats. Iron lances, hatchets and spades. was wrought as swords, daggers, spears, javelins, followed ; were Rude modes monuments of burial were stone erected. Two by less in long cists, cremation. usually mostly urn-burial under megaliths, or The similarityof the pottery to that of Egypt and East Mediterranean, and a like series of owners tion marks, is the main ground for a connection. This connecdynastic, the Egypt, the be the not whereas and would with prehistoric

(?copper) ornaments,

linked with the was theory given is that the Sumerian (ordynastic Egyptian) is to rely in India The resemblance of Punt to Pounnata Dravidian. not much Teu Nodr Ta Neter the to that not work, as on gods will country of ; and of
" "

it is not nodr but teu that


we

must

India, undated

Before granting an Egyptian-Indian connection god. on each side is specified, see clearly which of the races and how far be linked with stages in Egypt thousands before 1200 B.C., can
means

of years earlier.

19

^
PERIODICALS.

Aegyptus;

remsta

Italiana di Egittologia

di

Papirologia.
"

(R. Accademi 30 lire ann. 1920. Milano via Borgonuovo 25.)


We
must

in Scientifico-letteraria

fresh activity in our science on the Itahan side, in this welcome is issued be to journal, which quarterly, to comprise 400 pages annually, though The classical the firsttwo numbers indicate more than 500 pages for the output.
age and the papyri are naturally the main interest to Italy. Prof. Calderini is the chief editor. LuMBROSO, Arrian's account GiACOMO. Comments on of the founding of Alexandria (III Heroeion i, to Hephaistion at Alexandria, and in and on the
"

Pharos

4) {VII23, 6).
Giulio.
"

This is a review of the various listsof foreign peoples. The analysis of the 87 articles belonging to the Keftiu, of which 60 are Syrian, is set aside because we do not know all the products of countries
/

Farina,

del mare. popoli

"

this looseness of artists may have made mistakes. It is just Wainwright by the that consistent, which exposed, artistswere showing The conclusions by the mistakes of commentators. and that confusion arose reached are that the Luku were of Lykaonia, the Shardena of Pisidia,the Pulosathu,
B.C.,

in 1500

and

treatment

Zakkaru

and Daanona Palestine.

of Lykia, and thence the two former settled on

the coast of

Arangio-Ruiz,

Vincenzo.
as

"

del dirittoGiustinianeo in Egitto. Applicazione


"

A discussion of the law Maspero. Calderini,


"

shown

by

the Byzantine

papyri, published by

Jean

Ricerche sul regime delta acque nell'Egitto grecoThis recites the various attention to canals and water-works in Eg5T)tian history, beginning with the director of the inundation under Azab ; there is,
"

Aristide.

rotnano.

however,

an

earlier

pourtrayed making the Greek papyri are

under Den, and the mace-head of the Scorpion king, The reference to canals in canals before the 1st dynasty. of 50 canals, all collected and discussed, with a listof names
one
"

and restored plans of properties along the canals. NoRSA, Medea. deltaSocietd Italiana. Un nuovo prossimovolume di -baperi This volume will contain 140 more Zeno papyri, and 80 of Roman and Byzantine
"

age.
De Francisci, Pietro.
"

// papiro 62. Jandanae

"

A Byzantine business letter

discussed with the Justinian law. Breccia, E., gives a summary

an abstract of the Staff of the Cairo Museum, Dr. Reisner's a museum recent work, of report of work and accessions, and results Reviews follow, mainly on papyri. Lastly the outline of a system at Alexandria.

of bibliography, and 361 entries classified, of recent publications. Part Lumbroso, On the letter of Aristaeus, referring to Giacomo. 2. to be accepted as genuine. now the Jews. This seems animals unclean among
"

20

Periodicals. Maroi, Fulvio.


"

C7n documentob

ilingue di datio tutelae deW published by Grenfell has d (escriptum) e (t)


a

romano.

This Greek and Latin document initials, which is here amplified thus :
" "

egittogrecoformula of

e (x r(ecognitum)

b (ibliothecae) t (abul.) s (uper) (xemplari) NoRSA, Medea.


"

s(scripto).
"

Scolii

testi non

noti. ^A fragment
e
"

of

text naming

Neoptolemos

of what Also a statement the cubit and systems of long measure. of Kite {qedet) not a tenth of what weight, with a few dozen weighings of examples known ; also an outline of the capacity measures. are So far this is familiar latter but dealing Ptolemaic the ground, part with the system used in papyri
"

and Achilles, with scholia. Segre, Angelo. Misure tolemaiche


on

A summary pretoletnaiche.

iswell known

"

will be useful for that period. Aristide. Calderini, (Continuation water of paper on works). A list and the system of maintenance, gathered from papyri. of the embankments, Hunt, A. S. P. Mahaffy. A careful appreciation of the great Provost of
" " "

Trinity College, Dublin.

Short papers and reviews, with

continuation of the bibliography.

New

York Historical Society,Quarterly Bulletin.

In the days of Mehemet Aly, an important figure in Cairo was the American fine antiquities. This Dr. Abbott, who used his opportunities to collect many is New York Historical Williams now Society, the with collection and Mrs. Ransom has been publishing illustrations of the important January,1918. The Ushabtis include some

objects.

of the finest class, such as an inlaid coloured glass figure of a lady Sat-ta of late XVIIIth dynasty. Another Auy. fineone of limestone is in a model sarcophagus, name There are examples of Mut-em-hat; and, illustrated, Amen-em-apt, queens Mehti-en-usekht and Karama A mummy case chief artist of the temple of Amen, and a treasurer Psamthek.
with hope Egypt, 1920, p. 18. ushabtis and a roll has been given in Ancient a full catalogue of the whole series will be published. in the number April, 1918. The head of Semenkhu-ptah, appeared

We

just

A large piece of a temple scene of Sankhkara, with the upper part of quoted. figures of the king and Uazet, is of the same style as the sculptures of Menthu-hetep I, Senusert but as not historic interest. It is clearly the same and of artistic,

see

Brugsch gives {Thes. as his copy is incomplete, which shows that he did not 1455) it, owing to its being sent to America before he went to Egypt, and he only
a

obtained
"

copy. Bronze
"

Spirits A fine kneeling figure of one of the is 6'7 ins. high, cast cire perdue. A solid bronze Hathor standing, with of Pe head, disc and horns, was dedicated by Ast-resh, son (?) cow's of Penptah, about

July, 1918.

statuettes.

the XXVth

Figures of Bastet are cat-headed and human-headed ; a cat and kittens, and a standing Harpocrates, with a shrine before him closed by A lion-throne of Harpocrates was a hinged lid,are dedicated all without names. The kneeling negro bronze appears in this by Pen-khepra, son of Peda-amen. dynasty. in a kilt,head shaven, Egypt. A standing bronze of a man of Ancient are on, cast separately and dowelled may probably be of a priest ; the arms to seems date. a show which rather early number
statuettes 1918. Wooden of gods. The illustrations are of a figure ins. high, jackal-headed 13-6 with cavity for papyrus in the back; an

October,

Periodicals.

21

7 high with cavity from Bastet and Osiriswith cavity in throne ; an


Osiris figure 20
"

the base upward ; seated figures of Osiris-khent-amenti figure of late date,

; a large Bastet squatting on a lotus, with cavity for a dummy serpent mummy for a mummy figures there were a case cat still in position. Of solid wooden Horus, Isis three of Osiris and two of and painted or gilded. bronze of seated Horus of Roman April, 1919. A cireperdue age, was thrown

defective casting, with the core in it and the mould round it. After removing more of the mould and cleaning it,the defect in the flow of metal round the back of the head is well shown as an instructive technical example. aside
as a

There are about 320 figures of gods in the collection, of which illustrateda seated Harpocrates, a tripleaegis of Osiris,Isis and Horus, in bronze ; and in blue glass a double-fronted Bes(rough) a seated Maot and a pantheistic Sokar-ram-hawk.

July, 1919.
are

there

descriptions given of these will spread the interest in them, and objects intelligible to the public. Let us hope the whole more make Eg3rptian matters for be benefit the of science, and not for the amusement collection will published The

of book collectorswith the abnormal issues.

extravagance

which lately besets American

Bulletin

ofthe Cleveland Museum

ofArt,

Oct.-Nov., 1918.

The well-known High Priest of Memphis under Shashanq I,Shedes-nefer-tum dedicated a stele which is figured and described by Mrs. Williams. The central figure is Harpekroti, seated on the lotus, perhaps the earliest example of this Adorations to the Memphite gods are made by Hora, x descended of

subject.

Psheri-mut, Senkhrenf

and

Yufonkh.

Bulletin December,

Museum ofthe Metropolitan

ofArt.

New

York.

1918. An drawings, shows the right

of civilisation, which no museum has opened three dwelling sites lately, a town of the XX of this -XXIIth dynasties at Lisht, the palace-city of Amen-hetep III at Thebes, and the town of
"

and exhibition of daily lifeof Egyptians, by objects development, and the attention to the history museum country but America has properly followed. The work

Hibis in Khargeh

Oasis.

We

hope that all these results will be fully and quickly

published. February, 1919. A pair of seated figures from about the end of the XVIIIth dynasty was found in a tomb The persons are Auy and his sister at Asyut. Rennut. His parents were Amen-hetep and Rennut, and those of his wife Aay
Their figures are in reliefon the back of the group, receiving offerings and Yaa. from a younger Auy, and a sister Hathor. It is a charming piece of best work of the age. The tomb chapel and another statue are in the local museum at Asyut.

August, 1919. A fine bowl of millefiori glass recently acquired, leads to a discussion of the nature of vases, murrhine and the conclusion that they were They from Alexandria, to this were come glass. of and this points to glass said work, and is considered to outweigh the statement of Pliny that murrhine vases
"

"

were

the Roman,
same

dug from the earth. is really from idea ?

if morria, the Greek form of the name, myrrhites carries myria, a myriad, and the name millefiori on the
B

What

23

Periodicals.

Museum

ofFine

Arts Bulletin. Boston, October, 1918.

These 15 pages give a very brief account of Dr. Reisner's discovery of the burials of the Ethiopian kings in their p)n:amids. All the tombs had been robbed of their gold, but many pieces were accidentally leftbehind, and all the ushabtis. These bear out the view that the Ethiopians had a finer standard of work than
of the Vllth century, which is suggested before by the sudden rise Ethiopian rule in Egypt, both in ushabtis and scarabs. the of style under The tomb chambers were all inundated, but by diligentbaling the water was the Egyptians reduced, and the hundreds of ushabtis recovered. The group of pyramids is at The tombs found include that of Taharqa, Nuri opposite to the capital at Napata.
a thousand over ushabtis ; Tanut- Amen ; Senkamanseken, with blue ushabtis the and chamber walls covered with the negative confession ; Amtalga ; Hariotep; Nastasan ; Amlaman Tombs Astabargandu, ; and others as yet unknown.

with

of fifty-three queens and princesses were coffinof Aspalta is copied from the wooden and hawk posts, and a small jackal found at the corners the of pyramids,
as

The lid of the granite also found. coffinsof that age, with upright corner standing up on it. Foundation deposits were in the Xllth

hope

may we full publication for reference of all Dr. Reisner's undertakings ? The little sketches are welcome enough, but that is not what is due for scientific
to
see a

dynasty.

When

work. Crocodiles in Palestine. By


"

Prof. G.

Buchanan

Gray.

8vo.

10

pp.

Statement, (Quarterly The

Palestine Exp. Fund,

1920, p.

167).

ancient, mediaeval, and modern statements about crocodiles inhabiting the river Zerka are here discussed ; though the reported views of the animals
were

extremely the remains by

brief and dubious, yet the general belief, and the production of to warrant accepting this as a habitat. one of the natives, seem
"

L'exode et le

Map.

passagede la Mer Rouge. By G. Daressy. Sac. Sultanieh de Gdographie, Caire). 1919 (Bull.

8vo.

23

pp.

This is mostly dealing with Sir W. Willcocks' views as to a northern route On geographical grounds, these views are firmly contradicted, of the Exodus. The papyrus listof traditional and the understanding of the route is upheld. twenty places in the eastern region is detailed in support of this.

Annales

du
G.

Service des Antiqtiitds de T ^gypte. XVII,


"

191 7.

Daressy,

Fragments

of Ptolemaic age were been published. That of Apollonias has parts of chapters 127, 133 of the Book of the Dead, also various figures of gods with brief legends. The coffin of Khayf
has many figures of genii with their names, scenes of the sun during the twelve hours of day alternate with the transformations of the dead in the twelve hours of firstis Peda...amen, son of Pama, Ymhetep, Rere, the third isTefnekht, a the the son second great judge of of A few geographical details here should be utilisedin dealing bom of Nes-nebhat. nome. this with
"

de deux cercueils de Saqqarah. Parts of two coffins brought by Mariette from Saqqareh, and have not yet

beside texts. night, altogether 178 subjects Daressy, The G. Statues de Mendh. bom

Periodicals.

23

Le lieu d'origine de I'arbre ash. The article debates the Remenen, identified Lebanon. Such permutations of I usually meaning of with As a final n is used for /, it is proposed to and of b are stated to be unknown. Ermil as the this name ; and read would be Hermil, the actual place of the forest on Lebanon. Daressy,

G.

"

du Grand Pretre Piankh. Les titres This priest-king seems to in have had only secular titles his youth, fanbearer, scribe, vizier,general, royal son of Kush, keeper of the southern lands, keeper of the granaries, commander-inDaressy,
"

G.

chief,as recorded in a letter on an ostrakon from the Tombs of the Kings. Daressy, G. Deux canopesprovenant de la Moyenne-Egypte. These
"

were

bought at Mellawi, probably from Meir, and are Persian or early Ptolemaic in date. They belonged to Pa-du-hor-mehen, son of Set-ar-bu, and give religious for Pedu-horen. was titles. A head of another jar Daressy, G. Deux grandes Statues de Ramses II d'HdracUopolis. South
"

Kom temple is a plain, on the east of which is the mound of the well-known al in Aqareb ; this the two statues have been found, with a granite building probably On one block is the name part of a temple gateway. of Queen Sebekneferu,
on

another Senusert III is named. Xllth dynasty, appropriated by

The statues appear to have been of the Ramessu II, and one later, by of them,

Merneptah.

Egyptiens. Three rough stone weights, inscribed in Kings, show units of 130-2, 145-9, 139-7 grains. the of The first is on the daric standard, though deben like various other marked The two a are standards, merely meaning unit. other of the usual qedet A bronze couchant bull from the Fayum standard. marked 5, is on a standard
"

Daressy,

G.

Poids

ink, from

the Tombs

of '^i7'i grains, perhaps a very light qedet. Daressy, G. Le Roi Tdos a Athribis. A re-publication of Sharpe's Inscriptions, pi. 43, from a copy by Harris.
"

Egyptian

Stele du roi Pefnifdubast. A limestone stele from Ehnasya is dated in the tenth year of the same king who dedicated the gold statuette {Ehnasya, It donation land a by Aruath, born of the royal daughter and front). records of Daressy, G.
"

The solar cartouche being Nefer-ka-ra, it is suggested wife Takhredt-ne-ast. that he was a vassal of Shabaka. If so, he would be the grandson of Pef-du-bast, of the time of Piankhy.
Daressy, G. Le Dieu de Toukh el Malaq. A black granite statue of a bull-headed god, with a disc and uraeus between the horns, has a prayer to Shu in the temple of Hat-amen. Tukh el Malaq is 12 kilometres from Benha, and the place Hat-amen Kom be Atrun, may 3^ kilometres west of Tukh.
"

Daressy,

G.
.

"

Une Stelede Xois.

A stele probably of Augustus Travaux

dedicated by

Imhetep-sa-ptah
Legrain,

Oct. executes a Louqsor. 1916-Mars 1917. After an account of the Thebaid under the Romans, and the Thebes, in the follows a statement there martyrs of cleariiag of work of the course by the Roman Forum Pedestals were found with dedications to Julian of Thebes.
G.
"

Rapport sur

les Nouveaux

Governor Aurelius Ginus, a.d. 360. A triumphal arch, and led up to the four pedestals, and the cross-road through Ramesside court at Louqsor.
Daressy,

gate of the Forum, led into the them copied this

G.

"

Legende

d'Ar-herus-nefer d Philae.

M.

Barsanti

inscription in 1896. It is an adoration of the god, dated under Tiberius, and should be considered, in disentangling the later mythology.
n

24
Daressy, of
was a

Periodicals,

G.

"

La Statue No. 35562 du MusSe

du Caire.

This isthe lower part

It small seated figure, with four signs like those of early date from Sinai. found west of Aswan, with of the XVIIlth dynasty, beneath a rock

objects

inscribed at that period. G. Debris de Stile d'Hor-em-heb. Daressy,


"

This represents

an

offering to

Osiris,and gives the complete titles of Horemheb. Lucas, Salt A. Efflorescent of Unusual Composition. Silky efflorescence terracottas from the Fajmm on of proves to be butyrate of lime. The source
i. Stele of Pa-haf, the first prophet Nes-Min had the same Ta-khred-tehuti. Nes-Min, and of Hathor, governor, son of office, and a notable point in the reading is that the nesut plant is used for writing nes. 2. Stele of a prophet of various gods, Her-taui, son of Pa-khred, son of
"

the fat is unknown. Daressy, Tentyrites. G. Inscriptions

Pen-khred,
held by

son

of Nes-Min,
a

the latter written

as

before.

He

went

to Osiris at

90 +x. pluralist of pluraUsts. 4. Feet of lost, with many name religious titles. 5. Stele of about Pa-nezem (?), engraver of Panopolis, in honour of Hathor.

70-f-x years, probably


one
man,

3. Stele, name

lost, naming
a

fifty religious posts

black granite statue, the time of Scty I, of

Daressy,

G.

"

SarcophagePtoldmatque
A hymn
on
a

Dut-nefer, born of Sat-bastet.


unknown here. except

wooden

coffin of of Ra entering the underworld, apparently coffin from Qau,the variants of which are given

d'Assiout.

Hard

limestone

I. The upper half of a I. This is Amenhetep to II roll of papyrus, with offering mainly of interest in connection with other details of offeringservices ; comparison Of general interest are is made with those of Unas, Sety I, and Paduamenapt. of points in the Osiris legend, as that Isis was delivered by a negro wise-woman to a feeble infant ; and in the Greek legend a negress-queen, Aso, helps Typhon Daressy,

G.

"

Rituel des

a Amenhetep Offrandes

ritual of Rameses

attack Horus. Daressy,

G.

"

La

"

Demeure

Roy ale

"

en

A Basse-Egypte.

lintel from

El

a royal house ; it is supposed Damayin, 3 miles S.W. of Faqus, names been brought from elsewhere, and the final conclusion is that Faqus

to have

the place of the palace of Sety II. be useful in future research.


Daressy,

may be The geographical discussion of this region will


Mastaba de d Edfou. An Pepi-nofer

G.

"

du Inscriptions

Old

in Cairo, is here published. Kingdom mastaba, the inscriptions of which are now Mery-Ra-nefer, was a young man Pepy-nefer, with a good name under Teta, passes Aty in silence, and then became superintendent of the South, to the general over the supply of cattle from the benefit of the people, and especially in managing limestone statues Two one also found. nomad perfect were shepherds. This records four town sites de I' Oasis de Dakhleh. Elias, Girgis. Inspection
" "

"

and three temples, only and Titus.


MuNiER,

one

of which is inscribed,with

names

of Nero, Vespasian,

Fragments des Actes du martyr e da I'ApaChnoubd. Though the canal passing through in Sahidic, this martyrology refers to Bubastis, and names but from is date, There indication the no the city. character of the persecution of Henri.
"

it was

probably under Decius Munier, Henri. Une


"

or

Diocletian. Karnak.

Lampe Chrdtienne de
Loukios
on

red pottery is inscribed for Abba known and celebrated are names

i6th

and Abba Khoiak as

of fine These Arsenics, Martyrs. This lamp Syrians who suffered at

Periodicals.

25

a Other lamps are corruption of Eulogios. quoted, as Archbishop," Alexandria was of who patriarch of 312-328 ; loudas and lakobos Apostles," from Thebes ; and one from Kom one naming The Saint Michael." Ombo, naming 'Notesur le Village de Hagd. MuNiER, Henri. Zawyet-el-Meyitin is proposed
"

Ekhmim.

Loukios

is

one

Alexander
"

"

"

as

the site of Hage, on the strength of that being the birthplace of the father of a man whose tomb is found at Zowyeh. Daressy, G. L'Art Tanite. Maspero recognised five centres of sculpture, Thebes, Hermopolis, Memphis, Tanis and Sais. The importance of Tanis is
"

attacked here.

proving Another brought

It is shown that five of the statues of Tanis all refer to Memphis, Memphis II plundered to adorn that Ramessu his city of Tanis. Hathor Maz, Dronkeh, or names statue of showing that statues were from as far as Siut. Many from Heliopolis. Even came monuments

the well-known imported, as part of an exactly similar sphinx sphinxes were found M. Daressy of the same size was under the floor of a temple at El Kab. from Upper Egypt ; that some at Memphis concludes that these sphinxes came Apepi, inscribed later were by II. they were taken to Tanis by Ramessu and The bearers of offerings of this same type are placed by M. Daressy in the XVIIIth dynasty, and refer all the peculiarities of hair and beard to their He confesses, however, that the type representing the king as the Nile Hapi. face is does that of the sphinxes, and of not try to reconcile this with the type

The later artist'strial-piecesand small work at of the kings of the New Kingdom. Tanis is the same as such elsewhere. The conclusion is that there was no special We have dealt with this question with illustration in the school at Tanis.
last number. Chaban, Le puttsdu gindral Ankh-uah-ab-re-si-nit d Saqqarah. the of pillarsof the church of Jeremiah. When excavated found at 60 feet deep opening from a hall ; in this hall descended another pit 15 feet further to three more chambers, all anciently The pillaged. glazed ushabtis number 384, and give the usual chapter with
"

Mohammed.
one

The pit was beneath four chambers were

and title of general ; 367 other ushabtis are for his mother Astkheb, bom Thet-Hor. The general's father was Psamthek, and his grandfather a general of Nes-aoh. A few small vases Near the mouth of and scraps were also found.
name

the pit were Amenemhab


Daressy,

blocks of the

XlXth

dynasty,

with

inscriptions of Ptahemheb,

A stick of this form was observed to be used in hooking in bunches of dates for cutting, also used in carrying a bundle by a negro. If M. Daressy would visit Sinai he would find such a form
"

and Ra-mes. G. L'origine du

uas. Sceptre

of stick carried by

all the

Bedawin.

The

extent

of the

use

of it should

be

studied. Daressy, Ramessu

d'Athribis. Four pieces of a remarkable scene Bas-reliefs of II, supposed to be part of the Osiris mysteries. There are figures of Hapi, standing and kneeling on running in a tree ; water, offering to the Bennu Anubis preparing four canopic jars a pot by a syphon heads ; filling with human from a jar Papyrus drawing the (see of syphons on the Satiric of Turin, Auswahl,
"

G.

list of offerings the round-headed sistrum is distinguished from the Hathor naos-headed wand. Daressy, G. Stele de Karnak avec textes magiques. A text on pieces of a stele from the great pit at Karnak, differingfrom any on the steles of Horus : too broken to be translated. much
a
"

In xxiii).

36
Daressy,

Periodicals.

G.

"

Let

du formes

Soleil aux

heures diffirentes

de la

journie.Six
are

listsof the emblems


compared. Edgar, C. C.
"

and

divinitiesassociated with the different hours

here

of early Ptolemaic papyri. This deals with kalendars, and the starting Egyptian the complication of the and Macedonian point of the regnal years, from the Zeno papjnri at Cairo ; but the whole of the One disturbing result group scattered in various collections needs to be used.
is that the provincial
two
"

On

the dating

was

often five

or

ten

days wrong

when

dating by the

de Qouss. A naos in red granite of a prince, Deux naos Kingdom. Shema is Old The the judge, and vizier of second naos is of Philadelphus, de I'Egypte, ChampoUion already published in Description and Lepsius. de MentuhetepIII d Denddrah. Daressy, G. Chapelle A small chapel
" "

calendars." Daressy, G.

found Neb-hap-ra It was of Mentuhetep standing in the rubbish mounds. had suffered from salt and corrosion, and was further damaged discovery. after The king grasps a papyrus stem twined round with convolvulus, apparently

representing Merneptah.

Lower

and

Upper

Egypt.

There

are

added

inscriptions of

Daressy, G. Monuments datant du May en Empire, i. A steleof a d'Edfou kher heb of Hor-behudet, royal son, Ab, son of luf, bom of Ab ; his wife Hor-mes, bom of the royal sister luf and the prince of Edfu Apu. 2. Altar of offerings for the same Ab, son of luf, and his wife Hor-mes. Stele 3. of a kher heb Hora,
"

son of Hor-any, son of Neferhetep, born of Senb ; his wife Hor-sat, daughter of Figures bear Sebekhetep. the prince Abaci, born of the princess Ast ; his son 4. Altar of offerings for An(y, other names, of luf-senb. Neb-ant, Nubududu. ? Senb bom Nubdudut his Antef-hetep ; ; ; and Anher. 5. Stele of luf. wife

of)

6 and 7. Statuettes of yellow limestone of Ayni. Daressy, G. Alexandre Barsanti. This Italian had
"

been

the handjnnan

of the Cairo

since 1885. Originally sculptor-modeller, he repaired and the removals of the museum, transported the heavy mounted managed objects, from various parts of the country, repaired buildings, cleared buildings monuments for all He organised a working staff competent and carried on excavations.
museum

these enterprises, and he wrote numerous accounts of work and discoveries in familiar the Annates du Service. In every part of the country the people were incessant Skander," as he was called. At fifty-nine with the work of years, such in brief heart The a heavy Service attack. work ended and will hardly find
"

another such active and efficient worker ; but we may hope that different men in these tasks of museum repairer, architect and excavator, will be employed which each require very differenttraining and abilities.

^gyptidndu Liban. This defends the old Seb. Sur le nam Remenen Lebanon, as and disputes the equivalence with Hermil rendering of proposed by M. Daressy. Ronzevalle, Notes sur les Statues No. 31919 et 35562. A figure of red Seb. inscription of Bel-sar-usur. On the front is with Aramaic granite from Aswan
Ronzevalle,
" "

sign supposed to be the lance of Marduk. A figureof sandstone described by M. Daressy


a

Probably
as

having

of the Vlth century B.C. proto Semitic inscription


"

like those of Sinai, is read as Gaash {see Jos.xxiv 30 ; Jud.ii 9). There is no ground for dreaming of Asiatic writing, as M. Daressy has suggested, seduced by the theory of M. Alan Gardiner, on the monuments yet undeciphered of Sarbut el

Khadim.

The

essay at decipherment,

attempted

by MM.

Gardiner, Cowley

and

Periodicals.

27

Sayce, of the texts, which are does not appear admissible."


Bovier-Lapierre, environs monastery
small

so

important for the history of the Semitic alphabet,


Note
sur

Paul.
De

"

d'Assouan.

Morgan

had
seen

le traitement mdtallurgique du fer aux limonite iron ore near the observed Now, up any workings. found, but fuel would
sent away. This name of the Arab
a

of St. Simeon, but had not remains of iron smelting have

been

always

side valley, be a

difficulty, and probably most of the ore Le Convent de Nahieh. G. Daressy,


"

was

treasure hunter
cover

is

now
acres

50

identifiedwith Ed Deir, ; the deir had columns G.


"

near

Abu

Rowash.

The

ruins there

about

Daressy,
at Beltim and Depu
names

La

on

the extreme

(Buto and
seem

of places from Byblos.

el Ashaar Delta, bear to Uazet a dedication the north of of Pu figures ; Phragonis) of Isis and Nebhat adoring the Zad ; to refer to the coffin of Osiris having landed at that site

de Beltim. porte

of granite, marble work and mosaics. Parts of a doorway from Kom

TOME
Strazzulli,

XVIII,

1918.
"

a. ; Bovier-Lapierre,

d Eldphantine. Previous les fouilles

hunters

P. ; Ronzevalle, Seb. had only turned over

Rapport

sur

the Persian
"

Now layer in search of papyri. the stuff has been completely sifted over with layers lower The also cleared, and all the houses planned. good result, the intereste history of the fortress of Yeb would have been perhaps possible, if entirely disexcavations

establishing strata worked at the Kom and

occupied the whole site, and ended in of uniform of the expeditions which have periods. None This is the criticism of the irregular have had such an aim." had methodically

object
on

for the site of the Search was made unscientific work that has gone on. On is : the the temple, Jewish position of each unsuccessfully. plan (i 500) noted discovered in place ; these comprise a wooden statue of the Old Kingdom, the rock, a prehistoric bird palette, a polished tombs and other of later periods.

prehistoric bowl,

and

some

objects

Barsanti,

Ai-EX."

Rapportsur

les travaux

exdcutds d Saqqarah, 1912.

Repairs

toration Resles travaux exdcutds au Ramesseum. Tombs Kings. of a column, and repairs at of the Barsanti, Details of small Alex. de la Nubie. Rapport sur les monuments damage are the collisions by boats overrepairs needed ; the most serious causes throwing of
" "

of the Serapeum Barsanti,

and tombs. Alex. Rapports sur

faces walls and columns when submerged, and the gradual decay of the suras by repeated wetting and drying, which will finally efface the sculptures by the Engineers. might have been expected, in spite of all interested assurances Daressy, G. Position de la Ville de Takinach. This city of the inscription
" "

of Piankhi is identified with where it was expected. Daressy, G.


"

an

irrigation basin, Diqnash,

in the region of Feshn

The Samtaui-Tafnekht.

socket of

been found

him son of a royal son at Ehnasya, naming found with it. There is also a statue of him from Sais. He is named as the be I. Two may admiral of the fleet of Psemthek of this name other men descendants of the prince. found at Daressy, A lintelwith this name was G. La localityKhent-nefer.
"

statue of this prince has ; the leg of a statue was

near Qantir,

Faqus

; but

other references place it

near

Gizeh, and probably

the

28

Periodicals,

lintelhas been moved in later times. nome of the Memphite mentioned in Shenbari, a village east of Ausim.
Daressy,

It is proposed that it is the Ta-khenefretis Greek letter,and perhaps represented by


et Hakoris d Karnak.

G.

"

La

de Psimaut chapelle

this chapel has shown the order of the dynasty to be as The inscriptions uncovered are not of importance. Daressy, G. Monuments d'Edfoudatant du Moyen Empire. 8. Stele of luf sumamed Ab, son of luf and born of luf. The title kher heb is reduced simply to the heb basket. 9. Stela of Ab bom of Ta-akhred, naming also Ada born of Ta-urt, and his son luf ; also Ab and his son Adu. 10. Statuette, seated
"

The clearing of stated by Manetho.

on

the ground with one knee up, of Adu, made by his son luf. 11. Part of stele of Nubu-ne-ab, daughter of the prince Hor-em-khau bom of Urt ; his son Sen-rau. Horemhat. Stele of luf, son of Dudunub, 12. by brother his made Daressy,

Nefrus, Any,

Near to it there is also a place El worshipped as Khnumu. Birbeh, where the temple of Nefms probably stood. Edgar, C. C. A further note on early Ptolemaic chronology. Continuance I think it will be found impossible to of the discussion with fresh material.
was
"

preceding. rams of Egypt

Seated figure of a prince of statues de Balansourah. figure Mahu. Seated by brother his of Mutnefer, wife of the made Nefrus was therefore at Balansureh, where one of the four sacred

G.

"

Deux

"

avoid the conclusion that at least two and more probably three differentsystems indiscriminate in use common at this period." of reckoning the year were and rather This text is MuNiER, Henri. Constantin. Un ^logeCoptede I'empereur
"
"

sequence of that at Strasburg, both being in the Sahidic dialect. For one finds, amid a sea of invocations and praises, the apparition of a cross to Constantine, the explanation of it by a Saint Eusignius, and allusions to the Council of
a

Nicaea."

Vestigeschrdtiensd Tinnis. This sitewas large,with many ; Arab writers describe it with admirachurches and mosques, baths and ovens tion. The bishop attended the councils of Epheseus and Chaleedon, a.d. 431 and
MuNiER, Henri.
"

451.

By 535 the sea had covered part of the land, forming the lake of Tinnis, the flooding of Lake and the extent of it increased every year. Then came Yet the town survived tillit Menzaleh in a.d. 554 by subsidence of the Delta. was taken at the Arab conquest, 641. By 11 93 the inhabitants were ordered to

The flooding of the catacombs at Alexandria is 9 feet,and they were Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci., probably well above water-level when cut {see best information we This the 16 June, possess on the gradual gives
remove

to Damietta.

1917).

though the flooding of large walls, and greatest visible been have in 554. A few columns of granite and grey marble areas, removed in 1912, and one has a figureof St. Procopios, the martyr of Caesarea in Palestine. A figure published by Griffith du taureau Mndvis. Daressy, G. "Une statue it. is here discussed, with reference to the chancellor Bay named on Daressy, G. La gazelled'Anoukit. On an ostrakon a gazelle is adored, with to Anuket, by the royal scribe inscriptionof adoration of Anuket, and nesut da hetep Ahayt. This the the quantity of mummies of gazelles in the ast maot, explains of subsidence, which
seems

to have
on

effect was

been continuous the breaking of the

from

500 to

1200,

sea

"

hillsnear

Komir, between
"

QuiBELL,J. A.
and

Edfu and Esneh. This visit to Siwa.


An

was

by steamer

to Mersa

Matruh,

then south by military motor. of lifeand the physical details of the Oasis of Amon,

interesting account

is given of the conditions which


was

conquered

Periodicals.

29
are

by the Egyptians
B.C.,

small temples of the IVth The century quarries, and much-plundered ground is too salt and damp for antiquities to be well preserved, unless gold. Worked flintsare found Regarding the retrocession of the fauna, the ostrich was only near the lagoons. generations ago. A Siwan extinguished only two vocabulary and sentences
a

hundred

years ago.

There

some

tombs.

are

Statue de Zedher the Saviour. This is a black granite squatting it base before a It is ; the whole is 37 inches high. with an altar inscriptions The texts. translations tion descripcovered with minute of magical and 46 pages of the Journal. This will be a principal source of these fill of texts of the steles of Horus on the crocodiles. They refer particularly to protection
"

added. Daressy,

G.

figure,fittingin

father Zedher had two wives, one scorpions and serpents. The man's Ta-khredet-ahet mother of Zedher-pa-shed of the statue ; the other wife Tayhes, daughter of Pedu-ne-hor and Ta-nefert-hert,whose children by Zedher were Pa-rufrom

This ahet, Zedher-pa-asheru, Ta-khredet-ahet, Khut, and Ta-khredet-ne-ta-asut. is given with vast prolixity of repeating parents' names titles time. and every Evidently the to is was on talk the figure. Why the name make
"
"

object
"

translated
"

"

the Saviour

the suckling," or doing good to men


"

is not clear ; shed might as well be the saved," or the reader." The latter is suggested by a reference to his by means of the writings of this shed who is in Ro-sat-zatu ;

"

"

no fault has been found before the master also he claims that of the gods (Khentiin all the things that I have done according to the books." These passages khati) to show his ability in reading the sacred books, and hence his titleof seem the is Another Uah-ab-ra son person named of Dun-s-pa-nefer, reader," pa shed.
"

Ro-sat-zatu, named Athribis, where this near above, was of Kho-s-bast. figure was found. The texts are, of course, essentialin any study of magic formulae, but are not of other interest. bom

Selected papyrifrom the archives of Zenon. A great find of papjTii of Zenon, who had been a private secretary of the State Land Agent, Like most was found in 1914-15 at Philadelphia in the Fayum. large finds
Edgar,
"

C. C.

it

split up, and the papyri are to the hindrance countries, much
was

date from

the time

of Ptolemy

scattered in Cairo, Italy and various other As they of a consecutive study of them. Philadelphos, they are the earliest large group

The more valuable part of the correspondence refers to Palestine yet found. four Syria,during a Carian Greek, and some and years. Zenon was of the letters Among find that he was refer to affairsat Kalynda. other business we away
east of

slave girl for 50 drachmae, and several from Syria to Eg5T3t. Another matter other papyri mention shipping slaves from a Jew named leddou, which only resulted in was trying to get money insults and blows. in getting in There is a description of difficulties officially

Jordan, where

he bought

young

Gold old gold for coinage. its regulation of value.


Daressy, G.
"

plate

was

offered to be coined, but

there

was

no

Stele of Padu-hor-sam-taui who in his 8oth year went to Osiris. He was in the those sacred writings, and wise which covered the wall of Heliopolis, and the wisdom of Safkhet are named. 7. Part of a stele naming Antefa, a governor of the South, in the Xllth dynasty.
8. Black
was of Pa-ashem, who general in At some time of the southern nomes, religious offices. and a great pluralist the base has been changed, as it has a demotic inscription naming the "great Ancient Egypt, 1917, p. statue of Kirgis the strategos {see 9. A group

Tentyrites. 6. Inscriptions

granite statue

of

Menkh-ne-ra,

son

"

132).

30

Periodicals.

of two nude figuresside by side has the limbs hidden by the coilsof two serpents ; is a child, Horus-Apollo, the other a woman one representing the moon.

Gauthier,
a

dupUcate

Les sUles de Van III de Taharqa. has been seen by Mr. Offord in London.
"

H.

Of the stele at Cairo

Egyptienne de 20 hin. This has been put in the pit of Karnak. It has the name of III, but no mark of quantity. From Tehutmes the form it appears to be a measure standard of 40 hins, not 20 as described. It is estimated to have contained 1,231 cubic inches, giving a hin of 30-8 inches. Other marked These are only secondary examples vary from 25-0 to 33-0 for the hin.
Daressy,
"

G.

Une

Mesure

together from

fragments

found

markings inches.

on

vases

made

for other purposes.

The best

mean

value is 29-2 cubic

Chaaban,

Mohammed

of Heliopolis found 20 inches under the surface. was the stone roof of the tomb chamber Two walls could be traced on the surface ; these probably belong to the court or chapel for the worship of the bull, as the steles which were placed in the chapel found sunk outside the walls of the tomb, facing inward, so the chapel were
water.

tomhe d'un Mndvis biurial, largely decomposed,

G. Rapport sur la ddcouverte de la and Daressy, de Ramsh II. An interesting discovery of an unopened
"

however,

by

To

the

north

inside must have been larger than the tomb outside, or 25 feet wide. The tomb is 23 X 16 feet outside, the chamber 207 X 121 inches, or 10 X 6 cubits. The built, have been and repaired in parts, as the door jamb. walls are roughly is still blocked as originally. The stones used by Ramessu II The doorway building of Tut-onkh-amen, Strangely, re-used by Horemheb. the figuresof Amen and Khousu had been erased ; if the name of Tut-onkh-amen is not placed over that of an earlier king, this would show a triple conversion had
come

from

two sets of canopic jars, the order of which is usual, of that king. There were but turned with north in the place of east {Riqqeh, 31). The sculptured scenes II offering to various gods, and the burial chamber on walls are of Ramessu Two limestone ushabtis were found 8-6 inches the spiritsof Buto and Nekhen.

high, parts of bronze fittings of the funeral couch, which the walls, and various small amulets and pottery. on
Daressy,

is figured in

shrine

G.

"

La

tombe du Mndvis
under

de Ramses

VII.

This tomb The


scenes

is nearly
are

identical with

that

Ramses

II

(Rec,

xxv

29).

here

a papyrus It is Amen in favour decrees to Persian the analogous age. of Nesiof of the The assumptions of the high priests could not go beyond khonsu and Panezem. Amen Ra...'I divinise the august soul of Osiris Un-nefer, this: "Speech of I give well-being to his body in Kher-neter, I preserve his body, I divinise his
"

re-described with the assistance of the previous tomb. G. Un decret d'Amon Daressy, en faveurd'Osiris. This is

M. Daressy politely supposes This ! to Osiris, god of the dead. mummy.' dead his family man that tlHs only referred to a and under the names of Osiris being concerned in and his family. There is, however, no hint of any human this.

"

Selectedpapyrifrom the archives of Zenon. The system of The letters here published do not dating the Macedonian year is stillobscure. interest, but be intrinsic be to seem will valuable for combining with the rest of
Edgar,

C. C.

"

lifeday by day. of the group in restoring a full view of official duties the technical matters of and relations of ofiicials.

The

details are

Periodicals.

31

Fils royaux de Ramsh." The descendants Ramessides. the of various persons are as in Petrie, History iii, 242, except the last.
Gauthier,
Henri.
"

Les

"

This is
and

study of the discussed sources


a

(i)NemartI;,

son

Pa-nreshens. Meramen,

of the daughter of the great chief of the mountains, Further, he is said to be a royal son of Sheshenq Sheshenq I. This name has been left unpresumably explaine
a
"

possibilityshould be here noted : nr is the Egyptian is The Leshenes," which is fairly mode of writing /, so the name Lissaenos, to the man of Lissos," that is, probably, equivalent Lissos in Crete. As to being a royal son of Sheshenq, it seems
"

but

incredible that if Sheshenq should not appear on the British Museum,


to show
"

married his mother the royal descent his statue at Miramar, nor on his bracelets in but only on his statue in Cairo. This seems

had

like the by adoption or officially, was a royal son If Kush we we this, royal and others. get a light of accept in Great prince of the dynasty, on the frequent title the XXIInd it from foreigner to a hill country, ; referred any and mountains that he
"

son

"

"

predominantly Zed-hor-auf-onkh, son (2) of the


plaque
was

perhaps

was

Cretan.

made from

by

royal daughter Sheshenq I.

Zed-anub-es-onkh,

whose

(3)Zed-ptah-auf-onkh,
papyrus, of Sheshenq

known by mummy, coffins, boxes, his burial at Deir el Bahri, in the loth I.

ushabti
or

and year III,

nth

{4)Uasarken
on a

priest of Amen, in Berlin. stele high (?),

in the 28th year of Sheshenq

(5)Auuapuat,
vase

with a foreign sign after the in Cairo museum.

name,

on

fragment of alabaster

versity (6)Pa-shed-bastet, chief of the Mahasu, on a stele from Abydos, at UniI. College, London, dated in the 36th year of Uasarken M. Gauthier concludes he is not the same Pa-shed-bastet, son of as Sheshenq III.
on (7)Ast-(em)-kheb
a

stele under
were

Uasarken

I, Paris, apparently

woman.

The position is accepted that these


Gauthier,
Henri.
"

descendants of the Ramesside

family.

brother Ymeru

Trois vizirs du Moyen Empire. Res-senbu and his Onkhu both viziers,and sons of the vizier Onkhu. married Merryt, daughter of Hentpu. Ymeru had a sister Senbhenas, who married Upuat-hetep, son of Khnumu-hetep Upuat-hetep's children were and Tahent.
were

Khnumu-hetep,
whether

Neshmet-hetept,

Onkhu, Khenzer

under Turin
as

papyrus.

Onkhu, as vizier vizier under different,or Khenzer was ; either they were not placed in the Another vizier, Hennu, has been omitted in A. Weil's Veziere,
"

Amen-hetep. and Sebek-hetep III, is the same

Khensu

The

question

is

well as Res-senbu. Daressy, G. Rapport sur

An

unpublished

report

ostraka, since published Daressy, G. Antiquith


"

le ddblaiement des tomhes 6 etgde Biban el Molouk. found, and the some small objects of 1888, naming in the Cairo catalogue.
trouvdes
a

Fostat.

there have been found

from

the pyramid

temples

(i) part of the base of a ; (2) part of a black

clearances at Old Cairo diorite statue of Khafra, doubtless

In

granite obelisk of Ramessu

II ;

32

Notes Ptolemaic

and News,
son

(3)a

basalt torso G. L'

of Senti,

of Pen-sebek ;

(4)part

of

Coptic

given in

This town, which is part-successor of Leontopolis, is to be It is named by Maqrizi as Benu, and though destroyed sought near Tell Moqdam. before 1375, the name remains in Binnai, an irrigationbasin.
"

epitaph. Daressy,
a

de la ville de Benna. emplacement


as

Coptic list of bishoprics,

Daressy, G. Une statue de Deir el Chelouit. Near this little temple, south Medinet Habu, black a dynasty, and red granite statue was found of the XlXth of Seta, treasurer. a of prince, royal sealer,and
"

MuNiER, of
an

Henri.

Arabic paper

recettes mddicales letter. The purpose is not


"

Deux

Coptes. Written
stated,
so

on
seem

the
to

back
be
a

they

physician's prescriptions.

NOTES

AND

NEWS.

The work of the British School in Egypt began this season early in November Brunton Lahun Mr. Mrs. to to beneath the Queen's went search when and to Tunnels which no entrance had yet been found. pyramid and royal mastabas, been run diagonally beneath the pyramid and in other directions, so now in this work. f"ir without result. Mr. West joined The main party, consisting of Major Hynes, Mr. Miller, Mr. Neilson and Mons. Bach with the Director and Mrs. Petrie, assembled at Ghurob at the beginning of December. During a fortnight the work there showed how httle
now

have

remains to be done at that site. A black steatite cyUnder of Pypy of the 1st dynasty, some bowls of the Ilird dynasty, a few bm-ials of the XlXth with

usual alabaster and all that was found.

at the great cemetery of Herakleopolis. This has been largely cleared by various authorised and unauthorised diggers, but been no plan or details are published. A systematic working of it has now dynasties are already st"irted, and remains of the 1st, Ilird, IXth, and XlXth
was

be of XXHnd The camp

pottery, and some granaries with protective amulets, were Half a dozen graves at Zeribah, foiu miles south, proved to dynasty, all plundered.
then

formed

great tombs have several chambers on different levels, and seem to have been for families. One has yielded parts of sarcophagi, steles, figures, Rahetep his son, and canopies and ushabtis of the two viziers, Parahetep II ; another of the same age is of the keeper of the cavalry under Ramessu

in hand.

The

buried at Hibeh under Ramessu officeand name, of the same Sarcophagi of red granite are very massive III, was probably his grandson. black was one coarse thin and finely ; of granite of which parts remain and This carved. excavation continues the regular clearance of the western side of the Nile, southward from Dahshur ; in such systematic work the fat and the lean
;a
man
"
"

Pahonneter

must

be accepted

as

they

come,

but

the historic importance

of the city here

promises to repay work on its cemetery. Of other excavations there is littlenews yet to hand, but the excavations for New York continue under Mr. Winlock at Thebes, and also at Lisht under Mr. Mace. Erratum. Hbyros,
In

Ancient

Egypt,

1920, p. 105, 9 lines from botttom,

for

read Hyksos.

""y"i

i^--

" .,

^sji-viz

"

v-s

I*

14

Id

BORDERS

OF FLOWERS

THEBAN AND
TINT

TOMB-PAINTINGS. BUNCHES
YELLOW, GREEN,

LOTUS
COLORS

OF
BLUE,

GRAPES.
RED,

IN

ORDER

OF

BLACK.

TEHUTMES

IV TO

HEREMHEB.

1420"1330

B.C.

-i-

ANCIENT
THE The

EGYPT.
OF

BRITISH

SCHOOL

ARCHAEOLOGY

IN

EGYPT.

southward, in the course of the British School has been moving of a bank Nile At Lahun the the the search western of valley. systematic clearing of Senusert II Mr. Brunton beneath the small pyramid the of queen occupied of work
most

of the season. running diagonally


seems,

Tunnels and
as

were

cut

at two

to the faces, but

It

therefore,
and

if the burials

were

pyramid
were

finally searching the party were found, including few Ghurob, a more some were graves cemetery of where of the Pypy. named earlier dynasties, one having a primitive black cylinder of a man XlXth dynasty. Several found, The other graves were were the of granaries
some

on the north were mastabas Lahun. also cleared at While this was going on, the rest of the

likely strata, found. no or chambers passages were on the the south side, and all small A few remaining tombs cenotaphs.

levels, in the most

blue glazed amulets put in them for protection. One rare find was a perfect wooden sickle. This site,worked at by various diggers for over to be practically exhausted. thirty years, seems of which
had

then moved south to the cemetery camp of Herakleopolis, now been had which wrecked anciently, and worked by Dr. Naville and however, several later searchers, but without giving plans or record. There was, be done to by much careful and complete clearance, which well rewarded us, and main Ehnasya, history. The site has a remarkable after this it may be regarded as exhausted. In the geologic past the Nile had found an exit to the Fayum ten about miles The strata collapsed into the worn entrance. south of the Lahun channel, and This break in the ring of the Fayum lie tilted up at 45 degrees. basin gave later
an

The

waves

from the west into the Nile valley. Through this gap various have best known Libyan Libyans come, the are the chiefs of of of which Herakleopolis in the XXI Ind dynasty. founded at first Doubtless that city was
easy
access

by such In recent

for its unusual position, far from the Nile. invasion, which accounts it is likewise the seat of a large and unruly Libyan invasion, from times polis, Looking at the flatness of the desert opposite to HerakleoTunis and the Oases. Yusuf it seems Bahr likely that the two miles of mud between the now
an

and

the canal ran only recently been flooded, and probably This desert founded the was the the on city along old edge, and opposite bank. would have been in prehistoric times, as it is a city of the earliest class, having Studies, II, pi. ix). The firstcemetery the worship of the Corn Osiris {Historical is therefore probably below the present cultivation. Upon the desert the oldest graves are of the 1st dynasty. Of the Ilnd dynasty including large turning at there are many, tombs with stairways, sometimes found intact, with characteristic stone vases. right angles. A few of these were
The

the desert have

found objects

to robbery

publish

objects

as, owing will be described in the next part of this journal, to is it Egyptian boxes last some on the undesirable year, of railway in England. until

34

The British School The

of Archaeology
began

in Egypt.

great period of the cemetery


some

in the Vlth

dynasty,

with

the

tombs IXth

was continues tilla maximum reached about the hundreds They were there of which age of graves. contained in instances bodies had been the principally pottery, and many spitefully burnt in the graves or entirely removed. hatred of these This points to an extreme

of dynasty,

nobles, and

people by later residents, and indicates that they were foreigners. No trace was found of the burials of the great men of the IXth dynasty which centred on Herakleopolis. It is certain that no large group of their tombs can have escaped
as if they lay in some there, and it seems other district. Strange to say, the flourishing age of the Xllth dynasty, so abundantly active at Lahun, has not left be dated by any remains. a single grave that can The site seems to have been deserted at that age. The XVIIIth dynasty began again here about the time of Tehutmes I or II, us

and from these some

frequent and rich burials. Of II there were that age on to Ramessu left of fine quality. One of the earlier tomb chapels was were complete, finest four large a the with generations work, representing painted stele of

an of the family ; before it was altar inscribed, and in front of that a kneeling figure with a tablet of adoration. The whole group is now in the Cairo museum.

The

II, Parahetep that of the two viziers of Ramessu greatest tomb was and It had originally a large chapel on the surface, of which pieces were Rahetep. found widely scattered and reused. The various statues and steles of the family had been defaced, broken up, and partly thrown down into the tomb. The

extensive family
more names

Student's History, III, of these nobles (see added to it from these monuments.
the XXIInd

90) has

had

few

dynasty generals were so largely of Herakleopolite found. This suggests that their single fine burial of that age was like Prince Wales, our connection was purely titular, and not of local authority. of Only a few of the usual coffins were found, with illiterateinscriptions belonging titles, not
a

Though

to the period.

dozens very poor, and some age were of Roman is The that were this the site worked yielded nothing. prominence surprise of of the Ilnd dynasty, and the deficiency of the XXIInd. The number them with of well-dated skeletons gave opportunity to compare Tarkhan Deshasheh. The main on Medum, those of sites either side, at and longer and narrower than in the results are that the Ilnd dynasty heads were larger in all ways than skulls of other Vlth. Those of the Vlth dynasty were
ages and places, perhaps owing to their being those of nobles. In the IXth larger than others of that age. The dynasty the heads diminished, but yet were limb bones are larger in the IXth dynasty than in any other time or place ; the

The

late tombs

leg 3

longer than at Deshasheh, longer than at Tarkhan ; the arm 7 mm. longer than at other sites. The people of the IXth dynasty were over 4 mm. therefore distinctly larger than the Egyptians elsewhere, in head and in limbs.
mm.

The

M. Bach,
over

Mr. Neilson, party of workers this year consisted of Major Hynes, Mr. Miller, with the Director and Mrs. Petrie. Later Mr. West came for a short from Mr. Brunton's work, which he had assisted,and joined us

time.
and

Subsequently
Mrs. Brunton

Mr. has

Brunton taken
a

took
large

over

part it is be held during hoped, the four weeks exhibition will, at University College, London.

excavation in the drawing of

the

at

Herakleopolis,

The objects. July, 4th to 30th, of

W.

M. Flinders

Petrie.

35

"
ft
ft'

ORIGINS

OF

SOME

SIGNS.

variants in the form of the HN sign show that the root-meaning of the word is Young, The youth." sign represents the young leaves or flower-buds of a forgotten plant ; though the species of plant varies, the essential point is never

The

"

The earliest example

of Rahotep at Medum, and represents in the tomb of Nefermaat the sprout of a marsh plant ; similar plants occur (Fig. the slight variations being due to the drawing by different artists. The

(Fig. i)is from the tomb

2)

open flower, of which the hieroglyph represents the bud, is seen on the head of the boatman This example (Fig. shows that 3),also from the tomb of Nefermaat. Figs, i, 2 and 3 are taken a flowering rush, perhaps Juncus acutus. the plant was

from

half-size. Prof. Petrie's original facsimile drawings, and are reproduced drawn deal Figs. 4 and 5 appear to me to be the same a plant good with of artistic licence ; the tombs at Meir show that the artist's sense of the dramatic often his sense overpowered of truth, both in the scenes and in the hieroglyphs, and

these two

examples

seem

to be

case

Juncus effusus, coming


in the Xllth
aware

into blossom for it


occurs

in point. Fig. 6 is another flowering rush, it ; appears to be a form of the sign used

dynasty,

of its use

of

tombs

succulent in which

both at Beni Hasan and at Meir ; I am not Figs. 8 the at any other period. represent young sprouts 7 and the plant such as grows after rain in the desert at Saqqara, near
it is represented ;

are clearly representations of one but it also sugfor accurate identification. Fig. 9 may be one of the gests compositae, Cakile maritima. This is the form which was in common as a hieroglyph, use and became gradually conventionalised ; Fig. 12 shows the usual hieroglyph of dynasty, and 13 a slightly varied form of the XlXth dynasty. the XVIIIth Neith has two emblems is certainly two arrows a shield, and across ; one

it is probably a Zygophyllum. Figs. 9-13 species of plant, but without sufficientdefinition

to the meaning as suggestions have been made of the other. The most usual explanation is that it represents a shuttle, thus connecting the goddess But the shape of the emblem with weaving. shows that it cannot be a shuttle. A shuttle must of necessity taper at each end in order to pass freely between the

many

threads, whereas the emblem curving outwards shows two projections Such if thrown like a shuttle between threads, would an at each end. object, inevitably catch in the threads and entangle and break them. Again, there is The invented history no in so the proof that the shuttle was of Egypt. early
warp
use

of the shuttle presupposes some mechanical method was ; the earliestprocess of weaving warp threads at once a ball of thread in and out of the warp threads by hand.
even

of alternating all the by laboriously passing This method conwas tinued

after the invention of the shuttle, as the width of the cloth shows ; the cast of a hand-thrown shuttle is at most 4 ft.,while the cloth in the tomb was of the Two Brothers in the Middle Kingdom 9 ft. wide ; this must have been made by the slow and laborious method of passing the thread in and out by hand, but the skillshown proves that the weaver to the process. was well accustomed The emblem dom, in question then is not a shuttle ; the hieroglyphs of the Old King-

curved give the sign in detail, show that it represents two objects, The lashed back back to in kind case. a sharply at each end and only object of which at all resembles these things in shape is a bow of the type of Fig. 15, which
which
c
2

36

Origins

of some

Signs. in the Hunters' palette, (Fig. i6). The curious


seems
"

is itselfa stylised form of the bow carried by the men and is carved on the scorpion vase of HierakonpoUs folding of the bow-string in the Hierakonpohs example

to indicate that the


"

a by pulling. material was strip of thick leather, which became goffered Prof. Petrie, however, suggests that the bow-string has had beads threaded on it to be used as a primitive musical instrument, a kind of early sistrum for rhythmic rattling. Both emblems of the goddess are therefore weapons of war ; is the one the crossed arrows and shield, the other the two bows.

The

A -sign occurs
Tombs

as

early

as

the 1st dynasty, where

it appears

on

stela

from the Royal

(Fig. 17).

single tie. This is in accordance


representations of the actual
"

It appears to represent a bead tassel, with a with later forms of the sign, and also with

object.The

sign as

phonogram

reads

dpr

"=",

The actual To equip, to provide." was an or and means, ornament object to two bead-collar tassel of beads which was the hung ends of the attached and
PI

down

the back of the

wearer

as

an

ornament

it is called mdnkht

^\

/WWW

"""

In the Illrd dynasty

the form

shows

two

ties

but (Fig. 18),

is without

the

characteristicpendant beads ; this example is from the monolithic granite falsedoor in the tomb of the Sheikh el Beled at Saqqara. In the Old Kingdom the is often represented, and always among the jewellery actual object with the necklaces it occurs Middle Kingdom beside ; on (Figs. cofftns (Figs. 19,

20)

21-24),

the necklaces in the representations of the property of the deceased, each necklace having an dper matching it in colour and material ; if the necklace has hawkhead or plain semi-circular terminals, the dperhas the same this may (Figs. 23, 24),
account

for the third hawk-head Dahshur,

found
two

in the tomb of the


the

supposition is doubtful. In the same a model tomb there was of a collar with plain terminals, and a model dper in gilded wood, also with a plain terminal (p. 100). In the tomb of Nub-hetep have belonged to the terminal, which must there was again a third hawk-head On hawk-head necklace of the princess (p. statues of the Middle Kingdom 114).
; the greater number represented with plain terminals (Figs. 25-31) both finished on are a row statues coffins and with of examples of pear-shaped but hanging instead. Fig. 32 have beads, lotus-blossoms Figs. 30, 31 pendant

(de p. 100); terminals of the necklace, and de Morgan flagellum, though he acknowledges that

Morgan

of King Hor at Dahshur hawk-heads were obviously the supposed the third to be the top of the

the

dper is

is from

XVIIIth
a

found at Beni Hasan, probably of the early the remarkable cartonnage Later in the dynasty the hieroglyphic sign (Fig. dynasty. shows 33), (compare reversion to the form with a single tie,in use in the Middle Kingdom

Fig.

21).

blossom

Fig. 34 from terminals with


as

the
a

des graveurs at Thebes, shows The long narrow lotus-blossom dper to match. tombeau in the Old

"

"

lotustype

of the actual example from


is
one seen
,

object, represented Abydos (Fig. where 35),

King

again in the is it Ptah. Fig. 36 Sety to offering

Kingdom,

is found

is

On comparing of the amulets in the list at Dendereh. has from dynasty Xllth that the type the persisted
Figs. 37-40
are one.

it with Fig.
to

22,

it

the Ptolemaic

from bronze figures of gods in the collection at University Fig. 37, has the characteristic form of the dper,the others only possibly represent some other kind of ornament. The actual method of attaching the dper to the collar is not easy to understand. In Figs. 22 and 36 the strings are arranged in loops through which perhaps
era.

College ;

Origins of some

Signs.

37

STifrwi "U"a^.

CAISTOF"".

\-JJ

tKUOHitCriOB

BRONZE

OSIRIS

BRONZf

0"RI^
lO*.

U.C.t.. COLLECT

KARNM.

TMorHniillL
"""(
Pi

Tinut

j"vi

the strings of the necklace were passed, but the method of making the loops is in Fig. detail is a not shown. 27 shows what reef-knot with the ends presumably of two strings hanging down ; this can only represent an instance of the dper loop its a the own top, with at either made of string, or being actually part of the The strings of both the necklace and the aperare made of the threads on which the beads are strung ; the terminal is pierced with several holes along the base which unite in one hole at the top. The threads on issuing from the
terminal.

top of the terminal


one

they form sometwisted together ; in the case of the aper, times in Fig. The two. 28 is string, sometimes of attachment method C 3
are

38

Origins of some

Signs.

inexplicable, the loop at the top serving no purpose whatever. Figs. 41-43 show the dperin use ; Thothmes III as Osiriswears an dperwith a long tie; is wide, is worn by the Horus-hawk as long as the collar a short-stringed
at Abydos

among the ornaments of men, very rarelyamong This is probably on account of itspositionon the person ; it would be easily hair or long wig would cover it,while on a man the woman's have by it been to seems worn only nobles of high rank ; visible. In early times it been in and afterthe New Kingdom confined to a few gods appears to have and to the King as god. Its amuletic quality is indicated by its dedicationto Hathor, who is called those of the
women.

The

aper, (Fig. 41). dperis generally found

at Dendereh
was

Lady of the Aper ^^~^?^

Wtb. (Brugsch, 182).As

an

amulet it

from the assaults of spirit-foes, for protecting the wearer and was part of the great spiritual armoury by which evil demons were repelledand routed. With a powerful amulet placed between the shoulder-blades one of the most
"

the wearer against would be fully equipped unprotected parts of the body it survived as a small amulet, unseen and ghostly enemies. For this reason generallycarved in hard stone, down to the Ptolemaic period. The actual made in beads has never been found, but at the Ramesseum object found (Fig. a model dperwas 44). It is made of leather embossed to represent beadwork, and was attached to a leather menat and leather braces. Though this
"

"

"

dates only to the XXIInd dynasty, the use of the dper and braces together goes a Kingdom. Fig. Old to back the 45 shows processionof bearers of offerings, holds a necklace, the each carrying a jarand a personal ornament ; the first braces on his arm with the and the third has the wide beadwork second an dper, in fulldress Fig. 20, from the same tomb, shows a man strings hanging down. a necklace and braces, and standing beside tablesloaded with beadwork ; wearing
on an the lower table are laid a collar,

and dper,

two braces.

M. A. Murray.

39

THEBAN

BORDERS

OF

LOTUS

AND

GRAPES.

"^
A
VERY

(SeeFrontispiece.)

bunches of grapes, a design of lotus flowers and popular border was in 8, 64, is be twelve seen to tombs (Nos. 38, 49, 74, 75, 90, 147, 151, 175, which The simplest form is Ancient Egypt, 1920, p. see 181 and 249 ; for names

122).

found in tomb 175 (Fig. where open lotus flowers alternate with bunches of 12), in mid-air. be suspended On the western latter to appearing walls grapes, the it borders, but is are there that tombs 38, very similar probable 175 and 249 of intended is it to the was as there that they are unfinished, and stems, complete
a

trated blank space left above the flowers and fruit. On the whole this design, as illusin Fig. 12, is very stiff and uninteresting. improved, however, in tombs 8, 74, 75, 151 and 249 (Figs. It was somewhat 14, 15)by the addition of tendrils to the bunches of grapes. A further addition, and what appears to be an attempt to improve on Nature, is a series of looped the joining The lotus flowers and clusters of grapes together,
as

stems

may

be

seen

in tombs

16, 17). 49, 90, 151 and 181 (Figs. borders of this type in tombs 151, 181 and 249 differ from the others below in having a red spot just the tip of each grape cluster. As the bunches to represent the of grapes in tomb 181 do not show the spots which usually serve really intended to represent separate grapes, it has been suggested that it was on either side of the cornflowers, but the presence of the tendrils hanging down here represented to bunches makes as or are not grapes any question whether

The red spot below each grape cluster in tomb 249 has a black quite superfluous. base, and is probably an attempt to represent a poppy petal (Fig. 18). It will be noticed that in tombs 8 and 90 (Figs. 13, 14, 17)there is a border

which of another design either above or below the floral border, a circumstance fully dealt with later in this section. will be more The floralborder in tomb 8 (Fig. 14)has the additional feature of lotus buds lotus flowers alternating with the and grape clusters, and is the only example
in the necropolis, of lotus buds occurring in with conjunction lotus flowers and grapes. The end of a stem showing on the right of the The whorl pattern in this tomb. calyx of each flower is also only to be seen is between two rows border tail-edging this ornament curious, but there of above is some doubt as to whether it belongs to the ornamentation of the border proper
at present known

both

or

to that of the barrel-vaulted roof. In tomb 64 (Fig. 19) there is a border

ornaments,

and

of crescent-shaped made up of a row fruit lotus leaves, represent which may alternating with mandrake The cornlotus below flowers row a flower cornflowers (?) of and grape clusters. is probably the species Centaurea depressa, Bieb., now only found in Asia
and

neighbouring countries. This species has been found dynasties and again in ancient wreaths and garlands of the XVIIIth and XXth Percy E. Newberry in the Fayum in the Graeco-Roman See by article period. Minor, the Caucasus, in Proc. Bibl. Arch., May, The
same

1900.

fruit, is to but without the mandrake crescent-shaped ornament, in tombs 147, 151 and 249 (Fig. The crescents form the upper 18). of of tomb part of the frieze in the inner chamber 249 and the outer chamber both above and below the tomb 147, while in the shrine of tomb 249 they occur
be found

C4

40

Theban

Borders

of Lotus

and

Grapes.
"

other components of the border. border. the portion of


There is
an

In tomb

151

they (onewall)

form

the lower

fruit and rounded red auxiliary band of alternate mandrake in be flowers identified as or petals, to be seen which may perhaps poppy objects, in is further the inner chamber the frieze of tomb 151, and the whole frieze
rows of chequers in red and black from which the lotus flowers depend (Fig. and grapes 20). The design on part of the north-eastern and north-western walls of tomb 151 from that on the remaining walls. The grape clusters have no differssomewhat

widened

by two

tendrils,and are connected by looped red stems with the lotus flowers on either side of them, instead of hanging down from straight stems as shown in the previous illustration (Fig. A narrow band of yellow on which is placed a row 20). of crescent-shaped again suggesting lotus leaves, also replaces the

objects,

fruit and poppy mandrake the and chequer bands. Tomb

petals, and

is repeated

above

the frieze between

it

147 has an effective border in its inner chamber which is,however, too be is blackened to It the much composed of usual alternate lotus flowers copied. and grape clusters suspended by short red stems from a single line of black the flowers and bunches chequers on a yellow ground, and between of grapes

in form as those series of red objects which are practically the same Below design is fruit on a row a the main 151. of yellow mandrake blue ground, and above the single band of chequers a green-margined border.
a

there is

in tomb

A very free treatment of grape clusters and vine-leaves as a running pattern in seen tombs 149 and 259 (Fig. 21); in the former tomb, on the northern wall of the outer chamber above the Hathor and Anubis frieze. In tomb 259 it is found above a Kheker frieze on the north-eastern wall at the northern end of is to be This design, therefore, can hardly be accepted as being a border in the tomb. the strict sense, for it was merely used to fill up a vacant space between the border In both tombs the design is painted on a proper and the ceiling of the tomb. forms distinctive a to be yellow ground and very ornamentation, all the more
account of its extreme rarity in the necropolis. There is also a very border, but similar coarsely executed, on the eastern wall of the inner chamber tomb a littleto the west of tomb 154, which belonged to the of an unnumbered

valued

on

XlXth

or

XXth

dynasty.

The

illustration is taken from

the design in tomb

(Fig. which 21),


the latter is
more

is practically identical with that found in tomb

roughly painted and has rather more tombs are of late date, the former belonging to the period of Haremheb dynasty. or XXth the latter to the XlXth " Mackay
we [If

259 149, except that Both angular stems. and

look at the historicalorder of these borders, the earliest is Fig. 15 of Zenuni, under Tehutmes IV, a simple and complete design. Similar, though is IV (?). Next come Fig. 12, of Tehutmes the group with a obviously unfinished, flower and seed border, Figs. 18, 19, 20 ; of these 19 is attributed to Tehutmes IV, but as Hcqerheh tutor to Amenhetep III, it is likely that his tomb was was
not decorated

Amenhetep III. Figs. 18 and 20 are dated to Tehutmes IV (.?) till ; but the flower and seed borders are scarcely as early as that, and seem to belong to the naturalistic schools of Amenhetep III. The borders with rows of bouquets later III, are Amenhetep these are 13, 14) ; of (Figs. obviously 14 and 17 of date. The loops connecting the lotus flowers in and 18 probably the same

Fig. 17

are

developed

further in Fig. 16, which

is dated to late XVIIIth

dynasty,

Theban

Borders

of Lotus

and

Grapes,

41

style. Lastly, the old design vanishes and is obviously degraded in its Pompeian influence Akhenaten's the of realism, and Fig. 21 shows a degraded running under border, probably of the time of Heremheb, which continued in other examples into the XlXth
or

XXth
ran

dynasties. through

Thus

there is

consistent development
a

in these

borders, which
fRIEZES 1. WITHOUT Taab
" "

all their changes


B0MCHK3
OP

in about

century.

"

F.P.]

OF

L0TD3

P1.0fB3l3 AHP OR STEMS;

GRAPES.

TENDRILS
Northern Northern, Western

PLATE

12
"id
eastern

58. 175.
249.

Ball
wall

of of

western

Bouthem

and outer

of outer nalla.

chamber.

Tutfamosla

IV.

"(T).

chamber.

2.

WITH Tcob

STRAIGHT

STEMS

ONLY; PLATE

13
wall.
Ameaophis

90. Western
TENDRILS;

end

of

eouthem

III.

5. WITH
Tcmb
" "
"

PLATE

14
of

15
vaulted

8. Side

walls

chamber.
outer chamber.

Amenophis

III(T).
IV.

74. Southern

end

wall

of

Tuthmosie

to inner 75'fight hand jamb of entrance chamber. wall 1^1.South-eastern of north-eastern end of inner

chamber

-(?).
17
Early

4. WITH
Tomb
"

LOOPED

STEMS

CONNECTING

FLOWERS

AND

ORAPES;PLATE

16

49. Inner chamber. 90. Eastern end wall

XIXth.dynaety(?)
.

and
,

western
inner

and

of

Southern wall.
Amsnophls

III.

"

" "

151 .North-western 175.Western wall.


181. All
LOTUS walls of

wall
outer

of

chamber.

Tuthmoais
n

IV(7).
n n

chamber.

Late

XVIIIth.

dynasty.

5. WITH
Tomb
" '

LEAVES(?);PLATE 18
false door
at

147. Above

southern

end

of

outer
.

chamber

Tuthmosie
R
II

IV(?J.
II R
n

151.North-western
249. Inner
LOTUS LEA chamber

of inner wall and shrine.

chamber.

II

6. WITH
Tottb

MANDRAKE VES(?), end AND


of
outer

FRUIT

AND

CORNFLOWERS( ?);PLATE

19
IV.

64. Northern
POPPY

chamber. FRUIT ;PUTE

Tuthmosie

7. WITH
Tomb
"

PETALS

MANDRAKE

20
Tuthmosie

147. Inner chamber. 1^1. South-eastern


POPPY

IV(T).
n

wall

of OF

inner

chamber.

a. WITH
Tomb
"

PETALS(?)ATBASE
chamber. end and

THE

FRUIT;PLATE

16

18
Late

181. Outer

XVIllth.

dynasty.

151 .North-eastern
249. Inner
AUXILIARY
chamber

of

north-western inner

wall

of Tuthmosie
11

chamber.

"

IV(T).
MM

shrine.

9. WITH
Tomb
"

PETAL

BAND; PLATE

14

17
Ameoophis chamber.

8. Side

walls of

of

90. Ends

southern OF
end

vaulted wall

chamber. of
outer

III(t}.

10.RDNNING
Tomb
"

DECORATION

GRAPE

CLUSTERS
of outer

AND

VINE

LEAVES;PUTE

21
XlXth.-XXth.
dynasties.

149. Northern

wall

chamber. wall
of
inner

259. North-eastern

"

(?).(alittlewest

wall of of Tomb

chamber. Eastern I54).

Haramhab(7).
chamber.

XIX th.

-XX

th. dynasties.

42

HEAD

OF

BARBARIAN

FROM

EGYPT.

The

brought from marble head represented in the accompanying plate was Alexandria by Mr. Alfred E. Rand, now in the Architectural Department a student The in University College, Egypt during was war. the at who serving

following facts
thank him

sandy

to its discovery are kindly supplied by him ; we as also have to for his permission to publish the head here. The head was found in soil,about lo feet deep, whilst a trench was being excavated in connection
"
"

dump As far Alexandria. a short distance from at Mex with an ammunition further portions were as I could ascertain no discovered." There appears then to be no external evidence as to the nature of the monument or other work ; but there are of sculpture from which the head has come indications in the head itself. It is about half life-size. A thick iron some

cramp

is fixed by lead into


a

to attach the figure to

background

hole in the top of the or to a

the head have it most

been

is only roughly blocked out. part of a figure in high relief. Its portrait character is obvious, and from a tombstone tombs of Hellenistic or Roman ; many probably comes

and must have served cornice. The left side of projecting It is therefore clear that the head must
crown,

remarkable, chiefly for its heavy square This is, so far as my own the shape and moustache. of I shall goes, unique in an ancient work of sculpture. observation and memory be very grateful if any reader can point out a similar instance. It is true that Gauls and other barbarians a moustache often wear only, the rest of the face the peculiar treatment
" "

date have been found in this region. The head itselfis in several ways

being shaved. But these moustaches They are of a quite different character. long in famous Gaul drooping, Dying Ludovisi are as the usually and and the Here is bushy, the moustache short and group. and apparently brushed up at
"
"

Germans Indian races. the ends in a way familiar to us in modern and in some It therefore affords us no definite clue as to the racial character of the subject. The shape of the head itself,however, appears distinctive, and indicates the Armenoid to the so-called race,^ assignment of the man into in Asia Europe the early centuries of the western eastern in is familiar now to us the Prussian type. The most which firstbetween head this strikes one at and that of a Prussian
not fortuitous.
" "

which spread from Christian era, and


resemblance which soldier is therefore

probably many barbarians from northern and central garrison of Egypt during the second and third centuries And it therefore of our era, the period to which this head apparently belongs. in wearing the fashion to find us a a type such racial need not surprise and such There on a monument moustache erected to one of these barbarian mercenaries. There
were

Europe

in the Roman

is nothing Egyptian later Graeco-Roman

about
art.

the style of the head, which

is an

ordinary product of A. Gardner.


authority
of Prof.

Ernest
1

am

indebted

for confirmation

of this identification to the high

Elliot Smith

Head

of a

Barbarian

from Egypt.

43

as engaged by the Romans auxiharies in Egypt comprised the Franci and sub-tribes Sugambri and Chamavi, which are perhaps too western for the above type ; but it might represent one Alamanni, of the Germani,

[The peoples

Vandali, Rhoeti, but


a

or Quadi,

Sarmatae.

veteran

might

well have

None of these were stationed in Alexandria, from there the retired upper country.]

Marble

Head

of

Northern

type,

probably

Germanic
Roman

Soldier. Period.

Alexandria.

44

THE Surprise

TRANSMISSION

OF

HISTORY.

has been expressed that the various Greek versions of Egjrptian history should show divergences in the lengths of the reigns and the totals of dynasties, from the amounts of the Turin papyrus, and that these again differ so much
We must remember and the details that can be collected from dated monuments. to all the corruption found that all these Greek versions are manuscripts, subject in other manuscripts of such ages : there is no reason that in such manuscripts

early Egyptian history should be better preserved than that of any other period. To see what the actual state of manuscripts is for a well-known period we maylook at the various versions of Ptolemaic history. These are published in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Chron. Minores, where the later annalists are history : the volumes and pages are. given in full, leading on to European Column A, Laterculus, III, 448 ; B, Beda Chronicon, III, 275 ; C, Isidorus I, 52 ; E, Chronicon, II, 451 Computatiscccclii, ; ; D, Prosper Tiro, I, 398
"

"

"

F, Lib. Gen. I, G, Lib. Gen. II, of Chronographer

of cccl, I, 137.

These known
names

The placed here in the general order of accuracy. in first in Variations the the reigns are stated with the names column. is in A, Alexander in are the : marked omitted, and 36 other columns
various writers
are

The

Transmission

of History.

45

years all given to Lathyrus ; in B, Lagus is Largus, after Euergetes II, Fiscon C 8, which is the latter half of Lathyrus. then Ptolemy Lathyrus), 17 (really Euerceta D Fiscon I follow E, begins In same the and and confusion order. with brother of Euergetes I 27 ; after this, Alexander 19, Soter 19. F gives a fictitious

25 years ; and lunior with


"

Alexi

ii'years to Fiscon, omitting two previous reigns. G is the worst Sotheris 30, 26, Alexi 15, secundus 26, Fusci 25, Euergentis Ptolemy Dionisi Alexandri we a 20, jumble which need not 28, 17, 24,
"

confusion in some complete 350 there was authors about the reigns of some of the greatest line of rulers living only four Further, before. none of the centuries of the totals stated agree with the sum is Of all these writers there is not one which as exact reigns, except in Bede. duplication Lathyrus to beyond assigning the 10+7 a as Bede : called years of
a.d.

speculate upon. The main result is that by

repeating the 7 years as 8 of a Ptolemy, cut away from Alexander's to Cleopatra, 20, and making up the total correct by giving the 2 years over later there is no other error ; in the complication reigns, with continual of the The it is far. have to thus surprising thing is that changes, pardonable strayed Fiscon, and
corner writing in the remotest of the former Empire, long after the other writers, and after the great breaks of the invasions, succeeded in getting a more correct version than any other chronicler.

Bede,

This is Egyptian

history, and

the conclusion

for

us

is that

we

must

not

be
the

surprised at finding equal earlier history of Manetho.

the accuracy of the reflect do they entirely vitiate the general scale of history. The original writer, nor average errors of all these writers for the total length of the djmasty is 35 years, or less than one-eighth of the whole period.
on

confusion and errors Such errors do not

in the transcriptions from

W.

M.

Flinders

Petrie.

i^

46

CARTOUCHE

OF

AUGUSTUS.

which has been the one of some controversy. of the sacred subject better known bulls of Hermonthis, and is drawn up in the style of the much Apis-stelae. It begins with the date of the bull's birth : Year 33 under the
a
1

M. Daressy

published in 1908

stela containing a cartouche The inscription commemorates

of majesty

the king of south

and north, lord of the two

lands,

"M

We

then told that the animal was enthroned in year 39, and that he died in be year 57, having lived 24 years. The stela, as M. Daressy remarked, cannot Ptolemies is Ptolemy Roman no Emperor or ; and there who older than the
are

reigned 57 years. There is,however, a method of computation the starting point of which is the taking of Alexandria KpdrT)(n";) The years of this the Actian era. 30 B.C., commonly named
,

(theera
on era

of the August, ist later were

order that they The year 57 according to this computation might coincide with the regnal years. would fallin the year 13 of Tiberius. M. Daressy calls attention to the unusual by which the words to stand by themselves are arrangement year 33 made in bull's first level fullline. As he well the a the the seat (on with above tableau),

reckoned

from 29th August

(theEgyptian
^

New

Year's

day) in

"

"

inseparable from the indication remarks, to the mind of an Egyptian a date was king's name, means a the took this scribe of and of combining the two ideas. We may now consider the cartouche, which is as follows :
"

Like the whole

inscription, it is wretchedly

engraved,

and

at

firstglance is

quite unintelligible. Daressy

proposes to read the middle signs


"

as

fl (g ^^z^

"" Autokrator, supplying the first o and correcting In the characters into "^^" first two the the together the at (misplaced) cartouche, signs, he sees with end of
.

(g ||

B
,

Augustus,

with the correction of

1 n

into

"

""
.

Prof. Spiegelberg sought to explain the puzzle in a wholly different way.* He admitted that Daressy was correct as to the era, but contended that in that case the year should not be followed by a king's name, and he pointed out that no His view was Autokrator known. Augustus as was that the such cartouche
to express in hieroglyphs the Greek formula : erov"; x scribe had endeavoured doubtfully equated with deov vlov. The signs Kaiaapo"; Kparrjcreco'i are T?)? _^_ the doubt seems T)j9, though rather out of place in view of the daring correspondence follows. The two bungled strokes, it is suggested, express which

Kaiffapo?.

The

whole

of the remaining

signs

are

for

(o (t)being (1 KpaT^ae(o";,

the helping vowel before the double consonant


'
" "

kr, and

ffi or

ew9,

perhaps

Rec. de trav., XXX, Gauthier,

p. 10. Le Livre des Rois, V, p. 16, note

i.

A.Z., XLV,

p. 91.

Cartouche of Augitslus.

47

The last two words of the formula are to be found with correction into [qI. Son of the Sun-god," preceding the second cartouche. in the title Prof. Spiegelberg concludes by saying that the practice of the Egyptians in expressing

"

dates will explain why the era was treated as a king's name. The cartouclies have been again published by M. Gauthier in the final volume of his splendid collection of royal names, where he has for the firsttime ventured
to transcribe the second

cartouche.

rest of the stela,and is rendered at the


a

end of the line. fairly recognizable


_2^,

engraved than the by the crowding of the characters specially illegible As, however, it begins with a clear ^3:as and contains there need be littledifficultyin accepting M. Gauthier's
more

This is even

badly

satisfactory than

He regards Spiegelberg's explanation as more Daressy's, but places Kai"Tapo"s as the last word in the Greek formula, in agreement with his reading of the second cartouche. to me, It seems to Spiegelberg's view on the contrary, that the view that

KaiVa/ao? is intended.

objections

are,

in their cumulative effect, overwhelming. before The titles the first cartouche (i)
"

of the

sun

before the second is regarded


is explained
as

as

completely translating two before (^)

are

ignored, while Greek words.

"

son

" (2) (J

the helping vowel

kr ; but it is surely very

kr should require a helping vowel when the Ps unlikely that the easy combination Psammetichus Pt did not. the and oi" Ptolemy of Kaia-apo"; in the second cartouche, it cannot very well (3)If we are to see
"
"

"

leave two characters as we part of the first; and in that case also found besides from departing the usual order of the words in Greek. unexplained, (4)Instances have been found by Gauthier and Spiegelberg where the era

be

is actually expressed in Egyptian (notGreek), of the KpaTt)cyi'i while the second Emperor the cartouche of {Kaiaapos,) alone appears without any of the usual
2 These facts are clearly against the suggestion that the Greek formula titles. It may of course be argued that they also show would be put into a cartouche. indicate to some that the era ; but Daressy's explanation words were required done by placing the number that this was a of the year in a separate line seems

highly probable
altogether
"

one.

Not to speak unknown of the is the mention Stela of 400 Years is there (the doubtful), meaning of which still of year 59 of Horemheb, which is generally agreed to have been counted from the death of Amenhotep III.^
"

It may also be remarked in Egyptian inscriptions.

that

dating

by

an

era

is not famous

Whatever be

may

be thought

of the different opinions


two

so

presumably admitted strange signs been satisfactorily dealt with. Daressy gives no account of them at all ; and it is difficultto attach much Spiegelberg's to value suggestion that they stand for Yi.alaapo"f, since they do not in the least resemble any known method of writing that word. If we admit Gauthier's much Kaiaapo^ that more reasonable view,

that the

following

far discussed, it will ^ have not

is to be found

(asmight

be

in expected)

for. question are again unaccounted The suggestion I have to offer is that these two vertical strokes bad attempt (in keeping with the character of the inscription as
'
* *
"

the second cartouche, Here, then, lies the crux

the two

signs in

of the problem.
are a

simply

very

whole)to write

Gauthier, Gauthier,

Le Livre des Rois, V, p. 14.

loc. cit.,V, pp. of Mes,

Inscription

10, 18. line S. 8, published

by

Loret,

A.Z., XXXIX,

p.

Gardiner,

Inscription of Mes,"

in Sethe,

Untersttchungen,

IV.

48

Cartouche

of Augustus.
are

the

common

phrase

I |, "deceased."

There

many

instances of these words

be readily supplied by the being reduced almost to mere reader) in better executed work than our stela.1 It is even lines, even possible that the first for two in bend in the the angle the lower part of of the strokes may stand

(whichwould

but naturally

we

cannot

lay much is

stress

on

this in such bad work.

If is the

the

above

argument
one.

valid,

Daressy's
then,

only
^

possible

We

should,

original interpretation into the cartouche correct


date of the bull's birth

( ( (2 '^^^
will read
:

("

ffi

^111'

^"'^ *^^ complete

"In

of south and of the sun, lord of diadems, Caesar."

the year 33 (ofthe KpaTt]"ji"i) and under the majesty of the king Augustus deceased, son north, lord of the two lands, Autokrator

F. W.

Read.

The

head Mr.
"

on

found
Thebes,

by
see

is from one of the bearers of offerings, of this journal in dynasty at Winlock the great group of models of the Xlth Notes and News," p. 64 here. Illustration and discus.sionof this
the
cover a

group

wiU appear in

subsequent

number.

'

Several examples
du
must

will be found

in Ahmed

Bey
are

Kamal,

Stbles ptoUmaiques et romaines


22212

(Catalogue gendral
both
of which

Nos. 22197 ('"ne worst written and 1), be very close in point of date to the Hermonthis stela.

Caire). The

(line 10),

49

REVIEWS.

Balabish.
"

By

G.

A.

Wainwright.

1920.

4to.

78

pp.,

25

pis.

42s.

(EgyptExploration Society.)
detailed account of a small site, on the east of the Nile, about Not much found that is new to us; was and Farshut. equidistant from Abydos but the careful working allows scope to Mr. Wainwright for two comprehensive
a

This is

discussions, of the Pan-grave

people and the foreign pottery of the XVIIIth dynasty, which give value to the book. here The graves equivalent to those called Pan-graves" at Diospolis were deeper and of three forms, cylindrical and oval with contracted burials, and long
"

with full-length burials. Yet no exclusive difference could be traced between buried, which would show different dates or races. The burials of the objects Assiut, up to El Khizam, this kind are found from Rifeh near south of ThebeS. An the same pottery, found this year. The lying on the right side, with head to north contracted bodies at Balabish were facing The the west. and generality of material is already well known, old vases kingdom of the middle re-used, leather work, shells and shell bracelets, ostrichmuch
as new shell beads, and the peculiar pottery as at Diospolis. Two classes were, however, found ; the archers' wrist-guards of leather with incised patterns, and the curved horn implements, which appear to be strigils. Two copper axes that in the graves are the thin fighting axe and the stout, long-backed, carpentry were Some things were axe. probably continued in use like the kohl pots, from the worn the fly amulets, the much carnelian beads, the amazonite beads, and perhaps the blue glazed crystal and black manganese-glaze beads, all of which are familiar in the earlier period. There appear to be three

earlier invasion of probably the same people, with Herakleopolis in to IXth dynasty, the extended north

middle

kingdom,

such

as

it is difficult Pan-grave The to identify : classes of peoples whom people ; (i) fine the C-group people of Nubia ; (3) having their the Kerma (2) pottery people There are difficulties in connecting any of these ; and with trumpet mouths.
"

"

"

the XVI Ith dynasty and early XVIIIth fought against Nubia, it is also barred from being identified with (2) Whether or (3). there are connections or identities
as

of any of these contemporary peoples is not yet clear. The cemetery of the XVIIIth dynasty did not produce
except
an

anything unusual, alabaster figure-vase, of a girlplaying on a lute. One of the penannular found in position on the ear of a mummy ; this proves that white stone rings was a slit such rings were used on the ear, although other examples have so narrow tied on to that only hair could possibly be passed into them. If such rings were
a

hole in the

ear

the slitwould

have

been inconvenient.

It is certain, therefore,

for both ears and hair. that the penannular rings were The presence of types of foreign pottery gives rise to a useful summary and httle discussion of the extent of each variety and its limits of date. The bilbils,
D

50

Reviews.

straight-necked flasks, with conical foot and Up, were found in south-west Palestine III ; they do not belong and Cyprus, as well as widely in Egj'pt under Tehutmes Syria, Aegean. The Asia Minor, to north or the remark that this type has not been found to contain ointment is superseded by an example at HerakleopoUs. The long tubular bottle, otherwise cedled spindle-shaped, is found in Cyprus, Crete (Goumia), is unknown. and Gezer ; the clay is not Egyptian, but its source found at HerakleopoUs. example of double the usual size was The pilgrim-bottle type is found in south Palestine, rarely in the north, and is only in Cyprus at a later date. It cannot be dated in Egypt before the swamp III. The occurrence of Syrian influence under Tehutmes of a similar form in the is vases Asiatic in its source, the stone suggests of second prehistoric age, which
An As the form is probably author that the origin is probably eastern. from leather, it be it was that copied might seldom made in more permanent matericd until it was adopted by a stone- or pottery-using people. Thus it might
to

the

be native to Nabathaea and south Palestine without leaving a trace. in south Palestine, which were certainly ancient citiesby their names, in use. a scrap of pottery upon them ; only leather and wood were The and
was

The have

sites
not

false-necked

vase,

or

biigelkanne,is known
It

probably

brought

thence into Egypt.

The (Univ.Coll.).

Tehutmes
and
XX,

narrower

globular forms with broad III and Amenhetep III (Naqadehand Ghurob), and the flatterforms bands are of the close of the XVIIIth dynasty (Illahun, xvii, 28 ;

and Cyprus, in blue glaze there copied bands are the earlier, about
was

in the Aegean

is not Egyptian, but is found in Syria and ring base to vases Troy ; also the hollow conical foot. The present position is tantalising ; we have several distinctive forms foreign to Egypt, and do not know the source of any of There is nothing more them, owing to our lack of enterprise in Asia. promising

7,

9).

The

in archaeology at present than a search over the early pottery of sites in Sjoia and Asia Minor, to find the extent, and trace the source, of the various styles of key to This the the will give relations of countries more readily than pottery.

any other work.

The Oxyrhynchus 1920.


244 pp., 3

Papyri,Part XIV. pis. (London: Egypt

"

By

B. P. Grenfell

and

A. S. Hunt.

Exploration

Society.)

This volume contains about a hundred papers on business and letters, and in mass of material now about fiftyabstracts, another large sliceof the enormous hand. Who will extract all the results that can give a social and economic view of the country ? Some interesting details appear at first sight. The very long

date-formulae, naming all the Ptolemaic priesthoods, were cut short by saying, in king formula as written at Alexandria." such a year of the and the rest of the both kept as holidays (p. The last day of the year and the new-year-day were 172).
"

the unbewitched," probably as a children it was usual to say danger, and A his to father son the avoid urges evU eye. prophylactic against if killed. A long list of all his he to have identity body were to an mark, verify

In mentioning

"

the operations of a vineyard is given in a contract (p.18). Christian phrases God and the sister and loan, but in to no a saying that there was witness appear by Didyme and her sistersin the and a letter is written jointly wife of a man,
"

depreciation of the copper substitutes for silver coin drachmae a day, showing a 2,000 appears again in a contract to pay a donkeyman in Russia. depreciation of at least 1,000 to i, only rivalled now Lord."
The
monstrous

Reviews.

yi

A. E. Cowley. 1920. 94 pp., 35 figs. 6s. (Schweich Lectures, 1918, British Academy.) This is the most valuable summary ing and study of the Hittite question, describthe history, the questions of race, of language, and of decipherthe localities, ment. The interest in this people started with the allusions in the Old Testament.
"

The

Hittites. By

This

tions greatly increased by the identification of them with the Kheta of inscripin Egypt. The discovery Hittite and sculptures of the capital at Boghazduplicate of the treaty with Egypt, keui, and the archives, with the cuneiform the many letters in Hittite language, and to crown all,the discovery of the names
was

this a gods there, has made of the highest importance. of Indo-aryan subject has urged The Czech scholar Hrozny Aryan the relationship of the Hittite
forms which can be detected in the cuneiform language, mainly from grammatical language To this Dr. Cowley the though the are roots of stillunknown. versions, barely assents, though it has been largely accepted by others. The whole question of the hieroglyphic inscriptions is entirely separate.

boss, as everyone else has done, starts from the Tarkondemos Hittite that the are tunately Unforthere assuming signs equivalent to those in cuneiform. linguistic the scholars have not had any technical knowledge of workmanship. The centre part of the silver boss was in never wrought metal ; the is in it is a silver cast from a stone seal. Then when this that stone ; cutting

Here

Dr. Cowley

silver

was

cast,

broad

flange

or

border

was

cast around

it, and

on

that

was

through on the back. strongly as to come connection of the two inscriptions, but rather a reason for a difference in age and sense between them. It is like the case of a Roman intagho being put in a mediaeval setting, inscribed for a seal. The whole of the structures of interpretation which have started from the six signs on the central the cuneiform punched There is thus no proved seal must
some

inscription, so

be proved. The guess hope best but the at ; city gives chance is in the immense if it must contain some as of Carchemish, which seems mound a Hittite hieroglyph cuneiform biUngual, or perhaps even version of the Egyptian

remain in suspense of the often-repeated

until

some

firm basis
more

can

names

treaty. At the end of the volume is a list of over a hundred is essential for anyone dealing with Oriental history. Ancient

signs.

The

work

Egyptian Fishing.

"

By

Oric

Bates.

1917.

73

pp.,

26

pis.

Studies, {Harvard African This important

Vol. I.

Cambridge,

Mass.)

collection of materials is the last work of one who promised to be a leader in the organising of knowledge. His comprehensive study of the Eastern Libyans {Ancient be Egypt,1914, p. superseded in its will scarcely

181)

fullness of detail and reference ; and the present work systematises all that can be gleaned from the monuments, and from actual specimens, published in dozens Had his life been spared, doubtless he would have become more of works. facts, deal to than those the ou accustomed rather with with rely opinions of he was familiar. whom the prehistoric age, it is suggested that the animal form of palettes intended to convey a magic value to the paint ground on especially of fish" was the palette, as Pliny says that those who hunt crocodiles anoint themselves with
"

For

its fat.
to the

Thus

wearer are

fish malachite ground on a fish palette might convey power over ; and in support of this it may be noted that all the animals represented for food Barbary tamus, hippopohartebeest, used sheep, stag, elephant,
"

hare, turtle,birds, fish ; the only exceptions

are

two

falcons and

crocodile
2

52
in later time.

Reviews,

The great royal palettes were for the war-paint of the king, to to figured him his as overcome on the palettes. The importance enable enemies, and the veneration of some of fisheries, species, are fully described. fishing by The means papyrus raftsand papyrus boats is minutely detailed. of
amulet sign is linked with the loops of papyrus stems, which are often fishers or worn beside by them over the shoulder. This agrees with its shown to leave no doubt protection," and the examples of it in use seem meaning of

The

sa

"

The harpoon is next discussed at great length ; the rise of the harpoon is copper placed too late, as it is certainly of the firstprehistoric age by The bident is described, and all the variety the graves where it has been found.
as

to its origin.

Fish traps, hand nets, casting nets and the seine, are next of fish hooks. in detail The late, lead dated too the are all net-sinkers considered of working. in dynasty. The XVIIIth towns as they abound of the curing of fish,the sale fishermen, fish, the the and social position of of complete this study, which will long be the work

of reference for the whole

subject.
,
"

by some Tribes. Worship of the Dead as practised African Vol. Studies, {Harvard I.) African 1917. 15 pp. This is
an

By

J. RoscoE.

usages, from the customs of from an English rectory Uganda so, as the writer recounts at present ; the more he The for a sick to Egypt. what observed without any reference great concern man, and the gifts and sacrificesat burial, are held to be due to a wish to stand
comment
on

illuminating

Egyptian

The cemetery is the property of the clan, and only those of well with the ghost. totem may be buried in it. In no case may two bodies even the same of mother be in infant in one as the grave, second prehistoric age. At the and placed
" "

head of the grave a small shrine is erected in which offerings are placed, like the On the death of a king the war drum is beaten, soul-houses of the Xth dynasty. with the king's and there is a state of anarchy, since peace, law and order cease follows until another king rules. The queen must life. Pillage and war be a princess, if possible a sister of the king and daughter of the previous king, as in Eg5^t. The body of a king is disembowelled, all the juices are pressed out into fibre is body dry hard tillthe takes six ; the entire mummifying and sponges of
is placed in a shrine, and widows, chiefs,and personal servants it stand around and are clubbed to death. In the second courtyard outside, four or five hundred This is like the burial of Hepzefa, victims are executed. burials and the rows of of servants around the tombs of the 1st djmasty kings.
months.

The body

An

is guarded by a extraordinary feature is that the shrine of a king's mummy his clan, group of widows, who are replaced when they die,by others of the same hundreds of years. A widow may, however, so that the worship is kept up for even to explain the frequent retire and marry, if she can get a substitute. This seems These were cases anciently of a wife being a nestit khaker, or adomer of the king. girlswho had been brought into the harem, and after the king's death had adorned At the back of the shrine lives the medium, the body, but married after a time. to the king's had been familiar a man king, and who is the who with

subject

passes into trances, can ask questions of the king, and receive the answers. spirit, This may be parallel to the neter-hon of the king. Ghosts are expected to be re-born. Each child when a year old is tested to find which family ghost animates it. Then the shrine of that ancestor is left to decay, as his spirit is reincarnated. Among
the Basoga, north of Lake Victoria, the new chief opens the grave of his a the takes predecessor after year, skull out, cleanses it, wraps it tightly in

Reviews.

53

to speak for the ghost. In common skins, and places it in a temple with a medium burials the buried are broken to free the spiritualessence that it may objects late to their like the broken offerings in Egypt. owner," escape
"

The

18 pis. The
and

of the Eastern Studies, (Harvard African


120

Palediths

Desert.
"

By

F. H.

Sterns.

1917.

35 pp.,

Vol.

I.)
came

the Red

flints here figured worked Sea. They are of the forms

from

the desert between

Qeneh

plateau of the Nile valley. flints like those which have in England ; as neither method in England.

already familiar in the flintsfrom the It is to be noted that there are scratches on these been attributed to glacial action, or to ploughing,
can

have

acted in Egypt,

so

neither need be true

Notes

on

EgyptianSaints.

"

By

R. H. Blanchard.

Studies, Vol. I.) African

This paper

describes
and

some

(Harvard 1917. n pp. the of principal festivals,


are

pointing out the primitive nature fertility charms.

of them,

that most

connected

with

new

+18

pp. The

of the Pentateuchal Problem. By Sacra, JanuaryApril, (Bibliotheca 1918.)


"

Solution

M.

G. Kyle.

1918.

39

always

idea presented here is that there are three different types of law, distinguished by different names, (i)The Judgements are decisions of
new

old traditional law, expressed in a proverbial style, as a mnemonic The Statutes, which are man aid, and concerning law between (2) and man. decrees or regulations, of legal offences which are not criminal, but only mala
; prohibita

judges, often

mental also laws of offerings. (3)The Commandments, which are fundalaws and moral principles. A different style of writing naturally goes with each type of law, a brief proverbial style, or description, or hortatory, and this style belongs also to the narrative portions connected with each type of law. These styles are then found to correspond with the three main divisions The the Priestly and the Deuteronomic. already proposed, the JE documents, is distinctions for the then that this division of character accounts argument The already proposed, and is consistent with the single date for the Pentateuch. is name Yahveh Elohim belongs to the legal phraseology, while the name religious. Here is at least a fresh criterion brought into critical questions, and all such
are

welcome.

Die Griechisch-Agyptische Sammlung Ernst von Sieglin. Ill teil,Die Gefasse in Stein und Ton, Knochenschnitzereien. Pagenstecher. By Rudolf 1913. Folio, xi + 253 pp., 60 pis., 188 figs. (Leipzig.) This volume deals with material from Egypt in various German museums.

Sumptuous
or

as

important
vases

stone

Kingdom.

few unusual work. nine plates of purely Egyptian objects A few of all periods. good prehistoric are all catalogued as Old lation A canopic jar(p. has Bissing's description of it quoted as a trans-

this is

it is disappointing 16 lbs.) (weighing


a

to find

so

in such

First there

are

2)

two of are Huy. The only notable vases palace official, alabaster with names of Pepy I and II. Only seventeen pages refer to the Egyptian Scarcely any to Hellenistic Roman are remains, and 225 given pottery. and dating is assigned to this material, which varies over six centuries. The only is a blue glazed flask with applied relief figures self-dated vase of importance D 3 ; it is really of
a

54
having the
name

Reviews.

of Ptolemy Philopator (225-205 which gives a fixed stage B.C.), from Hadra in The design Ilird the century vases of such work. variety of is the most artisticproduct, as given in pp. 34-52, pis. xv-xviii. There was a of form, and passably good decoration, without the late Italian work : it is the most vulgarity creditable result of The difficultyof trade during the war has prevented this work Alexandria. this year. reaching us till
school with good of the
sense

Untersuchungen Nekropolis,
und 4to. 216 pp., 127 figs. This elaborate work

ischen Grabanlagen

iiber Gestalt und Entwicklung der AlexandrinPagenstecher. ihrer Malereien. By Rudolf 1919.
"

(Leipzig.)

is the historical comparison of the and summing-up It is a kind of study Sieglin expedition at Alexandria. results of the Ernst von that is much wanted in all bringing together material from the collateral subjects, The wielding of and dating. examples, and drawing conclusions about sources classical material seems earlier matters complete, but in some have been useful. More use might also have been made of models of buildings, such as are in University College. The
some

wider search would of the pottery

firstchapter deals with the type of monument on the surface. This is The Attic stele is the source of three classes, Hellenic, Asiatic and Egyptian. of the Hellenic class. The earliest cemetery contains coins of the Satrapy and Ptolemy There seems, Soter, and cannot be placed later than 250 B.C. indeed, it should not be before 300 B.C., as there must have been a cemetery within a generation of the founding of the city. The stele, though starting with in very different conditions from the original. It was Attic tradition, was no
no reason

why

longer

but was only the decoration of a larger structure, This be due to the influence of the Egyptian tomb, in of an altar-shape. may which the false-door was only a part. Another large difference from the Attic was that the painted reliefsculpture was steles painting on simplified as a mere
a

free-standing monument,

flat panel.

In

the

earliest cemetery

"

painted steles and only eight sculptured. whole length figures ; later there are some and in the western
are

there are twenty-one of Chatbey The steles of the earlier date have
"

half-length figures in

naos

border,

busts of stucco. In the tumuli over the tombs cemetery there are small vases and statuettes in the earth ; these are supposed to have been deposited on the tumulus, and to have been covered over by disturbance of the soil. More accurate observation is evidently needed, to see if the positions agree to this, or if the the more were which seems placed in the earth at first, objects There likely course. The larger monuments have statues around them. are in by large the a tombs, the tombs, chambered commonly altars of size and square These suggest the continuance of small size and round, by the tumuli. incense in ancient times in Egypt. The for dead, food or as the offeringsof of first high base, it a on then upon was at placing of the stele varied considerably : base, or a square long on an or over the or on a grave, rectangular altar steps,
or

of

placed upon die cubic placed upon figured vases in such devoted
was

base,

or

The type ascribed to Asia Minor is the short column. steps. This began about 250 B.C., as dated by two blackis stated to be The stepped form of monument a grave.
a

The great cenotaph to gods and heroes. at Babylon of Hephaistion in five stages, probably borrowed from the ziggurat of the country (Diod. Severus; but XVII, xii).Next reference is made to the pyra of Pertinax and to Saloninus. such funeral pyres in stages are figured on coins from Antoninus

Revtezvs.

55

Another

as the stepped pyramid omission is the heroic character of the Mausoleum, had the chariot of Mausolos at the summit. If there is any precedent from early forms it is hardly in the solitary step pyramid of Saqqarah, times in these Roman

but rather in the ziggurat copied by Alexander for Hephaistiori. The Egyptian form of monument is expressly stated to be the horned It is called that is to say, with triangular elevations at the corners.
"

altar,
a

real form by which the impress of Egypt type," and said to be the first became This view is astonishing, as the form is unknown in perceptible." The example brickwork Egyptian work. towers, from Praeneste the of quoted mosaic, has nothing to do with this form, as the top edge is curved in a circular

Alexandrian

"

sweep, due to the usual curved has sharp triangular comers.


on

courses

the upright face, is in a open high has an open doorway, and triangular
on
a

of Egyptian brickwork ; the horned altar parallel to the grave-altar, with doors partly fresco where a tower some Pompeian 18 feet
comers

at the top.

Such XV,

pottery small scale Portraits, XV, 6, 7),and they have burnt marks on the top, showing that they have been used as fire altars. It seems times towers were clear that in Roman sometimes built
over

are

common

in Roman

tombs

Hawara, (see

altars of 8 ; Roman

graves, with a way to ascend to the top, for burning offerings; This form of monument was and small models were copied in placed in graves. first Saleh in degrees Medain Arabia the the tombs N.)of (26I reUef at century of

known It is not Babylonian, as the altar on to Semitic people. so it was flat loaves on the top (Hayes Ward, a the cylinders is a column with pile of Cylinders, 824, 826, 827), as a Persian altar or a bowl (876).It appears, however, {Cylinders, 1144). Long before that, it is figured in the seventh century B.C. as the altar of a high place, on an Assyrian relief {Botta, 114, copied in Ward,
A.D.,

Cylinders,
on

1258). Possibly it is the


The horned

altar cylinder 1260. be separated from the rock-cut fire-altars of Nakshe Art Rustem (Dieulafoy, Antique de Perse, III, have three corners pinnacles along the which raised and v), sides. These are dated before Cyrus, as the earliest monuments of Persia, akin
to Assyrian work

intended by the rough figure of a firehardly can altar, being expressly a fire-altar,

form

(p. 8). All of these have their parallel in the horns of the altar burnt had no horns, offering and of incense ; while the table of shewbread of being probably like the Babylonian altars with a pile of round loaves. The homed fire-altarwas known to Sargon in the eighth century B.C., then certainly
adopted as the and probably used by Israelites centuries before that ; it was Persian fire-altarin the sixth century ; next, enlarged as a tower over a tomb, with an entrance to lead to the top, it was copied in central Arabia and in Pompei, the graves in Alexandria, while in the form of pottery and used in miniature over models
it
was,

down

to the third century

a.d.

common
a

offering in Egyptian portrait


was

In the later Ptolemaic graves. the side of the fire-altar. A


truly Egyptian

tombs

at Alexandria

painted

on

This appears in late was a tomb. the pyramid over Meroe, form fashionable, the cemetery seen as then time, of the steep at the pyramid (about68 degrees, Ro. Port. 19), of Caius Cestius (67 of Hawara frescoes. The pyramid form had attracted Alexander, degrees), and Pompeian loan Ptolemaic
of his who intended to build a pyramid equal to the greatest, as the monument father Philip (Diod. XVIII, i). Altars in the form of a tmncated pyramid found but were at Alexandria, only 9 inches high. An error should be noted on

p. 29,

as

the pyramids

represented

at

Qurneh are

not

on

columns,

but

on

tomb

chambers.
^

56
The Egyptian memorial, Such were from Egypt
with
naos or

Reviews.

made to Sardinia.

shrine, often with a cornice of uraei, was bust of the deceased person occupying a figure or in the second century B.C. to the firstcentury a.d.,

favourite

the shrine. and

spread

The painted steles are classified according to the figures. There is a resemblance frescoes in some to Pompeian of the attitudes, probably both drawn from familiar. The work is but poor and careless, some celebrated pictures that were local limestone, or and without any background always upon accessories. A interesting census most of the origins of the Alexandrian population is given by
are recorded, and of these fourteen are Europeans islanders, four Thessalians), only three Africans, and eight Greek Asiatics, with ten Galati and Kelt. This prevalence of Keltic mercenaries is Philadelphos had 4,000 (Paus.I, mentioned when and later in 213 B.C., 13), Thracians Gauls from imported. were more 4,000 settlers, and 2,000 enlisted and

the ethnic (sixbeing

names.

Thirty-nine

That
was.

quarter of the burials are Keltic shows how


covers some

largely northern the Alexandrian

The doors ;

one

of the loculi are often painted, with various forms of double times Somewith latticein upper part, mostly with ring handles or heads. door is drawn The Egyptian ideas remain in an as partly open.

instance of a full-lengthfigure standing in a doorway, with groups of gods and the deceased down the sides. The plans of the tombs are classed as (i) the Oikos type, from Europe, with a burial chamber the Peristyle type, from the Egyptian ; (2) and antechamber house and temple ; and (3) the Loculus type of Roman origin. The Oikos type
with the Greek house, an example from Priene having a close agreement in Chatbey The decoration a the tomb the at with chambers. position of is elaborated at Ras et Tin, with the walls painted in squares of marbling, and Egyptian is niches and cornices. The use of horizontal divisions on columns

is compared

noted

peristyle the pillars. This is compared with the Egyptian buildings for the living ; but no tomb in Egypt has an open peristyle court, and doubtful if an Egyptian closed peristyle halls are very unusual there. It seems
court, open to the sky between

as

Egyptian

(bandsat

Beni

Hasan).

The

Peristyle type has

plan would be intentionally adopted as a This type appears in Cyprus, but whether the Greeks. Alexandrine tombs is not settled. In any case the open house
or

temple

new

type of tomb by before or after the peristyle court is at

and Italian houses as in Egyptian, and the Greek source is much more likely to have been copied by Alexandrians. Various other tombs is Meqs described, the are the greatest of which at ; the great hall catacomb having three tiers of loculi,while the there is 52 feet square, with side chambers least
as

familiar in Greek

with a cupola and side chamber, with places axis continues to a hall 23 feet across, Certain criteria are stated, as that there is neither peristyle for nine sarcophagi. in fixed to Roman nor tombs age ; also that loculi began to be made cupola any is placed to the firstcentury B.C. In A the Roman tombs the loculi are arranged in rows along corridors. summary gives the dates of tombs as Chatbey 320-250 B.C., Anfushy 270-200, Station

in Hellenistic times.

The

Meqs

catacomb

cemetery

fourth to third century,

Hadra

280-150,

Antoniadis

and

Meqs

first

century. The last chapter deals with Alexandrian painting. Chatbey, the earliest cemetery, has no colour left. The vertical division of wall surfaces into painted panels, by half-columns, began as early as the third century. Later the system

Reviews.
was a

57
became

usual, and there was blue At for Suk there is colouring, ceilings. great of especially el Wardian Greek late fourth At Anfushy the (Ras et Tin)the work of pure century style. surfaces are painted in squares of marbling copied from inlays. The ceilings are plain at Cbatbey ; at Sidi Gabr long coffering appears ; at Suk el Wardian
zones. use

by

horizontal division into

Marbling

decoration in the coffering. is of value as showing the gradual swamping of purely subject Greek work by native style, in some respects, though hardly as much as the author The changes to the Roman Pompeian as in Italy, showing suggests. style moved The endeavours the unity of feeling round the Mediterranean. of the author to square coffering ; and The whole
at Anfushy

reach definite dates and criteria are

most

welcome. in

Catalogue
Kendrick. Museum, S.W.

of Textiles from
7.)

Burying-Grounds 5s., posted

Egypt.

Vol. I.
"

By

A.

F.

1920.

142 pp., 33 pis.

5s. 6d.

(Victoria and

Albert

This catalogue is valuable for the historical and technical introduction which occupies half of it, and discusses the dates and origin of the decorated garments After an outline of the history of the period in question, age in Egypt. of Roman The nature of the the various sites where textiles have been found are described. burials, the various preparations of the body with cartonnage, painted cloth, or The technical weaving garments, are fully stated. portrait, and the dates of some
tion, for decorais noticed and the use of silk. The tunics, which are the main subject and the large hangings or cloths, are discussed, with other material for The tapestries are then catalogued in detail, comparison. of the woven

subjects

Gods, under Playing Boys,

Portraits, Animals,

Horsemen,

Huntsmen,

Warriors,

Dancers,

Vintage,

Plants and Ornaments. The broad conclusions are that these patterned textiles were not peculiar to further A but belong Roman Empire. to the Egypt, evidence may equally whole the gold-in-glass figures of the third and fourth century, Italian The circular tapestry patches which apparently and not Egyptian. on these figures. The date of this work is assigned to on the knees are shown The main difference between the latter part of the third century and onward.
are

be given for this from

this dating fine thread

and that of Gayet is in the circular purple patches worked over in in interlacing square patterns. Here they are placed, like the figure

work, to the third to fifth century, while Gayet put them into the Arab period. This work by its complete discussion of the materials will be a standard textbook for long to come. We hope the succeeding volumes will be as thoroughly treated. The

Lifeof Hatshepsut. By
"

Terence

Gray.

8vo, 260 pp., 13 pis.


"

r4s.

1920

(Heffer,Cambridge).
"

This work is described as Egyptian History in Dramatic

Pageant

Form."

using the actual documents that this is entirely clear of the illof the Great Queen. Let it be said at once informed absurdities which have been produced when trying to exploit Egj^t for the stage. The scheme is well arranged, and the various scenes reasonably less fulfil In this form the striking historic position will doubtthe actaal conditions.

A Chapter of of Court Life," and It is a serious attempt construc at historic rethat can be connected with the subject

With interest many who might not read the scattered records at firsthand. is not concerned ; but we the dramatic may quality of this work this journal in formulae long-winded difficulty note the of treating the pomposity of official

58
harmony
"

Reviews.

with a conversation. Some familiaritywith the talk of modern Egyptians Thou hast no further theory," or have likely phrases than given more might the magnificence of this great civilisation," which we cannot imagine put back into vernacular intimacy of talk. This alternates with too sharp a contrast of very intimate talk of royal persons. It does not accord with the XVIIIth
"

for courtiers to smell the earth," only foreigners did so then, and We may regret to see the Greek form of termination Tahutmosis courtiers bowed. in a form impossible at the mouth of an Egyptian, and Amen called Yamoun, put that time, and perhaps at any other. There is much thought and perception in dynasty the stages of antagonism could be better treated. Bantu Methods of Tahutmes
III, and it is hard to say if such episodes

"

1917. Everything

of Divination. By Rev. Noel Roberts. (SouthAfrican Journalof Science, April, 1917.)


"

12

pp., 3 pis.,

that

can

have any parallel in Egypt find, especially those of prehistoric age. This description of the that we of the slate and bone apparatus and methods of divination may interpret some such as are figured in Prehistoric Egypt,xliv-xlvi. Mr. Roberts begins

that be gleaned from African beliefs and customs is a pricelesskey to understanding the mute evidences

objects,
with
an

Among all primitive people who outline of magic and its purpose. find however, belief a that we the practise magic, rapportexists between the itself fact, in are man a a name thing and the thing and his name often of in identical." This is known an Egypt, as where such weU regarded object, its had name, a walking as even and nothing really existed unless named. stick,
"

"

tribe is distinguished by the name of an animal or to all members is as or tahoo that and animal other natural object, object regarded This identity of man and totem is expressed of the tribe which bears its name. or less not only by vocal imitation of the animal, but also by gestures of a more
Almost every Bantu conventional type, which are supposed to represent the characteristicmovements into the ceremonial dances, so that These gestures are woven of that animal. be the tribal origin of a man may ascertained by noting his actions during the the animals representing the different tribes are well known ; lion falcon, the are on the slate palettes the standards jackal, and shown of include hare, falcon, later nome on, the the jacked, gazelle, signs scorpion, while

"

dance."

In Egypt

any of the gestures or other imitations of animals taking out offerings to the tomb in representations ? Certainly the women at Amarna. in El heard howl dawn a as imitate the jackal, 1892 at of early ibis and bull. Can
we

trace

The casting of lots for divination is fiillydescribed. The knuckle-bones toy oxen," astragali are mainly used for this, and they are called by Boers
"

or

dol-ossen,hence

As a rule dolosses for such casting pieces. the set contains the astragali of the totem animals of the neighbouring tribes. In the case of larger animals some other bone or part of the body is used to Thus in the case of the lion one of the phalanges is replace the knuckle-bone. usually chosen, and parts of the carapace of different species of tortoise are From what we know of magic and totemism, it is clear seen. commonly in the set represents the animal of which it once formed bone or that each object One end of the knucklebone which that animal is totem." part, and hence the tribe

the English term

"

of
"

is recognised

as

the

head,"

the

convex
are

side as head
"

the
"

"

belly."

When

the bones
or

side as the thrown, they

"

back," the concave fall with the may


one
or

facing either towards

away

from the operator, and with

other

Reviews.
of these faces uppermost may be generally classified as
....

59
by
the bones

the various positions assumed follows :


"

(i)Anterior position.Head
"

away

from

the operator="

lost,"

"

strayed,"

etc.,

(2)Posterior position.Head facing toward the etc., generally affirmative character. indicates Back Dorsal (3) uppermost aspect.
"
"

^generally

negative character. operator="


"

will be found,"
etc. ; and,
"

health,"
"

by

success," grouping of ideas, prosperity," etc. Belly death," Ventral (4) representing uppermost, aspect. (5)Right pectoral aspect. Right side uppermost. Left side uppermost. (6)Left pectoral
"

"

"

failure,"etc.

"

aspect.
"

and

Either pectoral aspect may hence try again."


"

"

"

"

represent

sleep,"

sickness,"

uncertainty,"

Now

here

are

aspects. The use have been found


throw three
across,

aspects, back, belly or side up ; or, with a pair, six of astragali for playing games is certain in Egypt, as a pair in the drawer of a gaming The three or six types of board.
three

how

all simply indicated by the players calling out that they have in throw, and by the game boards being three squares in width the six It is remarkable so that a throw of three gives an advance of one row. derived from Here have been divination. the throw of astragali, games here
were
or

and hence of dice derived from them, is for divination ; the throw of four arrows, the early Chinese divination, is the source of the four suits of cards ; the diviners' it, to bowl with divisions all round to which a floating may point, seems

object

be the parent of the roulette table. How to us, appears in the throwing a connection remote of ideas may seem of a plate of the carapace of the tortoise ; if this fallsback up, it is in the walking it rains," the the tortoise only walks when position, and as the proverb is
"

position indicates rain. Various tablets are has been

and that of a from Naqada and Ballas." The set of tablets used in several different districtsin Africa are of a zigzag border, rows a tongue of zigzags shape, with a guilloche twist on one, four hollows. These are across, rows types triangular associated, by the and of
"

Signs and Symbols." misled by from Egypt are clearly the labels of offerings, all from one queen of the ist dynasty, found by De Morgan, and not

also used Churchward's

for divination.
"

Unfortunately
The tomb,

Mr.

Roberts

tablets quoted

Malaboch,
We The need

the Mountha slightly varied by degradation among turn to recognise any parallels to this system that may and

and Matala. up in Egypt.


"

be the degradation of the two serpents caduceus guilloche twist may fashion Eg. xlviii, on the prehistoric handles. {Prehis. 4, and Berlin.) The paper concludes with figures of two diviners' bowls, with signs around the
"

filledwith water, and seeds edge representing different tribes. The bowls were buttons thrown in to float ; the position which they took in relation to the signs on the edge served to give the answer.
or

PrehistoricArts and
10

pis. 1920. here The comparative studies of the author have India. is more a (p. of prehistoric systematic account and the present work 18), It is fortunate that zealous research is being given to these remains, though much is needed for so vast a region. The earlier chapters discuss the glacialperiod more

Crafts ofIndia. Calcutta, (University of

"

By

Panchanan

Mitra.

8vo.

66 pp.

Anthropological

papers No. i.) already been noticed

6o
on

Reviews.

the north, and the contemporary river terraces, the palaeoUths, and the rock paintings of hunters. In this connection there are on pi. VI two pieces of decorated pottery obviously of Islamic age. Regarding the earliest date of pottery itmust be considered that the favoured civilisations of the warm river valleys of Mesopotamia
various and Egypt For the arts.
were

probably far in advance of savage Europe in starting Egyptian Indian stated between and resemblances
"
"

need to see a series of forms of each set side by side in plates, before can we weigh the evidence. The occurrence chess-board patterns of the in India, like those of Elam Anau, for a general Asiatic is fair and ground pottery,
we

connection

; such

pattern

is always

foreign to Egypt.
are

coming precise details

On

to the age of metals, there


are

many

questions

on

in earliest examples primitive India," when the earliest assignable date is not before the early European iron India have date In in Africa definite 1200 B.C. as we a must of evidence of

No dates, even needed. approximate, are in India. It is useless to say that iron is known

which more given for the


"

before that, if the European


" "

origin of iron is to be set aside ; it is useless to speak It in of primitive age, regions developing later than the Mediterranean. is claimed that wootz name." where we get the very same steel is electrum,
a
"

? We Egyptian or uasm electron, shining like the sun, from in India imported Egypt as we think steel,especially wootz, was read (to) high in four to three those times thousand value early years of about objects before Christ." How is such date reached for Indian wootz, or where is it found

What

name

Greek

"

in Egypt
most

common endowment of early facies designs Mykenaean Asiatic culture," and he speaks of a and of a is for Mediterranean This looo B.C., remarkably about aspect." reasonable enough but it will not take back India to any comparison with early Egypt, stillless The author has a wide field of the to originating anything of Egyptian culture. information, and any to have exact all want greatest interest, on which we
" " "

A reasonable passage is quoted from ancient part of Indian art belongs to the

Dr. Coomarswamy

that

"

the

proofs of connection,

or

stillbetter of priority,will be heartily welcomed.

6i

PERIODICALS.

Journalof the

Society

of Oriental

Research,

Chicago.

In October, 1919, Prof. Mercer discusses the question Was Ikhnaton a Mono? The definition of monotheism is drawn very rigidly : there is but one theist God, whose being and existence pervades all space and time ; this involves
" "

Taking nothing to do with the denial of any other gods. looking for it is not the such rigid view, and any survival of notice of other gods, Akhenaten is a clever surprising that reduced to the position of and self-centered attributes which
a
"

have

individual

rather too theological a view of a change, which was about with continual difficulty,and which had to be carried sistencies If some out practically and not merely discussed in the study. minor inconif there were remained, political views on the suppression of the priesthood
seems

henotheist." hedged

This

of Amen, yet these cannot hide from us the intense fervour of the adoration Aten, The figure of Maot of the and the repudiation of tolerating any other god. be adduced as a divinity, as Maot was never used for truth cannot worshipped ;
not

belongs to her, she was only an impersonation like a figure Dr. Mercer not only denies the king the name at present. of Justice of monoNow insistence on theist, but also the all especially ethical monotheist." living in truth," utterly unknown before or since, occasions of his personal motto We cannot expect may give him the right to be valued as an ethical reformer.
a

stele nor

temple
"

"

any one of his age to have the keen sense of congruity which has been developed in us by centuries of dogmatic discussion of rival creeds and heresies. The
"

Eye

of Horus

"

in the Pyramid

Texts is studied by

Prof. Mercer

in

March, 1920. He concludes that the sun were and moon originally regarded as Later they were the eyes of Nut, the sky goddess. the eyes of Ra, and as named Ra, so the eye of Ra was Ra himself. Then the consuming the sun was eye of Ra

became

and the Uraeus. Here we must Osiris was popular at the early date and usurped the place of Ra. Osiride group for the a as the require strong evidence such sequence, worship of appears to precede the Ra worship ; no proof of the precedence of Ra is given. The loss of the eye of Horus, in combat with Set, made the Horus-eye one of the transferred to Hathor, Tefnut,

Sati, Bast, Sekhmet,

for every kind of offerthe synonym sacred symbols of sacrifice. It became ing. As the eye-sun became identical with the Horus-sun, so the eye was Horus ; In short, the vagueness of Horus, the eye was the king. and as the king was Egyptian thought and lack of consistency, led to the eye being taken as thing anymost
"

lived construed sacrificially ; it was conceived, born every day, his the king, and sat before the king as god. and addressed the king, avenged These views were the held but they never one, as meanings show all probably found that different worshippers might attach to the sacred eyes so abundantly
that
"

was

in house and in tomb,

and the

scenes

of the king offering the eye.

62

Periodicals. Oriental Society. IX.

Journal ofthe Manchester Egyptianand 56 pp. 5s. (Longmans.)

1921.

18 +

The Egyptian article in this is The Problem ofAkhenaton, by T. Eric Peet. is discussed, and the In this Dr. Mercer's denial of Akhenaten's monotheism are that Aten worship general influence of that king. The principal matters
was

III, both at Thebes and as a transformed already started under Amenhetep Ra worship at Heliopolis. It is therefore the exclusiveness of Aten worship The attempts to show that other gods were recognised that was due to Akhenaten. Aten being the Nile, are all reduced to mere conventions of speech (as have The bull no king being the "), which religious authority. strong is rather hesitatingly attributed to the striving after truth, professed artistic reform by the king. It is surely late in the day to debate the unity of the religious,

by the king
the

"

lived in truth." ethical and artistic revolution carried out by the king who It is curious to note how nothing has modified the summary of dates and changes Nothing has been in Amarna Tell el twenty-seven (Petrie), years ago. stated

"

found

"

not even

from the mummy

of the king"

to alter or amplify that outline.

Bulletin York.

Museum ofthe Metropolitan

ofArt.

Part II.

October, 1919.

New

is a monograph This supplement on the statues of Sekhmet from the temple figures Karnak. so that they are found in many These were abundant of Mut at museums, and rather lose their attraction by familiarity. The whole history here put together is, however, an interesting outline of the general of them the temple of who remembers exploitation of antiquities in the past. Anyone line black know half buried figures, Mut some the zigzag of granite years ago, will in the salt soil,and tipped about at various angles in various stages of decay.

Mariete estimated that there had been 572 of them originally. They were set up III, as well as many temple at Qumeh. Later by Amenhetep others in his own II, on, appropriated by the pirate kings, Ramessu of these statues were many began in II, and Sheshenq I. The modem Panezem stripping of the place 1760,
The French expedition to a Venetian. sold for an exorbitant sum when one was The next stage in the figures. found, and removed to Alexandria, many of the Salt arrived in 1816 as British Consul-General. when clearance of Egypt was

He

had

known

proposed the Ramesseum,

Belzoni, who was then in Egypt Belzoni to bring down to Salt to employ

as

Burckhardt engineer. II from the bust of Ramessu


an

later presented by Salt and Burckhardt to the British Museum. Drovetti, the French Consul-General, was also employing agents to collect at a to Belzoni Thebes, so whole row of Sekhmet set earnestly work, uncovered

figures, and began


continued work excavations went Salt went work. III,
on

Next year, in 1817, Belzoni active transportation of them. Yanni Athanasi. from The Consulate, Greek the with a young
on on

with various changes till1819, when Belzoni retired from the employing Athanasi, mainly at the temple of Amenhetep

found there, also Sekhmet figures were bank. Many more the western in the British Museum. the two colossal heads of the king in quartzite, now found his work impeded. Salt died in 1827, and without his protection Athanasi in 1827. French Government It to Salt's were Much the sold gatherings of

appears that the sale in 1833 in London At this sale, Athanasi's management.
were

was seven

also of Salt's things, mixed up with figures of the complete Sekhmet


recesses

too heavy

to go into Sotheby's

Waterloo

Bridge.

placed in the and were which relic of this sale is the head of Sekhmet
rooms,

of for stood

Periodicals.

63

Of the seven figures, of the entrances of Sotheby's sale rooms. for one was bought twenty guineas (not the cost of transport), the rest were sold in. All seven however, re-united as a group in the great collection of all were, kinds in the hands of that eccentric virtuoso Dr. Lee of Hartwell. They appear

years

over

one

in his catalogue, published in 1858. By 1865 they were Mr. Tyssen-Amherst at Didlington, later Lord Amherst. they
were

From

in the collection of thence in 1914

acquired
mass

for New

York.

In 1823 he great of Salt's gatherings were gradually unloaded. British far larger to Museum. In France. In to a the amount sold much 1826 the firstsale at Sotheby's, followed by another in 1835, and a final sale 1833 came in 1837 was It is easy now to perhaps entirely of Athanasi's separate work. revile Lord They were Elgin, Salt and others who great benefactors ; they brought
away

The

saved much secured it for study and the education of western people, which would never have advanced They to some without striking appeal popular imagination. did vastly less harm than Layard and other explorers in Assyria, who destroyed
,

from ancient lands. so much from destruction, and they

most

lost by moving

Little could be and remains from sheer ignorance. from the temples ; and until whole buildings were away statues pulled to pieces by French speculators, there was nothing to detract from the benefit of such salvage work. well be asked how it came about that such an immense number of III. They were statues of Sekhmet not placed should be made by Amenhetep in a temple of that goddess, but in temples of Mut and of the king. They were before row. sheerly stacked together, touching side by side and even placed row It may They
were

important

documents

not,

merely stored. III to Sekhmet of Amenhetep


on a

There

therefore, required for the place where they is no evidence in other remains of any
; her

stood, but were special devotion

name on one of fiftygreat scarabs, only occurs is if an It never as and smaller she named. would really seem unlimited order had been sent to the quarries of black granite, to make Sekhmet left to go on in forgetfulness, the never statues, and it was revoked, but was hoping that such a permanent official staff jobwould not come to an end They

hundred

may have they were


move

turned out about thirty a year, and despatched them no stacked till further orders. Afterwards it was
even

one's was

to Thebes, where business to

them,
or

700

and 800 black

the appetite of Ramessu

for piracy

quenched

by

Sekhmets.

64

NOTES

AND

NEWS.

excavations of the British School on April. The division of the heavy continued till

the desert of Herakleopohs were sculpture and most of the objects in March Keeper by was the carried out and the Inspector of of the Museum Middle Egypt, after which the Director and Mrs. Petrie left, and Mr. and Mrs. Brunton closed their work at Mayana The and took charge of the main camp. continuance of the work brought to light more of the groups of servant figures and boats.
then left, and three weeks later Mr. Neilson and M. Bach Mr. Brunton to see to the final arrangements concluded their work. remained The transport. a old system of weekly steamer is practically cut off; the of Italian line involves

The

Major Hynes

difficulty, much and the only certain and easy line, by Marseille, goes but once in three weeks. At El Amarna Exploration Society has been represented by the Egypt Prof. Peet and
on.

Mr.

Hayter.

We

hope

to give

an

account

of the results later

York, has been brilliantlyconducted by Last year, in a tomb which had been recently cleared, and left he lower finished, detected as a chamber, and found the most amazing series of The four feet long, shows the dais under a colonnade, great group, about models.
work Mr. Winlock. sits with his scribes, while his cattle are counted before him. by sycamore trees and a portico, is of of a tank, surrounded Some be illustrated in these one of will exquisite work. of our future numbers. This year Mr. Winlock came to the conclusion, in studying Dr. NavUle's and Mr. Hall's publication of the Xlth dynasty temple, that there must be another where the owner Another model tomb

The

at Thebes,

for New

looking for it, the place was another obvious, and in that was Kauit, it,like Cairo, scenes on now that at great sarcophagus with carved of and a wooden statue and mummy of the Princess Aashait. Also in the northern shrine there.

On

Mr. Winlock

found a secondary burial with five silverand gold necklaces. Prof. Schiaparelli has been working at Gebeleyn, and brought much away. Unhappily nothing is pubhshed of the Italian work in the past, but it is to be hoped
of Antiquities will ensure
a

that the Department

complete record being produced,

according to the regulations. The earliest example is a large lump found at Ghurob, of graphite known Mr. XVIIIth dynasty. C. A. Mitchell, who has been studying the probably of the history of graphite, has kindly supplied the following analysis of this specimen. Graphitic carbon and moisture, 37-4 per cent. ; mineral matter, 60 -6 ; of the
latter 47 6 per cent, is of silicates insoluble in acid. This is similar to Swedish graphite. The source this ; it is now of specimen is unknown College.
"

some

of the University at

free public lecture (without on the results of the year, English ticket) 25th May, at and will be given, with illustration,on Wednesday, Street, W.C. 2.30, at University College, Gower The annual exhibition will be at University College, during the four weeks American, of July,4th to 30th,
10

The

to 5.

YOUTHFUL
VI

FIGURE

OF

MERY-RA-HA-SHETEF.
SEDMENT.

DYNASTY.

EBONY.

"

ANCIENT

EGYPT.

DISCOVERIES
The British School

AT

HERAKLEOPOLIS.

in the past winter has made a complete the clearance over Henen-nesut, Henasieh Ehnasya now to or the the ; cemetery of city of owing known in Greeks identifying the local god Hershefi with Herakles, the city was The cause classical times as Herakleopolis. at of its position and importance in this journal, different periods has been noticed in the preliminary account discovered. p. 33. Here we are describing the

objects

The earliestpart of the cemetery on the desert is of the 1st and Ilnd dynasties. The tombs are cut in the marly rock, with descending stairways. The most tomb the vases the the at complete contained all offering end of chamber, stacked five together, the burial being in a recess at the side. These offerings comprised bowls of alabaster, one of porphyry, three cylinder jars, two large spheroid vases made in halves, a table, and a large disc table, all of alabaster ; also two bowls in and two ewers of copper, in all seventeen vessels. Happily, the copper was This is the largest and perfect condition, scarcely tarnished. most perfect known Ilnd dynasty. Another the seven group group contained of alabaster tray, in front of the vessels, and a copper basin and ewer, placed on a wooden
recess

where

the body

rested.

Another

of which happily remained intact. A rock chamber had containing two coffins of women been plundered, but a shaft in the corner destruction. forecourt had the of escaped At about 12 ft. down found, buried in the sand filling, there were three ebony
statues

and various others were also obtained in good condition. In the Vlth dynasty there

also found.

group was of six large alabaster vessels, More than a dozen skulls of this age were several important burials,

were

one

These

of a man, figures were

2 to

for the preservation of the coffin, but containing an alabaster head-rest of fine work, with an inscription, thrice repeated, of the titles and name thus dating this burial to the middle of of Mery-Ra-ha-shetef,
the Vlth

standing upright. more than 40 ft. deep, too damp

another of a woman, and three groups of servants. in all carefully ranked order against the back face of the shaft, found, Continuing the clearance downward, was the chamber

2| ft.high,

dynasty.
the
same

The

made to the finest Egyptian than

by

hand,

not varies ; evidently they were is best different the equal represent and ages ; work in anatomical observation, the poorest is far better

work

of the statues

they

what the Cairo Museum already has of this age. The third and largest of figures has been kept Cairo. The meaning of having three figures is shown the at
E

66

Discoveries at HerakUopolis.

by the differencein age and dignity. The youngest is a fresh, active youth ; the with his long staff ; the largest is the chief of the clan next is the estate-owner These explain the figure of King Pepy accompanied sceptre in his hand. with the kherp youth, found at Hierakonpolis. Such reduplication soul the choice of the freshness of youth, the activity of manhood,
by
a
was or

to give the

the dignity

carefully made, with smooth group, the servant figures were stucco surfaces, equal in appearance to the limestone figures of the IVth and Nena, whose Vth dynasties. This was also the case with the servant of a man Such figures led on set up in a recess of his tomb chamber. statue was wooden
to the less finished figures of the IXth servants

of rule. In the above

and of boats
are never

dynasty, and ball beads, so

and Xth dynasties. These models of are sharply limited in age ; they are rare before the Vlth found in the Xllth dynasty or later. Conversely the

found in this never characteristic of the Xllth dynasty, were cemetery with the servant figures. The two characteristicsare entirely exclusive one of the other, and mark different periods. The IXth and Xth dynasties
were

important at Henen-nesut, as this city was their original seat. The foreign character of the people is seen by the cartonnage busts having whiskers, beard painted ; and the utter destruction of the bodies from many and moustache
graves of this age shows violent character how

bitterly they

were

hated.

assigned to Khety,

the founder

of the IXth

This accords with the dynasty. The

of this age are the groups of models of servants and boats. objects These show the bearers of offerings, granaries, various preparation of food, setting borne by porters. The graves also contained of a table, and the carrying-chair head-rests, sandals, bows and arrows, sets of deUcate models of tools, and, rarely,

principal

developed pottery soul-houses were pottery offering tables. None of the more in the contemporary graves at Rifeh, 140 miles further used here, like those In graves dating from the Vllth to the Xth dynasty several scarabs were south. found, of differenttypes, each of which will take with it classes of scarabs hitherto
There are the spirals of C and S forms interlinked,the wide spiralsof undated. or broad shallow work, the double net with crowns vultures, the lion, the hes in fine outline on dark green jasper, vase and others. The only raised

objection

to dating

scarabs before the Xllth dynasty has been the absence of them in is removed, and the evidence otherwise of recorded graves. Now that difficiolty Such discovery of early scarabs does not stand early dating stands unquestioned. found Several the were temple of Ehnasya, dating before the Xllth at alone. dyuELsty Harageh,
The

ixA),at {Ehnasya,

Kafr

Ammar

{Heliopolis, xxvi),and

others

at

not yet pubUshed. pottery of the early cemeteries passes by gradual stages from the late forms used in the Vlth dynasty to some which border versions of Old Kingdom Xlth forms dynasty. The are forms the cups the on the most marked early of with straight sides and a foot, the long pots with a funnel neck, the pointed pots

of whitish-drab pottery, and the various pentagonal forms of bowls and cups. to us. The cups have been dated before at Rifeh, but the other forms are new Now that we have the whole series of the IXth and Xth dynasties fixed, it will
serve

any between

The total absence of identify tombs of this age found elsewhere. Xlth to XVIth dynasties is remarkable, burials of the Middle Kingdom,
to two

ages of which there are abundant remains. in later times is first shown by a coffin rudely The revival of Henen-nesut hollowed out of a block of wood ; the lid, which is similarly cut, made up a

Facing

p. 66.

^y

MERYRA-HA-SHETEF
VI

AS

HEAD

OF

HIS

CLAN.

DYNASTY.

EBONY.

SEDMENT.

Discoveries at Herakleopolis,

67

It was rudely inscribed in bands, naming the four genii, cylinder with the body. Tazerti, seated, was deceased drawn on one shoulder. little the picture of and a

This

was probably of the XVI Ith dynasty, and is now a kohl-pot and a basket containing Inside the coffin was head.

in the Cairo Museum.


a

scarab, laid

near

the

Coffin
Black

of

Pasar,

follower

of

Amenhetep Sedment.

II.

granite.

A remarkable tomb chapel of the XVIIIth dynasty contained a large stele, ft.high, standing in position in a niche with the altar before it,and a kneeling 3^ figure with a tablet in front. The stele is finely carved, with four generations of figures, and the colours are fresh and bright. The head of the family, Sennefer, bears
a

plaited lock of

royal

son,

and

was

high priest of both Heliopolis


E
2

68

Discoveries at HerakUopolis.

I, and three generations a son and Memphis ; probably he was of Amenhetep later would lead to the reign of Tehutmes III, to which the style of this points. Sherat-ra, who married Neb-nekhtu, son of the prophet Sen-nefer'sdaughter was Aohmes was ; the and Auta ; the father of Amen-mes The Neb-nekhtu, Neb-nekhtu. name son stele was erected by Amenhetep, of of at the end of the inscription on the base, has, curiously, only the determinative for Amen-mes, the grandfather ; the of a frog. The altar before the stele was

of Hershef

Amen-mes

kneeling figure holds a tablet of adoration to Ra by Min-mes, who does not occur in the family list; perhaps he was a son of Amenhetep, who put his figure later For the size and brilliant into the tomb. work of the stele,and the completeness discovery Strange to say, no tombthis seems the unparalleled. whole group, of
shaft or burial could be found in connection with this chapel. Another burial in a coffin with ridge roof, unpainted, now in open ground in the same hillwas in Cairo Museum. Five Nubian baskets in the coffin are in perfect condition ;
a very they contained six alabaster vases and kohl-pots, several Cypriote bilbils, imitated from leather-work, inlaid vase a rare with oval red casket with panels squares of ebony and ivory, and another casket with two sliding lids and a sloping These are in perfect condition, and lid hingeing for the various compartments.

are

III by the presence both of kohl-pots (which ended in that reign) and kohl-tubes, which firstappear then. is one of the most A toilet-spoon, with the figure of a girl carrying a vase,

dated to Tehutmes

beautiful of such figures for the breadth and natural character of the work. Two Another figure of a swimming girlcarrpng a dish with a lid is of good work. boxes have hunting one scenes on hemi-cylindrical toilet the usual them ; with II. A pen-case bears lid was also found at Ghurob, containing a ring of Ramessu
A gaming board was found, of the 6o-hole of a scribe, Men-kheper. is Thebes, known from Kahun [Kahun, outline, such as game in a human xvi), The present example stands on Canaan, III, 2, Gezer and Susa (Vincent, 3). three legs, and has on the under side a door with bolt, closing a recess to hold the

the

name

pieces. Portions of a magnificent papyrus of the Book of the Dead were found, partly This dust had unrolled, and thrown in the dust at the door of a rock chamber. The paintings in it preserved the papyrus far better than if left in a chamber. finest better Ani than those of the are quality, of the papyrus, which it resembles in the writing. It is hoped that most of the 40 ft. of it which is preserved can game

burial had 15 scarabs and plaques be restored to order. One XVIIIth-dynasty finest III. Another burial had green glaze of Amenhetep upon it, mostly of the almost as many scarabs and a turquoise-blue bowl. found with successive scenes or less Some large steles were of offering, more broken up. The earliest is of the fan-bearer on the king's boat, Neb-em-Khemt,
III. Another is of the divine father of Hershef, about the time of Amenhetep Amenemhot, probably of the same age. Parts of a very large stele belongedPa-hen-neter under Ramessu II. He had approto a general of cavalry named priated

belonging to Pasar, finely executed in black granite, earlier figure-coffin over the erasures. and name and placed his titles The largest work of the XlXth dynasty was the tomb-chapel of the viziers Portions Ra-hetep and Pa-ra-hetep. carried away to be built of columns were
an

into other tombs, and a large lintelwith figures of the vizieradoring the cartouches II, was coated with plaster and re-used. Since removing the plaster, of Ramessu the stone is in perfect condition. On the destruction of the chapel, the monu-

Discoveries at Herakleopolis.
ments

69

in it were
was

broken

Rahetep mostly vizier

found

complete,
was

The red granite altar of up and thrown into the tomb. The family finely engraved, was basalt, stele of perfect. is A now at Cairo. great shrine with the figure of the and
but

of the family are on the sides. Various were other parts ol monuments with these, and ushabtis of different kinds. dynasty were Great quantities of ushabtis of the XlXth found in other tombs, funeral furniture h ead-rests, along with much amulets and other of canopic jars, One tomb, of a general named Sety, had been cut in soft rock requiring
much broken, groups

objects.

support, and half

dozen stout limestone pillars were placed in it,with his titles king, tions and general. These bore dedicaof royal scribe, over the body-guard of the Hathor Anubis (4), to Ptah (7), Osiris (6), (2)and Isis (i). Some of the
a seem new,

titlesof the gods


or mes

such

as

Ptahyw

heb neheh,

"

going around

eternally,"

ubdu.

types, and other foreign pottery are mostly of new interest. and the comparison with the Greek examples will be of much The exhibition of this collection, and that of last year from Lahun, will be held at University College, July 4th to 30th (hours 10 to 5); with two evenings
The

pieces of Aegean

(7 to 9) on

the 15th and 25th.

W.

M.

Flinders

Petrie.

70

SURVIVALS

OF

ANCIENT
lis

EGYPTIAN

IN

MODERN

DIALECT.

COMPARISON

between

Arabic-speaking

the spoken Arabic of Egypt and that of Syria, and other does not them countries, shows that the difference between

of pronunciation and accentuation of the words, but exist only in the mode that it is more profound and goes as far as the actual use and choice of the words, the phonetic values of the differentletters, and the grammatical expressions and the turn of the phrases. That the colloquial idiom of Syria is
to the classicallanguage, is undisputed, purer Arabic, and much nearer it be know interesting to causes the and of this difference, remembering would influence that the of the original classical Arabic has been similar in all countries-

much

A Syrian in speaking Arabic drawls the end of the words, accentuating the The final t which is last syllable. He often replaces the final nasal n by an m. always dropped in the idiom of Egypt, or softened into an aspirated h, or

fully by the Syrian. The final d replaced by a short d, is often pronounced is often changed into an accentuated / before the final t. Thus the {" fatha) in Egypt is pronounced ketaba ketabet in Syria. The letter g is always word softened in Syria, whereas in Upper Egypt or among
"
"

The Egypt. of Lower in Syria. Ya Jirjis ta'al hon But it is the colloqioial us in this article. speech of Egypt that concerns There is a distinct difference between the idiom of Upper and that of Lower Egypt. Again, there is a distinction between the Arabic of Alexandria and

it is only so (andin quite a different manner) Arabs, but it is hard in Cairo and almost the whole Ya Girgis ta'ala hena is uttered phrase of Egypt
"

in Egypt

"

that of Damietta, and between that of the Dakahlia and that of the Sharkia Provinces. In Cairo the dialect stands unique, and its pronunciation has been officially adopted of villages and From Cairo
throughout Egypt by the Government in the matter of
names

towns.

First in the dialect gradually changes as one goes south. in Bush, Ehnasiah, etc. ; second, Beni-Suef, where the idiom is most marked Between in Minia, particularly round about Mellawy and Ashmunen. this last in intonation difference lies Asiut that the though the and of characteristic only. The Girgah one Then so in Akhmim.
is most
comes

the Asuan dialect merges its characteristics lately, but in the outskirts of the province it resembles that of Beni-Suef. We wUl now consider those dialects in detail. The Alexandrian dialect is
the constant and almost invariable use of the first personal pronoun plural for the singular, where a person speaking, calls himself ue/ma instead of 'Ana. It must be remembered the population (not'i/ma as in Cairo)

in the whole province, and is particularly marked Lastly, as far as Esneh. that of Luxor and Keneh into Berberin. The Fayum dialect has lost most of

distinguished by

Survivals
has of Alexandria type possible. At and been

of Ancient Egyptian
always

in Modern

Dialect.

71

of the most cosmopolitan and heterogeneous day Italians Greeks the are present and predominant, Greek and Italian words. the colloquial dialect has been enriched by many The dialect of Damietta, towns down to and that of the neighbouring
the ha^
to

the peculiarity of placing a final accent on the words almost intonation, which it is very difficult to represent in writing. amounting It is also distinguished by the distinct pronunciation of the letter T. It often letter It is followed D. harder by a slight aspiration the them often replaces with Mansurah,
an

(siffle), which

makes

it more

like the English

"

"

ch

in

"

"

child

than the ordinary

simple T. The Sharkia

dialect much Egypt, resembles the rest of those of Lower the outskirts of Zagazig) parts of the province (in with the exception that in some fellahin pronounce the hard letter q to be. as it ought Again, the uneducated
".-,

the letters cJ, k and The

g, hard,

are

often softened into

^,

sh.

dialect of Cairo is, so to speak, the most refined of the colloquial It has peculiar characteristics which distinguish it from languages of Egypt. the rest of the idioms of Egypt, and is undoubtedly influenced in acquiring its present form
by
more

factors than

one.

Its most
"; wherever

salient characteristics

are

first, the total dropping

of the letter q

it exists and its replacement


,

by the hiatus

(hamza). The word Jliqdl" is uttered 'Al, qtrd, ^y is pronounced Second, 'ltd. the letter g is never softened into j but is always hard. There is In the choice of words there no special accentuation or intonation of the word. is, one might say, a special vocabulary for Cairo. Gutturals are as far as possible
are

eliminated and there their Italian form, are


Then,
as

hundreds

to

the

most

yet not important


:
"

of words which, if not in Upper Egypt. known group,


that

purely

European

in

of Upper

Egypt,

we

can

distinguish the following divisions

(a)The (J)The (c)The [d]The


The
most

Beni-Suef group. Minia group, including that of Asiut and Girga group.
Luxor
to Asuan

Ashmunen.

group.

characteristic of the firstgroup is the dropping of the terminal letter of the words, the drawling of the final vowel, and the vocalisation it exists, its right guttural pronunciation, and the wherever of the letter q,

important

j,

hardening Ehnasiah,
can

of the letter g,
in Bush,

These

characteristics The

are

found

in toto round

about

be shown

and in Beni-Suef. in writing, thus


"

best illustration of these peculiarities


*

qad whereas longer in Cairo the phrase


t_"

^-

is

j^\

jj

same

phrase would
j

be pronounced

'Ad be

eh

"

or

to take

*.=r

^^

cuU "diil!
"

li S\^\ would a.**-!

pronounced

in

Beni-Suef thus" Ya wad yahm'iii hat el qullah w' huttaha gam IE' whereas in hat el wUah Cairo it would be uttered hke this Ya wad yahmad w'huttaha gamby. Thus
or

the letter j is entirely dropped in Cairo and replaced by the % hiatus in Upper Egypt, whereas Alef hamzatum. It is replaced by the hard g,
_,

72

Survivals of Ancient Egyptian in Modem

Dialect.

it retains its real value in the Beni-Suef dialect. The letter g is hardened in In Beni-Suef it is also pronounced hard, but not Cairo as g in English good." invariably so. In Upper Egypt from Minia upwards it is always softened, but
"

in quite

which makes it different to the sound of the English j, peculiar manner it between the hard g and the soft j. One has to hear it uttered and yet stands before one can have an idea of its value.
a

In the Minia and Asiut exists, whereas


the letter g,

group
_

the letter q,

;,

is hardened something

to g wherever

it

is softened to ;'or

like it ; but it is

the letter D that takes the value of the English ; when

word.

Thus

q"lb, t_-Jj is pronounced

it is in the middle of the g"tt, but g*lb ; q"tt kJiis pronounced


name

"Jj^

is pronounced 'Idd*ll"c

; the Tjj'll*c

Kostandy

is uttered

; Gostanjy

the word Brostandy for Protestant is pronounced Brostanjy. The Girgah group has the peculiarity of replacing the dhy g and the letter g is pronounced dabal, and the word by d. Thus the word gabal, mountain,

g"wwa,

\,^

inside, is vocalised d"wwa.

The

name

Girgis is uttered Dirdis, but

the word

Tdd*ll*c,

jjjl

is always

pronounced

'Iji^ll^'c,

j^^

The

g being

into the spoken idiom of Upper Egypt receive is very Metathesis in the different districts of Egypt. different treatment Tsbitalia for hospital is pronounced Tstibalia. This in Upper Egypt. common The d^r^g^h is in Arabic happens words ; uttered garadah. sometimes purely The lettersu, j , letter d sometimes replaces the letter p ; lampa is said lamda.
Babur M might take or wabur stand for vapeur." and b, stand for the v. For Cairene Lower Egyptian it for a or a the place of p ; mantalon pantalon. letter p, but never for an so is sometimes possible to pronounce the European Upper Egyptian.
"

always softened in the manner Foreign words introduced

described above.

As regards the use of the vowels we find in certain cases that the round o is always preferred in the idiom of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, whereas in Middle Egypt the open a is always used instead. To take a very common Taboy." It is pronounced thus in Upper Egypt. word used as an exclamation,
"

In Lower
labay.

Egypt There
are

it is labouy, whereas in the Fayum and Beni-Suef it is always but time and space do not allow me to many other examples,

multiply them. Now, having

considered the particular characteristics of the different interesting to speculate about the dialects in the whole of Egypt, it becomes The facilities differences. factors causes these of communication of the and of intermixing of all the population of Egypt, present time, and the thorough ought
to help these

differences to disappear

to be fixed and seem in the vulgar Arabic of Egypt one is struck by the great number vocabulary used of words which can be easily traced to an Ancient Egyptian or Coptic origin.

appearance

they

entirely, whereas to all practical On examination of the enduring.

These words of Cairo and words which

are

commoner much At Lower Egypt.

can sometimes be literallytranslated into Coptic phrases used in Coptic any grammatical changes in the without its being necessary to make For instance, the different the members of phrase. relative position of the

are commonly in Upper Egypt

in the dialects of Upper Egypt than in those the end of this article I have collected a few Again, the expression and the turn of the used.

Survivals

of Ancient

Egyptian in Modern

Dialect.

73

curious

modem

correspondence vulgar Arabic

pronunciation

in the of the pronunciation of the different phonemes of the Sa'id with their old values in Coptic, such as the letter the of ciation exactly like the Coptic x, different to its pronun_,

in all Arabic-speaking countries. The value of a hard g given to .other the Arabic letter that happened the ancient when phenomenon j was the same Egyptian language was written in Greek letters to form the Coptic language ; the in the different play on, and the interchange of, the vowels is seen in different dialects dialects of the vulgar Arabic as the modern of Coptic, such as the prolongation of certain vowels in Upper Egypt when they are shortened
same or

in Cairo,

of certain terminal letters in both dialects,betraying the custom only single of doubling the vowels in Sahidic Coptic when they were in Bohairic otab Sahidic, or KAei Boh., and ka2, Sa. All Boh., and otaab

the dropping

this, in fact, induces

me

to believe in the influence of Coptic

Arabic rather than vice versa beUeve that it was through


n

on the spoken hold Those be to the case. as most authors authors the influence of Arabic, that the difference between
a

and

value, hieroglyphic A teeming

lost in Coptic, and that the vowels from demotic, and know whereas we
was

and

came

to have

the

same

even

from

the

Graeco-Roman

that these changes had already been effected in the language. of the Christian Arabic MSS. shows them to be glance through some with mistakes in their Arabic

of these mistakes shows that most from Coptic by a scribe who was not a master of Arabic. Masculine words are treated as feminine if they happen
gender in Coptic, e.g.,the word
so

grammar of them are

and syntax. A careful analysis really due to literal translation


to be of
a

feminine in

^^\

is feminine in Arabic
are

but masculine

Coptic, and
tpoT?!

it is thus treated.

There

two

words

but

the as mascuhne probably when These Coptic one was the masculine niexcup?. examples original word used be multiplied, and a reference to their existence is enough our to serve can
we

both translated by one and niextup?, often find the Arabic word treated

feminine

for evening in Coptic, word in Arabic ibdll ;

purpose. We

again remark quickly the differences between the different Coptic the point of view of similar differences in the modern vulgar dialects. The letter k was commonly changed to r in Sahidic. In the ancient
cein

dialects from

language
as

the letters c^a,

"""^ and
more

s="

and

their syllablesoften interchanged

in Bohairic. commonly occurred The drawhng of the vowels and their lengthened vocalisation is explained by their doubling in Sahidic when compared with Bohairic, and the dropping of the terminal vowel is similarly located. Lastly the preference for the open vowel a in the dialects of Middle Egypt, where we had to the closed one 0 is again shown days in the BBAA, own F., eBOA, S., and all these phenomena exist in our in Sahidic Coptic than modem vulgar dialects of Egypt. The fact mentioned of the hard k above of the occasional pronunciation Egypt as sh, is proved to have existed when the and the hard x in Lower in Arabic letters. Arabs transliterated the names of the towns in these localities
',

they do now Metathesis

in the Minia group

and

the Dakahlia

dialect

(see above).

Notice others.

XABAGGKi

written

now

i^Ui

and

xeBxnp

joio-i

xeBpH

\^

and

(
Some
"

74

)
Use.
played with

Egyptian Words remaining in Modern

6t"t),
^_____^

AA,

small stones."

At the present day there is a game of the Al,

small
0

pebbles by boys in the streets called the game

jfiuJ.

(^0

Im'4
or

"'^'"

Vj

word

commonly

used to babies with the

meaning

of painful
c~3
.

burning.
BO'^,
"
"

Jj ^ \J
good
THTAAB

out, outside," may


out."

be the origin of the colloquial

in the saying

Cjii,^go
in the

(_"ljJs,

language

of the

crews

of Nile boats, meaning

breeze.
"=r"

I'i^^

"

KA"

bone,"

"

kioc

to

bury,"

the word

fj^^

is often used in

the

sense

of death
,

and

burial. the present day

vp

3,t 'V.'^^*-*

is the

name

given to

ferry boat.

^^ (ji
"boat.
I

'

w^^jj

^^ *^^

name

given to

plank

of wood

used

as

small

[j]
AAAAAA

"l".Jm
O o

is the basket

in which (couffe)

dates

are

^^.
r\

carried.
We

"

(I

KiAfipi is used in speaking

"

of cultivation.

cultivated

our

field nabary,"
'

meaning
"

any

of the grains, wheat,


j^jc--^ a

barley

or

other.
an

^ 1|

Axn,

hour,"

certain length of time,

hour.

("'^^) ^ T ^K.
The
names

"

LiAOTUJU

eat," always

used to babies.

of

some

of the

fish

"S^

pni,

^\,

^yeAqai, ^yeABAi

jL'Li

1^

J
even

crm

TcoBe

"brick,"

ij^. This
The

word, meaning

brick, has passed

into Spanish.
"

"=r"g

X'VOA

vase,"

Zj.
"to

ordinary

drinking pot.
both

^^^k.J^'4
"

3to2n,

bum,"

CA8t cf.

used

as

c_"^

and

s^

meaning

hot

"

day.
"

[-g
amongst

J|,

2U)B,

work."
or

This

occurs
on

in small songs and


the Nile,
i"

in appeals, etc.,
or (_"yi"" jy""
a

the fellahin

the boatmen

Jjiib (_-"y^; i-Jy*^


day, and

the work the first is sung when the second is a song of the wheat harvest.

becomes |^^' killing on

j^.yJ

hot

Survivals

of Ancient
i"iUsi^r
,

Egyptian in Modern
the

Dialect.

75

"

xoq,

xAqxeq,

cold,"
orxAi,

or

noun

lk". meaning
,

rigour, chill. when crying for

^i^.^^ |,
help,
can ; ^_y^^ o(je
"

"to

be safe"

or

"well,"

is used

hear the word

almost any

day in the streets.

2AAtou,
"

A65^,

for cheese. cheese," *j!U. is the Upper Egyptian name in tedking of sugar cane straw," ; it is always counted ,ji.jj
,

by

the

libshah.
"

AiBAKi,

cord," amongst
"

the rigging of

boat
,

on

^[\
wheat,
etc.

^OTM6,

barn, storehouse,"

"Uj-i

^UJ. large storehouse for cotton,

the Nile,

"

"

uApHc,
or

south," that
comes

fj^j\^,
from

southern," when

talking of the wind for boats,

anything
UHTeuc,

the south.

fjt,.^s.c ,

anything
a

cooked
common

in the

oven

by

continuous

fire. There

is the

^^^-cs^

Jys
,

beans,
,

very

dish. beans, something


a

necorpio,

i^Usj another yjlwlill,


"

kind

of cooked

like

puree.

^
one

\\,

two

poles in the forepart of

boat.

common word, "busybody," ^lxj.";,a very a great deal without doing anything. who talks and moves B., ^HHp, S. a common iytjJHp, expression in the language of women .Ixil, I am to be pitied," or trying to excite pity, when meaning

ueeicoc,

full of quickness,"

JoJ:"\
,

"

"

Dear

"

me,"

or

I have
"'

become
^P"^'

miserable."
B., S., epct)ei,

The
"

Coptic word temple,"


jyj

"

means

wonder."
common

'

^^'

n,

word

in Upper

Egypt

TepeAeAi

^\ji
,
"

for any old temple or chapel. in the expression ^\y

"

.dJU

meaning

he

is become

dotty,"

"

simpleton."
to dribble, to

TGATHAi,

drop,"

in

the expression

"

meanmg JJij;^L)l
-

my

nose

is running."

tt"
straw ;
jJ'
"

tt' ^worq,
for straw.
,

"basket,

"ujLi

measure

for hay

or

, net i__iju"-i

qtoci, qoTe,
T8eAic,

hatchet,"
a
.

"ti,y

(jwli towel.

the usual pick for field work.

xeueeAic,

LaLi^i

sticks in the mud also when


"

; the meaning

cry of boatmen is literally we


"

the Nile when their boat So have stuck in the mud."


on
"

they

call each
"

other to work, eeAe


,

ecoB

(_"^^4,,

come

to work."

^^,
The

to open

A.ioJ^

shenisha, a hole in the wall.


in

above list gives a few examples of the hundreds of words which are in the dialects of Egypt, and which have remained in the common common use language and could not be replaced by Arabic words. They do not exist,
are

nor

They

they understood, in other Arabic-speaking countries, such as Syria do not occur in the Arabic dictionary of the classiced language.

or

Algeria-

Geo.

p. G. Subhy.

( 76

ORACULAR

RESPONSES.

In Part I
" "

p. 31, there is an article on Monsieur A, Moret's Dieu," in which the following comment is made : In some decision human but was interference, did depend the not way upon eqviivalent to drawing lots for a reply."

(1920) of Ancient Un jugementde

Egypt,

In connection with this vexed question of the means by which the gods of the last article published by their wishes to men, ancient Egypt communicated the late Mons. Charles Legrain is of considerable interest.

published early in 1917 in the Bulletin de I'Institut Francais le d'Archeologie Orientale under the title Un miracle d'Ahmes sous a Abydos de Ramses It II." detailed in a that examination, rdgne consists of gifted
was
"

It

writer's best style, of the reliefand inscription of stela No. 43649 of the Cairo Museum d'entree, and is published with a plate. Shortly, the relief journal bark borne on the shoulders of eight represents the of the god-king Ahmes, the priest of Osiris Psar raises his priests, four to each pole, before which
" "

hands

Paari, true of voice," standing in the midst leads the company pole of the ark. The sacred with his hand extended to the nearer image is hidden from view by the usual embroidered curtains which are held together in front by a small kneeUng figure of a king.
reverence.

in

"

The text, which is given in fullwith Mons. Legrain's rendering of it,lacunae in brackets, shows that the scene represents the arrival of the sacred object,, the oracle of Nebpehtra, upon a plot of land, to decide a case of disputed possession. The translation given runs as follows: The year 14 second month of Shat day 25 in the reign of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt (RamsesII)day of the
"

Nebpehtra. oracle of) arrival of the priest Psar with the priest Jai to bring (the heard the He Psar The priest arrived on the fieldwhich belonged to (my) son. (acclamations ?) of the children of the people. The god was to establish (the god arrived, saying, it belongs to Psar the son of Mes,' and the god weighed down very heavily in the presence of the priest (ofthe king ?) Pehtinebra, the prophet Paari, the front priest Inoujabou, the (rear ?) priest Made by the priest, the rear priest Nakht, the rear priest Thotimes. Janofre, right

?). The

'

scribe, sculptor of the temple of Ramses II in the domain of Osiris Nebmehit." The critical words in the translation are those in italics,as they are Legrain's rendering bow
the head."
as

of the word

Hen

"^"

"

which

is usually translated

"

to

head,
much
was

followed by the determinative of a word is sometimes in fact the arm determinative alone is but not always ; shown above, more common, which led M. Brugsch to suggest that the will of the god

The

M. Legrain suggested very plausibly expressed by a gesture of the arm. in the significanceunder discussion^ it head determinative where occurs that the has been mechanically inserted by the scribe from association with the homo"

phonous

word

meaning

skull."

Oracular Responses.
M. Legrain

yy

pointed out that the image is hidden by the veiling curtains, by then, even held together the little figure. How supposing the Egyptians figures of this nature (of has were mechanical which no example able to make Another very been found)could the spectators see if the head nodded ? ever strong point he makes bark weighed down or
reason

became

is that unless his explanation is correct, namely that the heavier on one side than the other, there is no

of five of the bearers. apparent for the mention of the names But M. Legrain's suggestion is put out of the reach of refutation, practically, he furnishes of an by the singularly apt example almost identical marvel
" "

Egypt, having occurred in fact barely similarly attested in writing from modern before. The phenomenon one two months (if may call it so)is fairly well known to residents in Egypt, and in the case in point is connected with the burial of the

Sheikh el Said Yussef


white mosque The temple.

descendant

from the holy Sheikh Abu

stands on an eminence of unexcavated Arabic statement, dated November


on

Agag, whose ancient in the midst of Luxor earth 6th, 1916, describes how,

when the body borne by the Nile, the men

was the shoulders of three men passing a certain spot suddenly felt the bier^ weighing heavier upon them, and They put it down and after reciting a prayer, continued they could not walk on. This happened twice again during the progress to the under normal conditions.

burial.

of the three bearers are given as witnesses. ten or twelve years ago I saw an excited hurrying crowd passing leading to the one the streets main southern part of the native quarter of of along in to Cairo, and was the corpse was told reply my question that running." Similarly, I have seen a bier with a crowd collected round it in the middle of a The
names

About

"

field of clover, into which it had insisted upon going. If possible the body in so emphatically these rare circumstances is buried on the spot in which it seems to indicate its wish to be interred. But in this case the crowd of relatives,among doubt was the owner no of the fieldby that time, seemed to be waiting for whom
the all too conscious corpse to change its mind, and relax its determination to be buried in a spot so eminently and obviously undesirable for the purpose. It may be emphasised, a point which M. Legrain apparently did not seize
; perhaps the arm of the upon, that the determinative of the word Hen is an arm bearer or the priest so often represented placing his hand beneath the pole as he walks. ^ We may suppose that at least four signals could be registered,namely,

from

the front,
rear men.

rear,

left and right. facts


"

In this

case

the weight

is attested by the

four

To

"

refer such

called psychical or Legrain does no more

those related above to the similar phenomena this note needlessly long ; M. would spiritualistic, make
as

than allude to it. But it may be remarked that automatisms or statements could be quoted, which, in so far as they constitute messages large to be can a are with fact extent (their conformity referred and veridical, in doubtless as common that is)to telepathy. Bribery and corruption were as they are to-day, but it is, apparently, perfectly possible, if ancient Egypt feeling one may believe the reports of accredited scientificresearchers, that the

body
"

bier is in the form of an oblong box, Egyptian The modern The bier is carried on two poles attached to it. is placed.
The

in which
"

the sjvathed

feeling of additional
case

weight

would
thus

cause

the

bearers

to

give,"

Paari, in this the weight had

(see above), would


and normally

attest

it.

The

bearers would

and behave

the priest,
as

though

suddenly

increased.

7"

Oracular Responses.

due should be subconscious and take effect as though it were it to material causes, that to, or a telepathic should coincide with, and respond stimulus, unconsciously given, from some person present. We may, however, be sure that the priest Psar was exerting considerable psychic pressure, in the form of hope or prayer, on behalf of his family during the ordeal ! Ernest S. Thomas.

of weighing down

[There was

the

same

belief in Sparta,
"

as

to

divine

scourging of youths holding the wooden

by the altar of Artemis


statue,

the priestess stands

spju-e any young this wooden statue

man

which is generally Ught at all in his flogging, either on in the priestess' hand becomes heavy,

by weight. At the during the operation, by its smallness, but if the scourgers or account of his beauty rank, then by

intimation

and

no

complaint she makes F. P.] XVI."

of the scourgers and says it is so heavy

owing

to them."

longer easy to hold, and Pausanisis III,

79

NAWRUZ,

OR

THE

COPTIC

NEW

YEAR.

The

Nawruz,

or

the Coptic New

Year

as

it is called in English, is the day nth. Naw year.


"

of the

High

Nile, and fell this year on is from The word Nawruz

September
the Persian

new,"

and

Ruz

"

day,"

an

appropriate term

for the beginning

of

new

phrase should be used to signify a purely Egyptian known of itsintroduction into general use in Egypt. end of the fourteenth century, employs the word as the usual term for expressing this special festival. Previous to Maqrizi, the only Persian influence in Egypt
was

It is not clear why a Persian festival,nor is the exact date Maqrizi, writing towards the

in the sixth century, the other in the As these were held in of short duration, and as the invaders were seventh. likely from it is language be their detestation, that a not word would great adopted It would seem then that the word throughout the country for a national custom. during the two Persian invasions,
one

must

have

become

Cambyses, ancient
name

acclimatised during the Persian dominion which began with Persians Egypt. It is the actually ruled when possible that the in for the festival was like to its Persian supsound sufficiently

planter to make Such Egyptian.


or

it possible for the Persian word to supersede the original has, however, not yet been recognised in hieroglyphic a word

Coptic. The

Ashmoun Egypt. Cairo from


"

is traditionally very ancient. Maqrizi says that festival of Nawruz ben Noah instituted it in ben Qobtim ben Masr ben Befsar ben Ham
As
the first three
names are

it appears that the festival was


an

Ashmouneyn, those of towns Quft and universal in Egypt ; and that it was known
"

early period is indicated by the genealogy which takes the firstinstitution It would seem as far back as five generations after the Flood. probable then that the festival went back traditionally to prehistoric times. Maqrizi mentions three consecutive festivals of the Nile : C'est habituellele Khalig ; I'eau y penetre et monte jusqu'a une ment en Meson qu'on ouvre ecluse,
"

les terres situees au-dessous du niveau ce qu'on ait arrose elle s'arrete jusqu'a de I'eau arretee dans ce canal ; puis I'ecluse est ouverte le jourde Nourouz et I'eau s'etend jusqu'a une ou encore arretee autre ecluse pour permettre elle est
ou

d'arroser les terrains situes en contre-bas de son niveau. Cette seconde ecluse de la fete de Salib, dix-sept jours ; est ouverte a son tour le jour apres le Nourouz I'eau gagne une troisieme barriere ou elle est d'irriguer les terres situees au-dessous de son barriere etant ouverte, dans la mer."i se jette
I'eau
encore

va plus loin arroser Maqrizi does not give the interval of time between the firstand second festival, but the date of the third discloses an interesting fact. falls always on the first of the month Nawruz of Thoth, and in ancient times the festival of Uag, one the seventeenth of that month was of the chief of the

arretee pour permettre niveau ; enfin, cette derniere d'autres terres et finalement

Nile festivals, christianised later under


'

the

name

of the Id

es

Salib, the Feast ol

Maqrizi, Pt. I, ch. i6, p. 159, Bouriant's

translation.

8o the Cross.
a

Nawntz,

or

the Coptic New

Year.

It is generally supposed that it was on this festivalthat the sacrifice but Maqrizi^ the twelfth Paoni gives celebrated, girl of the month of is the month the Nile is (June ii)as the date of the sacrifice. Paoni when for lowest, to an its a cause time to the sacrifice at water appropriate rise. The modern in Cairo is too well celebration of the festival of the Nawruz
was

to need description ; the cutting of the Khalig, the processions, banquets have been described by all travellers. Klunzinger,* who was fireworks in and Egypt from 1863 to 1875, gives an interesting account of the Nawruz celebrations,

known

in Upper Egypt. He describes every littletown which he says took place in the mock kings who ruled their respective towns for three days, and on the third to death by fire; the royal insignia were burnt, but the day were condemned
does not appear to survive now, This custom unhurt. at least Copts It is the the it may that the west of side of river. not among possible Nawruz for, in as the occurs the hot month always yet be found on the east side ; in Upper Egypt few Europeans September, or the remain visit of villages at that time of year, therefore there is no one to record the customs, and this most
wearers

"

"

escaped

survival of the ceremonial death of the king has as yet been described, by only one observer. inadequately, very There is,however, another method of celebrating the Nawruz, which takes Neqadeh, town on littleCoptic Nile, in the the the the west side of of place at is Of this custom there no record in the accounts of mudiriyeh of Keneh. important is the only place which retains this ancient keeping the festival. By the kindness of Negib of and traditional method Effendi Baddar, omdeh of Neqadeh, I had the privilegeof witnessing the celebration at that town. In the early morning, from about half-past two until dawn, the inhabitants
travellers,for I
am

told that Neqadeh

women and children, Copts and Moslems, went down to one of the town, men, to fill come their pitchers of the four places on the river bank where the women The in family farm are came the watered. people groups, parents animals and The into knee-deep women the together. waded river stood and children and

in the water ; they then lifted water in their hands and drank nine times, with a or they dipped themselves nine times every three mouthfuls; pause between under the water with a pause between every three dips ; or they washed the face

The men every three washings. nine times with a pause between bank and performed their ablutions or drank the water in the same flung themselves into the stream big boys and young men and dipped nine times or had nine handfuls of water The children were
" "
"

sat

on

the

way
swam

few

about.

poured over Friends one heads by their their greeted mothers. another with the words is essentially The Nawruz Allah." haUal or Abu Nawruz whole ceremony
the women especially pray the whole time, either to obtain children or religious, on this for special blessings on their children, in the belief that prayers made in NUe is drinking or the the standing actually worshipper occasion, and when

particularly efficacious.* The faith of the people, made this ceremony that I have ever seen.
water,
are
"

reverence one

simplicity, the heartfelt of the most beautiful and touching


and

"
"

Ihii.. Pt. I, ch. 17, p. 164. C. B. Klunzinger, Upper Egypt, p. 184. I saw one woman remain stooping over
When she

Glasgow,
the water

praying.
garment,

had

and

then

came

finished, she beat the water 1 do not know the significance of her action. out.

1878. for a considerable time, evidently of her nine times with the corner

Nawruz,

or

the Coptic New

Year.

81

The

extreme

to it in Pharaonic

ceremony which two ancient festivals which have not been recognised hitherto. in the tomb of Antef-oker in the Xllth dynasty The graffito of Amen-em-het sniff the breeze out of the Netherworld and to drink water records his desire to
"

antiquity of this water festival is manifest from the allusions These allusions have not been understood, but the times. takes place at Neqadeh at High Nile makes it possible to identify

The expression, Water," the New the swirl of the New Water."' inundation drinking inundation, to the the the water must of and refers I have described such as above. allusion to a ceremony upon
In the Book

"

clearly be an

ofthe Dead

petitioned that the votary wind from the Netherworld


stream."^

and in funerary inscriptions the gods are frequently breathe (or the sweet breezes of the north may
"

smell) (khert-neter) and drink water

from

the eddy

of the

or entered and passed which the during the hours of the night, was anciently supposed to lie to the north further north among the islands of or still of Egypt, either in the Mediterranean Hence the idea that the north wind came the Aegean. out of the Netherworld. In most of such ancient the breathing or smelling of the north wind -prayers is usually coupled with the drinking from the eddy, and the modern custom shows festivals still commemorate both called that two these practices ; they are sun

Khert-neter,

the Netherworld,

through

alike. The the second as the Coptic New Year ; while in Arabic the firstin March is named Nawruz es sultani, the New Year, in New Year of God. Nawruz Allah, September, the the royal second, The Nawruz has yet another name, es sultani, the Coptic Easter Monday,
are

"

Coptic

"

festivals, and in English

firstis known

as

observed by Copts and the Coptic Easter Monday,

Mahomedans

Shem-en-Nessim, the beginning


name

(March 22nd), at of Barmahat of the period when the north wind begins to blow steadily. The Shem-en-Nessim, literally Smelling the Breeze," refers clearly to the
and
on

is celebrated
"

the I2th

custom

Nawruz

mentioned festivals

in the ancient funerary


are

prayers ; thus showing


are

that both

the

dating back Then,


as

at least to the Middle


now,

of early origin, and Kingdom. belonged

survivals of two

popular

festivals

and not to the priests ; they in in honour of untemples ; they were celebrated changing and not living for the the were they ; natural phenomena not of and and gods For these reasons they have remained not for the dead. almost unaltered for more than forty centuries, surviving changes of religion, government and, to a they
were

to the populace

in the open

great extent,

of

race.

M.

A. Murray.

hypnotic dance for curative purposes, the special words connected [Inthe Zar, or women's from its possible introduction from the are with the ceremony also of Persian origin, perhaps East by itinerantfortune-tellersin ancient times. H.F.P.]
"

'

Davies,

Tomb

p. ofAntefoker,
Dead, chapters
202,

28. LVI,
LXVIII,

"

Book

of the

XXXVIIIa,

CXXXVIa,

CLXIV,

CLXV;

Recueil des Travaux,

II

122,

IX

99, etc.

82

PERIODICALS.

Annates

du

Service des Antiquitds Tome XX,


1920.

de r ^gypte.

la mise en place d'un moulage du zodiaque de having supplied a cast of the zodiac, which from the temple of Denderah in 1822 by M. Saulnier, this was placed was removed in the position of the original,which is now in the Cabinet des Medailles of the Bibliotheque nationale at Paris. M. Baraize has restored the appearance of the
"

Baraize,
"

E.

Rapport

stir

Denddrah.

The French

Government

chamber

as

nearly

as

possible to what

it was

century

ago. This is
on
a

Daressy,

G.

"

d'un Bas-relief from the tomb

dcuyer de Ramses

III.

lintel in
"

at El Helleh opposite Esneh. of Pa-neter-uahem The deceased is shown standing, holding the strap of a horse ; he is entitled chief of the stable of the king," and nesut up er semt neb, royal messenger unto all lands." Quotations to specified countries. are given of the
"

the Cairo Museum

up

Les Statues ramessides d grosse perruque. These statues are described in three groups : (i) those those with two ensigns, one in each hand, (2) It had been those holding other attributes. with one ensign, (3) suggested that dynasty, Xllth by Ramessides. the these figures were the of and appropriated
"

Daressy,

G.

M. Daressy
some

all was

concludes that none of these were and though of the Middle Kingdom, III, yet there is no re-appropriation, and might be as early as Amenhetep probably made between Ramessu II and VI.

EngravLe scarahie du cceur de la grande prHresse Ast-tn-kheb. ings of this are pubhshed as a tail-pieceto the preface of Zoega's work on obelisks in 1797. It is stated to have been in the Borgia collection; but it is not in the
Daressy,

G.

"

Vatican catalogue, though it may be in the Naples museum, to which some of is There is no It described the Borgia objects as passed. of green porphyry. had been robbed peculiarity in the inscription,but it is strange that the mummy of the scarab before being placed in the pit at Deir el Bahri, and the scarab had for another burial, as was so often the case. not been renamed
These are dated Selected papyrifrom the archives ofZenon. from year 36 to the end of the reign of Philadelphos. After business notes about letters there are pigs and wheat, vines and goats, about the billetingof troops in Karia, and exemptions are claimed by Government in Eg"'pt for their officials

Edgar,

C. C.

"

friends, by direct request to the Boule and Demos Lefebure, should have for a volume of
a

of the city.

G.

"

Le

more

than
on

two

memoir

de Petosiris. This long article of 81 pages illustrations of sculpture if it is to be a substitute hope held out There is some this interesting structure. Tombeau
on
a

great publication, but

scale for which time and money

is wanting.

The

Annates

du

Service des Antiquites de

P^gypte.

83

is in the cemetery of Hermopolis, opposite El Bersheh, and is assigned to the dynasty. An outer middle of the fourth century B.C., the end of the XXXth leaf has or the court, palm columns stillstanding complete, and the pronaos, is Behind that the naos, them. a hall with four curtain walls between pillars tomb shaft. In front of the building is an altar, free-standing, with horns, of Asiatic origin (see last number, or triangular corners p. 55). The scenes that but were the the the clothshow sculptures old repeated, examples of ing Ufe from loose man the the time, the was a tunic to the copied of wearing around the tomb knees. The inscriptions refer to eight High Priests of Hermopolis in five generations, Seshu, Pef.nef.neit, Zed.tehuti.auf.onkh, Petosiris, Zed.tehuti.auf.onkh,

Zedher, Tehuti-rekh, and Petu-kem. The facade has scenes of offerings,with the king officiating, above a dado In the pronaos with Nile figures offering. Petosiris appears playing draughts. Petosiris. belong Workshops figured, to scenes the are all with coppersmiths, Some new forms gilders,gold weighing, perfumers, carpentry and basketwork. follow, be Scenes tools should carefully copied. of of agriculture and wine-making and the great group of Petosiris and liis wife receiving offerings from their
children, with sacrifices of cattle. The chapel or naos for Seshu the father, and Zad-tehuti-auf-onkh, was the brother, Petosiris. There beginning two are scenes, the of registers of with elder

father and brother before Osiris. There is a great funeral procession, after which the brother adores groups of divinities of nine different places. After this are nine cynocephali, who acclaim Ra in Duat ; the twelve hours are represented as
standing, alternately in red and in blue dress ; twelve uraei follow as is of two bulls of The next scene the divinities who lighten the darkness in Duat. Amen Osiris, following which is the judgment scene. each with a mummy, and There is an address of Petosiris to his brother about the beauty of the tomb, and
women

of 25 servants with offerings,and 28 more, and women, alternately men the latter sometimes carrying infants. The pit of the tomb is 26 feet deep, and leads to many chambers below, filled found the Among these was with broken fragments of rock and sarcophagi. magnificent lid of one of the three body-coffins of Petosiris, bearing long columns in coloured glass hieroglyphs, inlaid in the of inscription, entirely wrought It is brilliant the most ebony. example of glass work, like a fragment hitherto miique in the museum is the 41st chapter of The of Turin. subject The Book be Let us hope that this remarkable tomb the Dead. will soon
"
"

then

a row

of

copied

in full-sizefacsimile

(by dry squeeze), and

allowed to perish like the late tomb broken up by dealers.

published ; it must not be after at Gizeh, cleared in 1907, and soon

or Thai ; the stilesde Bubastis. One is of a Thanure other of Ptah.kho, born of Nespamok and Bast.renen, with brothers Ta pesh.her, Onkh set.her, Nuty her, Ta khred.bast, and Ta da nut.

Daressy,

G.

"

Deux

This group of the close of the is supposed to be an found. The inscription accidentally appropriation of the Bubastite age ; it records the general, chief of archers, chief of the serfs of Ra, prophet of Sepdu, Sa.uas ; his wife Onkhs.mut, son Her, and daughter Thent.amen.

Daressy,

G.

"

Un

groupe de Saftel Henneh.

XVIIIth

dynasty

was

84 Daressy, G.

Annates

du

Service des Antiquitis de VEgypte.


en

dynasty. the XlXth son in Nubia, overseer Any."


nesut."

Abydos, of a stele from lands, the southern royal made of of the works of the temple of Amen, chief of the Maza land. At Abu Simbel Any is called royal son of Kush, of the people of Henen" The temple of Wady A Sebu'a was the Temple named of Amen."
"

Vn

"

fils royal

Nubie."
"

This is

It

was

by the
"

overseer

long discussion

on

Maza

Land

is of Vcilue for Nubian

geography.

of a tutor with a princess, Amen.meryt, evidently belongs to about the time of Tehutmes III ; at Deir el Bahri, this serves and as he is represented with his daughter Amen.meryt date figure. to the
"

Daressy,

G.

La

Amen.mdrit. princesse

figure from

Karnak,

E. La ddcouverleet I'inventaire du tombeau de Sen.nezem. This account, in is here Spanish in 1887, Signer Toda was translated by M. Daressy. published one of a party taken by M. Maspero on his voyage of inspection in 1886. The found by a native, and at once After 35 years tomb was searched by Maspero. tions. the French Institute is stated to be intending to publish the scenes and inscripToDA,
"

contained 9 bodies in coffins,and 11 others laid on the sand. The latter all broke up in moving, and only the heads were preserved. The Maspero's boat. to bodies in coffins and all the contents of the tomb were carried
The tomb

Ushabtis of 13 differentpersons were in the tomb. found, and a set of instruments, measure, wood were

More

than 40 boxes of painted

{Tools squares and plummet and Weapons,XLVII). This magnificent set of tomb furniture has been scattered in the Cairo Museum, and many pieces were sold to the collections of America Altogether are 26 names recorded from this tomb : Sen.nezem, and Europe.
"

Ya.nefer.tha, Kho.bekhent,
Khensu, Hetepu, Tamokt, Rusu, Ra.mes, Ramo,

Satha, Bun.khetef, Pa.kharu, Ra.hetep On.hetep, Ra.nekhu,


Taau, Ramo, Ta.osh Tutua,

or

Pa.ra.hetep,
Mesu, Taau,

Aru.nefer, Ta.aosh.sent, Tayua,


.
.

Thara,

.,

Hent.urt.

Daressy,
man and woman fan-bearer, over

G.

"

Un

groupede

statues de Tell el Yahoudieh.

Two

figures of
was

staff bearing

standing, roughly cut, of the Ramesside the lands of the south, Piaay ; his wife was head. ram's

age. Tauser.

He

He

royal holds a

L'animal Sdthien a tete d'dne. The writer had previously Set Set appears with that the an animal was proposed arbitrary combination. in Now head Xllth dynasty and Roman the ass's a coffin of Nesi. an times. one amen, of the priests of Amen, shows the sun-bark drawn by three jackals
"

Daressy,

G.

and three animals with


Daressy,
area

ass's

heads.

G.

"

Fragments

Memphites. These have been found in the temple


"

the village and the colossus. They are : (i)a black granite figure II in many pieces ; (2)block of limestone with his cartouche ; of Ramessu block (3)another with part of a Ptah figure ; (4)part of an alabaster base of History, III, 37, after a column, with the name of Ramessu.user.pehti {Student's

between

No.

23); (5)two
Neferatmu,

figure of his son, and

chapel of Sekhmet built by Sheshenq II, with a the High priest Takerat ; (6)a block naming a priestess of Mut Bast.au.seonkh ; {7)a sandstone door-jamb of Amasis.
a

blocks from

Revue Daressy,

NouvelU Egyptologique,

Sdrie.

85

L'ivhhi de Sais et Naucratis. In the Coptic liststhe bishopric Sais is to be Sa and Satf it is proposed that Satf Sa is Sais, and now stated of in Coptic would be an easy corruption of Gaif, the modern name of Naukratis.
"

G.

Daressy,

G.

"

Un

de Sarcophage

MMamond.

This belonged
"

to Her.pa.ast,

Bor is the [The name otherwise Borsha, son of Hetabu and Tharden or Tarudet. ; thus Baalisha, usual Baal, and Sha is a divine name my lord is Sha," is parallel is to Elisha, Sha."] my god
"

Selectedpapyrifrom the archives ofZenon. Among these we the currency difficulties.Zenon owed 400 drachmae, payable in on get a copper ; but he gave 400 in gold as security. After that the receivers refused to exchange it. 400 of gold was equal to 416 in silver,and that was equal to 460 in copper. Another papyrus on exchange raises further difficulties, yet unsolved.
Edgar,
"

C. C.

light

Elsewhere

being paid both by the debtor the risk of the Government and his surety, and you know well that it is not easy to recover money from the Treasury." Other affairs about goats and pigs and bees wait to be dealt with there
was
"

as

whole

view

of rustic life.
"

Lefebvre, G. Textes du tomheau de Petosiris. The piece of coffin in Turin, inlaid with coloured glass, is here compared in its text with that of Petosiris. It belonged to a son of Seshu and Nefer.renpit, and was probably taken from the tomb of Petosiris. The texts published here refer to the funeral ceremonies.
Lefebvre,

G.

"

Le

dieu "Upav

d'"gypte. The god

Hero

on

horseback
a

is

shown on two steles of late Ptolemaic age published here. The lintel of of Hero has been found at Theadelphia ; two frescoes from the Fayum

temple
and
a

lead amulet from Alexandria also refer to Hero. The connection of the god's Subattos Sopd, his epithet with and of position with Atmu, are discussed. Lefebvre, G.
"

Inscription grecque du Deir-el-Abyad.


the

This is

on

the inner Caesarios,

face of
son

lintel: "To

of Candidianos, Perdrizet,

the eternal memory founder."

of the very illustriouscount

Asiles An asylum decree of asilesRemains. grdco-dgyptiens, XI is here discussed, and its relation to Christian rights of asylum. The Ptolemaic right of asylum extended to 50 cubits around. The churches of Gaul had the asylum 60 paces round large churches, 30 paces around the small.
"

p.

Ptolemy

Revue
We have

Egyptologique, Nouvelle
to welcome

Serie, Tome

I, 191 9.

in years' silence a revival of this journal, hands and with a new It is in two yearly parts, called Fascicule I and 2 and Fascicule 3 and 4, although each part has no division in it. The dated January,1920, appears in 1921. The scope of the articles is mainly part after many different manner.

philological and
Moret,

Graeco-Roman.

These
women,

la collectiondu comte de Saint-Ferriol. Stele of two were mostly given to the museum of Grenoble in 1916. (i) Uotn and Nebent, with brief listof offerings, fully discussed here. An F 3 a.
"

Monuments

de dgyptiens

86

Revue

Nouvelle SMe. Egyptologique,

interesting addition to the few works of the Ilird dynasty. (2)A seated figure I, and servant of Amenhetep, Tehutmes director of the prophets of of who was the statue of Men.kheper.ra and of the statue of Men.kheper.ka.ra, the two forms of Tehutmes
simultaneous. The figure was
to the god.

III.

It is remarkable that both forms are stated together, as if The parents of Amenhetep Nezem.ast.Her were and Tua.Her. Amen in daily to benefit the the temple of placed receive of offerings

Samenkht,

The main of the god and heard the oracles, showing that this method of consulting the gods dynasty. was (4)Stele of Hemert, prince, eyes already in use in the XVIIIth and ears of the king, and architect,adoring a sphinx on a pedestal, approached by
a cistern of making fully Akita, translated. gold-mine of published and

of the vizier User and wife Thuau adored by their son Oamtu Taoamtu by their son Merymaot. the and vizier and wife adored interestis that User weis one of the priestly porters who bore the image

(3)Stele

steps. The Uzat, and orb with Ramessu II, the well-known account

one

wing,

above.

(5)Stele
on

of the road to the

of Kuban

Socle. This note discusses the rendering of mnw as depth, and proposes that it is the name a socket or pedestal for of the object, bases in the Book of the a figure. This agrees with menu as apparently Dead, c. 172.
"

Sottas, H.

"

Mnw

"

"

"

d Tehneh. G., et Moret, A. Un nouvel acte de fondation The for son tomb of Nek-onkh, of Heta and Debet, contains a deed of endowment All his food-rents ka are a servants, offerings. made with children company of
"

Lefebvre,

table of offerings at the festivals, under the hand" Em-ra-f-onkh, son, the constituted kherp or chief. of eldest who was Thus, at the beginning of the Vth dynasty, in allthat concerned family matters there was a head of the family with the titleof kherp. This gives the meaning which
to provide

from

for the

"

probably

to the bearing of the

kherpsceptre in

the hand.

Une statue d'Osiris de la XXIII' dynastie. This grey in. figure, high, found Memphis, was 38 granite standing at and isin the collection Count de Blacas. The interest of of it lies in giving four generations of a family, is It names. XXVth the dynasty, as shown or early XXVIth with 28 probably of
de.
"

Blacas,

Louis

by the

names

of Amenardus

and Shapenapt.
A

ViTELLi, G. Ilnd
or

"

Trimetri Tragici.
a.d.,

papyrus
an

Ilird century Euripides.

appears to belong to

with 18 mutilated lines,of the tragedy earlierthan unknown

Jouguet, p.
senate, or curia,

"

Les BovXai

d la findu igyptiennes

III'

sihcle apresJ. C.
The
a reasons

was

and the system, at Oxyrhynkhos. RoussEL,

are

set up in each nome under Severus. here studied in fulldetail, mainly from

for this,

report of proceedings

P.

"

Les Sanctuaires

de Ddlos igyptiens

et

The remains d'^rdtrie.

of these shrines refer principally to the worship CoLLART, p.


"

of Sarapis.

L'Invocation d'Isis

un d'apres

papyrus d'Oxyrhynchos.
1916, pp. 40-3.

This

refers to the listalready analysed in Ancient

Egypt,

Revue

Agyptologique, Nouvelle

Se'rie.

87

A section of Notices et Bulletins contains an appraisement of the work of for Itsdy. Finally Revillout, English papyrology during the war, and the same books. come reviews of The seceaid part, called Fascicules 3-4, is of similar quality.
satirique." This is a fresh study of demotic fragment. The translation given is this obscure and much-debated free As to it reads like the the sense, expressly of all attempt at restoration. inconsequent passages of Petronius. most
"

Sottas, H.

Remarques

sur

le

"

Po^me

d I'originalSgyptien du terme sdmitique ddsignant I'Egypte. The source of the Arabic Magr, cuneiform Musur, and Hebrew is here sought. Miizn (adj.) The Persian is Mudrdya, and this is compared
"

Langlois,

p.

Essai

pour

remonier

Esdras, and 'Azrb 1 with the d inserted to strengthen zayn in Ezra Hasdrubal. It is thus suggested that the sad here has replaced a dental ; and Ta-mera as the this dental is deduced from the tera sign after the well-known
=

This dental influence is name of Egypt, pointing to a value approaching metra. in forms. thus proposed as the source Many Semitic the the tzaddi of cognate questions are discussed in illustration. Monuments de la collection du comte de Saint-Ferriol. dgyptiens 6, figure libation seated cross-legged, with with altar in front, in sandstone, of Nefer-renpet, mayor of the palace. 7, limestone stele of the chief XVIIIth dynasty, with his sister Then-asheru goldsmith Amenemhot, and six 8, limestone son stele of Nem-ptahmo, children. of Hat and Nub-nefert, sons
"

MoRET,

A.

Continued

and Nub-nefer. 9, limestone stele of Yrra and his sister limestone stele of Peda-ast, son of Arhapy 11, pieces and Tenat. III. 12, 13, fragments of statues. 14, fragment of sandstone reliefs of Tehutmes of limestone figure of a noble, Ameptah. 15, five pieces of the granite sarcophagus of the celebrated Amenhetep, son of Hapu ; another piece is in University College,

Renty,

User, Pupuy
10,

Yrrares.

London.

16, anthropoid coffinof Psemthek, son of Seba-rekhtu. 17, anthropoid Nehems-menth, son cofi"nof of That-unth and Tadathnebha. 18, lid of wooden Psemthek coffin of Ta-nekht-ne-tahat. (of 19-22, ushabtis, names and

16)

Psemthek-neb-pehti,

23, imitation of Khnem-nefer, daughter of Psemthek. vases of the chief goldsmith Nefer-heb-ef. 24, ushabti box of Ta-pa-khent and Rames. bronze Roman Anubis. An excursus 25, of of M. Perdrizet deals with dog origin of Anubis, the funerary and the heavenly Anubis, the or the jackal

bom

Hermanubis

and the Roman

forms.

26,

Karian stele,described by M. Autran.

Cavaignac, E. La Milice au VI' siicleet I'Empire acfu'menide. e'gyptienne This starts from the passage in Herodotos the Kalasires (II, recounting 164-8) The passage is concluded and Hermotybies, garrisons of the Delta and Thebaid. to have been drawn from some Ionian writer of the time of Amasis, and the
"

number

with of Kalasires is more exactly given in Her. II, 30, as 240,000 men, or Hermotybies, 6 acres or fiefs, 4,000 each, 160,000 400,000 military of about square miles. This was not, however, all in the Delta, as the writer assumes, with families and 400,000 men The area 2 millions of population. as of Egypt being i^ it formed) 11,342 square miles, with the Delta lakes and marshes (since (in 1880) fiefs were be Thus the nearly a about 13,000 square miles. would military F 4 troops in the Thebaid.
to

since there were taken serfs are

The

88

Revue

Nouvelle Egyptologique,

SMe.

that the land was held equally third of the land, in agreement with the statement in thirds by the military, the priests, and the civilians. This implies a total millions under population of about five or six millions. With this compare seven the Ptolemies, three in the decadence, five about 1880, and eleven millions under All the earUer estimates depend on the number British rule now. of servile The writer proceeds, population attached to the military, which is very uncertain. on stillvaguer ground, to take the tribute of Egypt to the Persians as not including any tax on the priests, and so to estimate the tax as 700 talents on two-thirds or one-third of the population, hence the tax as a didrachm per person.

poll tax in Palestine (Matt,xvii, 27). From this basis the whole population of the Persian empire is estimated by the tribute as 25 to 30 millions. Against this should, however, be set the fact that Egypt was one of the richest lands, and most regions could not yield a half or a This, by
the bye,
was

justthe

Roman

quarter of the rate of tax in Egypt.


reserve.

All this estimate must

be taken with much

Bell,

H. I.
"

Some

letters private ofthe


as

Roman of

period. This gives


more

text and

translation of four letters selected

examples

intimate and

personal

expression.
This is a long and of history from the XXVIIIth-XXXth criticalarticle dealing with all the sources discussion The the dynasties. concludes that in 405 Amyrtaios summary of II, and a prince Psambecame independent, but sent troops to aid Artaxerxes Cloche,
P.
"

La

Grece et

de I'^gypte J- C 405/4d 'iA'^l'^

metichos acted also in Persian interest. In 399 Naifaaurud I succeeded, who leaned on Sparta as against Persia (396).Hakar succeeded in 393 and warred in Persia a a littlebefore the death of 389-387, situation which ended with 381/0, II reigned in 380-379. Nekht-neb-ef had in from The to 381, and reigned 361. aggression of 379 usurpation Phamabazos and Iphikrates was in 374 or 373. Zeher reigned 361-359, and began plotting with the Asiatic satraps, seeking help in Sparta and Athens, and received Agesilaos and Chabrias about the end of 360. War broke out in Syria, 359, and

Hakar.

Psimut

and

Naifaaurud

begun

some

was

Zeher fled to the Great King. by the rebellion of Nekht-her-heb. for in the war Athens Thrace, 358. Greece on Chabrias returned to and acted checked

usurper in 358 by help of Agesilaus, who left at the beginning of winter, 358/7, and died. In 351 a Persian expedition was checked, crushed in 350. and this led to a revolt in Phoenicia and Cyprus, which was
Nekht-hor-heb conquered
a

Ochos began long preparations to attack Egypt, and in 344/3 got the neutrahty The war and Sparta, and the military help of Thebes and Argos. of Athens began in 342, and in that, or the beginning of 341, ended by the Persian reconAll of these dates accord with those given in the Student's quest of Egypt.
dynasty being a year earlier. The inversion History, except the rise of the XXXth of Nekht-nebef and Nekht-her-heb rests on the evidence of their building at El Khargeh. An

eulogy

on

Prof. Mahafiy, and reviews, complete

the number.

Vol. II. This is


Egyptian noticed,
as an

Gauthier,

H.

"

Le

dieu nubien Doudoun.

study of a god who often appears on the borders of The foreign gods are and deserves full consideration. mythology, Hathor of Punt, or Somali Land ; Bes from east the cow-goddess
important

Revue

Egyptologique, Nouvelle

Se'rie.

89

dynasties the Semitic Africa ; Neith of Libya ; and in the XVIIIth and XlXth Baal, Astarte, Reshef and Qadshu. From Nubia come the goddesses Anuqet and Thirteen various spellings of the name Satet, as well as Dudun. are quoted, in for the which are three entirely different signs for the firstsyllable, and as many These emphatically was show that the name entirely foreign, and had is for first Egyptian. There in the no vowel, which has been supplied root sign by transliterators in every form ; so, with our usual convention, it is better to second.
no

spell the

dynasty the king is In the pyramid texts of the Vlth of the south, coming from the land of the bow, promised the perfume of Dedun like the ur, great, and Nubia. The bird determinative after the name seems or
name

Dedun.

so equal to the later epithet the neter oa, great god ; but it is suggested that this is really the sign of being a bird-god, like the falcon-Horus, as and only a in It Upper Egypt as zuzun or susun. there is quoted a bird named coincidence isremarkable that three other southern gods, Khas, Aahes and Sopdu are associated
"
"

in providing the ladder by which the king is to ascend into heaven. Ethiopian ; may it not be derived as if this idea of the ladder was Punt Deir el Bahari, from the ladder by which the huts of were entered (Naville, LXX, LXIX, LXXI) ? This would relieve the Egyptian belieffrom itsabsurdity ;

with Dedun This looks

the ladder

was

simply

the

means normal identified with

of access Rahes or

dwelling, and to enter heaven the In another passage, Pepy is were naturally quoted. Ahes, god of the south land (Sudan), Dedun god of the
means

of entering

bow

land

(Nubia) and

Sopdu. Senusert in the small temple to Dedun This obscure king Ugaf of the cataract. In the XVIIIth beloved by Dedun." III built
"

In the Middle

Kingdom

fort of Semnah, along with Khnumu Ukewise of the Xlllth dynasty (?) dynasty
Tehutmes him

was

III carried on the worship of Dedun in Nubia, and the god Anti Mentiu, the the promises control of and nomads of the eastern and The offerings of corn western desert, as a reward for building his temple. and III. by III, by Tehutmes Senusert were cattle originally established renewed
were on the new the second season of the year year (iThoth), bow-land. Nubia Antiu the the the (i Tybi), (21 Pharmuthi), slaughter of of the feast of queen Merseger called and the third season of the year (iPakhons), is feast of chaining the desert folk," and the feast of Senusert III. Dedun first represented in Egypt at Deir el Bahri, but only as belonging to southern
"

The

feasts there

scenes.

Sety I incorporated
between
Ptah
more

this god
Horus

Kamak,

and

selection is the

marked. is
never

deities at group of purely Egyptian is the only foreign god there, this ; as Dedun Although Ramessu II built so many temples in
a

in

Nubia, yet Dedun

represented in them ; nor did the earlier Ethiopian Tirhaqa revived his worship at Napata and Kamak, him. conquerors ever name Dedun Later the kings of Ethiopia, Atlanarsa and typifies the south. where Aspalta, continued the adoration of Dedun, who is called the god of Kush. is figured at Philae, by Nekht-nebef and by Ptolemy VII and his successors. There seems to have been a triad at Philae As the name was of Ari-hems-nefer, Tehuti and Dedun. evidently foreign, it seems useless to try to deduce for it an Egyptian meaning ; nor is a mixed origin.
,

In the Graeco-Roman

age Dedun

Tod, young (Nubian), and Gauthier firmly the

hun,

youth

less (Egyptian), of Dedun


to

rejects

assimilation

unsatisfactory. Ptah-Tanen, which

M.
he

be identified with Dedun ; yet there is the form ].'" \ "^ which duplicates the dental. Tanen is said to bring the inundation from Elephantine,

declares cannot

^^

and he

was

creator-god, like Dedun,

being linked with Khnumu.

There

is thus

"go

Revue

Agyptologique, Nouvelle

Sirie.

to leave an open question whether Tatnen was not a enough resemblance still form of Dedun. a The legend is that he was Another question is raised about Tithonos. Eos her Ethiopia, to beloved by by where (dawn)and carried Trojanprince, Tithonos in the time of they had two children, Emathion and Memnon.

Aristophanes Tithonokomon Tithon

is used for a very old man states ; and Hesychios (IVthcentvu^y) Thus body, but be black hair." race to over a all the with white
"

is strongly connected with Ethiopia ; yet that is but vague in position, There are thus several questions only the south of Phoenicia. and might mean seem open to further evidence. remaining about this god Dedun, which still Gardiner, A. H.
"

discusses the two


"

in Egyptian. This formations certain "participial imperfect as an phrase hessu-neb-f, renderings of the same
"

On

(being) praised of his lord," passive participle one his lord praises." These being the same, one whom

or

relative form the result is that we


as

the

"

in classifying the Egyptian separate verb-form under two clearly wrong has been over-elaborated by the moderns. In short, the grammar heads." that the transformation of After many points which are raised, it is concluded
are
"

the

passive participle into the relative form is discussed the passive


*L=^

takes

place by

gradual

stages."

Next
_/u.

of

(U.

^\
like
"

; and

the conclusion is that having

must
"

have
o

meant
"

something

the fact of his not

done," and
MoNTET,

(u. -"2"-

(](] the fact of there

not having been done."

cussion des Mdmoires de Sinouhit. This disquelques passages to a an offspring of the Setiu of some passages leads to amending be is to a Setiu." The khet thrower of the boomerang stated not of the sign the contrary, it has clearly the branch, but the iron of a harpoon ; on branching of twigs, and is used for wood and not for metal. Other remarks on
p.
"

Sur

"

"

"

"

"

the products of Syria

are

inconclusive.

CoLLiNET,

P.

siMe.

The
our

Le P. Berol. gr. inv. no. 2745 et la evidence of date points to 468-477


"

par rescritau procedure

completes

knowledge

a.d., and the papyrus imperial to by a judge. the of procediure rescript

The previous tinuation (see part of this memoir above)was devoted to the chronology ; in this conA long enquiry detail of the Greek connections are set out. the political

CLOCHfe, P.

"

La Grice et

de d l'"gypte avant J. C. 405/4 342/1

the Persian seizure of the Mendesian mouth, the desire of Iphikrates to while it was undefended, the timidity of Pharnabazos, push on to Memphis failure by delaying tillthe rise of the Nile. for the reinforcements, and waiting In all this M. Clochd does not point the close parallel to the invasion by Louis IX :

is

on

to push on he landed at Damietta, only 20 miles difference; his one chance was but he to Cairo before the Nile rose, waited months to collect troops, while more the Saracens rapidly recovered, and planned resistance. Pharnabazos,

fortunate than Louis, had

an

open

retreat, and

total wreck, by keeping command of the sea. The final he had been attacking. his betrayal, and flight to the Persians whom fall of assault by the Persians under Ochos is studied at great length, and the futile is the Greek policy seen to be more Nowhere the Egyptian kingdom.

could regain Sjnria without a The war of Zeher is detailed,

Zeitschrift fiirAegyptische Sprache.


and useless than

91

in the alternate support of Egypt and of Persia. Egypt was to any Greek interest, and if the Greek assistance had been given no menace continuously to Egypt, the Persians would have been defeated and reduced long before Alexander.
Les nouvelles eludes sur le Calendrier ptoUmatque. This is a the study of relation of the Egj^tian and Greek calendars in the latter part of the by the Zeno papyri. The relations are greatly reign of Philadelphos, as shown intercalation, by use the the complicated uncertainty of and of a fiscal and a

Lesquier,

J.
"

Much still doubtful, as the uncertainties and year-system. remains A biennial intercalary lunar factors the the unknown exceed scope of material. between so was that the year alternated month used, 354 and 384 days, averaging regnal

have

the 4 days' surplus was eliminated is not stated. It would intercalary month needed suppressing the every 9 years. But there is no trace of this rectification in the table of connections, and without this the lunar therefore 369. months would

How

slip through

all the series in 94 years.

fiirAegyptische Sprache,LI Zeitschrift


Spiegelberg, publishes
some

11

1 9 1 6.

W.

"

der Briefe
were

21,

Dynastie

aus

El-Hibe.

Dr.
more

Spiegelberg
than

twenty which no years ago. The papyri are fragmentary and there was provenance, but from internal evidence he finds that they come from El Hibeh, about 13 km. north The papyri consist chiefly of letters,which, by the names, must of Tehneh.
papyri

bought

together at Luxor

be dated to the XXIst dynasty. The principal correspondent is a divine father The Temple-scribe, Hor-pen-ese letters are from him. Two and of the Camp. first letter refers to soldiers, the second to horses ; both begin with flowery
prayers for the welfare of the recipient. In one of the letters is made to Hor-pen-ese, the well-known addressed mention of 'Masaherte, High-priest ; he was from illness hands of the help the at suffering and sought Another fragment god of El Hibeh. alludes to Isi-em-kheb and Pasebkhanu. salutations and

Unfortunately

the

papyri

are

too

fragmentary
were

to

translate

completely,

but

sufficient remains to show Spiegelberg publishes the

that the letters

fragments

in the

hope

chiefly officialcorrespondence. that some, at least, of the

missing portions may Spiegelberg,


W.
"

yet be found Der

in other collections.

writing On of this papyrus is of the Ptolemaic period, about the second century B.C. Hen-naw, the recto are the remains of a story concerning a magician named son Fortunately an almost complete version of Hor, and two birds of heaven. is In this story the magician's on the story preserved, written potsherd. "of is Hi-Hor, and he possessed two birds. On one occasion, when the birds name
were

demotische

Papyrus

Heidelberg

736.

The

him
they

absent, he and induced


then

was

seized and

him

to write out

carried to Pharaoh he was undoubtedly released and lived happy ever after. The hymn to Isis, apparently to be sung at a religious procession. "a

The birds found at Elephantine. his history on two rolls of papyrus, which in his palace. The end of the story is lost, but imprisoned
verso

contains

Sethe,

K.

"

Die historischeBedeutung
was

des

Phild-Dekrets

aus

der Zeit des


to two

Ptolemaios Epiphanes. Revillout

the first to call attention

kings

92

Zeitschrift fur AegyptischeSprache.

who reigned in the South for twenty years, and he placed the end of this short Sethe recounts dynasty in the nineteenth regnal year of Ptolemy Epiphanes. further details for discovery Revillout's, this all the proofs and adds some of which throw light on this obscure period. The two kings were called respectively and Anchmachis, the latter was called Amnos, Harmachis Sethe shows that the general who overthrew Thebes, and that the final battle took place near he Nubian kings two were that these also proves of origin. and
and

Sethe,
aus

Zwei bisher iiberseheneNachrichten iiher Kunstwerke aus Kupfer Geschichte. (i)Sethe makes den dltesten Zeiten der dgyptischen the very
K.
"

interesting suggestion that the entry on the Palermo Stone, which he, in common Birth of Kha-Sekhemui," with all other scholars, has read should have an in the inscription under The two signs which occur entirely different meaning. is the sign for metal, The first been have hitherto mes the word neglected.
"

The second is divided from the first which must be read with the word mes. by a wide space, and is the hieroglyph A, which in its root meaning reads High." Sethe brings together instances to show that A followed by a king's
"

name as mes

refers to
"

buUding
"

or

the phrase fashioning as

is determined

High [statue called]

and is Kha-Sekhemui."

some work of art, in this case by the picture of the statue. birth," the result is not as
"

"

a standing statue, Reading the word A metal-fashioned

Pepy

I as proof that the Egyptians were by the Vlth dynasty. (2)In the reign of Nefer-ar-ka-Ra, of the Vth
records that various cubits in copper and and of the
same

Sethe cites the great copper statue of masters of the art of metal working, dynasty, the Palermo

Stone

were objects a

made in electrum, and also an obelisk of eight Morning-boat metal and Evening-boat in the same solar

size.

Sethe,
"

K.

"

Ein

agypiisches

Denkmal

des Alten Reichs

von

der Insel Kythera


"

mit dem Namen

white in island Cerigo was in found the was published in of and marble excavations inscribed on it have the Journal of Hellenic Studies, XVII, 349. The signs Sethe, Cretan or been supposed to be Mycenaean alphabetic characters."
"

des Sonnenheiligtums des Kdnigs

A Userkef.

little bowl in

however, identifies them at


was

once

as

the

name

of Userkaf

's

sun-sanctuary

Q"^"

built, according to the Palermo Stone, in the fifth or sixth year of which the court that king. Sethe now reads the name of the sanctuary as nehen Ra, being same Ra," as the c3z". the " sign of offeringsof
"

Steindorff,

G.

"

Die blaue Kdnigskrone.

In the Old and

Middle Kingdoms

the white and red lappets, are all worn


"

the double crown, and the striped head-dress with Kingdom that by the kings, but it is not until the New far it, as first to wear The the khepersh the so-called war-helmet appears. Kames, but it became the usual head-dress of the know at present, was as we
crowns,
"

peace. The form is well known ; it is represented as Steindorff holds to covered with rings or discs, and is uniformly coloured blue. the opinion that it is,as has always been supposed, a head-dress of leather with of hairmetal rings. Borchardt, however, holds that it is a special method dressing, and that the rings are a stylised representation of curls, and quotes in the Temple of Abydos showing Sety I wearing what might be a wig a relief Pharaoh, either in
war
or
"

Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache.


it is very similar to the style of chignon with rings like the khepersh.Borchardt and gods is often painted dark blue, the brings forward
a

93
wore
"

that

Queen

Nefert-ythi

covered

deal of evidence khepersh wa#- considered, by the Egyptians themselves, to be form of hairdressing, as it is usually mentioned a with the

good

also points out that the hair of kings same Steindorff colour as the khepersh. from literary sources, showing that the
a crown

crowns

and not of Upper

Steindorff and with the atef-crown. with the double crown, Dendereh a that at procession of gods and goddesses carry crowns also points out is the fifth,coming after the white and red crowns as offerings,and the khepersh is discussed, Semitic scholars The origin of the word khepersh and before the and Lower Egypt,

atef.

such

as

Max

MiiUer

word
are

introduced

inclining to the belief that it is a foreign and Zimmern from Syria or Assyria. Steindorff thinks that their derivations

possible but not probable, and points out that the word is always spelt out in the orthography of Egyptian words and not in the special forms reserved If, therefore, the word was itselfwas for foreign words. not foreign, the crown
foreign either. It is not found before the New Kingdom, but, as Steindorff Pharaohs knowledge the the our of representations of of early periods is says, in the New Kingdom the royal statue very seldom confined to statues, and even
not
wears

almost entirely in reliefsand paintings, where the king is shown offering in the Temple, taking part in great ceremonies, likely that a foreign or in company with his wife and children. It hardly seems into introduced be head-dress, newly so completely the country, should adopted ; it it is more head-dress, was an that use or the probable ancient of which more
crown

the blue

; it is represented

less superseded the other crowns for ordinary wear in the New Kingdom. Another the outline of which possibilityis that it is the leather case for the red crown, fit it. would Texts, four groups of texts which contain a reference to an ancient funerary ritual.* In these the is called upon to raise himself from his left side and to lie upon his dead man in order to receive certain offerings ; he is called right, my father," and the thy son, thy heir." As the records of excavators reciter speaks of himself as
"

RuscH,

A.

Der Tote im Grabe. There

are,

in the Pyramid

"

"

show,

the usual position of the body is facing west with the head to the south ; from the east ; the cemetery being in the western desert, the offerer would come the dead of food
man

and

accompanies Another son-text is obviously though it also contains a reference to the son. Osirian ; this Rusch considers to be later. He states the chronological position thus :
"

is therefore exhorted to turn over in order to receive the offering Rusch drink. suggests that the harvest text, which sometimes the exhortation, is a later addition to the more primitive form,

1.

The
.

son

as

the ritual priest for the father

(theson

speaks in the first

person)
living king brings harvest offerings at certain festivalsto his dead father (the is spoken of in the third son person). Horus as the nd-U of his father (the son 3. again spoken of in the third
2.

The

person).
Kees, H.
"

Ein Onkel

? Borchardt von Heliopolis Amenophis'IV Hoherpriester


was

has suggested that Aanen, the brother of Queen Tyi, who at Thebes, was of Amon also High-priest of Heliopolis, on

second

account

prophet of his title

4
"

Zeitschrift far AegyptischeSprache.

Greatest of seers." Kees calls attention to the fact that even as early as the beginning of the XVIIIth dynasty the titlewas no longer confined to HeUopolis, but is found in Thebes. The Ra-cult with its priestly title was established chiefly Hermonthis but Thebes, High-priests bore at also at where several of Amon Greatest of seers." the title of
"

Ember,
a

A.

"

Kindred
a

Words. Semito-Egyptian

This (New Series.)

series,of which continuation of It is an with kindred words in Arabic and Hebrew. to the study of the ancient Egyptian language, and contains many interesting the ka, food," that the suggestion points, amongst others word and ka, tective prointimately connected with the Semitic word meaning genius, double," are
"
" "

the last is in Vol. LI.

paper is It is a listof words important contribution

to sustain, provide," and

with the modem

Arabic

"

to guard, protect."

Snh probably refers to the musical instrument in the temple : from the determinative of metal, the word Snb, it is possibly a trumpet. which accompanies interpreter of hieroglyphs, is regaining his lost Horapollo, as an 2. credit. He clearly knew the late forms of the writing, and many of his statements are therefore very illuminating for students of the late period. A title of Hathor in late times is Mistress of sixteen. Horapollo says that the word for joy was
"

Spiegelberg,
a

W.

Varia.

i.

The title ddtw

playing of

written with the numeral sixteen ; therefore the titlereads Mistress ofjoy. 3. In discussing a new legend of the birth of Horus, Spiegelberg disregards

the facts of anthropology. This makes some of his remarks rather out of date, is interesting. the the though greater part of article to be angry," is from the Egyptian 4. The derivation of the Coptic oot,
"

which
a

by

analogy

with

other Coptic

derivatives must

have

been

triliteral verb
C

the two *^ *^c:=:",


/!"/"

alephs coalescing. But

the spelling of

and similar words show

the triliteral root.

firstpointed out that the inner rooms of houses, temples, and decorated to represent the world, with the sky above, and even were the earth underfoot. Visitors to the temples wrote in their graffiti that they like a heaven within, in which Ra rose." The two pylons found the temple

5. Maspero of tombs,

"

the who raise the God of Edfu (i.e., called Isis and Nephthys, in In horizon." he a temple the Sun-god) orientated east and west, when shines the sun could be seen rising between the pylons, which would be considered as

of Edfu

"

are

the entry of the god into his heaven

in the temple. of

6. Brugsch held
a

has given the meaning

1\
^

^^

*-^^ reliquary which

kind, but relicof Osiris. Spiegelberg agrees that it is a receptacle of some it bearing from literary document sources a that the titles contained proves last ment will and testaof the god as ruler of Egypt. In the case of Horus it is the Horus by Egypt. The father Geb his kingship the of of which obtained
"
"

kings carried the same as being themselves divine, and also as successors object isdue to the material of Horus. Spiegelberg suggests that the shape of the object it leather, was was squeezed in the middle made, probably soft which of which by the pressure of the hand. The word mtks ends in which refer to the royal insignia.
s as

do

so

many

other words

Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache.


7. By analogy with the Coptic derivatives of Egyptian
probably

95
words, the Egyptian
as

^vnP
not

"

mother,"

contained another consonant

such

^^ which

was-

M.ov6, of the vulture-goddess of written. It is suggested that the name but perhaps meant Thebes, has nothing to do with the word for mother,"
" "

simply

vulture."

The

reading

of the word

^
,

"

town,"

was

also probably

niwt, i.e.,with a weak consonant. Lange's 8. Spiegelberg corrects von


now

in the British Museum.

Von

Lange

translation of the inscription of Antef, translates [Igave to him] a measure


"

" I gave of land of watered ground to reap every year." Spiegelberg reads this as inundation." arura to him the produce of one after the annual In the event ; this custom early periods each year was called after some 9.

the year of the continued tiU late times, the most interesting example being famine." hyaenas, when there was in the Berlin Museum, translation of a papyrus, now 10. The shows that to a tenant. The tenant had been evicted, but it is a letter from a landowner landowner's is permitted to retain the land. he intercession the at the of wife
the fact, but is to merely to announce is in lease force. that the the authorities still

"

The

letter is not The

serve

as

legal proof to-

11.
are

who troubles.
12.

ancient Egyptian known from the Old

the eye-doctors, specialists in medicine were Kingdom curers the of intestinal onwards, and

Semtutef-nachte, already published a record of Admiral from here inscription a statue which he publishes an copied and Spiegelberg saw at a dealer's in Cairo. It is interesting to find a reference to the rather rare Her-shefi, as the admiral of the prophets also held the officeof the overseer god Griffith has May he have of good wishes is found in the expression, It is the stereotyped phrase after a king's name, Gifted the duration of Ra." in letters. lifelike Ra for demotic it is ever," with and also the usual greeting
"

of that deity. 13. A formula

"

14. There is a MsAa6^i-figurein the Berlin Museum with an unusual inscription. Instead of the words by the hard manual' to fill the channels with water," i.e.,
"

work

of

the

the shaduf,
"

text

gives

variant
the

"="

[I ^q

a^ac

sJ 'j

"^
-,

Roeder

translates this
not
as

as

to sail round
"

out, this does

carry out
can mean

suggests that,

kd

Spiegelberg points as He therefore labour. the of agricultural a wheel," the reference here is to the method fields," but,
idea
as was

of raising water by a wheel, such 15. The rib of the palm leaf

is in used

use as

in Egypt

at the present day.

the sighting rod of astronomers,,


ba
:

and

was

called
a

jL.

a,

which

means

palm-stick, in Coptic

bai.
"

16. On

statuette

chief of the Mdhasaun." Massylioi.

Great of the Theban priest Ke-te-Mut, he is called Libyan the Spiegelberg identifies these people with
"

for the so-called 17. The Egyptian name in the early examples as in New the same
"

Maxims

of the Wise Egyptian, and can

"

is practically be translated

Educational

"

precepts." 18. The phrase njr-hr, applied to Ptah and other gods, is usually translated beautiful of face," but would be more gracious of correctly translated as
"

face."

96

Zeitschrift fiirAegyptischeSpracke.
Spiegelberg, W.
"

word nmhw free." apparently continues into Coptic as pue"; with the meaning demotic script of the Rosetta Stone seems 2. The to have been done by two hands, the firstas far as the end of the protocol, the rest by the second. The use of the word in the sentence teaching the rest of the people, who in were another teaching during the disturbance which reigned in Egypt,"
" "
"

Demotische

Miszellen.

i.

The

Egyptian

"

Those who are of the word under Akhenaten. were always the enemies of the king. 3. Spiegelberg proposes to recognise in No. 1,326 of Mariette's Catalogue d'Abydos an inscription relating to the embalming des Monuments and burial falcon. dead a of

reminds one of the in another teaching

"

same
"

use

demotic ostraka in the British Museum are receipts for the cemetery dues paid to a certain Panas and paid by him to the Overseer of the Nekropolis. Magical 5. Spiegelberg proposes to read an enigmatical group in the London 4. Two Papyrus
sentence
as

Y,

the Coptic form then


"

being given in the papyrus

as

cue.

The

whole
uraeus-

would

run,

A snake of the brood of Atum,

which lies as

snake on my head." 6. Examples are translated. SA


n

given of Greek words spelt out in demotic, or literally handwriting," gid, might also be translated directly into
"

English.
drowned," the 7. The word /isy, determined with the Sun-god, means determinative not being read. In demotic the usual mad-krw formula after the is also determined with the Sun-god. The dead were identified not only name in his journey. The hypothey accompanied with Osiris but with Ra, whom in late times, is also connected with Ra worship. Schafer cephalus, so common has suggested that the hypocephalus originated as the which is represented object hnmt is it in Middle Kingdom there ; wrt coffins, and called may be a
"

kind of cushion. 8. Demotic,

also Ptolemaic hieroglyphic texts, introduce a new absolute in the third person singular and plural, the except pronoun object, is retained. The new pronominal form is found in the where the old pronoun inscription Persian period, and even as as the early of Piankhy and the story
as

to denote

of Wenamon. writing is

In Piankhy

the form is simply

s="

before the suffix, but the usual

ll before |]

the suffix. It is possible that this is the origin of the Coptic

; and possibly which take a t between the verb and the object first t the the the person singular, which follows pronoun of also of objective from infinitives ending in t or a, may result the use of the demotic pronoun with imperatives.

imperatives

9. Greek
merely
"

titlesare
In Brother

sometimes
one case

transcribed.
as

literallytranslated into demotic, sometimes the demotic scribe paraphrased the Greek

syn-genes

(sen) of

the genos."

{To be continued.)

(/3

09

D O si O

O
Z
"

^
a z ":

o
z

z z
cu

O
h9 tii

Q O

ANCIENT
MODELS
Photographs discovered The in
are an now

EGYPT.
OF

EGYPTIAN

LOOMS.

model is a I am this it must be remembered only dealing with photographs and not with the be actual model, and that disarrangement of the yarn, etc., even slight, must For for. have learnt, we or are the model with what comparing allowed already

available of the model illustratingEgyptian textile methods dynasty tomb recently by Messrs Winlock and Burton. remarkable one and well worth a full description, but in writing Xlth

illustrationson the tomb walls already made public, I have illustration the chosen of the wall drawing in the tomb of Tehuti-hetep, Xllth dynasty, issued in Prof. Percy Newberry's El Bersheh, I, pi. 26, and reproduced as Fig.
II

not clear about, from

in my

Ancient

Egyptianand Greek

Looms

see

here Fig.

i.

m-^

ml

"

NawHeiryi

Tom"t of Tfhuti-het"p. Bl Btriktk I. PI. 28.

Dat"

itoot I.

1939"1849

B.C

From

Profenor

Percy

Fig.

In Winlock squatting their service


women

and

Burton's

model
some

(frontispiece and
raw

Fig.

2) there

are

three

at material, probably woman front in of each material, while The three a truncated slice of a sphere. there is a drawn being its for upon squatting women appear to be preparing the material corner the left-hand by the three women in front In of top them. the standing of Tehuti-hetep illustration can be seen two women with similar appliances, and is reversed. in but the apparently engaged similar work, platform's position

manipulating a couple of balls of the raw small platform in shape like

flax, and having

98

Models

of Egyptian

Looms.

The function of the Uttle platform is not very obvious ; it may but these women ow? eiTiverpov or used by Greek women, their manipulation model the Egyptian
on

be like that of the have done must


to the Egyptian
"

top of their instrument, while according

women

the articles on the model It is possible the littleplatforms may as it was drawn upon.

drew the material /row utider their instrument unless have got misplaced in transit, which I rather doubt.
have been used to hold down

the material

Between there are three pots which are possibly the two sets of women are drawing the so-prepared material, tension pots, from which the standing women From this the sliver and twisting it on to a sort of distaff held in the left hand. far is lightly by means the (so prepared of spindle in the right hand spun

material)

and the thigh, the action being indicated by the raised right leg. The furthermost standing woman appears to be working with three slivers or rovings, the middle one with one only. They are, in fact, with two, and the last or nearest woman doubling (twisting, folding) ; in so doing are thinning out the yarn until the correct fineness is attained, and the rovings spun into finished yarn. On the opposite wall are two women engaged in warping, that is, arranging for beaming, is the the yam so-arranged warp on to the loom. which putting The more sisters (yam centrally-placed woman appears to be warping with
" "

two or more or less side by side in contrast to doubling where yams placed more from Theban tombs, are twisted into one). In some cloths specimens of mummy by Sir E. Wallis Budge, we have warp which is doubled given to Bankfield Museum

which is sisters." The nearer warper is apparently working with an ordinary doubled yarn. On the floor are two models of horizontal looms, with the two beams held in position by the usual pegs, and provided with single heddles, shed-sticks and the
as

"

well

as

warp

well-known curve-ended beater-in. Other details are not sufficientlyclear description. Prof. Garstang's discovery of a smaller model with the to warrant
now

loom

to prove that the Xllth merely indicated by lines on the floor was the first horizontal and not dynasty drawings of looms before the Hyksos invasion were

Messrs. striking manner. in on their discovery their for New York, is from interesting textile the work which point of view extremely and important. H. Ling Roth.
a

vertical looms, and the present model confirms this in Winlock and Burton are to be heartily congratulated

During

my

stay in the Sudan

I (winter of 1920-21)

made

some

study

of the
"

very primitive methods of spinning and weaving in use there, and I gladly attempt here to answer by Prof. Petrie on my return home the question put to me I had seen anything similar to the processes shown in the wonderful whether newly-discovered weaving model, which I had marvelled at when passing through

Cairo. I have
number
seen

groups

of

women

weaving ; another with admirably faithful the artist of the model beam that will ride up as the web grows.

working her hand

with just such a loom, one of their heddle the rod ; the third how ! controlling that tiresome back was
on
"

"

I have

seen

women

spindle rolled on the thigh and dropped whorl uppermost warping in similar fashion to the two at the wall, winding the warp on the pegs one thread at a time from the spindle. While I hav^ watched such groups of

spinning with the women ; I have seen

Models

of Egyptian

Looms.

99
'

with their hair braided after the fashion of Ancient Egypt, their surroundings and belongings mud-walled huts and courts, bedsteads, mats, and baskets in character, I have been seized with the emotion of Elroy Flecker's equally archaic Old Ship," and I have feltas ifI saw a scene vision of th"
women,
"

"

"

"

"

of
And,
"

some

wonder, Thought I who yes, it must have wove the linen that
"

yet older day breath indrawn.

knows

"

who

knows,

but in that

"

same

way that the women of Ancient Egypt How simple their tools and methods were, figures and yet how beautiful and good the result. When you look at the little in the model (Fig. preparing and spinning their flax,you see why it was so good. 2), In hand-spinning the heckled flax was put directly on the distaff,and the spinner
same

been in that them

won

fame.

She could choose, the machine can't, and took which fibres she liked to spin up. experts stillallow that her gentleness and intelligence could produce a better

Fig.

2.

Side

View

of

Frontispiece.

thread than the violence of the spreader, the rover, and the hot water trough ? I But where are the fine spinners of Egypt now of the spinning machine. help thinking that a sympathetic the women of the cannot observer among living, Fayum flax is (where still grown)might find much of the ancient craft still and give better parallels to the processes of the model than I can ; striking as those I have seen in the Sudan are, they cannot be taken as exact, for they are allconcerned with wool and cotton, while those of the model are to do with flax. In the absence of such observations I have been encouraged by Mr. Ling Roth to place this note on some of the processes I have seen, with his description of
the model itself.

Warp

Laying."
are

In the Sudan

the fine hand-spun

treadle loom

laid on pegsknocked

for the pit into the wall of the coprtyard or house.


cotton

warps

lOO

Models

of Egyptian

Looms.

The

warping walks up and down, spindle in one hand, laying one thread One of from it with the other, exactly after the fashion shown in the model. X in Fig. i. be doing to same Bersheh figures the thing, the marked appears also
woman

Fig. 3 shows a usual arrangement of the pegs, the number of which, with their zig-zags, vary with its length. The warps on the wall in the model have but three pegs, so I take it that they represent the exact length of the looms. The crossing is not seen, but in the absence of a special peg (pegB in the diagram)
to hold the crossing it would not be very noticeable in any case. to liftso simple a warp off the pegs and slip it on the loom matter

It is

an

easy

beams.

^
Fig. 3. Sudani Cotton Fig. 4. Wooden Weaving
Warp. Implements.

The looms in the model are very like the horizontal two-beam in Sudan for the weaving of woollen goods such as tent cloths, the used blankets, fringed bags, and patterned camel girths ; also by Bedouin in Egypt for very similar purposes. I recognize the four pegs planted in the hard beaten floor of court or house, the two beams laid behind them, the rod heddle, and the shed rod between it and the back beam, the long rod with its double function
"

The Loom.

looms

Sudani women; of shed opener and batten. working with clinging woollen threads, use also a sharp-pointed stick or gazelle horn to beat up with, but this would not be so necessary with flax threads. One very essential p.irt of the
loom is missing, the heddle rod supports, which are various in kind, baked Y-shaped stones, clay pillars, sticks, etc. Is it possible that the curious implements lying on either side of the loom were wooden used for this purpose ? This seemed to mc first a based on the absence of any at probable suggestion,

Sudani

support

under
serve

the heddle

solidity to

of sufficient and the presence of four wooden objects the purpose, but the shape of the implements does not make

Models

of Egyptian
more

Looms.

loi

it at all convincing. They are much But what is there to something.

like tools used in the hand to adjust in a loom of this class ? The warp adjust beam in the model is quite clearly fixed ; was the cloth beam possibly a revolving one as some ? experts think is the case in the loom of the Tomb of Khnem-hotep I could sec- nothing in the model to indicate this. As usual, the new discovery
has raised
a new

I have asked Prof. Petrie to republish a drawing problem. from the Univ. Coll. collection in the hope originals of similar implements a finding solution (Fig. 4).

of of

This simple type of loom has one great virtue, the warp is well stretched, but it needs a strong one, and no doubt this is the reason why so much of the ancient linen has the warp threads doubled ; Sudani woollen warps are also made You can virtue is its mobility. pick up the whole concern, the beams, walk away with it and peg it down somewhere if Again, is is interest a this not without else required. and point which in considering the evolution of the Egyptian loom : you can, if you wish, weave
of doubled

Another yarn. roll up the web on

Indians vertically instead of horizontally on it ; you have only, as the Navaho do with their similar loom, to tie one of the beams to a support above instead of the floor to gain whatever it is that can be gained by the change of position. Further, the very crudity of the loom gives the weaver freedom ; all textures, all

patterns, are his


primitive
woman

to (or hers)

create, given time and the necessary skill. To watch


a

woman weaving such say a belt inches hour I have Sudani 10 or a (as done) per patterned out a black-and-white camel girth, or more startling still,a Cairene weaver of intricate braids, virtuoso in colour combinations, his already supplementing
"

on

loom

Navaho

"

turning out her figuring woman

elaborate set of heddles by a reversion to primitive practice, his fingers flying the threads as a pianist's among the keys, gives the clue to the fine work among Egypt is the ; secret not altogether lost, but is stillrevealed to the of ancient children of the world, and beauty is stillwon by patience and simplicity.

G. M.

Crowfoot.

four threads and

is from Beni Hasan ; it shows how cover the spinner worked with spindles, standing on a height to allovv of a long spin before winding up, The two pots in front belong to another spinner ; the and rolling the spindle on the thigh. front threads are drawn from a yellow mass (Rosellini).]

[The

figure

on

the

two

I02

THE
An

DATE

OF

THE

MIDDLE

EMPIRE.

than a ton of subjective of archaeologicalevidence is worth more lation, specuis date forthcoming Middle for now the the that and settling of evidence Egyptian Empire, or at least its relation to Babylonian history. I have recently
ounce

inscribed with names the two alabaster vases examining of kings of the Babylonian in Louvre. They dynasty of Akkad, which are now are the only the from brought Babylonia, ones as the genuine yet with exception of one of older But there is more date from Lagas, lately acquired by the Ashmolean. than one forgery existent, though deceive the expert. The Louvre No.
vases none

been

of the forgeries I have

seen

is sufficientlygood

to

are of Egyptian alabaster. No. 2 bears the name of that of Rimus, the son and successor of Sargon, the founder Both vases are of Middle Empire (X-XIVth dynasties) of the dynasty of Akkad. form ; I found many examples of No. 2 in the Xth dynasty graves which I

Naram-Sin,

completed by the recent December, Journal,

know from the annalistic tablets of Nippur, as now Museum discoveries of M. Legrain (The[Pennsylvania) was that the date of Sargon of Akkad about 2800 B.C., 1920), few difference less. Before date, a more or therefore, the Xth that with years' Egyptian dynasty will have already been upon the throne. The cuneiform texts discovered by the German excavators at Assur have excavated

at El-Kab.

We

Among Babylonia that relations already existed between shown and Egypt. them is the copy of a sort of geographical survey of his empire by Sargon of Akkad, giving the distance in double miles of one part of his dominions from In this, after stating atis Assur verschiedenen Inhalts, another {KeilschrifUexte

92). Elam) was 90 beri, or double miles, in extent, he goes on (southern To the Tin-land (and)Kaptara [i.e., to say : the countries beyond the Krete) Dilmun Magan Upper [Sea] (NorthernArabia (theMediterranean), (and) (Tylos) from the Persian Gulf to the Sinaitic Peninsula) the countries beyond the Lower Sea (the Persian Gulf), from the lands of the rising sun to the lands of the even
that Anzan
"

I learn has prevailed." setting sun, the hand of Sargon the king in 3 campaigns from Dr. Forrer that a still important text, not yet published, is a stele of more another Sargon, the patesi of Assur 2180 B.C., who claims to have conquered Egypt, Krete, where his or as well as Kaptara The from Tin-land beyond the sea." the (ku-ki) commissioners received tribute Sudani occupation of Egypt explains the name dynasty king Nehesi, of the XlVth Sudani pottery which I found at Ed-Der, opposite as well as the black-topped then under
a

foreign Sudani

dynasty,

"

dynasty graves. and XVII-XVTIIth to the Old Empire not speak of the prehistoric period with its seal-cylinders there must have been indirect intercourse between Egypt introduced into On the one hand, Babylonian civilisationwas and Babylonia.
But
as

Esna, between

Xll-XIVth
as

far back

"

"

The Date

of the

Middle

Empire.

103

Asia Minor at an early date, and in the age of the Ilird dynasty of Ur (2400 B.C.) in possession of the Assyro-Babylonians, who worked the eastern Asia Minor was mines of the Taurus and whose merchants and postmen traversed the roads that

On the other hand, Prof. Petrie has found had been made through the country. to Old Empire Prof. Gladstone's analysis, would have gold which, according from Asia Minor. The intercourse must have continued with little break ; come Prof. Maspero
made of

told

me

that the Xllth


must

dynasty
come

juniper-wood, which

have

coffinsfound at El-Bersha from Krete and Asia Minor,

were

A. H.

Sayce.

I.

Vase

of

Rimus.

a.

Vase

of

Naram-Sin.

from other instances as is known of the vase of Naram-Sin dynasty ; the comparisons which have been made with a vase and one of the 1st dynasty are incorrect. of the Vlth dynasty from Mahasnah A vase might have been made in Egypt long before its export to Babylonia, and there will be a lower limit for the when we are certain of the date of Naram-Sin

[The

form

belonging

to the Xth

in the opposite direction is the lazuli cylinder, lately inscription, which may have been of any age before sold in Cairo, with cuneiform I. F.P.] it was exported to Egypt as lazuh, and engraved for Amenemhat Xth dynasty. A similar
case
"

104

THE

TREE

OF

THE

HERAKLEOPOLITE

NOME.

Director of the Station for Seed Testing in Holland, Unhappily he was seized with illness, this summer. and died on visited London his return to his home at Wageningen. Sad to say, this is the last paper of his, and the present form of the translation has not received his final

[Dr.

the Bruijning,

revision.]
nart

I.

The

Pomegranate.

2.

The

Oleander.

5. The Pomegranate.
I.

6. Form

of the nome-sign.

4. The 3. Climate. The a^m palm. 7.

nome.

Professor Newberry

in the

view that the tree worshipped

Zeitschrift (L,1912, p. in the Herakleopolite nome


V
^

78)has
was
fl

put forward the the pomegranate

{Pimtca which granatum),


AAAAAA

he reads in the nome-sign

as

()g^ {B.D.G., 313),

or

rin^

(B. Thes.
an

VI,

1251).
"

He

does not

admit

of Loret's opinion

that it is

oleander.
as

He

writes
on

this nowe-sign,
IVth

they appear

In figures 1-6 I give the various forms of The firstexample, from a the monuments.' the ill-defined appendage

dynasty stele of (J

explains |^^T".

of the later

branch on one side terminating in a flower forms ; it is clearly a tree with projecting This branch was already becoming misunderstood in the Vth or fruit. projecting holding a 9. Later, in the XVIIIth dynasty, and taking the form of an arm dynasty, the ring. Among find
way
a

separated from the tree sign, and in the hand is a Q the cult signs occurring on the prehistoric Decorated pottery we tree-branch terminating in a flower or fruit (Fig. 7),evidently the early
arm

has become

of representing the Herakleopolite tree. The shape of the fruit or flower, and the form of the tree of the IVth dynasty example, certainly shows that we identify it with the oleander, but it very closely resembles the pomecannot granate, it drawing in tree on a as will be seen a comparing with pomegranate of
one

El Amarna, I, PI. tombs (Davies, fore, of the Tell el Amarna 32). I think, therethat we may safely identify the sacred tree of Herakleopolis with the pomegranate L.), {Punica granatum, which may well have been indigenous in Lower may Objections be raised to both Newberry's
on

and Middle Egypt."


and Loret's opinions, which

now

2.

proceed to consider. Loret's view rests

the
on nar

occurrence

of the oleander in Egypt, at any rate


"^

in the

later periods, and the tree

the
was

name

Coptic

wep

being

Nerium

L.), (Oleander, while


That the Nerium

Oleander

cultivated throughout
'

sign of HerakleopoHs. occurs at present in Egypt is unquestioned ; it is to the country, and its range extends from Mesopotamia the
nome
"

Footnote

by Newberry.
or

In

an

III, 76, the flower

fruit issues from

from Tehneh figured in Annates du Service, example We shall refer to this afterwards. the top of the tree."

The

Tree

Nome. of the Herakleopolite

105

Spain.
Probably

It is,however,
was

Mediterranean,

this must

typically south open question whether this plant, now in the Old Kingdom, known even or at an earlier date. Nerium is one of the oldest be answered in the negative.
an

The northern sympetals, fossil traces of which go back as far as the Eocene. in Bohemia, limit was in England it is now th"h the north of and whereas south It is Egypt by to tree to Alps. a that came the the not rash view say way of of
influence. In regard to Egypt, it is an intruder unknown Syria, under human Indeed, there is no indication that the original flora of the Nile Valley. among

Nerium

was

known

nor are there any the interesting finds of Flinders Petrie, described by Newberry and Hawara, ch.

in the early dynasties. Representations of it do not appear, is it among nor remains of it from the Old or Middle Kingdoms,

(Kahun, ch. vii,

vii)

(1
Fig. 1 Stela of Fig. 2.

Ulit-hip

Fig.3.

tibt-lftp

Fig. 4. Nome

List of

Kl-wd-cnlt.

(Davics, Pulihetep i.).

(Oaviu, Ptahhetep I.).

Ameiiophis 111. (Luksor).

n
Tig. 5. Pta!helep Pi.ilili/;tep (D.^viEs, I.).
Fig. 6.

hi.t-hti"

Fig. 7. Prehistoric decorated Vase

8 Tomb

oi Meryra,

(Davies, Ptahhetep I.).

Tell el Amania.

(NtWBEHRY Coll.).

m
^
y\r.. 9.

Kkpkesentations
D'anres

dk

l aloks

kt

uarbres.

10

Schwcinfurth.

in which bears on the question of 3. Here another consideration must come It the pomegranate tree. is the and sacred generally assumed that the climate of Egypt has not materially changed in the last 4,000 years, nor the vegetation. Blanckenhorn, to whom we owe the best geological study of Egypt,' is of the

opinion, but admits the possibility of the climate having been somewhat Such moister in the pyramid times, in accordance with the opinion of O. Fraas. The Ilird dynasty is 800 years earlier still,it is so estimates are but vague.
same

quite possible that at the time


'

when

the nome-signs

were

adopted

the climate
Pliocaen

und

Neues Geologic und Palaeontologie Aegyptens,IV, Das zur in Quartaerzeitalier Aegypten, Zeits. Deut. Geol. Gesellschaft, 53, 1901, p. 457.
'

M.

Blanckenhorn,

[2,800 years

earlier according

to the

Egyptians.]

io6
was

The Tree different,somewhat

Nome. of the Herakleopolite

A difference of dimate raoister,and perhaps warmer. As far back as 1874 Schweinfurth expressed would involve a different vegetation. the view (/w Herzen von Africa, I, pp. 74-5 ; also Le pianteutilidell'Eritrea, Boll. Soc. Afric. d'Italia, Napoli, X, Nos. 11, 12) that the climate of Egypt is

slowly changing

from

tropical to

Mediterranean

grew spontaneously in ancient Egypt are now Such are the papyrus and the Acacia Nilotica, now as common plants in Egypt, where formerly they were White Nile.

type. Many plants which found blooming on the White Nile. only found as as they now
cultivated on the

are

It would be going too far at present to enter on the historicaland geographical distribution of plants which is here involved ; but it must be deemed improbable that a nome-sign should be connected with a plant for which climatic conditions in ancient Egypt. This alone would indicate that the as we the nome-sign was not likely to be the oleander, nor shall see below A forms Herakleopolite more the the pomegranate. sign view of ancient of excludes the possibility of its being an oleander.
were

not

favourable

"

"

Let

us

now

distinguish the two


"

questions, first, whether


or

the oleander

was

(as Loret says)the


whether the nome I know. so far as the
nome was

Q, wep

UHp,

Dioscorides' vtjpiov, and

secondly,

Loret's theoretical view has not been opposed, called nar. If it be granted, then, as we have to assume that the tree in
on

does not represent the oleander, but that

the contrary

"

may

be identified with Nerium, consequently ndr cannot represent either the name of the tree or that of the nome. In his study of to be read, if this be the case. 4. How, then, is the nome Steindorff' speaks of the nart nome, divided into the former and the nomes hinder nart
Brugsch
nomes,

XX

and XXI.

But

rests prohahlyndrt
"

on

misunderstanding.
name

in earlier works
as
"

considered
"u
Li Li "

f^

as

another
"

for

1 2J) "^

Herakleopolis, in his
"

in his essay

M,*

^^^^ Mendes

{Zeits. 1871, 81-85) ^rid

not rather that it was of 1891 (pp.193-4). But it seems in but Wreszinsky, the neighbourhood. the name of a sanctuary of the city, in his work on the London 12, 9, p. medical papyrus. No. 10059 (^9^2,

Religion

195),

ich will dich noch n'rt bringen," taking it to be the name of a Thou art the soul of Ra, locality. In the hymn to Osiris, Budge translates, Thou art the beneficent his own body, and hast thy place of rest in Henensu. translates
as
"

"

(Pap.Ani, I, 1913, p. 59 ; see also his Gods of and art praised in Nart II, p. Indeed, Budge has expressed liimselfquite clearly in the Egyptians, 148).
one,

"

the matter Henensu


" ci
"

{Dictionary. 1920,

p.

^^^ 1,004)

designated about

Nar
it, as

"

as

district of
"

He (Herakleopolis)."
I,

stillhas doubts Rose, (Laurier

he

reads

{),

-4)-ii
and
"

"sycomore

tree

Rec, 15,
"

sycomore
tree
"

tree in the Tuat


"

sycomore and his Urkunden have their doubts, as, for instance, G. Roder (in Er liegt in Siidbut also Baum (p. oder Stadt where he reads
"
" "

Laurier

sacred to Osiris Rose are certainly


"

Copt, wnp, 102), {Diet., p. 347). The


erroneous.

vtjpiov,"

reading Others also Relig. alt. Eg.,

1915),
'

22),

westen

von

Naret

"

(p.132). We

cannot

go further into the literature,but it is


Sachs. Ges. Wissen,

Die

aeg. Gaue

(Abh. phil.-hist. Konigl.

XXVII,

No.

XXV,

1909,

p. 878).

The Tree

Nome. of the Herakteopolite

XdJ

evident

now

that the tree sign of

"Q ^

may

actually represent two

quite

different species, so that Loret's version of the determinative of nart may stand, while it is decidedly wrong in regard to the nome-sign, the sacred tree of the XXth nome, with which we are now concerned.

5. This tree
view,
a

was

not

pomegranate
was

the oleander ; was it then, according to Mr. Newberry's ? I will try to answer Schweinfurth's this question. had been grown
"

supposed with many passed in other plants from South Arabia Semites to the on the north, perhaps with primitive age Verh. Berl. the sycomore and persea (Schweinfurth, ges., 1891, 649-669). anthrop. The cultivated species would have to be derived from the Punica protopunica,
"

original opinion was It earliest times.


a

that the pomegranate

in Egypt
to have

from

the

Balf., only known in Socotra (J. B. Balfour, Botany of Socotra, pp. 93-96). Schweinfurth supposes that this wild species durch die Blatter eigentlich nur Botanik, 1895, p. {Vorgeschichiliche vcrschieden ist." Also Buschan 159)is of in Northwestern home Punica is in Felix, Arabia that the than opinion original rather of
"

India, Persia Mr. Newberry's,


As

or

Baluchistan.
are

but they

no

These views longer tenable.

would

be in accord

with

found

the Pliocene of southern France (Meximieux) a fossil species is is P. Planchoni, distinguishable from P. the which scarcely granatum, Sap., and it is obvious that the latter like Nerium has moved southward. Also the pomegranate have Semites, Egypt to come through the may and many early
as
"

"

its origin in Persia, for been grown where presumably but is Xlth no this 4,000 years ; proof of origin, as it would only go back to the dynasty. However, it may be accepted that the pomegranate is found growing in Kxirdisin Shahu (Persian wild cleftsof the calcareous mountains of Avroman circumstances Afghanistan
seem

to bear

this out.

Decandolle

sought

or

Baluchistan,

the

plant had

and tan),

and North-western India (V.Hehn, 8th KuUurpflanzen ward ed., 1911, p. 246). Thence the tree has moved souththrough Syria to Egypt, and has been cultivated there at a rather late dynasty, from Dra-abulare period. The earliest occurrences of the Xllth
. .

likewise in Baluchistan, Afghanistan


.,

negga.^

Loret quotes as the oldest text naniing the pomegranate, that of Anna XVIIIth dynasty {Flore phar.,1892, p. the of 76),but as that is funerary, he rightly supposes que le grenadier n'etait pas un arbre tout a fait nouveau pour les Egyptiens." The view that it was importation is barred by the a Hyksos
"

By so late a date as this Mr. Newberry's theory examples in the Xllth dynasty. is condemned, as also by the representation of apparently leafy branches depicted on the prehistoric vases, ending in something like a flower or fruit, and looked The comparison does not hold good, as it is not made with a figure, biit complete only with a partial drawing on the pottery. On looking it closer at the drawings, especially those of Naqada. and LXVII, 1896, XXXIV is apparent that the leafy twigs evidently represent the racemose inflorescence upon
as

Punica.

of the leafless and rootless plants also occurring in these drawings, and identified by Schweinfurth, with great probability, as the Aloe. To show this we may Art, de I' to a collection of such figures given by Capart refer (Fig. {Debuts 9) Fig.

81).

cence show the probability of Newberry's branches being the infloresfruit-bearing branch of the of the Aloe, certainly neither flower nor These

pomegranate.
Schweinfurth,

'

Derniires dicouvertes, in Bull. Inst. Eg., 1887, No. 6, pp. 256-8.

I08

The For

Tree

Nome. of the Herakleopolite

brief philological the sake of completeness we should mention some later In Iranian languages the is called ndr the observations. pomegranate
mirn I'nar (Pers.), (Kurd.),

might be connected Compare the opinion

Hchn, KuUiirpflayizen, (Arm.) (see p. 247), which names or finally enpuAN (Copt.), with epuAM and with nar. Burchardt Fremdworte, II, (AUkanaan. of 1910, p. 5, No. 71),
"

its fruit," quoting from Urk. 4, 73 ; as a fruit tree and who renders anhmn Ebers, 19, 19-20 ; Harris, 56.\,5, etc. In view of the comparisons by H. Zinimern as a fruit tree, rimmon [Akkad.Fremdworte, 1915, p. (akkadian) of armannu
ruinmarui (heb.),

545) rummdn remmdn (aram.), (arab.),


the iranian group

Burchardt (ethiop.),
and supports

denies

the connection

with

of Moldenke,^

Loret's iden-

tificationof the Punica

with

7^ (|
as
"

e^

This connection might agree with Newberry's


to allow
us

and | ^^ ^^0' () "m^^^ view I must


more
or

to read the norae-sign

nar. are
"

about conjectures

such questions, which


nar, as

less,but hardly enough lose myself in however, not, in line The not my own of work.
"
"

or (Birch) (Brugsch), such acacia older renderings of persea need See Levi, Vocah., Ill, be discussed. not p. 90. From the above I should be inclined to infer that the Herakleopolite nome

tree is neither not be read

Nerium

Oleander

nor

nar, and that the nome A further inference is that the nome
on

Punica granatum ; that its name should therefore cannot be denoted as the nar nome.
a

at present ;

tree in question need not be found in Egypt the contrary, the ancient norae-signs go back to the very first

periods of Egyptian culture, so that, on the strength of the above observations on to seek the nome tree more to the south, on the climate, it is quite justifiable Blue or White Nile, to which region it may have retreated, like the papyrus and hippopotamus. 6. The
to be characterised by a conspicuous various forms of the nome-sign seem from Tehneh In drawing Fraser inflorescence. the [Ann.Serv., Ill, of

also cited by Newberry, this inflorescence, though conventionalised, 1902, p. 76), i to is very obvious (Fig. 5) are in 10). The examples before quoted (Figs, with this. The small differences between the examples are only what We can accept that found in such figures,and need not detain us. are commonly the tree had a large and conspicuous drooping inflorescence. The tree was, further, accordance Of such trees it was a sacred one. as (toquote Erman, presumed worshipped Religion, 1909, p. 28), die Statte einer himlichen Gottin seien, die den armen Nut oder Hath or en rennen Toten Essen und wasser pflegt." reichen und die man 7. This conception must lead us to the practical conclusion that they were as use, Wiistenrande standen trees'" die wohl am (Er., Relig.), and of some
"

"

If we combine this view with the typical form they produced food and drink. or is hardly tree, there the any conclusion but that it represents a Raphia of palm, Raphia {Monbuttorum wine palm : not a leafy tree but a palm, the adm
the aifm tree as a leafy tree Drude). This should be noted because Sethe names In Anna the text of 18th {Urk., published by him [Urk., i^thDyn., 1, 1914, p. 38). is tree the he mentions, however, that the name Dyn., 1, 1906, p. of nearly 73),

He reUes, therefore, on tip of the first sign remaining. Mon., I, 36, i)is the most familiar : other texts, of which that of Brugsch [Rec. obliterated, only the
1 1.

In the

same

text three other trees

are

determined

with the sign


Inaug. diss.

'

C. T. Moldenke,

Ueber

die in Altaeg. Texte erwahnten

Baurne

Leipzig, 1886, p. xii.

The

Tree

Nome. of the Herakleopolite

109

^,namely

fi

^ bnrt, date

palm

{Hyphaene) should consider, why nuinki-n-kMnnt, Medemia has not been recognised as a palm. Brugsch by Anna the tree named (Diet., He was, was a date palm. Arch., 1865, thought that adm pp. 66-67, Rev 206) Texten erwdhnten however, wrong, as Diimichen and Moldenke perceived [Altaeg.
Bdum,

_Jpip We Argun.

mdma,

dum

palm

; and

^ ?:

_^ therefore,

1886, pp.

60-65), ^"ho

stated

(1 ^^ 0'^ I0'^^'^''*^

^^

palm,

and

In accounts discussed whether it were the date palm. and lists,and in the I presume that the Anna text Ebers papyrus, bnrt and adm do not interchange.

Fig.

II.

Raphia

Monbuttorum

Urude.

Victoria

Nyanza.

is an

erroneous

transcript from hieratic, as is often found in sculpture. he ascribes all the six variants of is rightly determined by
a

Moldenke,
to being tree ; for

however,
errors

goes too far when

V\^

for

ttttt-In

hieratic adm

palm

instance,

0 ^^

^\ iF

(Blackman,Mid.
in the Ebers

Kingdom

Religious Texts, Zeits. 47,

1910, p. 125). The also Moller, Hier.


the palm

passage

i, Palaeographie,

papyrus is well known 1909, No. 265. Probably

(47, 11);
in the

see

confused with conclusive, and the less so if transcribed into hieroglyphics. in the text of Anna is of little significance.

determinative

has been

the leaf-tree, so

papyri that it is not So the determinative

F. F. Bruijning.

(To be concluded with the discussion of the botany.)

"O

THE The

CEREMONY

OF

ANBA

TARABO.

bitten by a dog, in order that there a person ceremony is performed over may be no illeffects from the bite. As the proportion of fatal cases of dog-bite is only 15 per cent., even when the dog is mad, and as the greater number of bites

received from dogs which are not mad, the ceremony is naturally considered There is, know highly efficacious among a people who nothing of percentages. however, a curious nervous develop. condition which bitten patients sometimes
are

To
so,

anyone

who

has been

actually bitten by

such a condition is easily understandable. by the expectation of possibly dying the most balanced nervous to upset the most system, and

dog, whether mad or supposedly The horror and terror produced agonising of all deaths is enough

in the physical condition. The are not unlike the actual disease. Osier describes them thus : "A nervous person bitten by a dog, either rabid or supposed to be rabid, has within a few months, or later, symptoms even somewhat resembling the true disease. He is irritableand

of

course,

the mental agony is reflected, symptoms of this pseudo-hydrophobia

depressed. He constantly declares his condition to be serious, and that he will He may have paroxysms in which he says he is unable inevitably become mad. The temperature is not to drink, grasps at his throat, and becomes emotional. It lasts does disease the not progress. much longer than true rabies, elevated and and is amenable
to treatment.

of alleged recovery Principles and Practice

in this disease have

It is not improbable that the of cases majority been of this hysterical form." (Osier,

p. 371, ed. 1912.) Tarabo is a certain It is this condition for which the ceremony of Anba in it. has faith preventive, especially to the patient who to students of Coptic, and also The words of the ritual are already known Two versions have have studied modern Egypt. probably to many people who

ofMedicine,

been

by Emile Galtier, Bulletin de I'Institutfran^ais already published, one d'Archdologie orientale,iv. (1905), pp. 112-127 ; the other by W. E. Crum, Coptic in the Rylands Library, pp. 236-7. Manuscripts As far as I kriow, nothing has yet been published by anyone who has actually seen the ceremony manual acts," which form so dramatic performed, and the or no a part of the rite,have obtained little attention.
"

which impress the imagination of the The onset of the real condition patient, and so effect the cure of the nervous but disease is usually within six to eight weeks, the nervous condition may supervene Tarabo Anba to The even time, of at any ceremony months afterwards. It is, however,
these manual
acts

"

"

be effectivemust be performed within forty days of the bite. In if the patient is a Moslem. At least four Christians must take part, even Christians I to over describe, the was am the service myself, about which performed were the patient,the omdeh of the village (aCopt), and two Coptic priests.

The

Ceremony

of Anba

Tarabo.

"

ill

The patient was asked her Christian name and that of her mother, and was Margaret, daughter She sat on of Margaret." referred to in all the prayers as a wooden the ground, the omdeh at her right hand ; in front of them was stool on which rested a basket tray, thus forming a kind of low table. On the tray
"

were

The

barley-bread, and a coffee-cup with some dates, cakes of unleavened oil. dates and cakes were counted, seven of each were placed on one side of the Any tray for use, the others piled together on the other side out of the way. but is have done, seven uneven the most efficacious. considered would number

placed on the ground, one on each side of the with water were qullehs filled The on two the other side of the table, facing the patient. priests stood stool. When all was ready, they recited the service together, but the pace at which they it difficultto follow the mixture of Arabic and Coptic. The younger went made

Two

priest,standing opposite the patient, signed to her to hold out her hands, palms uppermost, which he then tapped five times gently with his ebony staff. He inserted the point of the same staff into the mouth of the qulleh on his right, both it the ; moving after which, rim priests placed their fingers clockwise round
in the The exact way in the mouth of the qulleh,thus blessing the water. in these took the at acts service manual which place could not be place but dramatic the accurately ascertained, part of the rite occurred after the recitation Seven boys, one was all exception ended. with of prayers under puberty,
same
"

"

Tarabo. They joined hands by called up to represent the dogs of Anba interlocking the fingers, the palms being held upright, and formed a circleround the patient, the omdeh and the table, the priests standing outside the circle. They were told to go round clockwise, repeating words which sounded like Bash, bash, stanna," and which were said to be Coptic. After doing this about seven
were
"

times, at

given signal they reversed the motion and went round widdershins. At the another signal they stopped, and all with shrieks of laughter fell on patient from behind, pretending to bite her on the arms and shoulders, and like dogs. The then the growling priest omdeh and the younger sprinkled
a

from the qulleh that had been blessed, the patient being patient with water sprinkled three times ; he anointed the omdeh with the oil out of the little cup, on the forehead, throat, and the inner part of both wrists. The patient wrists only, not on the throat. Meanwhile little bit out of each of the seven barley the elder priest nipping loaves and dates, which the seven attendant pieces he gave to an with instructions to tie them in a piece of cloth and bury them in the desert. The
was

anointed

on

the forehead
was

and
a

ceremony
a

concluded
one

water out of the and piece of blessed qulleh. It is believed that if any animal finds and eats the bits of date and barleybread which were removed by the priest and buried in the desert, that animal, it be if especially of the dog species, will take the disease and become rabid ; if a
some

with the patient and the omdeh of the barley loaves, and drinking

each

eating

one

date

But whether the pieces are person eats them, he will bark and bite like a dog. eaten or decay naturally, the disease is now completely removed from the patient. The rest of the dates and barley loaves were anointed with oil and distributed to There is a very strong the assembled company to bring a blessing upon them.

belief that if anyone is bitten and the ceremony is not performed over him within forty days, he will go mad and will bark and bite like a dog. As these are not the symptoms must refer to a form of of rabies, it is evident that this statement

the

nervous

condition mentioned

above, and the length of time

"

about six weeks

112

"

The

Ceremony

of Anba

Tarabo.

"

also suggests that it is the pseudo-hydrophobia, and not the real disease which is cured by this ceremony. In the book of the service of Anba Tarabo, pubUshed by Galtier,the manual
"

differfrom those I have described. Probably there are local variants in different parts of the country. Galtier's version gives the following directions : On a Saturday take seven good unleavened round loaves, seven cheeses, a little innocent children who are oil and a littlewine, light a lamp, and take seven
acts
"

"

fasting. Make

and hang it round the neck of the patient, and let the priest speak and make the children go round seven times to the left and seven to all of you, children, who ask times to the right, and let him say, Welcome healing from God and the holy abba Tarabo; may God grant healing to you.'
a
'

little bag

Afterwards,

first of all, the thanksgiving is said, incense is burned, and the Then the Epistle of St. Paul and the Gospel are read in Coptic and Arabic. the children shall go round the patient, and each time that they go round, make face it cross the shall not with oil upon the of patient, saying (sothat sign of the turns are finished. be heard), Elol, elolf, eloi,elema sabachthani,' until the seven Then give to each of the boys a loaf and a cheese, and he shall bite off a mouthful
'

with his teeth, and shall make a noise like a mad dog. Then read Psalm xc : Then read the life dwelleth under the protection of the Most High.' Whoso boys the go round and of the holy abba Tarabo completely, afterwards make over times cross the the the three water sign of and say the following, make
'

Understand followed by the sign of the cross : and thou shalt do well, and it is God who is the help.' [Then follows the religious service. At the end]: Add,
'

'

prayer and my petition. It is I, abba Tarabo, who implores Show thyself pitiful towards thy servant, N. son thee this day and this hour. him from the bite of a mad dog, let not his body him save N. help (fem.), and of

O Lord, hear my

be either sick or wounded, let not evil seize him, let him have nothing to fear either from him [thedog] or his evil, let him [thedog] not be able to do harm body be under thy protection either in body or soul, let not his [the

patient's]

suffer, but let him be strong, thanks enfeebled, let not his members He from for Thou comes art whom all healing and to whom power, Amen.' due for ever.
"

to thy holy

praises

are

It is noteworthy that in this and not to the father.

as

in my

is to the mother, version, the filiation


"

A widow's gives only a summary of the ritual,which is as follows : only son being bitten, is sent by his mother to Abba T.,bearing a present of seven fresh, unsalted cheeses, seven bunches of grapes, and a unsalted loaves, seven in a white cloth. On learning his need, littleolive oil and wine, all wrapped seven Abba T. summons pure boys, and bidding them follow him and respond

Crum

word he shall say, he sets the widow's son with his gifts before him, Then he turns of fresh water. placing in front of him the oil and wine and a jar followed by he bitten boy, seven the times round the seven children, to whom
to each

says

children ; peace unto you,' while they reply, And unto thee Healing we seek for this He : They : O What master.' seek ye ? peace, The Lord unhappy one, that the mad dog hath bitten.' He : Depart in peace. His His heal him, me. that do for cure trusty servant, and promise unto shall T., including Ps. xc. Here follows a long prayer by Abba confess His name.' boys The ceremony concludes with further ritual. The first of the seven
:

'

Welcome,

'

'

'

'

'

hands, and joining approaches the priest, the whole congregation meanwhile says, Peace unto thee, O teacher of teachers.' The priest replies,questioning
'

The

Ceremony

of

A nha

Tarabo.

113

him

as

Then,

right takes the first boy's hand, bread


'

is sought for all such as may have been bitten. as to each time they repeat their circuits round the supplicant, seven niceeKiB left, niceKiH. to Then seven they the priest say, and

before ; but here heaUng

and all bark like dogs and bite at the unleavened it in their midst the victim standing 'is the while consumed, until and saying, By the prayers of the saintly Abba T., may the Lord accept your prayers and grant me healing speedily,'after which the priest dismisses them with his blessing." A footnote gives a quotation from the copy of the service in the University Library, which dates back to 1795 : And he (sc. the victim) in has been the oil and taken shall eat the piece of unleavened cake that placed from the boys' mouths, and shall be anointed with the oil, and shall drink of the
"

Aberdeen

and wash therewith ; so shall he be made whole by the blessing of the Therefore the priest shall say the blessing, "c." saintly Abba T. Though date the of the earliest published manuscript of this service is only
water

of the eighteenth century, the whole tenor of the ritual suggests a pre-Christian origin. The most obvious comparison is with the Metternich Stele,which is one It appears of the best-known magical texts for the cure of poisonous wounds. to be the standard text of a temple, possibly Heliopolis, and seems to contain
"

several

services."

Most

of these

are

to

cure

the sting of

scorpion, but the this is pre-

j) animal
sumably
a

is also mentioned.

From the
as

the determinative
may

mammal

of

some

kind, and animal, known

word
a

be

late spelling of in Egypt.

^u
^

"Wolf." jj,
a

An

wolf, is stillfound

phobia rabid wolf are peculiarly virulent ; the number of cases of hydroin persons bitten by mad wolves is 40 per cent, as compared with the bitten by The dogs. danger cases those amongst of wolf bites 15 per cent, of and the wolf would therefore be taken as the typical may have been known, animal whose bite was to be cured. There are several points of contact between the Metternich Stele and the service of Anba Tarabo besides this suggestion as to the wolf. In the versions the actions of the saint are not differentiated published by Galtier and Crum
from

Bites from

those of the priest who performs the ritual, and the widow's son of the In is performed. the the ceremony whom story coalesces with the patient over is healing in inscription, the the the same sometimes words of speaker of way, Ra himself, sometimes someone Thoth, who invokes Ra, sometimes else, apparently
a priest, who invokes both Ra and Thoth, justas the Christian priest The inscription gives Horus, son of Isis,as the invokes both God and Tarabo. patient, and the real patient is so completely identified with him that it is a littledifficultto be always certain which is being referred to. I would suggest

that the
was

patient is called a widow's son is that Horus Isis, of time the divinity of of and that when in course was Isis was forgotten, she would be thought of as a woman whose husband dead and who had only the one child. Bash, In the version which I have given above, the boys repeated the words
reason

why

Anba

Tarabo's

essentially the

son

"

bash, stanna
written Egyptian
niooeuo

"

when

nicBun.

circling round the patient. In Crum's It seems probable that this is


origin
as

version the word corruption of I would suggest


a

is

some

word

and

not of Greek

Crum

thinks.

that

it is

mispronunciation

of the words

^
on

^^

^"

"

Fear not, fear

not," which

form part of the ritual given

the Metternich Stele,


H

11^

The Ceremony

of Anba

Tarabo.

to hagioThe saint of the Christian ritual.Anba Tarabo, is entirely unknown logistsexcept in this one connection. It has been suggested that he is the same for the identification than the as a certain St. Therapon, with no further reason It is possible that Tarabo might be a name. similarity in the sound of the if so, one but ; would expect to find him personification of healing [Qepa-nivia) is not the as the healer of other diseases, not of dog-bite only ; this, however, As he is not found elsewhere in Christian Egypt, or in Christendom in case. for him in pre-Christian times, especially as the general, it is advisable to search to be derived from a pre-Christian and purely Egyptian source. ritual seems to In the Magical Papyrus of London and Leyden, which, though belonging there much older source, the third century a.d., is undoubtedly copied from some but light the on the no The first throws for dog-bite. matter, two remedies are is a rare The exorcism of Amen goddess, and Triphis." Triphis second is called Gauthier Athribis. in name {Bull, is the the but her name southern of enshrined is known has that III, d'Arch. orient., about de I' Inst./ran. collected all 1903, 165) her, and his researches appear to me to show that though she is hardly mentioned fact that an important The mere a popular one. in inscriptions, her cult was House of Triphis," would be sufficient in the south was town called Athribis, is formed, to prove this. Gauthier shows that the personal name TATt3Tpi(t)ic formed, with the elements c" were ^ d followed as so many personal names
"

"

^\

by the

name

of

deity, the meaning


a

being
o,

"

the gift of who


seems

"

that deity.
to have

Gauthier
a

identifiesTriphis with

goddess

jj

been

local

form

does not account for the origin ; but this identification of Isis at Akhmim of the town, nor is it borne out by the demotic equivalent. In of the name is t-rpyt, which, when transcribed into hieroglyphs, as at demotic the name
Athribis, is who
"

"^

"

the heiress." There is also a goddess


"

"

is always

characterised

as

the great."

It is well known

that the

often represented as goddesses, and it is presumed- that queens of Egypt were they were considered divine, though there is no literary evidence of the fact till But Nefertari is represented as being deification the of the Ptolemaic queens.
to have continued long after her death. worshipped at Thebes, and her cult seems for queens between the Xllth The titleof the great heiress is fairlycommon it is dynasties, XVIIIth heiress to the and possible that the immediate and the
"

"

throne may have power of healing

some

been credited with divine powers, among which would be the disease, as was case the specific among our own monarchs.
"

If then

"

the great heiress

was

the healer of dog-bite, and the title

Triphis, we have the continuation of the cult of the is the origin of the name late Magical Papyrus of London as the queen as and Leyden, which is within the
^

Christian

era.

And

as

in the words

of the
we

suggest that of dog-bite, the survival of an ancient liturgy dynasty, or perhaps even to a still which reaches back perhaps to the XVIIIth that the name earlier period, and of the saint carries on the cult of an ancient Egyptian divinity.
cure

of that otherwise in have, this service for the


Hame

o'^^'^~^ unexplained saint Tarabo,

there

are

allthe elements

I would

M. A. Murray,

"S

ft

REVIEWS.
Knight.

Nile and 36s.

By Jordan." (Clarke.)

Rev.

G. A. Frank

1921.

8vo, 572 pp.

purpose of this work is to show the connections between Egypt and Canaan during the whole of the Biblical ages. An index of 1,800 references to all parts of the Bible will show how closely every connection has been noted, and The
as a text book will long serve has resulted in references to some

of reading and this studious collection of opinion that the danger lies. The authors rather than the facts are piled in the balance ; for instance, for the number of campaigns
amount

The industry of the author for exegetical use. different publications, showing an immense 1,700 It may a hard seem saying, but it is in compilation.

stated in favour of one, and twelve in favour It is not The problem is thus fairly evenly balanced." of two campaigns. What but the piles of authors that are here balanced. are the the problem facts ? build due to or to arguments facts on which they ? Are their differences

of Sennacherib

fifteen authors
"

are

How

many

of them

have

followed

one

after another

like sheep ?

All through

the work

erroneous or assertions of one writer are given equal This is the natural the most accurate credit with careful and work of another. defect of a literary treatment, not in touch with the basic facts. It does not matter The original works are what opinioris are, compared with what the facts are. less referred to than the various Journals, which often give incomplete statements.

perfectly baseless

The

the cataracts,

where certain III was buried in the Hawara pyramid, authors are said to deny that Amenemhat found it is were his fragments a that of coffin while certain canopic jarsand 89). On p. 175 we read, the silver mines alongside of the sarcophagus there (p. Egypt to were ; but what is of said produce annually 3,200 myriads of minae
" "

need of reference to the facts is seen from the Royal though it was

where Tombs

carving is said to be from

(p.41) ;

or

there really stated by Diodorus is that in the ruins of one temple (notannually) to be found 3,200 talents, of 60 minae (not No silver is known were a myriad). in in dreariest Egypt. Tanis is been built have to the and most produced said
"

desolate part of the Delta, on the extreme northern edge of a vast morass." It was built in the most beautiful and flourishing region, which only sank under level in the time of Justinian are Gold vases sea said to have been (p.

238).

found

in the tomb

of Rameses

III

(p.259);

painted on the wall, which might be of copper due to second-hand sources, of the misunderstandings through the work.
but
a

but this refers to figures of vases These are examples or pottery.


which
recur

far too often

A summary is given of the complex German ; theories about the Thothmides hint is needed that the whole pile of theory depends on the assumption that no ruler ever of a predecessor, though we know that such restored the name done, as by Sety I. The few stray examples of iron in Egypt restoration was
are

quoted

as

proving that it

"

was

one

countries in the world of the very first


H
2

1 16

Reviews. and
to
: whereas this metal probably all the early examples are Egypt far behind other countries in the adoption of iron was use
"

to mine

meteoric, and Much more might be noted, but we Palaeolithic and Neolithic men

where the bungle

over

Mena

will turn to the general view. Then the early dynasties, dealt with. first is imfortunately given being figure a composite
are
" "

currency, as well as the errors being supposed to be a king.

about Khent The pyramid

between
text

Ptah-hetep's and Solomon's II and the Chaldean In the full Pepy of creation, which are notable. description of the Xllth dynasty the Lay of the Harper is set parallel with Ecclesiastes. The Hyksos age is granted the extent and importance assigned it by to In the XVIIIth dynasty the questions of the Exodus the Egyptians.
the author taking in the reign of Amenhetep 1445 B.C., between the Exodus and
to misunderstandings must

name of Zer, and Besh is fully described, with parallels period proverbs, and also between the pyramid
or

Seshti for the

are

introduced,

.Solomon's be weighed against the absence of any reference in Judges to the conquests of Sety I, Rameses II and III, and the uniform length B.C. for the of the four priestly genealogies which indicate a date of about 1220
Exodus. is discussed, and the Hymn of Akhanaten to the Aten is set parallel with the 104th Psalm. The later history is fully dealt with, and does not give scope for so many differentviews. A chapter is devoted to the Egyptian origin of the Book of Job. Some of the main reasons
on

decided position that it was about is based on the 480 years stated This II. temple ; and the chance of this being due
very

The

Egyptian

influence

the Hebrews

are,

the parallel between Job'sconfession and the Negative confession, and the description of the ostrich, hippopotamus, and crocodile, which are all African. The conclusion is that it was written by Jews in Egypt about the Persian dynasties.

The

Ptolemies

are

very fully described, and the century of Roman

rule until the

fall of
As

Jerusalem.
a

summary of the literature of such a vast extent the work is remarkable, and could hardly be surpassed ; we may hope that it may be improved in future by a critical valuation of the facts and arguments, without depending merely
on

authors, and by avoiding many

of the confusions and

errors

of previous writers.

L'Humanitd

Prdhistorique. By
"

J. de

Morgan.

{La Renaissance
Here is
a

du Livre, 78 Boul. St. Michel,


on

8vo, 330 pp., 190 figs. Paris.)15 frs.

192 i.

Such a returning to pre-war prices of knowledge. full illustration, be brought volume of original writing, with such out would here at three times the 7s. at which it is priced. Over half the of volume is to the flint A assigned various stages of and metal working. preliminary chapter deals with geologic conditions, the ice age, and the scale Each successive time. of is described, full then illustration After types. this there is a period with of A long section section of 30 pp. on dwellings, clothing, agriculture, and animals. of 120 pp. deals with paintings and carvings, pottery, design, burials, beliefs, noble start
monuments,

emblems, fieldis fairly noticed ;

Thus the whole relations of races. it is an general presentation excellent outline, and the details which invite notice below do not impair its value for general instruction. The author's view on various debated questions is what will be most of interest writing, trade, and
a

as

and value. Perhaps form

the most
was

important

of

work .flint

question at present is how far similarity of In noting the contemporaneousness of contemporary.

Reviews.
"

117

Ces similitudes dans la formes des Achillean and Mousterian forms, it is said : instruments portent a penser que ces industries se sont, aux memes epoques, partie de I'Europe occidentale et centrale etendues sur la (p.
"

majeure

54).

On the other hand there is a strong the single-period view. being supposed to be synchronous (p. protest against the types of one style 32); to the resemblances in different countries are thoughts referred similar and
This sides with material, while absolutely independent industry in all regions for the same
the words

(p. 105); (p.297);

synchronism and
we

cannot

must

be admitted strike out of the

period(p.305). The difference age, epoch, archaeologic vocabulary What to be the needful view is seems of these positions needs consideration. that, while the conditions and the results of necessity may be of widely separate
are not age in different lands, yet the artistic features of form and treatment in time wherever a they not far removed connection re-invented, and show found. The artisticappearance of American stone work differsfrom anything are

in the Old World,


seems

while the exact


a

to demand

the

more

remote

ranean similarity of characters all round the Mediterin ; real connection of culture each stage and though behind, lag they would not exactly repeat countries might

artistic detail independently.

In accord with this is the remark that there is no Chellean period in the Far East (p. 309); if invention had repeated the same it would be a needful prelude. There is required here some course outline of into Europe belonging different to to as races, recent views styles who swept and other fieldsof action. In other respects also the results of the last ten or twenty years are not taken into account ; the pre-Crag flints,the Gebel el Araq knife, the complete series of flinttypes in Egypt, including Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian the results from Anau, the evidence in the Vedas of expressly denied), as migration from Central Siberia, the alphabetic signs all being early known definiteness from use the the of sequence pot-marks, of geologic age radium, in ignoring all of these the book might as well have been written twenty dating
are (which
"

years ago. Some detail about the mammalia, shells, and plants, typical of each human been have stage should also given. The age of metals might well be treated more definitely,in its general outline in known detail sources the the (p. and of of tin in Saxony and Hungary

112), in bronze not being regularly used till long after the Ilird dynasty (omitted p.124), in the confusion of sometimes (pp.135, 309), recognising the copper age, and ignoring it in iron being otherwise (159, only sporadic in Egypt until Greek 189),

There is confusion about the times, and bronze ploughshares preceding iron. Serabit, in Maghara or Sinai sources is known no ore or ; really smelting copper but an immense Nasb, as from the Wady the slag mounds quantity of copper came
show
: this is contrary to pp. 123, 291. In the dating of Egyptian material there is the same attribution of historic On to prehistoric times, which disfigured earlier work of this author. objects Figs. 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 27, 30 and 31 p. loi, Fig. 19 is of the Xllth dynasty ; on p. no,
are

dynasties ; on p. 180 the sickles found were not XVIIIth dynasties, and the teeth never extended in the Ilird dynasty, nor till known to near the point ; on p. 186 no cotton was in Arab times ; on p. 192 it should be said that scarabs were often mounted Nubian fashion. rings, and the single earring in the top of the ear is a modern The mistake about the early kings' tombs being incinerated burials is perpetuated, though the burning was of ornament only the act of destroyers. The sources of the Xllth or XVIIIth prehistoric but of Xllth and
H

Il8
on

Reviews.

prehistoricpottery are mis-stated (p. 189). In all these points some familiarity historic is A printer's error in inverting two blocks, the with needed. archaeology
about the spiralpatterns being of Magdalenian and hence theories of later migration are beside the mark ; also age (p.314), the distribution of dolmens, and their cultural ages, bar the diffusion of them
either way
centres

pp. 280, 296, should be remedied. Some notable remarks are made

(p. and 252), (p.254). This

reading, though details. Motya. By

show that the megalithic idea naturally started at various book is an essential and stimulating outline for general is desirable before accepting all the verification at the sources

"

Joseph

I. S. Whitaker.

1921.

8vo, 357 pp., 118 figs. 30s.

\pell.)
The elusive Phoenician has left very little that can be accepted as distinctive his his Nearly taste. or his abilities of all citieshave passed into other hands and been covered with the work of later times. The author has succeeded in acquiring a unique site,which should give a clearer view than any other place, of the work Phoenicians. This is their principal city of Sicily, Motya, 5 miles north the of of Marsala, destroyed in 397 B.C., and desolated so that there is no trace of the later Greeks or the Roman rule. The Phoenician true a sea-trader always established himself in island
"
"

citiesnear and leave

a no

mainland, and preferred an island small enough to be entirely walled, footing outside of it for attack. Tyre, Aradus, Motya, are the prototypes
This book is an introduction to the Phoenician
dealing

of Singapore and Hongkong.

question, with a summary of the Phoenician colonies, the early Sicani and Siculi, the Phoenicians in Sicily,the Greeks, and the fall of Motya. A second part describes the remains of the fortifications, and the contents of the island, which is only about 3 furlongs across. There is very on museum the little littlethat is dissimilar to the Greek cylindrical bottles with a handle are The traces of Egyptian influence are the usual Naukratite or Rhodiau, and the amulets of the sacred eye. Apis, Ptah, Bes and Uraeus, all probably foreign copies. It is much to be hoped that when Mr. Whitaker carries out his intended clearance of the site we may have a detailed of the same age ; the flat-bottomed about all that is not met with elsewhere. to be the scarabs set in rings, which seem work

found, for it is not only the plan of the city, and register sheets of all the objects best site to get Phoenician work, but will be of much value for dating Greek work before the limit in 397 B.C.

"9

PERIODICALS.

fur Zeitschrift
Spiegelberg,
for the Coptic nepo

Vol. LIII, Aegyptische Sprache,


{Continued frontp. 96.)

1916.

W.

"

KoptischeMiszellen.
the Egyptian
can

i.

The

transcription of Pharao

and

be traced in full,the aspirated


were

P showing that the Hebrew Lower Egypt.


2.

and the Greek forms

taken from the dialect of

"

translated as "to laugh," by Peyron, means verb worrq, simply The full expression is to loose the mouth with laughter," but occasionally the contraction is used. 3. The word 6twi2, ashes," which occurs only in Clement of Alexandria,
to loose."
"

The

"

derives from

the

Egyptian

^
"

%;^\"

derivation may also explain the very puzzling word KeKi6(|"iTeM ash-bread," i.e., bread of the ashes." or -co 4. The suffixedpronoun -cor of the Sahidic dialect is usually supposed
" "

""ll,

"dust

of fire."

This

to be the

remams

of the Egyptian

Spiegelberg and
SAwe,
a

suggests that

the

is

euphonic between two vowels, or between a vowel 5. Spiegelberg suggests the derivation of

half-consonant.
"

water-flood,"

from

VmHI
him

v^-^*"^

though

he acknowledges

the difficulty of proof.

6. When
of having

the holy

Shenoute
mavmuuht

fulminated

fiUed books

to derive the description of the book

against Aristophanes, he accuses Spiegelberg proposes with siUy words. true, from two Egyptian words meaning
"

skin," i.e., parchment. the worthlessness of the words


or

good

The costHness of the material as compared with it to Shenoute's on certainly gives point written

remarks. 7. This is merely


can

He

that the two causative verbs too and tuuo 11. without the connecting object 8. Spiegelberg here traces the variations in vocalisation of Illae inf. verbs. but new, gives nothing really merely supports Sethe's investigations.
a

note to show

take

direct

Coptic word for feminine, but or was sandal either masculine the mascuhne, in the dual form, survived. In the construct form the meaning can mean bosom," hence iiBTeiTorto the nearest," is literally changed and
" " "
=

9. The

"

"

He

who

is in the bosom H.

of."
IA
=

WiESMANN,

"

cri-epA

=
.

large number

of quotations

are

given with the result that the derivation of this expression is evidently from
"

the face," and

not

from

I,

"

the voice."

The
"

meaning

is

"

to be busy
"

with,

in," with the underlying idea of laughter, entertaining."


to be engaged

unruhness,"

hence

dissipation,

I20

Zeitschrift fiirAegyptische SpracJu.


VON

GoUesstrasse." In the dream-stela of Thothmes IV mention is made of the Road of the Gods. Brugsch, in a passage to which httle attention has ever been paid, notes that the Road of the Gods occurs also in the inscription of Piankhy, where itis called the Road of Sep, and led apparently Cairo. The from Heliopolis to the town the origin of the modern which was BissiNG, Fr. W.
"

Die

"

god
an

Sep is known

in the Book

of the Dead,

to have

epithet of Osiris, and is closely connected been on the east side of the river.

is also preserved as with Heliopolis. The road appears


and

the

name

Miszellen.
1.

Steindorff,

G.

"

In the Metternich

Museum

at

Konigswarth

are

two

wooden

coffinsof the New Kingdom.

One, of the X VI Ilth dynasty, ismummy-form,


to
a

and is painted black and vellow ; it belonged

certain

X"^
a

i^

^^ ^'
"

The other is of the XlXth


covered who
was

or

XXth

dynasty,

is coloured

with religious pictures and short texts.


an

golden yellow, and is It stillcontains the mummy.

"a6-priest of Amen

called
the coffin

^^

"

jl

f?s

^^

^^ *^"

It looks as though watch house." of the Theban priests at Thebes.


2.

came

from

the great mummy-pit

WiESMANN,

and peq-

A further example of nouns formed is peqcuT, LII, p. (see astrologer." 130), H.


"

with the qualitative

"

is translated by Horner, uiiKAe ends phrase mbat But as kigat is without the definite article,the genitive mtgof the earth." which carries its own should be used. It is perhaps a kind of proper name definition.The etymology is not known. 3. WiESMANN, H.
"

The

"

H. 3. WiESMANN, the apodosis in

"

An
a

unusual

use

of the word

uuom

shows

duces that it intro-

conditional sentence.
"

This is a suggestion that the artists who decorated 4. BissiNG, Fr. W. VON. book of patterns had a tombs in the Old Kingdom out of which they chose led by designs, including the as the the animals servants, and that the offerings
" "

name

of the animal

was

sometimes
"

wrongly

copied.
are

legends M. Two interesting parallels with Egyptian 5. BuRCHARDT, Khiir Sidhi : a woman here. One is from the collection of miirchen of given
bathed in
a

stream,

where carried off the lady. The Khan : An army human set a pot victims. The rescuer of ghosts demanded by the killed brandy became before drunk then of each ghost, who and all were king's son.

the bank

which they were

carried away two locks of her hair and left them on found by a maid of the king's. The king finally second story is from the collection of Ardshi Bordshi

Vol. Aegyf)tische Sprache, f'iir Zeitschrift


Sethe,
Fahre K.
"

LIV,

1918,
"

Zur

das des Tolenbuchspniches Komposition fiir


"

Herbeibringen der

The Bringing of the Ferry-boat The chapter of {Kap.99, Einleitimg). is found in the Middle Kingdom ; and Sethe has traced, from the examples remaining, The in the the main conception. many of changes which crept and altered

Zeitschrift fiirAegyptische Sprache.


idea of the chapter is that the dead man the celestialferryman to bring his boat.
as as (addressed
"

121

O magician various

"), calls to

The ferryman
fl

makes

objections,
The

that the boat is all to pieces


"

(I-

"

original ferryman was Ma-ha-f, He who the dead merely the person who answers
"

":^^)' looks behind him,"


man.

but is finally overruled.


ferryman,

but later he becomes in what is evidently tellsMa-ha-f to


"

The

the later version, is called the Aken ; and the dead man When Awake me the Aken." the Aken is finally roused, he I
am

answers,

What

stillasleep." which the magician replies, Bring me that [i.e., if be The Aken then the boat], you will provided with life. Behold, I come."

is it ?

On

"

Which are the two cities,0 of the would-be passenger : They Horizon ? I Dost thou are the think." magician and the shesemt, know those two cities,O magician ? "I know them." Which are those tvso O ? They Dual are the cities, magician and the reed-field." The Aken, as a
" "

tests the knowledge

"

"

"

"

"

"

last

ferrying over a man who cannot count his fingers ; the by The triumphantly this magician refutes repeating a finger-counting rhyme. is shown to an thus :" (i)A short summons order of development unnamed ferryman to bring the boat. A but longer to stimmons the (2) similar celestial
resource,

to objects

him," originally the ferryman who brought the is now as to the boat's condition, but who made only objections Aken. to A between the the dead man (3) similar conversation required awake he meets his arrival in heaven. on (known as the magician) and a being whom who

ferryman,

"

He

looks behind

boat and who

the

This personage is called He who looks behind him," although he is not the ferryman and is only the awaker of the Aken. to the celestial (4)A summons ferryman, the Aken ; this contains certain elements like those in No. 2, as well
the polite refusal to bring the boat, and the epithet magician applied to the dead man. It is needless to say that in a paper written by a master of the language, Professor Sethe, as such every statement and suggestion is of importance,
as
" "

"

both
was

as

to words
as

evidently

and grammatical familiar anciently Ein

construction. as it is in modem

[Troublewith Egypt.]

the ferryman

In the foregoing article if he made of person who, could not count his fingers, would be into the presence of Osiris. When the magician says that he can refused transport Let me hear you count both your fingers count, the celestial ferryman retorts,
"

Sethe,

K.

Fingerzdhlreim. altagyptischer

mention

was

"

Whereupon the magician recites a finger-counting rhyme of the type and toes." This is the one that broke the barn," or This littlepig went to market." of The Egyptian rhyme is full of puns on the numbers Thou hast taken the one ; : hast thou taken the one as the second ; thou hast extinguished it for him ; thou hast wiped it away for him ; give to me then ; what is smelt in my face ; loose
" "
"

him ; spare it not ; thou has illumined the eye ; give me the The lines go in pairs, each pair ending same the eye." the word, with with two exception of lines 5 and 6, which make a rhyme in our sense of the word, i.e., This is evidently done has the same words of which the termination sound.
not

thyself from

purposely to mark the change from one hand to the other. Sethe suggests that the whole rhyme refers to the Eye of Horus ; that the one of the firstline is it," also the Eye, and that the feminine pronoun, which I have translated as to in Eye. be found As the can refers parallel examples of some of the phrases
" "

"

the Pyramid is
a

Texts, Sethe dates the composition back to the Old Kingdom. It in fact that well-ascertained ancient children's rhymes often originated

122

Zeitschrift fiirAegyptischeSprache.

religious ritual ; and it is extraordinarily interesting to find an original for one This is actually the oldest known example of finger-counting of these rhymes.
verses.

Sethe,

K.

"

Da$

Pronomen

"

i.

sing.
^

n-nk

des Totenbuches. Kapitel


contains the well-known
"

The
phrase

seventeenth

17. und die Eingangsworte zum Dead Book the the chapter of of
"
"

"

0 '^ W"^
morrow."

^^

'

^^^-^

^ ^ ^ "m^^
"

am

yesterday

and

I know

the

In the religious texts


o
'

of the

Middle
as a

Kingdom

the sentence
^.

begins

~^
"

^^ich has usually been taken


^^^e

variant of
.pr-n-

The introductory words of the chapter which


is often translated
out

^
I
am

^^
as

^^

Atum."

rj|. Sethe points


but
"

Let the word


that
same

come

to pass.

by

various
to
me."

examples
At

~^
time

is not

the

same

(1

means

Belonging

the

he shows

that

iinnr

^K, ^ ^^ "^^
"

*^^

name

of the god, but has in this connection


"

its original

belongs To me complete, all." The sentences then would read to Let the word come to pass, [for] and yesterday and I know the morrow," sense, lost New Kingdom have texts belongs all." The this me which completely

meaning

of

"

is preserved compound of

in the Middle
n-t

Kingdom.
n

Sethe

takes the form

of

^^^

to be

of the dative followed by the pronoun of the first in writing, as is so often the person singular (omitted and emphasised by case) in Coptic ; is This use an common the absolute pronoun. of emphatic pronoun

inwk, the

the parallel phrase would

be

mai

amok,

and

it is also found

in Arabic, U'

j"

The
is

rare

position of a prepositional phrase at the beginning of a nominal sentence ; this reversal of the usual order of words is also clearly for emphasis.
of the form

The

use

^'^

appears to have

been confined to the Middle

Kingdom.

Sethe,

K.

"

Die angeblichen Schmiede

des Horus

von

Edfu.

Brugsch
bacmmt,

first and
"

identified the

lUy

3
"

TO

of Horus
" "

of Edfu

with the Coptic

Maspero or smiths metal-workers." suggested explained the word as been in has his that, the universally accepted suggestion campaign of Horus and Set, his have far-off we the echo of the invasion of smiths against of Edfu and Sethe now a metal-working race. a flint-using people by proposes to jettison
"

"

"

this theory,
'^

which
.

practically rests only from the Old

upon

Brugsch's down

identification. The times for


a

word

Sf

is used

Kingdom

to Ptolemaic

sculptor in stone or wood ; it probably read KstV, and has nothing in common The usual of the companions of Horus except the bone-sign. with the name way

of writing the
with

name

is without
bacmht

the

i.e., msnw,

tion therefore the identificaIn the earliest example,


msnw,

and

with

falls to the ground.

which is of the Middle gives the sign the place-name


c=afc=ias
a
"

Kingdom,

the word

is written
Brugsch

and Maspero

parallel text
both
saw

the determinative. workshop


or

and

in

forge erected in the temple of Edfu

for the

Zeitschrift fiirAegyptische Sprache.


" "

123

smiths which is

But the sign can also read bb, of Horus, and read it as MSNT-city. in hippopotamus-hunting. The word tnsn can be implement an used
with

From the literary well as the bone-sign. harpooner, to mean a or the whole tackle of a harpoon. evidence the word seems by the fact that in predj'nastic If this is so," the sign is easily explained Sethe suggests that the word msn were times bone-harpoons used. commonly

determined

the sign of wood

as

is a form of the

name

of the two-barbed
I would caifc=i.

harpoon

! sn

with prefixed

m.

[Sethe

suggest that it is the case in which the were ever carried. I do not think a reel was sented reprefishing-tackle, the the otherwise presence of cord wound round among any the tied in a knot would suggest a reel. The harpoon had long been and object be called a made of copper before the text in question, and therefore cannot does not explain the sign sharpened harpoon-points
"

bone-sign." Sethe,
K.

This leaves Maspero's Zum


Inzesi des

position

unaltered.]

"

translation of the well-known

so marriages consanguineous king's further proof that Nefermaat was was the son of Snefru ; Nefermaat son," a titleborne only by an actual child of a king, the son of a king's son being He also points out that, though a the word royal acquaintance." merely in a genealogy is always is sometimes son rather loosely used, the meaning limited to son. the actual strictly
"
"

has called in question Sethe's Nefermaat, which shows the closely genealogy of in early times. Sethe brings forward common

Snefru. Sottas

"

"

Van
Ka forward guardian

has been

External Soul, Schutzgeist und der dgyptische The Ka. Herr Leeuw der brings a van controversy, and of much subject it is life to that the (i) evidence show principle, (2)the double, (3)the
der

Leeuw,

G.

"

the soul-power, it is not unlike the Melanespirit. As the life-principle, ka is nothing else than to die. But the To be parted from one's sian mana. ka contmues to exist after death ; and the evidence seems to show that it is bom
But

and governs his mortal life,but its real lifebegins after death. be severed from its body is a kind of external soul ; and if soul which the dead wished to share in a higher life, they were said to go to their kas. The in representations of the king. ka as the double is well known As the guardian with the
man
a

can

spirit the ka is that form of the life-principlewhich is external to the body and for security's sake is hidden away in a secret place. As long as it remains hidden from death ; but if the hiding-place is it belongs is immune the person to whom found the person has no means of defence. This duality is shown in Egyptian
thou art of all gods hast power over all gods." Geb has here secured the safety of his If ka by it the the versely, soul gods. uniting with of the gods dies, Geb dies ; but conif he dies, the gods die. Therefore he protects them and they protect
"

examples : God, for thou

Thou

(theGod

Geb)

art

the Ka

word is far from being said on this complex subject.Further Egypt, the by it light might be thrown upon a study of the qarina of modern into the world with each child. The double of the opposite sex which comes African belief in the cessive ancestral spirit," which is partly incarnated in each suchim.

[The last
"

"

"

to explain completely generation, serves in-dwelling (see Anc. Eg., 1914, 24, 162).]

the ka

as

external

and

also

Spiegelberg,
thebanischen

W.

"

Ein
As

Heiligtum des Gotten Chnum


a

von

in der Elephantine from


Aswan

Totenstadt.

great

number

of granite-workers

124
must

Zeitschrift fur AegyptischeSprache.

have gone to Thebes in the course of business, it is natural to suppose that there must have been a sanctuary of their local god, Khnum of Elephantine, in the Theban necropolis where they worked. There is proof of this in several
Thebes, either dedicated to Khnum in words or with representations being Spiegelberg that worshipped. of god publishes a small wooden stela, painted with a representation, in the upper register, of the god Khnum seated ; a worshipper kneels in the lower register ; and the dedication is to
monuments

from

Khnum knows

by

^37

0 |(j

c^

"

-V-^ "?"

Master of the North Wind,"

i.e., a

man

who

wind-spells. W. Die Darstellung des Alters in der aelteren aegyptischen In comparing the two portraits of Ra-hesy on

Spiegelberg,
Kunst
von

"

dem

Miitleren Reich.

that one the well-known older man panels, it will be seen represents a much to the side than the other ; the sharpened features, the wrinkle from the nose of the mouth, the hollow under the cheek-bone, all show the advance of age. In the case of stout elderly men the wrinkle is but lightly indicated, the face

being almost dropsical in its fatness. Figures in the round also represent old age. The best known of these is the ivory king from Abydos, which represents bent the and the withered skin of old age ; the attitude, the hanging mouth large, warm, quilted cloak is another sign. In the slate statue of King Khasekhem the characteristic nose-to-mouth One of the best examples clearly marked. wrinkle, though not very deep, is still be found in the two his life two a man can the at stages of of representation of
statues

from Hierakonpolis

Hierak. XLI) (Quibell.

One of these shows this of Rahetep, high-priest of Memphis. prince in flower same man the the the the church other shows of of young manhood, Louvre The is in his another case when past prime. celebrated scribe of the verging on point ; the flabby body and the sharpened features represent a man
"

"

old age.

Spiegelberg, like Capart, inclines to the belief that these representations that the great not intended as portraits. He maintains of old age were did not make portraits but types, these types sculptors of the Old Kingdom
representing
men

at two

different stages of life.

Spiegelberg,

W.

"

Eine Bronzestatuette des

in human form with a represents the god Amon in the reliefsof the Old Kingdom, but nude Nude figures are not uncommon figuresin the round are rare at any period. The statuette is of bronze, originally overlaid with gold-leaf,and inlaid with gold wire ; the eyes had also been inlaid. The remains on one side of the head, and proves that the animal is It has always been remarked how wonderfully the Egyptians the Ovis Animon. figures with animal heads ; in this statuette it the anatomy of human managed
ram's

This bronze statuette .Amon. head. The figure is nude. ram's

horn

The upper part of the face is the anatomy of the face which is remarkable. human, it is only the muzzle which is are forehead, eyes, ears and cheek-bones animal ; and under the creature's chin is the beard which is appropriate to the
"

"

gods.

Spiegelberg puts the date of the statuette


"

at the XlXth

dynasty.

Der Maler Heje. Schafer has suggested that drawings on W. limestone-flakes are not always free sketches, but are often memorypotsherds and copies of some original, and Frau Luise Klebs remarks that the artist only noted down what interested him artistically. Spiegelberg here publishes a sketch which

Spiegelberg,

Zeiischrift fiirAegyptische Sprache.


was

125

found

cemetery by himself. The and on the wall of the tomb is a portrait of the artist, probably sketch on limestone, found in a tomb close by, reproduces the figure with sufficient if the inscription had not been it possible to recognise it even fidelity to make the representation of the artist'sstreaming copied also. It is evident that it was foot, as hair and of his upturned well as the flowing lines of the whole figure, which attracted the copyist.
H.

In this in the neighbourhood of its original, at Deir el Medinet. lived under Rameses III ; a great artistwho is the tomb of Huy (Heje),

headdress of the King is made of the forehead and behind the ears, and covers cloth, which is taken straight across the whole of the head ; at the back it ends in a rollof the material, the so-called each shoulder ; on each side it is pushed pigtail,in front a long lappet falls over
Bonnet,
"

Die Konigshaube.

The

nms

out into

rounded

form by the
A

mass

of hair below. is the

The

cloth is pleated in folds


,

of varying
nms

dimensions.

similar headdress
and having by women,
no

which

differsfrom the

in being perfectly smooth broader. The h'Jjt was worn


worn

lappets, the pigtail is flatter and to Borchardt was and according

by all Egyptian ladies under the wig. [In this they would resemble their dress, a handkerchief wear descendants who, when in native tied over modem The Mkt is represented in the the the head in a peculiar way under veil.]
on

lists of property known as early Kingdom.

Middle
the

Kingdom

as

IVth

is coffins. On statues and reliefs the nms dynasty, but the h%ht is not found till the New

Still,the method is of arranging the headdress shows that the one In the k%ht the simpler, and therefore probably the earlier, form of the other. the folds are a characteristic the cloth is not folded in any way, but in the nms

feature ; in the nms also the cloth is held in place round be to a metal band. appears Spiegelberg,
the Egyptian
list of gods.

the forehead by what

papyrus 25 of Bergmann as a collection at Vienna has been published by von But it also contains a very interesting funerary liturgy written
"

W.

Eine Totenliturgieder Ptolemaerzeit. The

in demotic

for

lady named

*^ _""

Artemisia. |v IqI | I^^

It ends with the

instruction to carry the bier with the body to four places, probably shrines ; the head shall be to the north, the feet to the south ; at the second, the at the first, head shall be to the west, the feet to the east ; at the third, the head shall be
to the east, the feet to the west ; at the fourth, the head shall again be to the Various offerings and ceremonies probably took place north, the feet to the south. Horus. follow these words : He Afterwards comes at each shrine. Then
"

There while the children of Horus are in the hall. Osiris, appearing in the Nun." Spiegelberg takes this as a direction to perform the mystery-play as part of the funeral ceremony.
smites the wicked appears this god
one,
. . .

Spiegelberg,
This is
a

W.

"

Der demotische

Papyrus der

StadtbibliothekFrankfurt a. M.

in which a concubine is raised to the position of a marriage-contract The wife. eldest son, who at the time of the marriage, was already in existence, is mentioned by name being instance known the this ; only of such mention by name. The child is, by authority of the parents, to inherit equally with any future children. Dr. Joseph Partsch adds a short legal commentary on this

126 contract, in which

Zeitschrift fiirAegyptischeSprache.

he points out that it is of the usual late type. It is worth considering whether a son born after marriage ranked as the eldest son, or whether that position belonged to a child born before marriage. Sethe, K.
"

Zum

Sethe Ursprung der Suffix partizipialen konjugation.


"

derives all the forms of the sdmkr-J suffix-conjugation sdmf, sdmin-f, sdmn-f, " from participles. The literal translation of ; would be "he is hearing
"

sdm-f

in

sdmn-fthe
a

also

is the preposition, preposition, and is commonly


n

verb. with
n
"

So

sdmwn-f
"

is The in of by him." sdmin-f in forms that way with other of the used This explains why in the relative form also hr is a preposition. the pronomen relativum is not expressed, although the object
is heard

"

of the verb,
voice which

| ^^
was

^^

^ ^
me."

"

"^

"^^^ ^"^^^ ^^^'^^ ^ heard," literally The

"

heard by

Spiegelberg,
,

W.

"

Der

Possessivartikel. The Egyptian aegyptische


"

and

""^ are
the New
same
"

the origin of the Coptic

ha,

ta

and

ma,

He

of, she of,


^w~^,

they of."

In the Middle

Kingdom onwards

they

were

used

with

the

genitive

and

from

Kingdom

the

masculine
n

is usually written

but at the
"

time in other examples


can

the genitive
or

is dropped

out ;
(^

so

that

He of Abydos forms
are

be written

^f J 'i' ^
with of Isis." In

J ^"^. ^"^(jllf
names,
as

These

used, in combination
can
"

gods'

personal
thus Vo^

names

;
n

and in late times for


_

express filiation, instead of the older

s^,

"^ ^^ Ji written |, ^^,


^^

Horus,
3=3;

son

the

feminine

the

pronoun

is

or

the last when

combined

with the genitive becomes


that in many

/wvAAA.

But the

in this connection
/wvw

it is necessary

to note

personal
a

names,

is
"

combination The
one

of the demonstrative

pronoun

with

relative

particle following, Spiegelberg,

who."

W.

"

Demotische

Kleinigkeiten.
has
son.

i.

This
over

is
to

contract

for

mummification and the body materials for embalming the form that and engages

burial.

Thotortaios
of his

handed

Phagonis

Phagonis all the mission, undertakes the com-

of mummification already agreed upon shall There is to be a forfeit of be carried out by the choachytes of Thotortaios money for non-fulfilment of the contract. 2. An of a debt of two silver deben and half a kite ; the acknowledgment If he should delay to do this one debtor engages to repay in seven months. the appointed time, he must pay one and a half times the outstanding debt. for house his the as as a fine. He security amount pledges of receipts for the payment 3. Four demotic examples from Hermonthis for the \oyeid "lo-tSof, as and was of a tax are given. The tax is known benefit of the priests of the bull Buchis and the goddess Isis of Philae, who had Pi-buchis. All four receipts are to the same man, a sanctuary at Hermonthis. month

beyond

4. This interesting fragment records the dedication of a gift in the temple and Spiegelberg of Isisof Philae. The gift was apparently in fulfilmentof a vow, for some sin. suggests that the pilgrimage to Philae was an atonement

Zeitschrift fiirAegyptische Sprache.


5. The
fragment
here

127

inscription of belongs to the demotic pubhshed in the Parthenios, published in Vol. LI, p. 81. The date of the inscription was but the broken are last line of this fragment, actual numbers unfortunately away. 6. The Egyptian suggested
uEiWie

which
'^^~^

in

Greek
"

is written knows

%ov^opyr)"i is derived him."

from

the

"^ that
name

J] "5"the

V
name

Thoth

Griffith has
from
"

tentatively
above, but

Greek

^orpcoiafi

is derived

the Thoth

Spiegelberg thinks
a

that

its real origin is

J^
_^

M
^^

watches,"

form of

and

which tion. has a demotic and Greek inscripA mummy-label 7. The Greek gives the date in the co-regency of Pitblius Licinius Valerianus Gallienus when a third Publius Licinius Cornelius Publius Licinius [Valerianus] Caesar. only
on

is not uncommon. in the British Museum

Valerianus (Gallienus) was (Saloninus)


name, the three rulers of the same designation. The date is May 3,
occurs

The abbreviation, which refers to this label, and may be a popular

256. 8. This is a note on the demotic writing of the name of the goddess R't-tiwy, Ra-t t^wy was Ra-t of the two Lands," Ra-t being the feminine form of Ra. the local goddess of Hermonthis.
"

a.d.

Spiegelberg,
are

W.

"

Tr]iovx"ovai";. At which
mean

the
"

found

personal

names

Kingdom there end of the New Portion, or half," of a god, e.g.,


or

^v ^~r

^"^
The

""'^^

c\

^^'^

"

The

part of Bast,"

t^-s (I

"

Part of

that the n had already of 21 and iVj shows The t of the definite article would coalesce with the been lost in pronunciation. in Greek firstletter of the noun, Ti-dni-t n Hnsw would become and the name Khonsu." interchange
TrjiovyMvai's.

Sethe,

K.

"

Die

Bedeutung

der Konsonanten

verdopplungim

Sahidischen

und die Andeutmig


explanation
occurs

des i'diirch den iibergesetzen Strich. of consonants which is indicated by


b,
.\, u, m,

of the doubling

Sethe is against Erman's in Sahidic, and points out that it


a

only after the short e doubling occurs with the letters

and

p.

the letter. The stroke over According to Sethe this

is not phonetic, but is an entirely graphic convention, which came into use before Thus a word written yuucj be pronounced the introduction of the stroke. must A^/n^ ; without the reduplication it might have represented the sounds /n/u^, or
even

('/tm^.

Spiegelberg,

W.

"

KoptischeKleinigkeiten.
word

i.

The

Coptic
same

"

?h

Quarry

"

is derived from the Egyptian

'^

which

has the

meaning.

In the

Coptic

the Israelites sought version of Judges vi. 2, when Midianites, they dwelt in dens, ukikijh caves, ujyATUJWK and the quarry-men."
2.

"

refuge from the The quarries of

considered Spiegelberg now the abstemious." epithet meaning points out that the man's Father Jacob the trade is often mentioned as after his name, builder," or Phibammon the the carpenter." ncAj-JT then probably means weaver from guj^(j to weave." proper
name
as an
"

The

word

hoa^mt

following

has hitherto been


"

"

"

"

"

128

fiirAegyptischeSpracfie. Zeitschrift
3. The Coptic
"bai

has hitherto had

no

known

derivation.
of

Spiegelbcrg
"'"^"*''o*"
"'^'^''

has already shown

that tiiaVtcot

is the Coptic form

-^

meaning "to be upon." of Jeremiasat Sakkara, 4. In the Coptic inscriptions from the convent is man a which is given the epithet of "|)ATiy, published by Sir H. Thompson, Spiegelbcrg thinks this is a variant of nyAUjyfi, the left untranslated. for form, Goldsmith," ?Aum)TB ?atkioti" carpenter," and quotes a similar would
then be
a

Nisbe-form

"

"

in support of his suggestion. to wink," 5. The Coptic x")pu,


"

is derived from
as

an

Egyptian

original.
Lacau also

This appears
however, (where, in the tomb it is copied

as

early

the coffin-textspublished by
-^^,

as

^^

the

being

doubtful), and

of Tit at Thebes. Bissing


his

Sethe,
suggestion

K.

"

Miszellen.

Sethe does not


"

agree

with
1

von

as

to

that the word

(I

is

mistake

for
"^ (I

-^
I

and has been wrongly


a

used by the Egyptian goat, the


cow

artist. On

the contrary^

is rightly used for

female wild

name

of the male

being

''^
"

The

word

-^

means

the

the
name,

ths wild ox is smi, and is the animal whose feet, made in ivory, support hunted III. Its furniture of early tim:)s, and who was by Amenhetep It is not the to be connected with the word smi to slay." smi, seems
"

hartebeest

or

bubale A

with

lyre-shaped horns, which is called

'
x

i~l

^,

\j:"

in Egyptian. is held between

characteristic peculiarity of the smi the legs,but in sitting or lying down

is that in standing its tail the tail is held stiffly out.

Sethe, K.
of Upper and They Lands.

"

The two

Lower
are

Nile-gods, who bear respectively the symbolical plants on their heads, are represented as uniting the Two themselves the personification of the two parts of Egypt, as
Egypt

have already pointed out. On the statue of Amenemhat III Gauthier and Jequier published by Maspero, they are actually called Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

lazuli figure of Taurt, bought at the Kennard sale, shows the goddess in her usual form as a hippopotamus standing on her hind-legs. It was as an amulet, but under the feet is a short peg not intended to be worn Through to fix it into a base. this peg a cylindrical hole has been bored up MoLLER, G.
"

through the legs into the abdomen of the figure. The hole is filled with a doubledfew This linen. was an shreds of offering up tube of thin gold which contained a from an expectant mother for a safe delivery. Another figure of Taurt in wood hollowed out and finished with another piece of wood, had had the abdomen A fa'fencefigure which was glued on after the insertion of a piece of a garment.
shows the goddess in the act of suckling, the right paw holding the left breast. In place of the nipple is a hole communicating with a hollow inside the figure. it in hollow If milk were trickle this out of the hole. The idea seems would put figure to be that the dedicator of the adequate nourishment would thus ensure for her offspring.

ANCIENT EGYPT
1922.
Part I.
CONTENTS.
1.

The

Tree

of

the

Herakleopolite

Nome. Dr.
2.

F. F. Bruijning.

S.\RCOPH.\GUS

OF

PA-RAMESSU. R. Engelbach.

3. Knots.

M.
4. Periodicals.

A. Murray

5. Reviews.
6. Notes
and

News.

EDITOR,

PROF.

FLINDERS

PETRIE,

F.R.S., F.B.A,

Yearly,

7 j. Post

Free.

Quarterly
macmillan
LONDON
AND
AND

Part,

2$.

and
NEW

CO.,
YORK;

EGYPTIAN

RESEARCH Chicago.

ACCOUNT,

Ancient

from booksellers is 2s. Net price of each number Subscriptions for the four quarterly parts, prepaid, post free,ys.,are received by Egypt" University College, Gower Hon. Sec. "Ancient (H. Flinders Petrie), Egypt.

Street,London,

W.C.

1.
news,

Books for review, papers offered for insertion, or Ancient Egypt," Editor of
"

should be addressed

:
"

University College, Gower

Street, London,

W.C. 1.

Subscriptions received in the United States by


Miss Helen

:
"

Gardner, Art Institute,Michigan


Adams

Boulevard,

Street,Chicago, 111.

'^y

END AT THE THE LEFT HAND SEE THE

OF

SARCOPHAGUS AND

OF

PA-RAMESSU. NOT ON

CARTOUCHE

NEB

UBEN

ERASURE.
AND

TO

THE OVER

RIGHT ERASURE.

ARE

EARLIER

CARVINGS

OF

PA-RAMESSU

WITHOUT

CARTOUCHE

NEB

UBEN

HEAD

OF

WORSHIPPER.

PTOLEMAIC

STELE,

ABYDOS,

ANCIENT

EGYPT.

THE

TREE

OF

THE

HERAKLEOPOLITE

NOME.

(Concluded.)
The species from a botanical point of view. consider the subject is Raphia' pinnate leaves, surpassing the characterised by large penniform trunk in size. The trunk is so short in proportion that Wurming the writes of
us now
"

Let

almost p.

stem-less Raphia-palms

"

d. [Lehrbuch

okologischen

Pflanzengeog., 1918,

616).
In this it differsfrom

the tall-stemmed slender species, mainly of date palms. In accordance with the Raphia is the determinative showing a short stem and a strongly developed crown of leaves. Agreeing with this is Diimichen's view texte erw. Bdume, p. 63)that dieser Baumname, wenn [Alt. quoted by Moldenke
"

eine andere Palmenart auch nicht die Battel palme, so doch moglicherweise bezeichnen konne, vielleicht die Zwergpalme. Mit Bezugnahme auf die dem

Worte

am

auch

Worterb.
der

Supp.,am,
gewesen
a

Bedeutung die das Kind,' zustehende determiniert durch das Bild des p. 64), gegebene Name
'

'

'

(Brugsch, Kindes)wurde des


entreffende
possibilityhnn-neswt,
ewHC

Kleine

'

Zwergpalme Such

Die

Kleine

'

eine

durchweg

Benennung

sein." surmise is rather dangerous,

as

it leads

one

on '^

to another
/^

May
"the
C2MHC

this be connected palm-grove


and
^mat
"

with the

name

of Herakleopolis Note also


that

% '"^
Coptic
sunt

^AA/v^A

of the king"? is rami palma"


p.

the

ewec,

vel vitis in quibus the form

dactyli adulti,
now

at

uvae"

Lex., (Peyron,
the

and 355),

8,^ ^1 '''^- Even


"

at

Khartum
"

Raphia

Monbuttorum
von a

palm Schweinforth

Herzen (Schweinforth,
on

is called nakhl el Faraun, This palm Afrika, 1918,

or
was

104).

the royal found by

of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, 8" N. 28" E., where to have its northern boundary. it seems But, comparing the recession of other it is now further this though entirely plants, probably extended northward, as Middle far It in Egypt. have as been north extinct might artificially retrieved Egypt, after it had receded to the south. The Raphia palms, which flourish in the

Jur River,

branch

likely to have survived on the swamps of Middle moist soil,are more the Fayoum, than in the drier conditions of Upper Egypt.
'

Egypt

and

A. Engler,

2, Pflamenwelt Afrikas, von

2, familien,

1889, 3, Palmae

O.

1908, p. 227 ; Engler and Prantl, Natiirl. Pflanzen3, 9. Raphia, Drude ; Martin's Hist. not. Palmarum,

p. 216, 1836-50.

The Tree

Nome. of the Herakleopolite

Besides the short stem the Raphia is especiallycharacterised by the enormous drooping inflorescence. The length of this is about one metre, and is the more Compare conspicuous by the stem being less than a metre and a half high.
Fig.
II

with

Fig.

i,

where

the

spadix has already passed into a drooping in inflorescence. This change is more marked Before Tehneh the (Fig.lo). going example is Raphia further we the should consider why
not

figured with might


well without

an

There

wine-palm

spadix. representations of the inflorescence, merely as a be


such
as

obviously

large

s^

r J
"^

^ 'y
n

"li'
'4 ^J
4

palm, short-stemmed Sakliam-ab-Perabsen


^^^ ^^' ^"^ Bener-ab princess ^^S-

that

Tombs, {Royal
in
the

a seal of on II, xxii, name

189)

j 1 ^9^ 1 1, itfi

palm

of the

i) which might Fig. 12. equally read Ama-ab, Raphia is monoecious, the spadix having both male and female flowers, in separate bracts branch, see Raphia Rufiia in Fig. 14. of the same
In this
I

II, {R.T.,

iii,

is

blossoming

branch, female

flowers

below and male above ; 2, two female flowers half covered by the theca-form bracts ; 3, male flowers with bract and firstleaf ; 4, seed, back ; 5, seed, with ripe fruit, and flowers section ; 6, branch
: (Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien 6 also in Maout et Decaisne.) It should be noted that the sheath-like bracts in which the flowers lie, are like the perianths Kingdom (Giinther often figured in the New

below.

Roeder, Blumen

123).
J] ~n~

They

der Isis,Zeits. 48, 1910, pp. 115appear as determinatives of mas


"

Vocah. (Levi, di
TT"

2,

p. 272,
entrano

mazzo

di
nell'

fiori, collane
altro

fiori, che

I'uno p.

")
D

-^
"

I (Budge, Diet.,
bouquet, bunch

287)

and

mas

of flowers."
"

There may be some connection between the fruit d'un form of the seed of Raphia, and the palmiste indetermine carved in green stone,
"

found

in the

Aha

tomb

(De
On

Morgan,

Tombeau

de Nigadeh,

Fig.

714).

the offering table of

Sarenput,
12.

son

Palm

of ok

Bener-ab.

Haute Eg. i, 1894, p. 155). be compared with the fruit-bearing spadix of Raphia in Fig. 13. vinifera Thus we see various groimds for the supposition that the tree of the Herakleopolite nome was or Raphia. The correctness of the reading wine-palm

13. Spadix

Raphia

Vinifera.

figure which (De Morgan, Cat. Man.

of ati-hetep, there is an indistinct might be connected with Raphia

It may

amA

in place of

nar

is in accord

am-khnti

and am-p/iwu condition that it must have

with de Rouge reading am-khent, and Brugsch The wine-palm {Aegyptologie, also satisfiesthe

447).

been known

in Egypt

in the earliestperiod.

The

The

Tree

of the HerakleopoliteNome
from
ama

ages, and which have but few treethe palm-wines. There was palm among yet already some confusion in determinatives, see Teta 334, or Pepy 826 and Meryra Pyramidentexte, 1908, 249 and 704 (Sethe, 380). In Pepy, 826, the determinative
remote

Pyramid

Texts, which

descend

determinatives,

name

the

is the

same

as

the sycomore

cn

^.
^^^

in Meryra ^^
^

"

113,

the wine-palm

follows

"

'^^P^^^^^'^-^^l' foliage. This palm-wine, well known


texts,
as

^^^^^

short-stemmed

tree with

thick

in later lists,occurs

also in the pyramid

in Teta
nature

120

(1

=0=

V\ (1

P.T. (Sethe, 55).


as some

The
between

of palm-wine

palm-wine wine is obtained from the sap of various species, drawn The sap, collected in a very primitive or the head, or by cutting off the spadix. is fermented In Mesopotamia to produce manner, this sap-wine was wine.

the true

should be noticed, and that fermented

from

confusion has arisen dates. The true palmby incisions in the spadix,

14. Flowers

and

Fruit

of

Raphia

Ruffia.

collected from It seems case. the sap-wine


exterminate The use

the date-palm, but in ancient Africa this was became more probable that the date palm
was

probably not the valued for fruit,

only drawn from other species ; and this may have tended to these in the northern habitat. like that of other fruits ; the ripe fruit was of dates for wine, was
or

mashed

with water, pressed

boiled, and then fermented.


as

To avoid confusion
I r-^^

it is best to call this date-wine,


2;

in Egyptian
zw.

(^
Buck,
"

(EbersPap,
true

x,

palm-wine in listsof offerings,along with arp nth, arp dbsh, arp for palm-wine The reading amt, arp snw wine of Buto and arp hdmw. Bollacher xiii, 9) this seems (Pliny remarks originates from Brugsch ; but as extinct in Egypt groundless. It is, however, evident that when Raphia was constantly arp-amcl
recurs
"

Pliny xiv, 9; Wiedemann,

Herodots

355). The

in (save

few

the oases)

name

of palm-wine

might be extended to other products


A
2

of palms.

4 As the

The Tree

Nome. of the Herakleopolite

was also valued in Egypt heart brains or leafage, of the tree, and otherwise called the It was taken from many differentspecies, and probably also from the wine-palm. has a sweetish taste, was much appreciated anciently, and is still a dainty as sold

was the palm-wine Herakleopohs, so the palm-cabbage

refreshing drink
"

from
"

the
"

sacred tree of food. This a as


"

terminal bud

in Cairo.

Regarding that the


or

the
name,

name

of the palm-cabbage

Moldenke
"

{Aliaeg.Texte, 55)
der Dattel-

supposes palme," Ebers.

was
"

1\

0 '^J^ "O""

Blattenwerk

elsewhere

(p.64)

Blatter^ oder Blatt spitzen."

Joachim (Pap.
"

Berl.

1890) rendered
But

^ ^ ]^0
we

^^ ^
as

as

Zweige

vom

aw-Baume."

it is possible that

should read this


the

the leaflets of the


V\

large penniform
as

compound

leaves

of

wine-palm,

or

"^ 0 ^y""
palm";

the

same

leafletsof the date-palm, rather than the palm-cabbage. I

For but this

''^ 0^^ 0
''^~^

Moldenke

renders rather

"Flower

of the

anui

seems

unlikely, and it might

mean

the living part of the tree,

the so-called palm-cabbage.

"J-may
which

also be written

^ """
as

determined well
as

by

an

ear,

or

shell-shaped organ, papyrus

is found in various plants xiv,


M,

in the palms.
^

In the Hearst
m

(Keisner, 1905.
*^
'

14,

to

xv, ^"^^

i)

i " T P0 H ~^ 0 l,n
by Wreszinsky
"

'

0 0 1^ 0

' *^ '

is rendered

sycomore

Med. Pap. imd Pap. (Lond. seeds, napeca seeds, amd tree seeds, acacia seeds." Hearst, 1912, p. 125). Reisner read ^ as leaf of a plant "written either with or without the determinative {Hearst applying to the expressions as a whole
"
"

"

"

pap. vocab. ^ I should

pp. 14 and

17).

Perhaps
as

both

probably not be read here


p.

be partly right. renderings may ad but as onkh, according to the Berlin

Med. is given in full (Wreszinsky

Pap. Berl. V, 4,

5 ; and p. 10) this represents


.

the other hand if we accept Reisner's view and suppose that a leafy organ, resembling an animal's ear, and hence resembling it a the sheath of more palm enclosing the spadix, would be inapplicable to the sycolike Hence, I conclude that it simply means buds," shaped or acacia.
"

On

an

ear,

out of which

the lifeof the plant emerges.


or

This would
acacia.

apply equally to

the

terminal bud

of the palm

buds

of

an

The

"y

^I 0

^\ Q
V
'

would

then be the palm-cabbage difficult term


to

of the date palm.

Another

define is the

\\

"^^

'^

*^ fl

vine, the sycomore Pap. Hearst I,

Lond. Med. Pap. 10059, i"^ and the napeca (Wreszinsky, 14). Various renderings of ashed have been proposed, apricots Balanites (Maspero), Cordia Myxa (Dumichen, Loret, Moldenke), grapes (Murray), fruit. fruit for or term a later be it to seems a of group (Reisner) ; and general

rTV,'

^"

organ thus found in such different trees

as

'] the

''^^^

"^

palm

.^^ and the

[Itmight well
I propose
*

"

"

"

mean

simply

gathering
ants,

or

fruit

"

in all cases.

"

Ed.]

Thus,

to read ashdt nt

clusters of fruit of the wine-palm.


of willow leaves
med. pap. 3038, {Grosse
1909, 7, 12).

As also Wreszinsky

in the case

The Tree
Another general term
khsd-n-amd.
is

Nome. ofthe Herakleopolite


or

^
as

J^ O

Iq)

"^

O,

kh sd,
"

'^

A^

(),

Joachim

and

Wreszinsky

It has probably a wider meaning in Egypt of botanic morpKology

fruit of the dm tree." render it kernel of a large size. The terms core, as or fully will need much research before they are
"

_^

both

understood. To return to the palm-cabbage, Woenig calls it a very excellent vegetable," Egyptians from brain by the the of the palm, that isfrom so-called obtained
"

in alien Aeg. 1886, the young, tender and juicy [Pflanzen shoots of the leaves than pp. 221 and 312). Though usually precise, this writer here states no more It be it is found in lists that the did the ancients. not noted should of offerings, Maspero in 1897 that no but no more are many other vegetables. remarked general vegetables are specified except onions, but they are only included in some On the other hand there are many figures in sculpture which rubric at the end. to be palm-cabbage. seem for artichokes by C. Pickering [Races have been taken of Man, F. but doubts diesen Unger^ Wenn von Darstellungen this etwas alien p. 371); in Anspruch Fig. 27 far Palmenkohl es nur genommen werden konnte, so waren bedeutend den Aehnlich die von iibrigen erscheinen allerdings abweichen. und 28, These
"

"

in den agyptischen Alterthiimern die Darstellungen der Bliithenstrausse, von Stiel und durch welchen ist die Artischoke nur durch den meist gekriimmten Straissen bei den Bindfaden der Mangel Ringelung, den was den andeuten As far back soil,zu unterscheiden weiss." had recognised the palm-cabbage at Beni
as

1834 Rosellini

Hasan

(Mow. civ. p. 388) Denk. II, 129). Leps., (see


"

Unger oben

takes this figure to be erweiterte Wurzel

Raphanus

sativus
von

horse-radish, {major),
Blattern,
von

Die nach

triigtNarben

innersten

jiingsten und nocli in einem sind. Allerdings Beta das mehr fiir Palmenkohl am wenigsten." Raphanus, spricht alsfiir alleinfiir The latter words, which I italicise, a notable are opinion from so serious and
accurate

entfernten Buschel vorhanden

denen

die

leaves

bearing or a Beta with a Raphanus Schweinfurth doubted the the top of the root. up, or nearly up, ^ in ancient Egypt. The reference to an inscription on appearance of Raphanus he was by Herodotus be taken as to what the pyramids must with all reserve
a

botanist

as

Unger.

never

met

to

be. Loret takes his own told by others, however accurate observations may figures be Lactuca Schweinforth to the above and Buschan* named saliva,^and agree with this. These figures are but exceptional ; and in my opinion those published by V. Bissing Lactuca.

(Gem-ni-kai, xxvi)and

Reno

Muschler*

are

by

no

means

In other cases there may, perhaps, be figures of unnoticed species ; but the We return now interpretations be set aside. must such as pine-cones older Woenig is surprised at De Candolle doubting to the question about artichokes. Egyptians Cynara having scolymus, or its prototype C. Cardunculus ; but about
"

"

C. Scolymus was in Egypt. he after all doubts whether known European C. Cardunculus is the the that prototype certain south
'

It is almost of Scolymus.
math.-

In Botanische

dem Streifziige aiif

Gebiete der Cultur-geschichie, Sitz. Kais. Ak.

natur.,
' ' ' '

des alt. Aeg. 38, pp. 69-140. In Ver. Berl. Anthrop. Ges. 1891, 665. Flora Phar. 1892, 68, No. 113. Vorgeschichtliche Botanik 1895, 144.
41.
A

Classe I, die Pflanzen

Elaiiterungen

an

den

Pflam.

Nome. The Tree ofthe Herakleopotite


were

The

Originally the hard and unpalatable flowers of Cardunculus described by Theophrastus, who artichoke proper was

used
us

as

food.

between the thalamus resemblance and the palm-cabbage. later figures. The spread of the artichoke was Egyptian than the much very slow ; in 1466 from Naples to Florence, and not till1548 to England (H. Philhps, Hist. CuUiv. Veg. I,

reminds of the This, however, is

23); but

there is no

reason

to expect it in early Egypt.

We

determine, because of may, indeed, meet in reliefs with plants which we cannot imperfect execution, especially in provincial art ; moreover, the figures are often damaged. Again, repeated copying, regardless of the original may subject, We be divergence. cause therefore must cautious, and restrict ourselves to wide comparisons of repeated forms which are not very divergent. Any wide deviation be specially considered. As Schweinforth remarks, II faut une must profonde
"

15. Rames

seated

holding

Bouquet

of

Leaves.

du style egyptien, de la symbolique figuree et des plantes du pays De plus, de bien interpreter la signification de ces images. pour etre a meme tache qui doit etre supportee autant par le savoir que par la critique. c'est une II s'y agit parfois de reconnaitre, parfois de deviner. La determination d'une connaissance
les yeux une on a sous deja difficile quand bien de dessins lorsqu'il jours, aussi grossiers gravure.de ellel'est plus s'agit Flora phar.Bull. Inst. Eg. 1882, No. 3, p. 9). de la sculpture (G.S. que ceux We field to the regularly recurring forms, should therefore restrict our

plante

comme

esp^ce

est souvent
"

nos

type. Any considerable only slight divergences from a normal When look be we deviations thus critically carefully considered. must strange sources at the artichoke resemblance, we see that it is impossible, and only two As against bouquet of leaves, or else the palm-cabbage. likely,an artificial seem which
have
or

the bouquet,

we

see

that such

are

either straight

or

curved.

For

instance.

Nome. The Tree of the Hernkleopolite

seated before Rames [Thisis generally accepted from very primitive is seen Khay
are

reduced
one

to -4 few

(Fig. 15) holds in his left hand a bouquet of leaves. a palm similar but spathe.^F.P.] Something E. xlvi, Hierakonpolis (Quibell, where the leaves i), Gemnikai Mast. Gem. 2, In the lines. (Bissing, mastaba of
as
.

is preceded and followed by a man carrying a of the offering bearers flowers Bunches leaves or tied hand together in the left of (Fig. palm-cabbage 17) Nekht-ef-Mut are at the Ramesseum sometimes placed in the graves, as that of pi. i)
R. xvii, (Quibell, 10). Leaf -bouquets
as are

sometimes

figured in the New

Kingdom,

in

Lepsius,

Denk.

as

123A, 78, which a bouquet wrapped many

latter Unger

Ill, 236A ; VI. describes


a

in

leaf.

There

are

representations

and probably they already knew of various species, and perhaps indicated them in figures. As early
see

cabbage, Kingdom

of the palmOld in the

cabbage of Khu and Antefaqer (Boeser, BeschrijEg. Versam, ; ii). ving pis. xxix, xxx Also those of Upuatu-a (pi.iv) and
.
.

examples of the palmfine the steles in Leyden

Upuatu-nekht

stances (pi. xxviii).Earlier inare at the tomb of Ti (Steindorff, Grab des Ti, and that of User-neter 37), (Murray,Saqq. Mast, xxiii), while it later Deir Bahri at appears (Naville, el D. B. I, XV).
"

Far the greater number of so-called artichokes," on the funeral offerings,

undoubtedly At least one


the tomb

represent palm-cabbage. relief may be quoted, from Ptah(Davies, of Akhet-hetep

hetepand Akhet-hetep, where xvii),


man

the is seated with food before him, ing eatin a way the palm-cabbage (Fig. 18), which clearly proves that it is not an

artichoke. We may note, by the way, that the palm-cabbage was never used to make Scheil has suppalm wine, as posed. (TombeauxThdbains, V, p.

Sealing, IInd on 16. Palm carried. 17. Palm-Cabbage

Dynasty.

562.)

I have tried to point out the probability that the tree of the Herakleopolite is a wine-palm, Raphia Monbuttorum, nome has which since then retreated It has doubtless kept its southward. place longest where the conditions were favourable, and a warm more Among air and soil gave a damp atmosphere. Oases. is are a In the there such sites ment stateparticularly support of these views by Sethe {A.Z.Ivi, is a special trees field aam that the not of 44-54) as sources oasis but a general term for the Oases (p. of palm wine, defined 52), thus in the Edfu he brings to thee fields of aam text, palms, making intoxication with its wine." II, Rouge, Ins. (De 99, Edfu,
" "

"

14.)

The Tree
I cannot leave the

Nome. of the Herakleopolite

disclaiming any special study of the Having been archaeology, as my work has been widely apart from Egyptology. in for more botanj', than twenty-five years especially agricultural, an practical into contact investigation of the ancient botanic material of Egypt brought me without subject
The the civilisation with Dr. Boeser, who has revealed to me of the Pharaohs. interestonce aroused was unquenchable, for the Nile has an irresistible attraction ; I soon to own realised gave material enough stimulate research. and my

subject

that the application of physical science to Egyptology demands a knowledge of both sides, especially in the language and literature. On the other hand, I acquirements would emphasize that the philologist requires sufficient scientific

i8. Man

eating

Pai-m-Cabba(1e.

to
our

follow the physical side of his subject.This, however, does not diminish for The has been done by great scholars in Egyptology. gratitude what of this science has gradually become
so

domain

wide

that it is nearly impossible

We cannot to deal with allaspects of it,as is likewise the case in other sciences. work now without specialising, in order to obtain a critical interpretation of the material, and to render the structure of the subject not only wider but more substantial. It is desirable then that not only philologists but medical men, feel the charm of botanists, and other technical students who agriculturists,
our

historic knowledge
of this

of ancient

view its scope.

which subject,

civilisation, should acquire the necessary will prove not only instructive but fascinating in F. F. Bruijning.

5^
THE

SARCOPHAGUS

OF

PA-RAMESSU
Heir
of

FROM I ?

GUROB.

Was
The

He

the

Seti

of description will therefore the School, entitled Gurob ipip-ip20 ; a summary suffice here to introduce the question of the identity of the prince. About twenty-eight years ago eiglitmen worked out a large shaft at Gurob and flooded, the mummiform lid of a very large red-granite sarcophagus only being visible above the surface. A Greek antiquity dealer was to see this cover, and he offered "50 if summoned The it could be broken into sufficiently small fragments to make it transportable. finders broke off the head and part of one arm, I from hear, can got what and,
on

red-granite sarcophagus found by the British School of Archaeology Egypt in the season 1919-20 has a somewhat curious history. Photographs in the Cairo Museum, now the sarcophagus and cover, together with the plan the tomb and full description, are being published in the forthcoming volume

in

of
of

discovered,

reaching the burial chamber,

that it was

The secret of this find had,, however, leaked out by this time, the party of eight had become forty, all eager for a share in the loot. A fight and ensued, and finally the affair was given away to the then Inspector of Antiquities
it to the surface.
sent of the district,who arrived on the scene, seized the lid, and in due course it to the Ca'ro Museum, du fils roi 4""'' where it was registered as No. 30707 Rameses II." There it has remained ever since, until recently fixed up against a
"

knowledge to have been completely of the position of the pit seems lost, and we had to take the largest and most prominent pit and chance our luck. The firstpit proved to be the one, and we found the plan closely resembled the royal burials in the Tombs After bucketing out the of the Kings at Thebes. in the chamber were we water and clearing out the rubbish from the tomb find to a the sarcophagus was surprised sledge, coffin represented as being on and sledge being in one piece. The inscriptions on the sarcophagus present no who is special peculiarities,except in the spelling of the name of the owner, Vizier," Royal Son," called Pa-Ramessu and Ramessu, and whose titles are
" "
"

wall. The

Hereditary

Prince of the Lord

of the Two

Lands

"

"

and
an

Commander

of the

Bowmen." The
name

of the prince is written in various ways,

analysis of the

name

showing

the

following pecuharities,
"
"

and only for the titles Vizier," Lands Commander and of the
"

P1 '^^|t| A^ Hereditary Prince


Bowmen
"

always (^^^ variants)


"

"

Two of the Lord of the Son Royal ") ; (never with

'Y* p and [fl

p^ with I ffl
already added.

"

Royal

Son

"

or

without
form

title.
name occurs,

As

we
t.

have

remarked,

in whatever

the

the

epithet

has been

10

The Sarcophagus of Pa-Ramessufrom Gurob.


Apart from the title
"

Royal Son," the other titlesoccur each singly and in combination, the titleof Commander where in combination of the Bowmen being in the firstplace. Otherwise, we have been able to recognise no never system in the arrangement of the titles. The title Royal Son never occurs with any other title, except the added Neh Weben."
" " "

"

"

We

believe that this prince cannot


reasons :
"

be the 4th

or

any

son

of Ramessu

II

for the following

While
Son

admitting

that Sa in this

nisut
case occurs

f Ramessu
seven

-mer-

Amen
as no

can name

mean

"Royal

of

Ramessu,"

it cannot

be times,

so, so

follows the be
a

cartouche although this phrase mistake.

that it cannot

chance

We

should, therefore, read it Royal

Son

f Ramessu

-mer

-Amen

J,

and recognise in it a prince, entitled to use the cartouche, which happens to be II. Further, each identical with the personal-name cartouche of Ramessu on the sarcophagus, has been altered cartouche, and in consequence each name
II by the addition of the phrase Neh to render it differentfrom that of Ramessu to a cartouche exactly similar to his own Weben. Who then would jbut Ramessu

II ?

"

If Ramessu

object to objected
one

he would not have permitted case,) Since Pa-Ramessu was not the

anyone having his cartouche, of his sons to take it.

(orin

any

II, his actual identity must of Ramessu We cannot put him after Ramessu II as : (a) We have practically be determined. No Ramessu II would care if Gurob date one no that ; at {b) graves after after Ramessu II The his cartouche resembled that of or not ; (c) style of work on are the coifinand the early XlXth all characteristicof the late XVIIIth
son

dynasties, and II. Ramessu


It
seems

objects (d)There is no

"

position into which

we

can

fit Pa-Ramessu

after

being written in a cartouche should that the fact of the name In the full publication of this tomb, we shall give the key to this puzzle. XVIIIth list to XXth dynasties the the a their of all princes of with give wiU be found cartouche in is a name times the the the number cartouche as of written of prince These occvurs. are a fraction of the total number all taken of times the name Prince of from Gauthier's Livre des Rots, II and III. The kings entitled from the Kheta Treaty will be omitted. Egypt
most

important

titles. Under

the heading

"

"

of

"

"

III untU the end that from Thutmose this table it will be seen is known XXth dynasty, name every prince whose written in a cartouche of the The only exception being king ; in other words, was the heir. became
From III. Even be son this can that of Ramessu-kha'-em-Wast, of Ramessu is a combination of the family easily explained by the fact that his name Men-kheperbe Ramessu as name grouped among and should such names in The rule then seems Ra-senb, etc. the cartouche absolute that the name

indicates the Kha'

heir.
an

It may

-em-Wast, found is the name important


titles.

admittedly

be noted favourite
a

that
son

in

the

37
he

times

the

name

of
case

of Ramessu although

II, occurs,
has

in

no

written in
"

cartouche,

all the

most

As to the title Hereditary Prince of the Lord of the Two Lands," although before have not been able to find another example, those borne by Horemheb we des Rois, Gauthier, II, p. Merenptah his coronation {Livre and Sety 11 are

384),

of practically the

same

meaning.

The Sarcophagus of Pa-Ramessu We


with of
an a

from Guroh.

11

have, therefore, a prince, heir to the throne, before the time of Ramessu II, his, by him, by the addition cartouche exactly resembling changed probably epithet. We suggest that we have here a son of Seti I and an elder brother II
or

of Ramessu

at any

rate the heir of Seti I, who

died before Ramessu

II's

Whether this is the prince (or one figure was succession. of them) whose introduced into the Karnak Seti I, wars reliefs of the of and whose figure was II, is not certain. As regards titles,it is possible. changed to that of Ramessu
That held by some, the prince in question is Amen-nefer-neb-f, as is at least doubtful supposition, the only foundation being the possible presence of a a neb after the name, and the fact that he has the title First Royal Son of his
"

Majesty." This
Ramessu
kem-s

it occurs title goes for very little, as with two of the sons of III and even in the titles of the non-royal Amen-nakht, son of Amendes Rois, III, p. has the title Chief Royal {Livre 397),each of whom
"

Son
only

"

; neither is it of firstimportance,
uses

as name

Amen-her-unem-f
occurs.

son

of Ramessu
:
"

II,

it once

in the three times his heir

The

titlesof the unknown

(?), according

to Gauthier,

are

(i)Hereditary (2)Chief Royal

Prince and Mayor Son of his body.

{Erpa'-haW)

(3)Fanbearer at the Right of the King. (4) Royal Follower into Retennu. (5) Royal Scribe.
known, is the titles of those princes whose tombs are one examining fact in detail the on temple that the titles the struck with shown military great lists are nearly absent from the tombs (c/. Livre des Rois III, pp. 176, Of
In

177).

the titlesof the unknown


were

prince

set out

of
or

a on

tomb

purely military nature As the sarcophagus.


the lesser known

and

above, Numbers might well have


"

3, 4, and probably 5 been omitted in the


one

to the title

Of his body,"

has only to

look through
except among
"
^

the titles of the princes to


sons.

see unimportant For example, Merenptah,


"

how

it was

considered

in styling himself
"

"

''[ omits
.

altogether the phrase

Of his body

"

after the words

Royal

Son," although he is known to have this title. From this we see that, as regards titles,Pa-Ramessu to have prince. We do not insist on this, but he seems
heir to the throne. Legrain,
in the

could be the unknown been undoubtedly the

statues

Annales du Service, Vol. XIV, pp. 17-26, discusses two Cairo found in 1913, of the by Pylon X at Karnak at Museum), a person Pa-Ramessu, became son called of Seti. He suggests that this man Ramessu I, and I believe that this is now Legrain's Assuming generally accepted.

(now

hypothesis and

ours

to be correct,

we

have

the following sequence

:
"

Sethi Pa-Ramessu who


became

Ramessu

I, Men-Pehti-Re

!
Seti I

Pa Ramessu

also called Ramessu and

and

Ramessu

-mer-

Amen

J.

The

Gurob
a

Pa-Ramessu
Egyptian

King

common

custom.

Seti I, each being named father, after his grandhave The Gurob Pa-Ramessu retained may

t2

The Sarcophagus offia-Ramessit from Gurob,


" "
" "

Vizier and his Chief Bowman on the alternative spelling, and his titlesof in honour Prince his {erpa) coffin, of grandfather ; the slight change of the of the whole land into the Prince (erpa'ti) of the Sovereign being due to the royal birth of the grandson.
A list of the titlesof the Karnak Pa Ramessu, with those of the Unknown Prince of the Karnak reliefs Gurob Pa-Ramessu, is not without interest. the and Karnak
Pa

Ramessu.

Unknown

Prince.

Gurob

Pa-Ramessu.

15.

Judge

16. Chief Canal Engineer 17. Chief of Fortifications 18. Chief Priest of all the Gods

19. President of Council Royal Acquaintance 20.


It shows

etc. (?),

the great resemblance between the elder Pa Ramessu's titles and Prince and the Gurob Pa-Ramessu. those of the Karnak Numbers 3, 4, 5 and 6 are almost exclusive to Royal Princes, but Pa Ramessu

has both

the titles Royal the Princes. As

Fanbearer,
to Number

held by
as

it only dates to Seti I's wars. titles are those of a great soldier and statesman, of Royal Princes. It is curious that the Karnak Bowman

Scribe, and Royal Groom, so often Ramessu 10, could not have held it, Pa Ramessu's The remainder of the Karnak
Royal
Pa but
are

not usual in the titles

Prince omits the title of Chief for this as Limit Vizier. of space on the wall may well account and is he is sure to have had many more titles. Another and more probable reason he Pa-Ramessu Gurob he are same, that, assuming one and the would and the have had reasons not insert non-royal titleson a temple wall although he may

for doing it on

the sarcophagus. As to the significanceof the epithet Neb Weben, we have to take refuge in Assuming the genealogy stated above to be correct, it seems possible conjecture. being declared heir, had taken for his personal on that the Gurob Pa-Ramessu,
to

II wanted Deciding that Ramessu cartouche the name after his death. his instinct, from what we know of him, would take his elder brother's name,
'

be

This is the only

case

can

find where

Royal

Son

has the title of

"

Vizier.'

The Sarcophagus
to cut out the cartouches

of Pa-Raiiiessii from Gurob.


Here
we

13

of the heir.

Ramessu so of the friends of the late prince whom The conversion of the cartouche not risk offending. by the additioo of a word like nakht or senh would have been almost as bad, and incensed at his cartouche more the party of the prince would have been even It seems, being used to praise the younger heir, who probably hated him. then, within
the bounds

may II,

see

the restraining influence early in his reign, would into a laudatory phrase

was of possibility, that the epithet Neb Weben added intent, as a an title perhaps conferred posthumously, ostensibly with ambiguous II Brilliance," Ramessu Lord to trusting of posterity of honour and meaning
"

to read it as

Ramessu

is the (II)

we can suggest no in keeping morally with what We are unable to comment

other to meet
we

Lord of Brilliance. the facts. If we are know


on

This may be far-fetched, but right, it is a subtle move well II. buried here
"

of the character of Ramessu was the why Pa- Ramessu


reason
as

at Gurob,

as

we

have

not sufficientdata

dynasty
estates.

princes, to say

if it is unusual.

to the burials of the XVIIIth XlXth Gurob is possibly near his personal

R.

Engelbach.

of the sarcophagus appears to be that it was engraved for the The lid was finished and Pa-ramessu king's son nuiokheru, without cartouche. Then, his becoming his but on body one the either panel. co-regent, or all of was put in a cartouche with neb uben, accession, in the remaining panel the name

[The history

not

erased, and neb uben On the lid there was each side of the space enough to add, down substituted. in fresh a On band, the name a cartouche and neb uben. column with middle II succeeding he adopted his brother's cartouche, which enabled him to Ramessu already erected ; he denied to him burial with the appropriate any monuments
over

an

erasure.

On

the other parts the mciokheru

was

kings, and erased all trace of him.

"

F.P.].

14

KNOTS.
been averse to have to making of the early djmasties seem hardly knots. In Old Kingdom knots are ever seen, the representations of and in first it is only the Middle Kingdom that the reef-knot appears. Various devices were used for fastening ropes on boats, such as lashing with
The

Egyptians

the loose end tucked in. Strings for garments and personal ornaments must have been tied in some way, but the knot is either not shown or is conventionaUsed doms, out of recognition. As the Egyptian artists,in both the Old and Middle Kingwere were

accurate

in their detail, we
were

can

intentional, and
so an

due

not to

to incapacity
some

represent

small object knot which could representing]a

but

only suppose that these subterfuges on the part of the artistto religious or superstitious feeling in

never

be untied.

LAVIES.PTAHHETEPIR.I8

PETRIE.MEDUM.XIII.

The earliest examples of the fastening of garments are on the slate palette by Narmer. No. i shows the fastening of the curiously shaped garment worn of A piece of the garment is brought over the left shoulder and meets the king. It is from below the right arm. on the left breast another piece which comes
uncertain whether the fastening is a conventionalised knot, or whether itrepresents, a kind of leather fastener (No. as Montet xlix, pp. 120-121), suggests {A.Z. 2), As the Narmer into Middle Kingdom. developed in a the metal ornament which

example is the earliest known, and as the shape of it do?s not correspond with held in place, it Montet's suggestion of the method by which the fastener was likely that Narmer's garment is knotted, and that the conventionalised seems in leather or knot of the early periods was imitated in the late Old Kingdom other material.

Knots. When
a

fastened on the shoulder, it appears to have been tied garment was in No. 3, the huntsman in the tomb of Ptahhetep. as four there with strings, Another form of shoulder-fastening was used only by priests of high rank, for This is seen in No. 4, Rahotep it is the method of tying on the panther-skin. seated at a table of offeringsand dressed in a spotted robe to imitate a panther clearly shown in another figure of skin. The detail of the tie is perhaps more This attitude holds he one Rahotep, No. 5, where end of the tie in his lefthand. is seen again in the figureof Urarna I (No.6) who holds the long end in his hand ;
,

he also

wears are

fastening
skins and

panther skin. not given. Two

with the tie on portion of the priest's ritual dress continued into the Middle fastener is used as a hieroglyph from the ist dynasty onwards

the details of the of Gemnikai (No.7), 8 and similar figures (Nos. 9) clothed in panther the shoulder are of Ukh-hotep, and show that this In the
case

Kingdom.
10

The

(Nos. and 11), both in it is On seen, the hieroglyph or kp. k\p, clearly examination, reads and it it is is intended to knot itselfin a in though use, tied that the not and object No. 5 shows two loops method of fastening strings securely. represent some bow, however, have four two the the others, ends, which suggests ordinary and
whether loops or ends, they appear to pass through a Such a tube would be quite unpractical and could not metal tube. hold the weight of the panther skin dragging on the strings. We are then forced to representation of an ordinary either that this is the conventional

ends and leather or

no

loops.

But

conjecture
or

bow-knot,

that it is

an

ornament

made

up

and

sewn

in position, like

our

shoulder-knots. Another form


attendance
on

in by the panther-clad official of the shoulder-knot is worn Narmer This is the nearest approach to the true repre(No. sentation

12).

before the Middle Kingdom, which occurs although the cleft in the middle of the cross-over (No.13) shows that the artist did not desire to represent the knot with accuracy and truth. A similar shoulder-knot is worn by User-neter (No.14)when clothed in a panther skin. Here the hemispherical

of

knot

are objects

perhaps used to prevent the strings from slipping through the tube through which the ends are passed. fastening, we come to another part of the Turning from this clearly artificial in which
a

knot is essential, i.e.,the girdle ; yet here again the artist On the slate palette of carefully abstains from any truthful representation.
costume

Narmer

the king is in the act of smiting the

^^

who

wears

girdle only.

This girdle (No. 15)consists of a belt round long loops in front ; the little

the waist, the ends of which fall in knob to above the girdle seems projecting in knot, itself loops were one tied together indicate that the girdle the and by the drawing one though judging might almost suppose that the bunch of

loops
them

separate from the belt and were pulled through the band which held tation in place. The angle at which the belt is worn precludes such an interprehave bunch loops, if drawing the the not ; retained separate, could of of
were

their position unless they actually formed part of the girdle. by Narmer's personal attendant (No.16). In Another type of girdle is worn Yet another type of is fastening this, the method studiously concealed. of where a single girdle is found on the ivory figure from Hierakonpolis (No.17),
loose end is brought the waist-band and fallsdown the front of the loin-cloth ; its connection with the loin-cloth or with the belt is impossible to determine ; the method of fastening is obscure.
over

i6

Knots.

i "^

'

J)AVIES.
SHEIKHSAIO.VI.

PETRiE.MEDUMXV.
10

BISSINQ-KAQEMN1.1LPL2 13

j^^'Cj^ )/
ri_

"=))
PETRIE.

ROYAL T0MBS.I1PL22 PETRIE.

11

BLACKMAN.MEIR.ilPL.16

MEDUM.XV

NARNAER

PALETTE

16 "t=."v^

17

MURRAY

SAQOARA MASTABAS
I.PL.23

MARMER

PALETTE

QUIBELL
NARMER PALETTE

mERAKONPOLIS.VIl

19

20

21

22

RAMESSEUM. XXXIII

^UIB"LL.RAM:X)0"||

RAKSSsFUMyiaiii

MURRAY. SAQQ:maST; I pL.12 pL ^^

biSSINQ

KAQEMNLIPLIS

23

24

ro\
QUIBELL
RAMESSEUM.XXXI1
MURRAY BE MORGAN DAHCHOUR I PL.16
NEWBERRY EL BERSHEH.I

SAQQ: KAST:I PL.22.

PL.15

Knots.

17

In the carefully detailed representations in the tombs of Rahotep and Ptahhotep, the same avoidance of knots can be observed (Nos. i8, 19 and 20); the girdle is clearly tied, but the method of tying is left to the imagination. So also in the case of ropes by which In No. 21 the secured. animals were rope is simply Curved round the creature's front leg, and in that position could In No. 22 a bow-knot is indicated, not have held the animal for a moment.
no apparent connection with the rope-collar Again, in the the rope attached to a hoop in the ground, encircling animal's neck. for The the knot is only vaguely indicated. used securing a calf (No.

though it and the leading-rope have

23),

by the sacrificialox (No. worn elaborate rope appendage 24)may have been to the leading-rope as there is no visible join. But though splicing may spliced for some this method account of the joins could not have been used in No. 21, knot a kind was where of some essential.
The firstattempt to represent a knot truthfully occurs in the Xllth dynasty both Dahshur Lahun Here jewellery, at the reef-knot is clearly, and (No.

25).

though

fact that it occurs a jewel as accurately, indicated ; and the mere fastening that the beads by knot. At the was a shows ordinary of strings of same time, representations of knots in ordinary life are as studiously avoided in the Middle Kingdom in the earlier periods. At El Bersheh the ropes, by as bunched together without any which the colossus is dragged, are merely
not

connection

(No.26);

this must

to detail in the rest of the

he wished. 27) head-dress consisting of a wide filletwith pink lotus-blossoms ; at the first glance the fillet appears to be tied in a bow with wide loops, but a closer examination shows that the ends of the filletpass apparently through a metal clasp in been found in which lotuses are fastened. As such metal fasteners have never Middle numerous Kingdom the burials, it be can any of only supposed that this is girdle (No.28)twisted several times round the waist fastened by and what purports to be a knot though in reality it is nothing of the kind. The cross-belts which pass over the shoulders are fastened at the back with the ends hanging down, but the knot itselfis discreetly hidden. The
a

knots had

careful attention paid shows that the artist could have represented the Tehuti-hotep's daughter (No. wears an elaborate
scene

be intentional,

as

the most

merely the conventional At Meir, Senbi wears

representation of

knot.

Ukh sign (No. 29)also shows a knot which is no knot, the loop being coloured blue while the ends are white with a littlered ; this suggests that the loop and have no In a bird-catching scene ends connection with one at Meir, another. the two ropes which close the net are fastened to the pulling rope (No. the 30), knot is given with great detail,but it is not a knot. On real representation of a the same wall is a scene of boat-building, and here the knots are almost accurate that the artist could indeed draw a knot if he so desired. at Deir-el-Bahri, the ropes at the side of the of Mentuhetep, boat (Nos. are so 32 and 33) arranged that the method of fastening cannot be It is evident that they are not knotted, therefore they must have been seen.
In the temple either spliced or lashed. In the hieroglyphs, the same aversion to knots is equally evident. The sign is, which means a knot, is never In the Vlth dynasty represented as a true knot. is Even in to no there (Nos. 34 and 35) attempt show the structure of a knot. XVIIIth dynasty the (No. 36) there is only the indication of the form ; however, to give the general effectof the two bandages sufficient, method of joining frequently in the Middle Kingdom Other hieroglyphs show that used (No.

(No.31), showing

37).

i8

knots.

BLACKMAN.MEIR.IPL.7 ^^

30

NEWBERRY.

EL BERSHEH

r-

I roAMT FRONT:
-r

blackman.meir.ilPL.4

^1

11
BLAtKMAN.MElR.tt PL.4 MElR.IPLil ANN:DUSERV:3I1258

HALL

DElRELBAHARi HI PL 13

BAVIES

DEIKELQEBKAWI TOMBOFAMEN-EM-HEB H PL.18

MURRAY.TOMB0FTWOBR0THERS.R.2

PETRlE.rAEDUM.PL12

MURRAY

SAQ:MAST:IPL.40

A2

43

SAQ:MAST-,IPLS.i9 40

44

PETRIE.MEBUM. PL.lS

MURRAY. SAQQ: MAST:1 PL.40 DAVIES. PTAHHETEP. I PLli

Knots.

19

ropes tucked

were

not

knotted,

in.

The
common

lashing in

lashed round an objectand the loose end in tomb the 38 and 42), of Rahotep, show this xw'-signs (Nos. is one of the most interesting of The zei^sign (No. use. but
were

40)

sign of a knot is visible. In the h (No. 41) the ends are obviously tied to prevent their In the fine of fastening the ties is not given. spreading, but the method is looped the rope three times round the example of the wr-sign (No.

it represents the loops used in forming as the cord-hierogH'phs, here the cord is only in position, the knot itselfis not completely the ropes appear to be fastened by lashing, ^wii-sign (No.

made.
as

clove-hitch ; In the

40)

no

43)

blade and round the handle, the loose end is then twisted round and round the three strands and probably pushed under one of the loops where it was to be made In the rope handle (No. 44) the loops appear by held firm. is blade lashed the the lashing ; and in the stp-^\gn (No.45) securely of adze
to the handle

From knots
were

the sign of a knot. before us, it seems, therefore, that in the early dynasties the evidence Middle Kingdom, the same though never represented. In the without there
was was a a

stillexisted, prejudice

movement

towards

an

accurate

of the knot, showing that there to pass away.

change and that the old ideas

were

presentation beginning

M. A. Murray.

20

PERIODICALS.
Vol. Aegyptische Zeitschriftfur Sprache,

LIII, 1916

from 1921, p. (continued 128)

In the Two Brothers," whose temple was near the Serapeum at Oxyrhynchus, Grenfell and Hunt see the Dioscuri. But Spiegelberg thinks they really belong to the Egyptian pantheon, for personal names are
"

Spiegelberg,

W.

"

combined with two, three and is in Coptic ncoKicKiAT two


"

even

four

"

brothers."

The divine is
"

name

Psosnaus

brothers," and Chemsneus


on

three brothers."

ScHAFER,
a

H.
"

"

Commenting
on
a

water-wheel mention of The land, whither thou goest in to possess it,is not as the land of Deut. xi. 10, Egypt, from out, where thou sowedst thy seed, and wateredst whence ye came of

Spiegelberg's proposed discovery of the ushabti-figure, Schafer quotes Marti's translation

it,like a garden of herbs, with thy foot addition in brackets should rather be
to show

The explanatory [-driven water-wheel]."


"

that it

was

machine worked So little is known

by
to
we

watering machine," as there is nothing It is, however, important to find that a watera wheel. known as the foot was early as the seventh century B.C.
are

us

before Christ that

of the ordinary lifeof the Egyptians in the first millennium largely dependent for our knowledge on foreign sources.

Vol. Zeitschrift,
"

LV,

191 8.

Alt"s und Neues zur Kunst und Religion von Tell el Amarna. Schafer, H. fills Prof. Schafer's paper on the Art and Religion of Tell el Amarna nearly heilf he disagrees on most of this number, and is a criticism of Borchardt, with whom Akhenaten, is frankly Schafer in his conservative estimate of regarding points. him as a great reformer both in religion and art, whereas Borchardt's opinion is
adverse to the heretic king. Schafer divides the royal portraits of the Tell el Amarna period into three Portraits in drawn : Akhenaten but the the conventional name (i) with classes of

before the king style. These are usually said to have been made has now instituted his reforms, but Schafer now Borchardt that proved concedes is inexplicable It Amenhetep III his son. that they are portraits of and not of

Egyptian

how

this

Egyptian

(2)The

of conventional of the youthful Akhenaten X, Mon. sun (Prisse, style, with cartouches, adoring the radiant i). hideous portraits, often bordering on caricature, of the king and queen,
can

be asserted in view

emphasizing

their physical defects. Here Prof. Schafer stops to point out the two characteristic features of Akhenaten's face the hanging chin, and the noseline continuous with the forehead. These two features are found in the real
"

portraits of the king, but Schafer is obliged to confess that there are so many variants of the royal face that it would be impossible to recognise them unless Akhenaten they were named. and his queen are represented with long thin is always distinguishable by the slight arching of the necks, but Akhenaten's The mummy of Akhenaten shows that he had a tendency to hydrocephaly with the back of the skull enlarged, a condition which appears in his daughters. nape.

fiirAegyptischeSprache. Zeitschrift
Borchardt

21

not of this shape, and contends that Queen Nefert-ythi's head was "bladder-heads" that all figures of queens with represent someone else; but Schafer refuses to admit this. It is interesting to find two learned professors disputing over*.^ matter which a woman would settle at once, after seeing the

PI. VI, 2. on shown photograph of the exquisite figure in the Berlin Museum, The shape of the head is clearly a method hair, the of arranging which is either in Madras, or is taken back smoothly women as is done by Tamil rolled on itself, by many The smoothness, over a cushion, as was worn people a few years ago. which is an essential in this style of hair-dressing, could not be expressed by an Egyptian artist except by colour. The princesses are represented with the same kind of hair-dressing, for even little girls wore wigs like their mothers throughout the historic period of Egypt. (3)The third group of portraits shows the same features as the second, but less markedly pronounced, and are distinguished also by the earlier age of the royal couple. The beautiful statue, numbered Berlin is is by Borchardt be Tutankh-Amen. This to disputed 20496, said strenuously of by Schafer, who points out that in the five known portraits of Tut-ankh-Amen Akhenaten the line under the chin is straight, whereas always has a hanging feature in The a this statue. chin, clearly shown retreating forehead, the slightly curve arched nape, and the backward of the skull are also very evident, and prove
the

accuracy of Schafer's ascription. In the Berlin relief No. 15000, which Borchardt attempts to prove is of Akhenaten's daughter and her husband, the hanging chin of the king stamps it at once himself. as the portrait of Akhenaten The representations of domestic life among the royal family are not peculiar
to this period.

There is a fragment of ivory now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, which shows a king of the 1st dynasty with his queen on his knee. Erman has also remarked Kingdom that the kings of the New took pains to show that human, and were in they were the ordinary dress of the period. often represented As regards the religionof Tell el Amarna, it is generally acknowledged that in other parts of Egypt. practised at Heliopolis and was known it local a considers cult raised to the supreme place. It is very certain III called his boats, his palace and his army after the Aten, that Amenhetep his Nebmatre, own The inscribed block name was the glittering Aten." and found at Karnak, man. was at Berhn and shows the Aten as a hawk-headed
was

the Aten-cult Maspero