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Boyo G.


A Concise Grammarof Middle Egyptian

by Hellmut Brunnerreviscdand cxpanded

/. / ^ revised Second. edition







A) Sc'nrrr B) TnaNsr-rrERATroN l) Logograrns 2) Phonogranrs

a) Logogram as conrbination of consonants 2 b ) [ J n i - l i t c r a ls i g n s 2 c ) B i - l i t c r a l s i g n s3

I I I 2


$7 S8 $9

d) Tri-literal signs 4 ,1 e)Sign cornbinations 3) Dctcrminativcs

\ l 0 4 t S p c c i afl c a t u r c s $I| 5) Phonetic Complcmcnts

.. 1
.\ -i

ar lonunciatiorr S l 2 6 ) C o n v c n l i o r rp $ l3 7) Translitcration

II. AccrorrNCE A N DS y N r R x A) NOUNS \ 1,1 l) Gcndcr a n dN u m b c r

I l5 ,' l6 .' I 7 a ) I i n d i n g s7 b) Writingstr c) Special fcalurcs ll d ) q u a l i f i c db y a n o u n c) Cornparativc I I II

fcaturcs: ir.y,nb,ky $ 25 3) Spccial C) PnoNouNs | ) Pcrsonal pronouns

$ 26 $ 27 $ 28 $ 29 $ 30 $ 3I $ 32 S 33 S 34 a) Independent pronouns I2 pronouns b) Dcpendcnt l3 c) Suflix-pronouns 14 2) Dcmonstrativcs a) Adjectival demonstrativcs l5 b) Norninal dcrnonstrarivcs l5 c) Arriclc 15 d) Posscssivc adjectivc l6 e) Usage l6 3) Intcrrogatives


2) Genitivc
.' I 8 ,' l9 a) Dircct Ccnitivc 9 b ) I n d i r c c tG c n i t i v c 9


3) Coordination and Disjunction l0

\10 ..ll

a ) C o o r t l i n a t i o nI 0 b) Disjunction l0


B) Ao:ucrrves
I ) Forms
a) fionr vcrbal slerns l0 b) Nrsr5e-forrns l0


l8 l9

2) Usageof Adjectives
a) as an attribute I I b ) a s a n o u nl l c) as a predicate I I


D) PREPosrrroNS prcpositions $ 35 l) Simple prcpositions S36 2) Compound

\ II]


E) PARTICLES 1 ) N o n - e n c l i t ip ca r t i c l e s particlcs 2) Enclitic F) N U M E R A L S

$ 62

19 2l
$ 63 $ 64

of theroot 34 c) Modifiability verbs 34 l. Strong 2. Weakverbs 34 verbs 34 a. ultirnae infirmae gernrnatac verbs34 b. ultirnae verbs34 o. irregular 2) Verb groups 3) Imperativc 4) Finite vcrb forms

numbcrs ,' -19 1) Cardinal .. J{) l) Ordinalnumbcrs 3)Datcs , 'j l

21 22 22

S 65 $ 66 S 67

35 35

r 1f

I ) AdvcrbialSentences
t d v e r b i a lS e n t e n c e s a t I n d c p c n d c nA l . S i m p l ea d v . m a i n c l a u s c s 24 L llrtcnded adv. main clauscs24 b ) I } n b c d d c dA d v c r b i a l S c n t c n c c s


S 68 $ 69 S 70 S 7l S 72 S 73 $ 74 S 75 S 76 $ 77 S 78 S 79 80 "s

Suffix-conjugation V o i c cl 6 l. Active .s4m.fliri..f 36 a. Circurnstantial b. Aorist sdnr .l'I irr.j' 37 Pcrt'cct .s/rr.ri.l 38 c. (Prcsent) d. (llisr. I'crtcctsdn.f l iri..f 4l s. The Fonn s4lm.r .l' 1l f'. Future s/n(.y).l l iri.(,-) | a2 g. Subjunctivc sln.l'I iri.(t').141 2. Passivc Voicc45 45 a. tx-Passive b, Perfcctivc Passive salnt(.n,l,v) J / iri(.v'l")J 46 sQn.t,.f l 47 c. Passivc 17 d. FuturcPassive s/mi..f'I iri.n'..1 4lJ Tcnscs 3. Contingcnt a. sr_/nr. in-l' (Pcrt'cct)4tl (Aorist) 4ti b.'..1 (Fnture) 49 c.


.-+l .' ++


l . S i r n p l ec r n b c d d c c a l t l v .c l a u s c s 2 6 L llrtcndcd crnbeddcdadv. clauscs26


27 c ) N e g a t i o no f A d v e r b i a l S e n t c n c e s

.' lf
,' +r,

2) Nonrinal Scntcnccs
a ) w i t h t w o n o u n s2 8 b) ink - Scntcncc 29 L with unstrcsscd subjcct 29 2. with strcssedsubject 29 29 -1. N c g a t i o no f l h c f u l - S c n t c n c c c 1p u ' - S c n t c n c c 3 0 l. bi-partitepx.Scntcncc J0 2. tri-partitepn'-Scntcncc 30 3. Negation ofpw-Sentence 3 I



(nfr sw')3l 3) Adj ectivalScntcnccs 4) Adjectival with rrn 3l Scntcnccs 5) Expressions ofposscssion

TABLE 1: Weak vcrb (activc) $ 8l $ 82 5) Old Pcrfcctivc 6) Infinitivc andObject54 a) Subjcot

l. Subjcct 54 2 . O b j e c t5 5 b) Usage of thc infinitive 55

50 5l 53

,. e9 I l0i) r 1r)1

32 32

6) Non-possession H ) T H EV E R B I ) Verb classes

$83 $84

. \- -'-. -.. lill \.::,: . I 101 I (l-+ ,1I'..:- -. - -..

s85 s87

106 l0l l0E 109

Construction $ 8 6 7) Pseudo-verbal
a) Predicatc57 l. Old Perfective 57 2 . h r . m o r r + i n f i n i t i v e5 7

!. 60 r.ol

a) Number of root consonants33 o)LausailveJJJ

S 88 58 b) Subject l. with ln' 58 2. with ni=l58 3. with wnnI 58 58 8) Complex Verb Forms ln' 58 a) with Particle 59 Perfect l. Present a. iw t'59 .r4llr(.u)'/59 b. iu' t Passive c. ;v' t Old Pcrfectivc59 AoristI 2. Cornplcx iw(.'fisclmT59 AoristlllProgrcssivc 3. Conrplcx iu'.f hr sdm 59 ir'.f r'.r/zr60 Future 4. Conrplcx verb'lt'.rt60 b) wrthauxiliary 6l l. ch'.nsLln.n-l 6l 2.(h..nt Old Perf'cctive I Perf'. s1ln.u' Pass. 3. cy'rc.ri .f 6l 4.'h(.n I tlist. Pcrf.sqlnr.f6l c) with auxiliaryu'n-itt6l 9) F'initcVerb Forms introduccd bY m=k or is1 62 t)n k I Prcscntativc 67 s4lm.n.f l. ar I Pcrl'. ( r' 2 .f 2.nk I Pass.s@rt.u b) lsl 62 s4ln.n.f62 l. is1 | Pcrl-. 62 sqln.u'..1 2. l.rl l Pass. l0) ParticiPlcs 62
b) Usage 69 I I 10 S I I I l. Adjectival usage 69 2. Nominal usage 69 a. in direct genitivc 69 b. as object 69 c. in Non-Vcrbal Sentence69 d. subject in nfr sw Sentence69 e. absoluteusage69 f. with a verb as object 69

S 39 90 Ss $ 9l'.fy Q I l2 l2) VcrbalAdjcctivc

a) Usage as an attributc 70 b) Usagc as a noun 70

S 92 S 93 S 94 $ 95

{ I ll

c onstruction l3) NarrativC iyi.tPw iri.nJ

10 ll 1l

V c r b2 i i { I 14 l4) AuxiliarY S I l5 J) ADVERBS K) WoRDORnUR l cntcnccs S I l6 l)Non-VcrbaS

( s e c\ S ' { 2 ' 4 l l ' 5 4 5 7 )

$ 96 S 97

{ I l7 2) VcrbalScntcnccs \ ll8 3)Focalisation

\ ll9 \ 120 $ I2I 74 a)ir-Construction l . F o c t t so n s u b j c c t 7 4 75 2.Ncgationl :r i - C o n s t r u c t i o n b ) T r i - p a r t i t cp u ' s c n t c n c e7 5 l . F o c u so n s u b j c c t 7 5 2 . F o c u so n o b j c c t 7 5




voicc63 tcnsc, nutnber, gcndcr, a) Fonns: 63 Irnperfcctivc l. 99 . 64 r\ 100 2. Pcrf-ectivc 64 3. Prospcctivc $ l0l S I02 s\ 103 s\ 104 b) Usagc65 usagc65 l. Nominal usage65 2. Ad.jcctival useof 3. Ilxtended (16 ParticiPlcs Passivc

$ 1 2 2 c ) I i r n p h a t i cC o n s t r u c t i o n : Focus on adv. exPrcssion 76

r\ 123 4) Tcrpicalisation
a) without introduction 76 S I 24 { I 25 S I 26 76 l . s u b i c c tt o P i c a l i s e d 76 2 . o b j e c tt o P i c a l i s c d t o p i c a l i s c d7 6 3. adv.exprcssion


61 rs 105 I l ) Rclativc Form 67 Form Rclative the of Tenscs 106 a) rs Forrn 68 Relativc l. sqlm.n'J' $ 107 r\ 108 2. Aorists/m.J'Iirr'J Rel.Forrn 68 Fonn 6ll Relative r\ 109 3. Prospcctive

b) following'1 I 127 I I 28 S I 29


ir 77

77 toPicaliscd l. subjcct 77 2. objccttoPicaliscd 7ll topicalised 3. adv.expression

$ 130 5)ConditionalClatses -, . a' zs $ 1 3 l a )f o l l o w i n!g
l . f u l f i l l a b l ec o n d i t i o n s 7 8 2 . u n f u l f i l l a b l cc o n d i t i o n s 7 8 { 1 3 2 b ) w i t h o u t i n t r o d u c t i o n7 u

$ 148 M) QuESrroNS s 149 N) EPEXEGESTS S 150 O) ReLerrvs ClausEs

87 87 87

L ) N E G A T T oo NF T H EV E R I I particlcs $ 133 Negative verbstn, itni 8 134 Ncgative S 135 l) Impcrativc .s@rl' S 136 2) Circumstantial I 137 3)' .s{ $ | l8 4) Pcrlcct I (Prospcctivc) 139 5) l'uturc .r/nr-f S { 140 6) Subjunctivc.s4nl' 19 79

detcrmincd 88 S 15l l ) antecedent: t :n d e t c r m i n c d 8 9 $ 1 5 2 2 ) a n t c c c d c nu P) APPENDIX o f t h ek i n g $ 153 l) Titulary 90

!-::.: j..:": - :

79 80 til 82 82 82 U3

- (Group -) Writing 9l { 154 2) Syllabic


lt8 138


I'AllLE 2: Suffix-conjugalion


r 142 ti)Ncgation: ComplcxVcrb Formswith iw U4 TAT]LB 3: ComplcxVcrb Formswith lN' 85 infinitivc $ 143 9) Ncgation: Participlcs, I 144 l0) Ncgation: RelaliveForms,sQm.t1, J.v 145 a) Participlcs 86 $ Fornr [J(r S 146 b) Rclative Forrn li6 $ 147 c).s4!n.ty.Jy 85

148 t73
I t-)

INDICES l) Grammatical indcx 2) Vcrb patterns 3) Indcx of hicroglyphic sign list

n6 t71


..- 'i-:r--.-

j-..'. - ,.:

INTRODUCTION The language ofAncient Egypt has a history that can be traced for over three thousand years. Several stages of the language can be identified: Old, Middle and Late Egyptian, Demotic and Coptic. Old Egyptian is the language in which, for example, the Pyramid Texts and the biographical and royal inscriptions of the Ol<1Kingdom (ca. 2650 2100 BC) were composed. Middle Egyptian was the written language of Egypt during the Middle Kingdorn (ca. 2140 1650 BC). In the following periods,although the spoken languagecontinued to develop, Middle Egyptian was regarded by the Egyptians themselvesas a "classical" language and Miclille Egyptian literature was used in the scribal schools throughout the New Kingdom. Monumcntal inscriptionsand religious texts were still cotnposedin Middle Bgyptian clown to the Graeco-RomanPeriod (the rnost recent hieroglyphic inscription, on a temple wall in Philae, dates from AD 394). This use of Middle Egyptian can be compared with that of Latin in E,uropedtrring the Middlc Ages. As in the case of Medieval Latin, the later texts composed in Middle Egyptian no longcr representa pure fomr of the language since they are ofien influenced by the contemporary vernacular. Lale Egyptian, the spoken languageof the Ncw Kingdorn, began to be used lrorn the Arnarna Period onwards fbr both literary and non-literary texts. Dernotic is thc tenn fbr a very abbreviatedfbrm of the script and languagethat rvas originally introducecl for administrativepurposesin the 7th century BC and continued in usc down to thc by scven 5th ccntury AD. Coptic, writtcn with thc Greek alphabct and supplemented charactersderived from the hieroglyphic script, is the latest stagc of the language, which suwives to the prcsentday in the liturgy of the Coptic Church. This book is an introduction to thc hieroglyphic script and gralntxar of Middle Irgyptian. It is offered as a successorto llelhnut Brunner's An Outline ofNIiddle it is a teaching gralnlnar and aims to Eg1;ptiunGrommar and, like its predecessor, provide the beginner with the essentialsof the languagc in as cotnpact a tbrtn as possible. It is divided into fbur main parts: Script and Grarnmar,Sign List, Gramtnar Exerciscs and Reading Exercises,Vocabulary. In addition to texts of the Midclle Kingdorn, the Reading Exercisesincludc examplesof monumental inscriptionsof the l8th Dynasty, which, as mentionedabove,continuedto be written in Micldle Egyptian. The arrangement of the material in the first parl largely follows that of Brunner's grammar: after introducing the principles of the script, the various parts of speech are dealt with. Non-verbal sentencesbeing an irnportant feature of the Egyptian language,


it is possible for beginnersto thoroughly familiarise themselveswith nouns, adjectives' pronouns and particles and yet still meet examplesof complete sentences in the exercises.The verb and its usage, together with more complex sentencestructures, fonn the last and largestsection of the grarrrnar section of the book. The sequence of the exercises,all taken from original texts, correspondsto the orcler in which the material is presented. Where forms or constructions not yet encountered appear, a reference to where they can be found in the grammar is provided. Personalexperiencein languageclasses has shown that the stuclent would benefit from more detail than that provided by Brunner'sOtrtline,thus the content of this gralnmar and the method of presentation has been expanded (all exarnples include transliterations and translations; additional examples have bcen provided, tables included, and hieroglyphic writings have been adclecl in the vocabulary). An attel-rpt has also been made to take accountofresearch done into the languageover the last 35 years, in particular in our understanding of the verbal systern. which h1s been advanced by the work of H.J. Polotsky ancl the reprcsentativesof the "Standarcl Theory". However, as a rcsult of the work of M. collier, the "StandardTheory" has in recent titncs bcen the object of critical review. This grarnrnar follows thcse new developments and, although adopting indiviclual observations of the "Stanclarcl Theory"' it docs not crnbrace the total systern. Inl'luencedby rnodern linguistics, a plethoraof new grantmaticaltenninology has been introdr.rcccl ibr Iigyptian. Ho1y"u.r, bearing in mind that this grarnmaris intentledas an introduction, I have tried to be as cconornicalas possible in the tenninology used.Those who are particularly interestecl in Egyptian linguistics should consult the works of W. Ssherrkcl ancl A. Loprieno l i s t e di n t h e { b l l o w i n g b r i c f b i b l i o g r a p h y .

:,:_i" :.>,:

: --"- -: -.:



_ _t_ -

T"I1: :r.

Further Literature: The lbllowing is only a stnall selection of rvorks on the sub-ject. A morc cornplcte bibliography canbc fbund in W. Schenkcl (2005). Ilttrk:; t trt Egy1tr iun Luttgtrtrgt, Jatnes P. Allen, Middlt' Eglption. An Inlntduc'tion to tlte Longtnge untl Culttrrt: 6f' [licrogllphs (Cambridgc, 2000): A dctailcct up to darcinrroclucrion to rhc Egypliapscript and Ianguagc. Elmar Edel, Altrigypti:;c'he Grammatik (Rorne, 1955/1965):A dcrailcdand sysrcmalic prcscntation of thc languagc of thc Old Kingdom,vcry hclpfulwith MicldlcEgyptian tcxrsthat uscold lbrnrs, c.g.thc Coflln Tcxts. Alarr H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar (Oxford, ttOSll. Alrhough thc first edition of this study appcaredovcr 70 ycars ago, Gardincr'sGrammor rcmains thc most comprchensivc prescntation of Middlc Egyptian available anclis still an esscntial refcrcncc tool forall dctailcci


interpretation of the verbal It shouldbc noted,however,that Gardiner's work in the language. Also, the structure of Gardiner's system no longer reflects our current under-standing. is not ordered methodand,unlikethis grammar, didactic Gratnmur followshis own particular according to partsof speech and syntax. syster.natically Sprache und Wolfgang Schenkel, Tbinger EinJiihnmg in die klassisch-cigltptische post-"Standard Theory" gramn.rar. It Sc'hri/i (Tbingen, 1994), is thc first compreherrsive also provides an introductionto the "StandardTheory", as well as a comprehensivc Thc latcstcdition,publishcd in of works dcalingwith thc studyof thc language. bibliography a ncw approach to thc syntaxofthe vcrb. 2005,prcscnts Wolfharl Westendorf, Grommetik der medizinischen Texle (Berlin, 1962), is uscful for corpusof tcxts tcxtssiuccit analyscs a con.rplctc work with Middlc Egyptian moreadvanccd grammars. whicharc ncltdcaltwith in gcucral obscurc construclions anddiscusscs Antonio Lopriencl, Anc'ient Egt,ltlion. A Lingui.slic' Inlrodur'liorz (Carnbridge, 1996), prcscntsa conrprchcnsivc, linguisticallyoricntcd introductionto thc Egyptian languagc, includingthc dcvclopnrcnt of thc languagcliom Old Egyptianthrough Middlc and [-atc to Coptic. Egyptian (Dannstadt, Sprar:hwis,sen,sc'haft Wollgang Schenkel, Ein/iihnrng in dia ctltg.y1ttisc'he suchas thc scnsc, this work alsodcalswith thcnrcs 1990).As wcll as graulnarin thc narrowcr mctrc. vocalisation, ancl historyof thc studyof thc languagc, rlglltt). In atlclirion to an Henry G. Fischcr,Anciant Egyptian Calligruphl'. (New York, nunlcrous obscrvations this work alsoproviclcs to Egyptian calligraphy, cxccllcntintroduction of individual signs. on thc palacography Diclionaries Adoll'Errnan and Hermann Grapow (cds.), I|/rlerbuch dcr gvpti.tthen Spruc'he, 12 vols. (Lcipzig and llerlin, 1926 1963). Although in part datcd, this work is thc only (cxclucling Dcr.notic ancl Coptic)with rcf-crcnccs of thc [gyptian languagc cornplctc clictionary ("Bclcgstcllcn"). is bcingcotrtinucd Work on lhc Bcrlin Dictionary lbr tlrcoccurrcncc of worcls ancl is acccssiblc otr tlrc Akadcmic clcr Wisscnschaficn b1' lhc Bcrlin-Brandcnburgisclrcn dc i ntcrnct thc fbllowingU RI-: http://aacw.bbaw. urrclcr

Rayrnoncl O. Faulkner,.,1 Conc'isc Dit'tionarv o/'Middlc Egl,ptian (Oxford, 1962): tr rcl'crcnccs. andalsoincluclcs with MicldlcE,gyptian compact work thatdcalsspccifically tlratclcals with der Phctntonen(Mainz, 1995): a dictionary Rainer Hannig, Die Sproc'he Pcriod(ca. 1000 frorn thc Old Kingdomto thc Third Intcrmcdiatc thc vocabulary of Egyptian as wcll as tlrc mapsare particularly BC). Thc lists of namcsof dcitics,kings and toponyms to thc occurrcncc ofwords arenot includcd. uscful.Referenccs


Rainer Hannig, gyptisches lVrterbuch I, Altes Reich und Erste Zwischenzeit (Mainz, 2003): a detailcdspecialiscd dictionary of tcxts of the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period, which includes referenccs. Text Editions (Leipzig, 1924),provides Kurt Sethe,'gyptische Lesestcke a uscfulcollection of Middle Egyptian hieroglyphic textsof all gcnres, inoluding suchas thc storyof Sinuhcand "classics" the talcsfrom Papyrus Wcstcar. Adriann de Buck, Egyptian Reading Book (Leiden, l94tt): an anrhology of Miitdlc Egyptian tcxtsof thc Middlc andNcw with cxcrciscs. Louis Zonhoven, Middle Egyptian Zc.rLs, Vol. l: Literary T'extsin thc llierutic' Script (Leiden, 200 l). A compcndium of all thc major Middlc Egyptian litcrarytcxtswrittcn in thc cursivchicraticscript,prcscrrtcd in hicroglyphic transcription. A compcndiunt of rronumcrrtal tcxtsis planncd. In thc tcxtbook scrics Ein/iihnrngen und Qucllett!e.\'t( :ut' Aqt'1ttoltryic, Christian Lcitz anil L o u i s cG c s t c r r n a n(n c c l s . )a , collcclion of tcxt cditiorrs with commcnlary ,o v c r i n g e varitlus gcttrcs is plarrnccl. TIrc flrst volurncclcals with monunrcnlal hicroglyphic tcxtsof thc CraccoRorran pcricrd: Christian Leitz, Quellcntc.\ta:ur )'g.v1ttj,s1'ftgp Rt'ligion, Iland I: Dlc TempeI i nsc'h r ifi cn d er gr i cc' h i st:h - r m i.s c h en Zerl ( M nster, 2004). Itt thc sanrcscricsa uscf ul tcxtbookon tlrc litcralLrrc of thc Old and Middlc Kingdomshas appcarcd, wlrichprovidcs an introduction to thc litcraryworksof thc pcriodand bibliographic rcfcrcnccs to tltc tcxt cditions in which thcy arc availablc:Gnter tsurkarcl,Heinz J. Thisscn, Ein/iihrung in die ultligrtlttisc'hcLitcruttrgeschic'htc l. Altes und Miillcres t , i r ' h( M n s t e r .2 0 0 31 . Usclulcditionsof'a trumbcr o1'classical tcxls havcappcarccl in lhc scricsKleint''g.t'1tti,st'he 7'c,rle cclitctl by WollgangHclcktarrtll{lrtwig Altcnntiillcr.




f " _ _ _ ' " _

',: _:i-j:'


' -"J-l -.:-

_ -(-\.--_,_

,-,i -i,:-'.



A) SCRIPT Thcrc are basically two forms of script. Texts carvcd on monumcntsarc writtcn in hicroglyphic form, where the pictorialcharacter (suchas of thc sign is clcarly rccognisable thosc uscd in this book). A cursivc form of hicroglyphs (hicratic), was uscdfor textswritten in ink mainly on papyrus, (pot shards writing boards or ostraca or flakcsof limcstonc). Tcxtsarcmostlywrittcnfrom rightto left (Fig. 1a.& lc.), but (Fig. lb. & ld.), and thcy can run also in thc othcrdircction (Fig. la. & lb.) or vcrtically(Fig. lc. & cithcr horizontally ld.). In this book,thcy arc writtcn fiorn lcft to right; thc lastof thc rcading cxcrciscs,howcvcr, runs frorn right to lcft. In Egyptian tcxts thcrc arc ncithcr spaccsbctwccn words nor



I It I
Fig. I



punctuation.Although hicroglyphs arc pictorial rcprcscnt-ations, the Egyptian script is primarily phonctic and not pictorial, i.c. rnost of thc signs havc phonctic valucs. Thc scrni-consonantsn, and I arc not writtcn at all in thc carlicst tcxts but appcar rnorc licqucntly ovcr tirnc, morc oltcn in word stcrnsthan in cndings. B) TRANSr,rl'F]RATTON phoncmcs.For thcir translitcration Egyptian has 24 consonantal and thcir approximatc phoncticvalucs scc $ 5. Thc unilitcral signs dcalt with thcrc form thc Egyptianalphabct (as rcconstructcd by modcm scholars) and thcir scqucnccis that uscd in dictionaricsand vocabularics.Vowcls wcrc not written and arc thcrcforc not considcrcd. I ) LOGOGRAMS (alsocallcd "ldcograrns") Logogramscan dcpict thc objcct they designate:
rc.w ttsuntt;


? hr "facc"

hw.t "housc";

or they can havc symbolic mcaning:

i.i :l'tl .sJ

(,oldcr.rl_rl) (writing cquiprncnt) for "scribe", "to write" (flamingo) for dsr "to be red", in dtr.t "the rcd land", i.e. "dcscrt" (threc strokcs) dcsignateplural



2 Script and Transliteration andhavesymboliccontent: Somesignscanboth depictthe objectdesignated () r'.w "sunt'or "day"; l)' i "heart"or "thought", "wish" "understandingt', 2) PHONOGRAMS


(followingtherebus-principle) OFCONSONANTS AS A COMBINATION a) LOCOGRAM rb ("basket")

? ftr ("face")


* n "lord"

a pure and bccomes character Whcn used in this way, thc sign losesits logographic phonogram, abovea bi-literal(cp. $ 6). in theexamplcs


pronunciation in brackcts) (pointers to convcntional b) UNI-LITERALS

x I
t '|l,\\

i i

(as in "hard", Scmitic aleph) (as in "in", Semiticyorf

() {)

b lr

@sin "locft") (asin German "icft")

(voiced s as in "nose")


(asin "baby") (glottalstop,Scmiticayir)


s J (asin "sftapc")


w (asin "way"or "pool") h p f


k, q (Scmitic kaJ) k
.g t

nt n


(as in "ilclr")



(voiced as in ')unglc")

h) cmphatic ft (like Semitic

phonctically; this applicsin By thc Middle Kingdom,z ands arc no longcrdistinguished historicallycorrectwritings.onc part to t and1, as well as d and g/,so that, alongside In this book and - are transwherethcscsignshavebcen interchanged. finds cases literatedas s. t! y at the end of a word can only bc followed by the additional sign.The but by no otherphonetic w (plural)and a dctcrminative, cndingst (feminine),

Phonograms 3

in the Late :_:rptian scripthasno distinctsignfor /, for which it uses), n or r (also.9)-r. i::rod). . -rnher uni-literals: ,1. rl), \, m (acfiallyim), i/ r,i,for / or 1(actually :;'ginning of a word. *';\,,\, atthe "\ m



iw lb, mr iw im, g,s im in ir 1s


pJ pr ph ml mi mn mr mr mh

rl \ ?

hnt hn hr hs


.fi Jw Sn


hd br h' !r hr
hn hn ftr
sJ si
.tlt ii .s/?


&s kd
L) A) i'

wl w' wp wn wn wr wd ht bh, hw

km g,m

-' -)r

mt nw nw nh nm

)l {t ;r' , li. \\ I

ti tm

dl 8w Qr




4 Script and Transliteration



| 'nu ii 't ,h,


I ttkr
i, htp

t\ 1:l pr .:'1 sdnt

r ftlt




1 | ^-.-... nn mu, ,l t tllt

it)'i i





n ( .

lyi "to comc":

' ,,:rr' "tO gO" ,{,71 ancl.r, ) in '-l' \


3) DE,TERMINATIVES detcnninativcs: Thc following is a sclcctionof thc Inostcommon

;t i)i iji,ii jil ,j! t'i ii,; -\ o. *l it'

rnan worran pcoplc cat,clrink,think, spcak carry loacl, dcath cncmy, rction strcngth. grcct plcad, praisc, child

cmbracc go, tunt back lcg,stridc trcsspass cross, skin,quadruPcd bird,inscct bad,wcak srnall, alight t'luttcr, trcc \ plant,flowcr wood,trce sky, abovc hcavcn, I night sun,daY,time

il ili,:\r' god,king
)t.) ,. SCC


nosc, breath, rcjoicc, angcr

llcsh, lirnb nothing ncgation,



hl l_1

Determinatives 5

stone road,travcl,locality land water mountain, dcscrt, foreignland city

\.../ I il

festival cloth,clothing

':... l - ,1

calculate, break nouns book,writc, abstract

r i plural

\fost words cnd with a dctcrminativc. It has no phoneticvaluc but points to thc :n!-aning of thc word.It helps, for cxarnplc, to distinguish betwcen wordswhosestems :rrrc thc samcconsonants: wltl "lo bc grccn, frcsh" spr "to plcad" ()
.tlil' "plan"

A )'r'1

wld "a grccn stonc" Jpr-"to arrivc (at)" . r l r r" t o f a l l "

a) Whcn a vcrtical strokc is appcndcdto a sign (dcpcndingon thc word, accornpanicd by :hc fcmininc cnding / or plural strokcs),thc sign is oftcn to bc rcad as a logograrn, which .iocsnot rcquirc a dctcnninativc: ftr "facc"'"ann" ., nri,.t(rrir.l,.r)"city"

s l0

Thc strokc can, howcvcr, also function as a spacc fillcr: ^ti "son" b) An obliquc strokc somctirncs rcplaccscornplicatcd dctcnninativcs:

ror ili il ,,^ri"to givcbifth"

c) Sign combinations, invcrsionolsigns and othcr dcviantwritings: l. for acsthctic rcasons, c.g. to fonn a ncatcrgrouping:

' " ; i " :h ) , .t o r ' , ' i l


, r 1 , ' 1 o . \ 'L .

.ji.,for \\"

' 2. lbr hicrarchical (honorilic transposition rcasons ):i i' ntiRc .n, "likc Rc",

Script and Transliteration

, .[ ] .rr

ofgod; P.i"rt"; l (i "servant of god,temPle" "mansion writings: 3. In historic

sj nsw "son of the king, prince";

I i hw't ntr

! : r l i l . i r . s w i "to drink"(notswri!) changc S: fi,0 . s w r ' > a. Phonetic ll i l P s l "to cook" fsi >r ' "Prince" b. Archaicwritings ' ', '. , l-' fo. l/ "father"; - . toair.y Pc.t


ll 'l'r.


$ ll

COMPLEMENTS 5) PHONETIC to clarify thc rcadingof multi-litcralsignswhich a) In orclcr value,uni-litcralsignsarcoftcn addcd: nhonctic havctnorcthanonc

'i illjl ,rr"to wish" and i ntt' "to suflbr" ? in 'i 'l'''l 't '' si "to pcrish" antl : rcmain" wlh "to placc, in of signsto fomr a ncat block),uni-litcral (grouping rcasons b) For acsthctic-graphic whcrcthcrccanbc no conf'usion: cvcnin cascs rrulti-litcraliigns oltcnaccolnpany signs f +l 'n!t
() *

t....,' rtfi'




. hpr

it' t ttlt


also prcccdc(c'g' ''i\ t in but.thcy r':an usuallyfollow thcir signs, Phoncticcornplcmcnts - \\ r bcfbrc tnt and nr)' front of rw) or prcccdc and follow thc sign (c'g' >' clctcnninativcs that do not fit thcir c) Phonctic Dctcnntnativcs: Sotnc worcls havc in anothcr word whcrc thcy havc rncaning.Thcy arc writton bccauscthcy tit thc contcxt in both worcls' Frgm t!1,Mic fomcd"a closc associationwith phonograrnsthat appcar witll trl and ri in " li'irikr1"to Kingdorn onwarclsi r (for : ) is founclas a clctcnninativc ' ' 'l' 'sr/l"travcl (by in build, to form (pots)" ancl as a phonctic clctcrnrinativc watcr)".


words Egyptian vowcls,whcDprottouncing scriptdocsnot inclicatc Sincethc Egyptian j' 'or so-callcd no whcrc citscs it.t consonants betwccn inscrtccl an e is convcntionally ' ift "akh", l]l.i. consonants: ily) brcaksup thc scqucncc.o.f (!i ,' or i , semi-consonant .nlr ',ankh", ftpl'"khcpcr"' lzlt'"boo".ltf)'"ncfcr", r?/"mi", wblt"wcbcn",



$ 13

separators areusedto In the translitcration of someEgyptianwords,two rnorphological clarifutheirstructure: . scparates a word stemfrom a grammatical ending(c.g.pluralw, femininel) or a tense element(S$ l4fl 22ff,68ff) = scparatcs endingor a tense suffix-pronouns from a word stem,a grammatical ($ 28,68 f0. clcment Othernotations: clarification whatis notwrittcnin hicroglyphs; added by editorfor grammatical { ) brackcts to bc an crror in the hieroglyphic tcxt whatthecditorconsidcrs i i brackets < > brackets emendations by thc cditor tcxt in theoriginal, but addcdby thc cditor damagcd t I brackcts


and fcr-nininc. Thcrc arc two gcndcrs,masculir.rc i ':"- .ht'./ "cvil", l. , ' ,,1r.t "goocl". .\bstractnounsarc usually fcrnininc,c.S. \ouns havc singular,plural and dual lbrrns. a) ENDINGS \lasculinc: two groups ( I ) without an cnding,(2) with cnding -w (oftcn not writtcn). F c m i n i n c : w i t h c n d i n s- t



lfl. o

'L stl.w


I )ll srr"brothcr" . w


ii r, jri :i,) Sn.Wy





'.WWJ .:: "(thc hvo) arrns"


!r )






Accidenceand SYntax

$ 16

b) WRITINGS: ending-w is usuallynot writtcn: 1. Thc masculine t\,", jl) 'pr.w - . - u,,,pt., "(god)Re" (occasionally "house" by a pluralwriting: It canalsobe indicated nfi'.w"pcrfection"



mn.w "lnonumcnt"

htp'w "pcace" rl

not written. cnding-/ is sometimes Thc ferninine

3. Thepluralcanbc writtcn in thc followingways:

writing Thrcelogograms an archaic pr.ww "houses"

rtt.w "namcs" of phonogratns Thrccgroups tit 'j j i' ,h.rt "sycamorcs" Thrccdctcnninativcs " '.'il hm.wt"womcn". with thc pluraldctcnninativc or I , or (prcclorninantly) ".g. of signs: by thc rcduplication 4. Thc dualis indicatcd Two fogograms I l)r.wt'y "(thc)two houscs" *ll i) l) t|r.r,y "(thc)two obclisks" Two cletcrminatiucs

)r' t.wwY

valucy) dctcrninativ" (phonctic clual with w ancl Or phonctically "" "(thc)two an.ns". singular: butarcgramrnatically arcwrittcnlikc plurals nouns 5. Collcctivc

.- i ,')(, 3cy "sand"

'..--.1 rarclyasa plural' asa singular, nm' "watcr" is usuallyconstrucd -n'that additional nouns somcfcmininc 6. Whcnfollowcdby a suffix-pronoun, lt-1,1n ' ;' ' rlpv''tf' "his boat" , :,.dp1 "boat"and thc feminincr cnding: prcccdcs

"pcrson"; l. -F'rr1 ( alsobc fbundas a writing for thc collcctivc "pcrson". t'nl1 writtcn)or for thc singular


r n r g . t " , ' ( r np . l.) "pcoplc" can sotnclitncs ",i" ' ' .t rntt.t (f. sg.) "hutnankind" (l is rarcly


:. i.t "thing" is fcminine, but when used with thc meaning "sornething" or Ir-pr-r'fv"it is masculinc. -1. iorc-ign place namesare construedas fcminincs: ';1 tt ,. i""r . . , ". Rlnw hr.t ,'Upper-Retenu,, (paft of Syria_palestine) - GENITIVE e I DIRECTGENITIVE - . :his construction, which expresscs possession or belonging,two nouns arejuxtaposcd. . ::r' tlrst is the nomen reL:en,s (noun of posscssion),thc sccond the nomen reclum (noun . ihc posscssor): -.1- sl w.b "son of a / thc pricst"


nh.t pr.w "lady of thc housc" b) INDIRECT GENITIVE n thc indircct gcnitivc construction, rathcr than bcing dircctly juxtaposccl , thc nomen .'gcris and thc nomen reclum arc linkcd by thc nisbe-adjcctivcof thc prcposition r ,t 23) which functionsas thc gcnitivc-adjcctivc: GENI'I'IVE-ADJECTIVE


masc. sg. pl.

i:\r,t: r) n.y Knt.t /?( .v)

il.t il.(v,ll

"thc languagc ol' Egypt"

li , i;ll

hm.v,tn.(v,1t u,r.u, "thc wivcs of-thc princcs"

lf thc nomen reclum is scparatcd from thc nonten regens by anothcr word (c.g. an adjcctivcor dircct gcnitivc),thcn thc indircctgcnitivc is gcncrallyuscd: ' ' il'. ''"'-. 1,i..!",. i.l r'r/\ , i i I s.f Hr.w n.t (nh-w "thc Honrs-Throncof the living"
t ")


' |

.r. t v'r.t n.t qlcnt

"thc grcat thronc of (i.c. rnadc of) gold"

and SYntax l0 Accidence 3) COORDINATION AND DISJTINCTION $ 20 by is expressed word for "and".Coordination thereis no specific a) COORDINATION: (thc rulc): l. Juxtaposition ti " :"i':, pr.ww=tn "your offices andyour houscs" i1v, ";l , /rr "upon" or hn' "with", bothuscdfor "and": 2. Prcpositions

arm ndr ain" - . l ' ; ' ? i 'i l |l l = a . h r h y.r" sro mvkin" and childrcn ifl l\,'*'i !'t'! :; ii;; \i;''i'l !i ms.w=i sn.w-i"my hrr
$ 2l by a following or is inclicatcd "or" is cithcrnotcxprcssccl b) DISJUNCTION: 'ii ,, I '.'i' ri-pw

or cvcryprincc" rtb "cvcrycommanclcr !s.wttb 1).ly-c.u' i, i,t, l,,l;i r)-pw "ts lord,as nt srtnt turms nt trb !.,,,. , )iif if\ li"{ ii. .--1. $ 43'l a)' or asfricnd"(rl is hcrcthc "nt of prcclication", brothcr B) THE ADJECTIVB l) FORMS plurallbrrnslikc nouns($ l4f1).Thcy arc dcrivcdcithcr ancl havcfcrnininc Acljcctivcs withoutan cndingin thc masculinc: usually $ 22 a) frornvcrbalstcms,
. r,i. $ 23 rtfi'"pcrl-cct,bcautifirl,good" , vil" b i r r " b a c lc

to which is addcdthc cnding-l',thc so-callcdnHbe: or b) frorn nounsand prcpositions

" .'

1 ,1r.Y "gocl-likc, clivinc" uPPcr" , hr.y "whichis abovc, l{ise-ENDINGS

masc. l'cm.
. vlfr

fr'.y "whichis unclcr"


is in" ,r,.y "which

srng. nlur. .yw


Adjective 11

\ote thewritingsof the following nisbe-adjectives: f . im.y "which/whois in" - from thc preposition ln "in" (see$ ? 5.I' masculine srng. plur. feminine

i,.n ii i:l\ or i\

ir.ur l, liir'
from thepreposition hnt "in front of' (see$ 35): feminine

ir.vr# N S

2. lnt.y "which,/who is in front of'


iiiil., hnr.y ".iii

\.; hrtt.yw1i1li]''*
I |:i tlliil-.
llii ..!1ttt.yu,t

3. Sornc writings of thcsc adjcctivcs arc bascdon dual fonns (on thc rcbus-principlc): ,l nlr nw.ty "city god" (not "god of thc two citics")
i i.


o "1,1.

lr./) "Horus of thc horizon" (not "Horus of thc two horizons") f11'.1,v 24

2) USAGE OF THE ADJECTIVE a) As thc attributc to a noun, it follows thc noun and agrccswith it in gcndcr and nunrbcr: \ b) As a noun: tt hrr.t nfi.t "thc bcautiful flowcr".

' ' q/w./ "cvil" (fcrn./ noun) abstract r. , )r' i,. t.',, "' /li.v "opponcnt, thc cncrny" (nishe) c) As a prcdicatc: in thc - Scntcncc($ 56). d) In cpithcts adjcctivcs can bc qualificd by a noun; thcir gcndcr ancl numbcr arc dctcrt' ll rnincdby thc antcccdcnt: ilirsfir'.n,cxccllcnt of counscls", "Amun, .l lit' "(Thc gocldcss) Hathor, ,.,?,,rf,'.tftr'bcautiful of countcnancc". c) Combincd with thc prcposition r', it functionsas thc cornparativc, thcrc bcing no l: v'r r it-J' "grcatcrthan his

spccialfonn of thc adjectivcin cornparisons: fathcr".

')t) . r "to") "bclonging to" (invariablc)can a) il ,. s1 ir.y (prepositionaladvcrb from ($ 28 end). rcplacc the third person suffix-pronoun whcn used to cxprcss possession
il' r,i,r'


12 Accidence and Syntax

i )r r 'l

neverasa noun.In placcof "all" asa b) . , nb "every,all" is only usedasan adjective, * '. '; ' ' 'noun: S wc nh "everyone", ,, nb "cvery man", ll ,' i!.t nh.t (fcm. pl.) In formulaiccxprcssions the endings and are often not written: "everything".

.- ,d"l-jl'' c) ' ^'t't

good(and)purething". ib.t nb(.t)nfi'.twcb.t "every thc nounandhasthc following forms: "other"prcccdcs fo1, masculine





'1-1 '\l),,i,i ' " il '. jl1 , ysp "anorhe r time "; ..." nsy.w kings". "othcr f i *: 11ii ' ky.wy " thcplural fbnn.It Thccxprcssion',,'11 k.t i!.t,lit. "othcr thing(s)", canrcplacc
rcgularly prcccdcsthc noun. It is oftcn uscd as a noun with thc rncaning"othcr (pcoplc),

'. '. othcrs":,' : li li utro ,"L ii'i r.t l,y.

d) An indircct gcnitivc can rcplacc an adjcctivc as thc attributc of a noun: $;t' " *"; "his anny of victory", i.c. "his victoriousamy". \l ..r'l rt. I n!1t.w


l.c. ink
il lrl

plural l.c.

2.m. ntk
2.f. 3.m. 3.f.
rttt ,,


"vou" (oldcrform rw,r', ,ir

',lr: '


tltln .,




,., , "you" (oldcr form

.tl )

ntf .,'


'1, ll L. "rn."

"hc" (oldcr fonn .rwr I \,' )



u rlJ

tPronouns 13 Usage: l. In NominalSentences: ($$ 50-52) ofan int-Sentcnce a. asthc subject ($ 53) of a 2w-Sentence b. asthc prcdicate of thc infinitivc($ 83 b) 2. As subjcct (S$ I l9-120) in thc ir-Construction subjcct 3. As thc pronominal



Usagc: (SS98participlcs including l. As thc objcctof all fonnsof thc vcrb (whichit follows), (S\ 83d)' thc infinitivc cascs, in cxccptional ($ I l2) ancl, VcrbalAdjectivc thc Futurc 104), pronoun' rcflcxivc no distinct is thcrc sincc rncaning It canalsohavcrcflcxivc ' iit: : i, | ($ aa c), fbllowingthc particlcs in an AdvcrbialScntcncc 2. As thc subjcct pronoun Hcrc,thc indcfinitc particlc. withoutintroductory frcqucnt) lii,, ,,. ($ 37) or (lcss rn, \r "on"" canalsoscrvcasthc subjcct. -^($ 47)' AdvcrbialScntencc 3. After *. ($ 37) in the negatcd ($ 56)' 4. As the subjcctin an AdjectivalScntcncc asthc obicctofan infinitivc(8 84). 5. r/ canserve

and SYntax 14 Accidence

S 23


=l lit alsofem. "I, me,mY" t'. .1. ;", l' *ornun, \' t ing

=n ;* t'we, us, our"

=tn =f :: , (. ,) "you,Your" -f ' "hc,ht*' hit

('-l) your" "you,

'r, ji* 1*l;


..r'1 (


' Nole: With dualnouns frY Usagc:

'' sl4 "his son"

aftcra noun' !"] possession [. Exprcsscs

- sQm=f I "hc in thc suffix-conjugation' \\l 2. As thc subjcctof thc finitc vcrb ($$ 68ff). hcars" ($$ 35-36) 3. Aftcr PrePositions vcrbs - subjcct($ 83); 4. Aftcr infinitives: withintrclnsilive only if thc infinitive with transilive vcrbs objcct (subject $ 84)' hasboth an objcctanda subjcct, "himown" is only y::d *i:,l,.u suffix: 4/sy' 5. The *ord ,' I (' t) ds "sclf, ' " rn'k ds=ft"your nsw Qs-J "the king himsclf" -^;ti l. ,"tt',] *il own name." lYotez l.Thcsuffix-pronoun=iissomctimesnotwrittcn,c.g.whcnfollowedbyadepcndent ($ 27)' usedwith reflcxivcmcaning pronoun (posscssivc): of the3rd person (S 25 a) canrcPlllc sulfixcs (* ) / , 2. ir.y i o s)-Jsmswm hr'y lr'y his (" " ;1 !f i\ ' '' " ''] had scntu,. u*y, "' "His majesty thcreof';'" (lit': the commander sonwas its commandcr eldest


Demonslralives l5



olural dual (two)" ip*y i) )$'"these


pwyi)"i' pw,9,' | ( "thir" ip*



ipr, il!'l)i"th"r"'

ip-y i;li)
ipny (i-*

near f.


"these" ipn i],-.1..

iptn il,'.-.:.."thcse"

^^..* "this"

ip.fv rl'

far f.

tf .

"yon, that" "yon that"


1l- - "thosc"

iprf i,' '" - "thosc" iprfy Li

' I

\ GROUP 2 (with ,\\)
m. near f. c. ni

GROUP I (without Il\

known near far c. c. c.


"' .,\l' . ' f - :t *





m. lar
f. c.
r. :i-







iVote: Thc pronouns with n arc singular and arc oftcn used for thc neutcr:

, ., \

Dry nl "Whatis this?" $ 3l

c) ARTICLE 't1,, forcc and functionas dcfinite p), ,.N r; and [\ n; ({ 30) losc their dcmonstrativc probablyascarlyasthc Middlc Kingdom. Egyptian ("thc"); in spoken articlcs ,1 indefinitearticle "a" Egyptianusesthc numeral' u w( For thc very rarcly expressed

and SYntax 16 Accidence

s 32

masculine l.c. mv nlv.i



$r-Y,t' tlv=i

' . . ,i . , l
tt lv=t

2.m. v o u r
2.f. vour

tly=k ' 'ir\'l\.


,;v=r ri')i:l
nlv=t'=.t ,

tly=S t;\'.ll

,,1,',r.ri rr.l

3.m. his

li r ..1

n |y=t'' \ir r'i I

lii)'..s .I ,


nly=tt lit,r;ri
ttlv..ilt )ii:, l

2.p1. vour 3.p1. thcir

I iY=111

D ' , \ ' = s t t, ' " . , 1

t lr.-sl

i i . . I t ']

'i,i\ jv=.vt 11

I il I

S 33

(t\S 29 32) c) USAGEOI"THE DE'MONSTRATIVES l. Position follolv dcmonstrativcs a. Acljcctival


nrclv'.t "this day ofjudgncnt" htu,.wJtu','tt.vv'rJC fbr hirn "Thcn shc rcPcatcd ' mrlw,.t/rl this Inattcr-"

adjcctivc prcccde thc noun: thc afticlc and thc pc'rsscssivc b. Thc norrinal dcrnonstrativc, 'r: il | l', 'i rrn ild.u't tr nn llm'wt thcsc ncts to thcsr i 't';''' 1 1 "...and givc worrcn..." ' I givc andH c k c t :" P k ' a s c to Isis,NcPhthYs saYs

Rc-Wcscr .t't'.:l l]i I )ji

thc grain to Your Portcr." p) it tr p)y-tn l1r.y-kni

andPlural 2. Singular occuralmostonly in thc singular' clcmonstratives a. Thc adjcctival areonly commonlyfbun< clcmonstratives b. The plural anddual forms of the acljectival plural forms, a nominaldemon in ora bgyptianand in religioustcxts.In placcof thc is used'Thc noun is nonnalll l9) r.y followcclby the geritivc-adjcctive "of'($ strative in thc singular: in the plural,sometimcs I I ,.l, "* \J rfl i.i nn n.y sr'.w "thescofftcials"



,, b*"1'j']S '' .

n.y furd.w

gods,, "these
"these children"

.-*::'i h r4t l -N
* Xl ''

n.ymwn.yp) si "thcse waters of thislake"

3. Absolute usage of thenominal (i.e.asa noun demonstratives ): '.;"'l\i,..^.1 t ; ' l.h ;T-l-l lym-!1thr-w.wsw3i(.w)($rDhrnn,,Now,aftcrdays
hadpassed afterthis(event)... " -. -- pf and.' 6are usedto refcr to somcthing 4. Thc adjcctivaldemonstratives with () cithcrrespcctordisdain:)'''".. - h,pf "that(vilc)cncmy"; }J:ti]*fill :) nw, pf lpsy"thatnoblcResidcncc".

3) INTERROGATIVES (for theirusagc scc$ 148)

.-. Of i-

$ 34


il \1.
I /)

in, in-iw l.fs/ m

introduces a qucstion, rcmains untranslatcd "what?" "who,what?" "why?" "why, to whatpurposci)" "why?" "how?"
'ii\ /i '

i ^

"\ .. -\\
.' I. t' m rm hr sy ilst mim

,l 1\ .ll


1'1.1 71 1 .'i:il

ptr/Jtti si

" w h o , w h a t ? "1 < L ) i . "who, what, which?" "what?"

. pu,tt')

r:l ')


v ' ,r'


"whcrc, whcnce, whcrc to?"

D) PREPOSITIONS and their nisbe forms Prcpositionspreccdc not only nouns or suffix-pronounsbut also clauscs (likc conjunctions) sincevcrb-forms canbc nominalised, i.c. uscdasnouns.

and SYntax 18 Accidence 1) SIMPLEPREPOSITIONS

s 3s


'N .i,

imynu "betwcen"

rl (with suffix-Pronoun fi\ ) with" ';in,out of, through(instrumental)' (Q$43'la): "lrl ofpredication" a predicate introduccs /rr replacing movcment bcforeinfinitivcs:with vcrbsof ( $ $8 5 , 8 6 , 9 3 ) "as,astruly as"(S 70'2c) *ltft Aorirt sQm-J: "whcn" ($ 72'2) with (Historic)Pcrfcctsdm4: ti'li irr'Y ($ 23) nishe'. il to" "likc,according as"($ 70'2c) with Aoristsin'l:"as whcn'according "likc" ($ 73) withslr1nt.t-J': obicct) dativc/ indircct of' (inclicatcs "to, for,bccausc "within" tcmPoral: o1'' "bccausc with infinitivc: sdm46 72'2):"bccausc" Pcrfcct with (Historic) gr ^ - - - - : . . . i il' ; . . ' t 1 c l f i p 3 y "'b c c a u s c h i s r n i g h t w ac sa t " ($ 23) rti.tht''. rr.Y (with suffix-Pronoun ) "at" (a titnc) awayfrom"; tcmporal: against, "towards' with a noun:"conccrning" "thc gocllct rnc do it' cotnparativc with an adjcctivc-vcrb: ' ashc is jj,i,- ,. nri 'l=f r itr nh according i' l,'f c) thancvcry god" (sccalso$ 24 grcatcr tuturc(rl 85'2) "in ordcrto"' purposc' with infinitivc: as'until" (s\70'2c) : "according with AoristsqlntJ "until"($ 73'2) withsqlnt.t'J': ii .'' ir'Y ($ 23) nise: clauscs: audtctnporal conditional i introducing

;t i'l\


( $ s1 2 7 - 1 3 1 ) .

Prepositions 19

{, \*r

hl hn(

"behind, around" with"; "and"($ 20) "togethcr previous vcrb-form(cf. I 87 2a) with infinitive:continues ttt' (with suflix-pronoun ulro . o. .? ; for" regarding, "upon,in, bccause, with infinitive: "while,on" ($ 85) ($ 70.2c) "bccausc" with AoristsQm-J: ?. '' lu'.y(g 23) nisbe:



somcthing") (alsowith scnsc of "carrying "undcr,-with" ni,sbe: '' lr'.y ($ 23) c.g.a king),to (a pcrson)" with,undcr(tcmporal, "ncar, with" in fiont of, in accordancc "oppositc, ' ($ 85.2) thc tirnc of with infinitivc: "at as"($ 70.2c) "whcn(tcmporal),according with Aoristsglm-J': (withdct.!:l''' or\ nirbn,\)" /rfr.y (rs23) : "cncrny")

!r, :'' . ttfl



local: "in front of, from, alnong" tcntporal: "beforc" nisbe: hnt.y "forcmost" ($ 23)


"))!rool',,' (g 23) first, chicf'' is r"rpon, ,n.r"who/which bccausc" "sincc,

ol'(5\ 72.2; "sincc,bccausc with (Historic) Pcrfcctsqln=J'. with scln.t-J: "sincc,bclorc, until" ($ 73.2)


PREPOSITIONS 2) COMPOUND 'lr with, frorn,with (in r:ir\ nt-c.ri, "in thc handof, togcthcr -- ,ot), through" thc possession of' m-hlh "in front o1,in thc prescnce


and SYntax 20 Accidence

\\ G,



m I r I br-hl./ "in front of' m-bt after" "behind, 72'2)" "after" with (Historic)Perfectsdm4 G with infinitive:"after" after" "behind, "bcside"

\i\ l)\

r "'',,

m-sl r-gs

( -)r r f;!

of in front of' bft-hr "in thc prcscnce E) PARTICLES

$ 37

clausc alwaystakc first positionin a l) NON-ENCLITICPARTICLES

\n. ll fi );' lw

'. 1l
l:i. ! ,\.rt.

ill is!

of fact: in thatrnakca statcmcnt clauscs introduccs a) ,,it is thc case"; ($ qO-q+l'in AdvcrbialScntcnccs 44); ComplcxVcrb FonnstSS ncutral"prop"-wordfor a andsyntactically b) scmantically (8 46 b) and AdverbialScntcnccs '";;il; sub.;cct nronominal ($$ 8G88); i"ii." tt"ta. vcrbalConstruction ($ 46 b)' convcrtcr" c) "circumstantial sccalso$ 140a' nottranslatcd); a wish($ 75'l): "oh" (usually introduccs llll' " i^rli' "whilc'as'in thc tncantiuc"; 'sft) lst;oldcrtoto (also.r1, (8 46 a' 97 b): clauses mainandsubordinatc introduccs asis1 samcmcaning (1 n v'tt't' scc'1'rt) "bccausc" conjunction < particlc(?) m(i) "bchold"1 suffix-pronoun '' "'1pl.)"l:i.. nt'tn /m=tn; furtherforms:(r.1ir,if, ; ^--11r,=t, - "Behold! Lookl" (S$44 c' 88'2'97 a) Prcsentativc mcaning: oflu'($ 47); cquivalcnt ncgative particlc: ncgative

- tfi'K

-o'n, *-,, nn

Particles 2l

pronoun($ 27). iw + suffix-pronoun, but nn + dependent followingsomeverbs(e.e.rb "to know"): an objectclause 1n1o$es () | ... , rh "know that ...";alsoconiuncti (< n nn). lunction"bccause" to forma conlunction: with prepositions Oftencombined T ; V \;
t1,' ,f\

Qrntt "since", .,* ., -

hr,-* -

n-n.f "because".

! t\ ,.H I t\ ' ($ 75.1)introducing sQm=f 0 ftt var. 1 \ ;'.) hwy,t hw'.with Subjunctive wishes"Wouldthat ..." (or lcft untranslatcd).

' ' . : \j )\ ^tt;

(Prospectivel sdm4 ($ 74.5): ; "so"."thcn";with Future ($ 75.1). with Subjunctive sQm-J (also


word. upona preceding 2) ENCLITIC PARTICLESalways"lean"(Grk. enklitikos) 1 r-'. * --* ,',

\".( ol


is wnnt

"truly" rcally" "indccd, "pray,do" originallyvariablc suffix-pronoun indicates emphasis; indecd" "assuredly, "but.howcvcr"

-"1,n,* " m l' n ):\ 1)r'

t\y )

Orf hm swt

'-'l dl

truly" "in<tccd, F) NUMERALS

1) CARDINAL NUMBERS a) WRITINGS: I n R T oncs(in datesoften ) f


tcn thousands hundrcdthousands millions

tens(in datesoftcn ( ) hundreds thousands

\1t /

and SYntax 22 Accidence

b) READING: 1 w'.w ' 1'

6 7 B 9 l0



100 J./ (fem.) \


3 4 5

sn.wY {l ,"'
!mt.w' fd.w di.w ,",., .. '\l lmn.w
ntQ'w 'r
, ..i

1,000br 10,000 dh' 100,000hfn hlt 1,000,000 Jtr 10,000,000

tl '\,'ir
i \iir I jili

c) USAGE rThenumbcrfollowsitsnoun(cp."$20"),whichisusuallyinthcsingular,lcss I and2)' thc numbcrs licqucntlyin in" plu'al (ncvcrpluralwith arcnouns' (s 24).All othcrnumcrals asacljcctivcs I and2 arctrcatcd r Thc numbers -/' in 3 - l0 alsohavcfbminincformscnding o Thc numbers by thc,,n7 of irrtroduccd is also prccedethc noun, which o h,, andl1|t c-an ($ l 9)' (S 43'I a) or thc gcnitivc-adjcctivc prcdication" $ 40 2) ORDINAL NIJMBERS o ,,first,,:i.., rp "upon", $ 35)' of thc prcposition tp.y (nishe '"' ' : fd'w-rllr'"fourth"' to "ninth": with cndingnw' ' o "scconcl" o,,Tcnth,'andhighcrordinalnulnbcrs:withparticip|cmh''Ihatwhichfills'', " 'r" : mh.10 "thatwhichfills tcn" "tcnth"'

$ 4 1 3) DATES
"ycar"'l "day"

rcading:l't-sp)' r n P . t ,in datcs ,t ,rp.t sp (alternativc


duy")' in datesslt . ' t..thrW.W ( thc combination'" rc'w nh "cvcry

:rYcY. ( )r .,

lb.t Pr.t

"inundation" "harvest"

. , '(") , ,31";


summer' Sm.w "dryncss,

Non-verhal Sentences23

Months: tp.y lbd 2 lbd 3 lbd 4 ] ,,"" Examplc: t 'ii:',i.'," "first (month)" "second month" "thirdmonth" "fourth rnonth" rnp.t-sp J9 lhd4 )ft.tsw 19

"Year39, fourthrnonthof thc inundation. dav 19"


Thc predicate of a non-vcrbal scntcncc can bc forrncd by l) an advcrbial phrasc 2) a nominal phrasc[Norninal Scntcncc], or 3) an acljcctival [Advcrbial Scntcncc], phrasc Scntcncc]. IAd.lcctival Thc subject is always norninal, i.c. a noun, an indcpcndcntpronoun or a norninalisccl vcrb form. Non-vcrbalscntcnccs indicatca statc.Thcir tcnsc is non-spccificbut dctcnnincdby thcir contcxt as prcscnt,past or futurc.

WORD ORDER:subjcct prcdicatc Thc prcdicatc is formcd by an advcrb or its syntactic cquivalcnt, i.c. o prcposition* nominal cxprcssion(noun,suffix-pronoun or infinitive) or . Old Pcrfcctivc($ 8l) Advcrbial Scntcnccsarc cithcr independent (main clauses) or emhedded (translatcd as subordinatc clauscs). A furthcr distinction is madc bctwccn simple and extendedAdvcrbial Scntcnces.

$ 42

24 Accidenceand SYntax

SENTENCES ADVERBI,AL A) INDEPENDENT $ 43 1. Simpleadverbialmain clauses + noun + preposition a. Basicform: noun(+ adjective) ; : = At the end of a medicalprescription: (i'e' inferior)'" (other)remedyis likc its second gq'd^ll pfur'tnb't mi sn'wt's "Evcry

'i\\ " "He who was crnptvof sw m hr.r m nh chc.w !; I [ii'\-N.t'. of treasures'" is (now)a lord (i.e.posscssor) possessions namcs: aresentence Most suchsentences ', t"", Nb.t=i-m-nbw (is) theGoldenOne(i.c.Hathor)." "My mistrcss ,'y,t N "z of predication"') is the so-called tionm in the lasttwo examples (Thepreposi {* \af : 'ui Imn(.w)-m-hi./"Amun is at thc forefront'" is with me'" sn=i-hn\=i)"Mv brothcr

ifr$ l:

personal indepcndent b. Thc focus is on thc subject,which takesthc form of a markcd pronoun($ 26); infrcqucnt. X\\l-.h'f Note: "'^'d with Ncgationof suchscntenccs , 'n'rr''it$l:..' -^- in placeof * ($ 37' 47): injoy'" m hc'wt"Imyselfwas i ink ds(=i)

mh.t=i"Myheart,itwasnotinmybody'" \\',",fr l.rl.ty-inntf

$ 44

main clauses adverbial 2. Extended a. Introducedbyqb iw ($ 37): ( \\ n a $ " I q'.,- \q iw wdp.wnh hr ir.r-J "Evcrybutlerwasat his duty'"

($ 28): by a suffix-pronoun is expressed subject A pronominal

Adverbial Sentences25

S - = c$lt-'il^ underthe favourof n.t fir nsw"I am./was ":1.,.t- iw=i br hs.wt theking (lit. of by the king)." is possible: of the subject Ornission "t!{l.t' " I iw mi sltrn1r "(lt)wasliketheplan of god."

thc by the verb wnn "to exist",which specificsthe tenseby converting b. Introduced into a verbalscntence. sentence non-verbal + adverbial predicate futurc: expresses wnn * subjcct *llt'' mastcr." ^$i'!f i' 'rjl" wnn htk m-s) nb-J "The scrvantwill be bchind his

($ 28): is cxprcssed by a suffix-pronoun subject A pronominal * " *ti' ( - l\ )Jls:r of Rc." "FIcwill be in thedisfavour $, *nn+ ^ bbdn(.y)R'(.w)

by m=k($ 37): c. Introduccd l,\\* rafts." ""' "Lo,he who nt=tn i w . t y( i ) b . u ' t im n b c h c . w N"lr^;';', I\*::'\':l of trcasures." hadnothingis (now)a posscssor pronoun($ 27): pcrsonal is cxprcssed by a dcpendent subjcct A pronominal \\: i \i'Ft, ," ^ '"'"Lo, I arnat yoursicle." m=kwi r gs=k m=krw cj "t-o,you are(now) here." /1ll :l i4 ti'.l )i(,-.,rh are (now) on m4n lps.wthr trt.w ,,Lo,noble(ladics)

\\ : .i.\| : ; t\

b) EMBEDDED ADVERBIAL SENTENCES An Adverbial Sentencecan be embcddcd within or attachcd to a main clause. Here it cxpresses a circumstancc that can bc understood as a temporal, causal or modal subordinate clause.

and SYntax 26 Accidence clauses adverbial 1. Simpleembedded asdancers' themsclves "The godssetout,havingdisguiscd the them carrying I'i..1riil !r lini Khnumwith flnm'w ltn'=sn f i\\l'"\tl--,il* (modal) baggagc". j:l'l;;'tn ,,I spcntthreeclaysalone,'i/ 1i1' (modal) mY comPanion"' clauscs advcrbial cmbecldcd 2. Extcndcd bY a. Introduccd 12alsoi.lirl, *,'lt:1 t'tm=J i \,..'.,r Ll-*- - / ! i,rrir'r''5'. , ,ii,, il,ii. i"i l,r,t=rrot} n'.f !nt'yv''fQ)st i. , ,,Thcy(RcandAmun)smircfbrhirn(KingThutrnosisll)hiscncmics,IlisMojestybeing oiu"tuial adjunctof an Ernphatic tt-r" (rnodall .srintrocluc". palace.,, in his "'p6urir.o - scc$ 70'l) Construction r'ji :t as ib=i m stt'tt\r=imy hcart (alonc)

$ 45

$ 46

'' / ,r i'

'' ii ' " Dyn' / srll^ ($ :r) (also ll l"\ ' aftcr

- it= ipw ,tr f - ^f i' ll' ' \' ir ' l' ' i.' i., '1 --.....*;;l :' ;,' ' i . ,lili'(Amun) . i i . i : f J'],." ,,(,,,.' is my isk wi m im'y sl=f' "Hc

ltr thronc inksl.t' *,4.r4" n(=i) wrtLn(=i) -ns't'f for mc thatI shouldbc uponhis H" tt;; fti"on' f fathcr, III's) (Thutmosis adjunct advcrbial "* int.oau".. thc crnphasiscd sti, rtt",'.ili;rr"i whiteI was -sce\ / l'l I Construction ofan E,rnphatic wasin thc whilc His Majcsty hnr'Jltr ltls'tRnttt' ;' "' ist ,,ycarg, i]11 , , ii.' :t; ," (tcmporal) hill countryof Rctenu'" ntt i'sl tl pn br s't-hr=f l]ll 'lt' -tnrcf King unclcr "l spcnt many ycars chargc'"(tcmporal) *rrir'.7*rl"n tnl, ionawasundcrhis pronoun($ 27): personal by a depcndcnt is exprcsscd sublect A pronominal I i)tl';;ii'' sIn'(i) mhlk4 " (and)I " "' 11" continues: example Thc prcvious (modal) washis servant." I' t" I * i'sls$Dm st'tnswwhile shewas -ittt"",!,1 il ' "l spcntmanyyearsundermy


(temporal) Daughter'" of King's

i'c' suffix-pronoun): by lw (only with pronominalsubject' b. Introduced

AdverbialSentences 27 - - 'i, l*: '

, ,e t, "Menandwomenrcjoic (causal)

i! i*4^nsw(nowthat)heisking." ti: ti \. '.i.'i!"' i*=ilz Jri (when)I was

"l becamc an officerin placeof my father, i (still) a youth."(tcrnporal)\

,Yote: In the courseof timc, iw dcvelops into a so-called "circumstantial converter" and thcn also introduccs adverbial subordinate clauscs with noun subjccts. This only occurs rcgularlyin Latc Egyptian, in the llth Dynasry:"lt (thc gazclle) but is alreadyattested gavcbirthuponit(i.c.onthcrock;.l,i,] ($ tr6) nsw, whilc this army of thc king watchcd." hr ln;: C)NEGATION of ADVERBIAL SENTENCES l. Introduccd that",$ 37): by ** nn ("it is notthc casc ' ' . ii jt .' ' i: ;ii nn slll(w,)4br tp(.r-w)-tl of hirn is not (will not "Thc mcrnory bc)with thosc who arcuponcarth." -'..*'-lli1 J , r ) ' '. ? ; t i ' ' i t l r l lr n 4 m - n r . n f r . n , , , H i s n a r n c i s n o t n(o wti/ls l hall notbc)amongst thc living." ($ 27), followsthc pcrsonal pronoun A pronorninal subjcct, cxprcsscd by a dcpcndcnt ncgation: ^tll, t 'i)'ll ',t wasnot in thcirmidst.,' \| !i ; nrtu,inr ht.(.:)-ih=str ( i\ " r; 'rt ru ^r(y) m ib=i "lt (thcflight)wasnot in my hcart(rnind)." -',-


- " - *l -i, -^- i; -i.,, , 2. Irrtroduccd by -* i.^." nn wn or n wn.t * ^"t ::' i I )t i;l 'ii ,\)' ift ", ' , ' nn wrt h.t4' "Thcrewasno grcedin his body."

l/ill l:.., wasno lic rhcrcin.,, n tt,n.tiwmsin ,,There

and SYntax 28 Accidence

by)^ nnt is alsonegated clause adverbial 3. An embedded droppeddown' I "That meansthat his hearthasdescended, place." it (theheart)not beingin its ] b -h J' i" sw m s'r'J



1. Theit;i

$ 48

2) NOMINAL SENTENCES areboth formedof nomiand predicate whosesubject are sentences Nominal Sentences not have a nominalised do which with dealt are Hcre, only sentences nal cxpressions. dealtwith underthe are latter The verb form, i.e. a participle,as one of their clements. ($ I l9-120). in-Construction of NominalSentences: Therearethrcegroups arc formedby nouns($ 49); of the sentencc a) thoscwhcrebothelcmcnts pronoun($$ 50-52); is an indcpendent b) thosewhcrethe first elcmcnt c) thoscformedwith 2w ($$ 53 55)' wlTH TWo NOUNS a) NOMINALSENTENCES

Whereti, indepc-n -Se ny''srr 1st pers : 3rdp.-rs

7 Th.. "-.

Thc sub pcrson:

$ 49

is Sothis." "His sister ii.1ll, I 'l sn.r4spd.l

-\ole; Ir

jltr - \)

StrcSSL-J ;

Pth lsw=n "Ptahis our commander."

rn{ "Ameni is his name'" Tmn.y

Thc- c'lrrJ

mattcrs: Inalienable {* {| * i"jb..


Jl - .'N f\. llll

"HisfatherisAabu'" it+.lrbw(?)

Thc sn:^

Sentence: Balanced In the so-called Sm.wt7npy "My ways are thc ways of Sm.wt=i -nr'N " $i, -^t N " q;/l Anubis" '.1 ., l\: is the protection "Your protection l il .- ;" :il. *t.t-t mkl RC(.w) N:1 of Re."
3. \c'!:ir

T h t - ' ir : . . -

Nominal Sentences29

+NOUN/ADJECTIVE: THE /NA-SENTENCE PRONOUN b) INDEPENDENT andstressedsubject. with unstressed Therearetwo $oups of inft-Sentences: subject with an unstressed 1. The in,t-Scntence in the form of an but merely identified,it only appears Wherethe subjcctis not stressed, eithcrthe In the caseofthe 3rd person, pronounfor the lst or 2nd person. indcpendent ($ is used: 53-55) pw-Sentence ($ 56) or the t''sw-Scntence "I am Atum." ink(Dtm(.w) 3rd pcrs.: ,' ' . ,,' \i ',
' \ l \ / i

$ 50

, \ '"1

r NN -*

('Dtm(.w) pw NN pn "ThisNN is Atum-" of charm." "l am a lord (possessor)

"I am quiet."

ink nb ilm.t

subjcct with a strcssed 2. Thc inft-Scntcnce pronounin thc lst, 2nd and 3rd in thc form of an indcpcndcnt Thc subjcctappears pcrson:

$ 5l

1 )i . .i1i




swt nb=n

"1/eis our lord." "He is thc sonof Osiris."

bctweena Note: ln thc cascof thc lst and 2nd pcrson,onc cannotalwaysdistinguish thc contcxtmakcsthis possiblc: Somctimcs subjcct. andan unstrcsscd strcssed Rcnsi:"Do not spcakfalsehood, pcasant saysto thc chicf stcward The cloquent ^ll tlr..t i' I \':.' ntk iwswyou arethcbalancc." particlcI ir 15:s;' is followcdby theenclitic subjcct thc strcsscd Somctimes offcrsof gifts: "You arenot rich in myrrh, sailor's the shipwrcckcd Thc snakcdcclincs .t'.,)jt'']ll t ' l;'i ;$t ::: i.,i,rink is hkl Pwnr but.lam thc rulcr of Punt." 3. Ncgationof thc irt-Scntencc ls ncgatcd by -^- ... I Theinft-Scntcnce - ^ - . o . , I l l\ \ , !
\irt i ! . " ' 1 il -- '., l ..))l 'l)'., .ii /

$ 52 n

n i n k i sm ( w ) r " t a m n o t a d e a d o n e . " n ink is kli si (lit-:highof back)." "l am notarrogant

qnd Svntzx 30 Accidence

c) THEpw-SENTENCE Therearetwo typesof pw-Sentences: bi-partite pw-Sentences. andtri-partitc - subjcct. (in bothcascs): WORDORDER predicate $ 53 pw-Sentencc l. Thc bi-partite The subjcctis a demonstrativc pronoun ($$ 29-30),asa rulepw, which is invariablc, and is furtherqualificdby thepredicatc. Thc prcdicatc is fonnedcithcrby a noun(a) or an independent pronoun(b):

I.'' ;-ji' " ff

it=k pw

"lVhc is your fathcr."(a) "lt is a rcmcdy."(a)

"This is thc tastc of dcath." (a) "lt is rcally hirn." (b) "lt is mc." (b)

. ,. " it.
\ ii"lirr --- J i
-'t,'t\t ',,',.,

pfur.t pv,
dp.t m(u,)t nn ntf'pw,m ntl(.t

il *

it' ii


Whcn thc prcdicatc is fonncd by an indircct gcnitivc construction,pw oftcn splits thc tl: gcnitive construction ancl imrnccliatcly follows thc nonten regens'. l;jit \),t'"" )jl ih.t-i pv, n.w p,'.w it=i "lt is my propcrty of thc housc (cstatc)of rny fathcr." (Hcrc 1fr.ris construcd as a lnasc.plura[- scc I 17.2).

$ 54

pw-Scntcncc: 2. Thc tri-partitc noun pl1,- noun This scntcncc is an cxtcnsion of thc bi-partitcpx,-Scntcncc. Originally, thc sccond noun stood in apposition pN,: to thc subjcct 'li t':il i , ll " ,1, pw ns=k "lt is thc plummct (of thc balancc), namclyyourtonguc." But pw,mcrcly scrvcs asthc copula bchvccn thc prcdicatc andthc subjcct: "Your tonguc is thc plurnmct". ': \i' iif dnri pv' inrn.t"Thcwcst(i.c. thcrcahn ofthcdcad) isaclwclling." li ,ir il,;jj: li l''rir'" abomination." 'l*i"",, l'i' .t '' bu,.t=ipw t1m.tntr "Thc cxccutionblock of god is my

i');' s1v,!tJ'pv, hntsi.t"sitting is his trcarmcnt."

Adjektivalsatz:4fr sn, 3l

3. Negation: Beidepw-Stze werden negiert durch -- .... ll

ii'',tl,t' ."-iji-"-fl

n ... is

S 55



ItJ.t\'-'.v'"Es ist mein Besitzvom Hause meines Vaters, es ist nicht Besitz(vom) Hause desFrsten." - - t' ',i ' i'^" -- .r'ii i' iil.; I I li. n u,r is pv,v,r im (v,n-ib,,Der Groeda.der habgierig ist,ist kein (wahrhaft) Groer."

pw n.w :'?,.{1, i!.t.t=i pr.v, it=in ib.tispw,pr.w

l) ADJEKTIVALSATZ (nfr n, - Satz) - Subjekt \\ ol{ TSTELLUNG: Prdikat Prdikat: invariables Adjektiv(8 22) bzw. partizip (gg 93-t04) personalpronomen Subjekt:Substantiv (l) oder abhngiges (g 27, rneist2. oder 3. Person, nur seltenl. Person) (2). '
.' .1)

S 56

.i,. l{

\ *. jrl-'

nJi'hrr.t trt nfr tu,hnc=i


"Diese BIumeistschn."fl) "Du hastesgut bei mir." (2)

olt wird an das Partizipoder Acljektiv die Endun,S", du. "admirative uy',, angehngt:

) i i'r \,'
'it I tijt) j tr,'t' :i


"Wie schnist es!" (2)

mQ.u,y su, ib=i "wie starkist cs cloch, (2) mein Flerz!,,

nn,Ste,lle desPartizips kannauchein Fragepronomen (Q34) treten:

,,i1l 1 ,r'

ptr (i)r-J(lt9),rn, (2) "Wcr ist cr denn?" -' nn,(vgl.auch Q5 9 ) : $ 57


Ilier stcht .4 Lut("esgibt/gab nicht")an Stelle desAdjektivsbzw. partizips. - Subjekt woR'rslELr.tJN(;: Prdikat Die Zeitstufe ist abhngig vom Kontext.



2r) nn m)r.tyv,(t "Gerechtegibt es nicht."

, , nn dr.u' mnmn.tnb.t "Ein Endevon Vieh aller Art gab ", ",.n,.,, -^r:r \i\" * .* rii-i, -*- .\ " ,).r'::. trtl. tttr ph.ny,fr "Sein Endegibt es nicht."



andSYntax 32 Accidence s ss OFPOSSESSION 5) EXPRESSIONS by is expressed to".Possession a verbfor "to haveelong nothave does Egyptian n'y ($ 23): nisbe-adjective a) theinvariable



({ t0c) rrliL belongs to wadjet (uto)'"

pronoun($ 27): by a dependent is expressed subject A pronominal - \ to Horus'" n.ywi Hr.w "l bclong $ N tl with writing (NB , phonetic the Horus." to Hr.w "Hebclongs n.y sw i ))\,\ andthepronoun') thc nisbe-adjcctive bchveen by the cioscrelationship is influenced rz.s, n ($ 35) (dative): b) thc prcposition lj' -l.J "l 'll ,,, n-Jirp r mw iwn=k(nh morewinc thanwatcr." "To him belongs "Tovoubclongslif'c'" I'''\ I i^'y'


{'\ i l+ i''o' s+ uffix-pronoun c)theprcpositionn ,l

ll if,,li,ln'!'n " ' n=kim.yhr: "To you bclongs silvcr'"

(S 27): pronoun d) thcnishen.y + indcpcndcnt (n.y+ ink > nnk,thcinitialn'y is not writtcnwith thc othcrpronouns')
"*,0 at

' ,,'i .

llllK p-f

thc skY." "To me bclongs lifc'" "To you bclongs ,,yoursarcctcrnifyandcvcrlastingness."


.' ', f t : l: I t,ri .'l, I


ntk cnlt ntk nhh d.t

($ l8): ol'' + dircctgcnitivc c) nb "lord/ posscssor ' .,, -ri" I $ s9

a,'15. ,l !--t. .-L ^,-,,, rtt ^,r + h^ l ^.,]lnrrrnnr n f a r housc' hnrrqr: " of lord/owncr nb pr.w "l arnthc ink

.\ rr':b .: .

6) NON - POSSESSION ($ 57) by AdjcctivalScntcnccs is cxprcssed Non-posscssion ($ 58b): :*. l*^ ,n+ "dativc" not belongto you'" ' il, . nn n=kst "It clocs

nn wtl ib n'y si "Man has no + noun + gcnitivc: --u:"tt-*-)tt or--it--:,^rnr,r,n of a man)'" / undcrstanding hcart (lit.: thcredoesnot existthc undcrstanding

]n thl- a:-.3


Verb 33


TERMINOLOGY: radical.root. stem .\s in the caseof the Scmitic languages, thc meaningof a word is depcndent upon an abstract grammatical entity known as thc "root" which compriscs a numbcrof radicals (root consonants). The stcm is fonncd from the root, which can be modified, rcduplication of a radical,by addition of thc causativc prefix s, and (unwrittcn) rowcls.Grammatical (fem.r and pluralw) andothcrelements cndings (seee.g.8$ 68, 76,80) arcappendcd to thc stem. I ) VERB CLASSES Thc formalclassification of a vcrb is depcndent on thrcccritcria: a) TtiE NUMBER OFROOT CONSONANTS Vcrbs arc classificd according to thc numbcrof radicals in thcir root. Thcy form the fbllowingclasscs (in orderof frequcncy): $ 60

3 radicals 2 raclicals 4 radicals

'"t i'\i I I \i"1 'r -.,.-

sdm dd wstn

"to hcar" "to spcak" "to stridc"

I 1il i "to say" Thcrcis onevcrb with I raclical' an<l scveral with 5 radicals, l;l ".g. b) CAUSATTVE .t A verbis givencausativc lncaning through thc addition of thc prefixs: i\ \o nhrh^ "to roar".


Ii* I ()


"causeto rcmain" (< nr "remain") "causeto live, vivify" (<,nb "to livc")

In the casc ofverbs that have w as their first consonant, this consonantis usually clidcd in lhc causativc: 'it-, - ' I I s + tb "puri&" (<w(h "to be pure")

and SYntax 34 Accidence ROOT c) MODIFIABILITY OF THE they havetwo' threeor four radicals' 1. Strongverbsare invariable; 2.Weakverbsarevariableandonedistinguishesthreegroupsasfollows: $ 63 (ult' inf') a. Ultimae infirmae verbs is wcak(i' )' or w)' The finalradical

S 62

(lllae inf'): infirmac tcrtiae


ni '
\\:.y' rhij l'ij| lil - . ,..... , \.\ )i' li

msi r,fw msdi

"to lovc" "to give birth" "to rcjoicc" "to hatc"

infirmae(lVae inf'): quartae

m)wy "to be new"

'|{ole..Somevcrbswithiasthcirfinalradicalarcstrong,andthcreforcthcirrootrc1f lJ;'-.-, ll'l' 'it'Itni "to scck"'* ll ll /ni "to age"' e'g' tnainsunchanged' $ 64 verbs(ult' gem') b. Ultimaegeminatae radical: is thc samcasthc pcnultirnate Thcscarc verbswhosclastradical (llac gcm';:. geminatae sccundac ac (IIIac gcm.): $ 65 c. Irregular verbs: Thcscvcrbsbclongtooncofthcabovcclasscsofwcakverbsbut,inccrtainfonls, thcir group: they differ from thc otherverbsin

'-./ '' Jl jiiil:

, i ' 'A


"to run"


"to come" (lllac inf') "to bring" (lllac inf') "to bc" (Ilae gem') "to see" (IIac gcrn') "to give" (lllae inf')

ini A wnn #; ,"1-\x't\ mli



Verb - Imperative 35 Ir VERB GROUPS Verbsareclassifiedinto the following groupson the basisof their syntacticproperties: Transitive (trans.) verbs,thoscthat can takea directobject; Intransitive (intrans.)verbs are thosethat do not take a direct object.The verbs of movement ("to come", "to go", etc.) and verbsexpressing a quality or adjective-verbs , e.g."to be sweet", "to be cool",etc.)belongto thisgroup. \-oice- Active and Passive: All verbscan form the passive, apartfrom the adjective\ L.rbs (seeg$ 76 79). -1) IMPERATIVE a) FORMS Only forms for the 2nd pcrson singular and the plural are attested,no gender is drscemible. sg. t\'.sdm "hcar!" pl. \ 'sqlm(.)r); I , sclm.w "hcar!" $ 67

S 66

I rr eguIar i mpcrative forms: r(i: iwi:


, i '('\ il

'("lao :' '-


,,givc!,' ) imi

,\\rl ,n mi ,,cotnc!,,

Othcrspccial forms: l) m "takc"followcdby thc rcflcxivcdativca- (seebclow) is regularly written with thc bi-litcral sign,-. ..i1, ^ n=k ,,take to yoursclfl" b) REINFORCING THEIMPERATIVE l. With a dcpcndcnr pronoun (g 27): -A N'(\ .:: '',rr, l)\ t wdl.w tn ,,gol,' 2. By mcansof thc so-callcdreflcxivc dativc (dircctsthc action to the interestof the implicdsubject):
,\ t"n* - l)^\,t'l-r ,

' .'tt, .,, A sll n=khrw.wn.y krs "Remember thc day of burial!"


q. , > invaria 3. ir + suffix-pronoun ble(i)r=y : ,, 1A:S;, '\\1" -,-1"^sdm.wr{1n "Hearyc!"

<:: . \'..1 :' ij

and SYntax 36 Accidence 4) FINITE VERB FORMS s 6s CONruGATION THE SUFFIX such ending'Elements The subjectfollows the stemor, in somecascs'a grammatical asn($7|),tw($i6)orin,fir,ftJ($80)appearbetwcenthestemandthesubject.A of $ 28' For pronominal,uUj""t'is cxpiesscdby one of thc suffix-pronouns see$ 13' conventions transliteration VOICE I. ACTIVE $ 69 sm'JI iri'J a. CIRCUMSTANTIAL(PRESENT) Form of the weak stem:
IIac gcm.: kbh nt)tl IIIac inf.: iri iw,i r(!i "to bs cool" "to scc" "to do" "to col-nc" "to givc"

:^. ' ll ,ll':) t t r,

.\i\,t ',, . i\'\ n;l tn


;'i )'i' iwi (regular), but also I | ! iYi (!r

Usage: is a vcrbalvcrb fonn' sQm=f Thc Circurnstantial is only found in non-initialpositionin a sQmJ' l. Normally,the barc Circumstantial (but secalso $$ 123,126): clauscs natnclyin advcrbialsuborclinatc scntcncc, Modalclausc: r)pri./Wpi-wl.v,t wdl4 iw iri.n=ir$or gocs forth in 2)n4 it4 "l conducted ($s5 hc as god) Wepwawet (thc of thc proccssion r ordcrto protecthis father." clause: Tcmporal ':..1 \\rA.'..ij,:,,'t',0,..,,,irir{ttts)p,.r.*rrfrwn=trtpt)"May}out$7s)spcnda happyday while You areon carth." sQm'n'J, of Pcrfective $ 71'l)' example ttrcsecond fSetso sdmi is always 2. When used in a main clausein initial position,the Circumstantial Prescntative)' ($ 97 m=k I) or Aorist by a particlc prcceded , e.g-iw ($ 92 Complex --ii-y.''

Verb- Sffix Conjugation 37 b. AORIST sjm-f I irr-J Form of the weak stem (charactcristic feature:gcmination of the lastradical): IIacgem.:


kbh mli

"tobecool" ' ll jllli^ mo f\ [\\ ,;;, ,j.l ^l "tosec" ,,,11

',to ' . o- . , ! " , . do,, ,r,



"to comc"

-n )i.,,a,,t\.,\l' ,r,"



; i, li 11nn

Thc Aorist sdm| I irr-J is a nominal vcrb form. It cxpresscs somcthing that is gcncrally valid,or a recurring cvcnt.Thc tcnscrcquircdin a translation is dctcrmincd by thc contcxt. It is foundin initialpositionin a mainclausc andscrvcs asa noun. l. In initial position in main clauses a. In the Ernphatic Construction. Hcrc thc focusof intcrcst is not on thc vcrbalaction of themainclause but rathcron a followingadverbial ($ I 18,122;alsofirst cxprcssion !'xarnplc in { 46). -l'] ., ) A lii I i \'r$ l','il prr=i m ,h ,,r(regurarly) wcnt forth, havingbccn praiscdin thc Palace."-(Thc cmphasiscd advcrbialcxprcssion takcsthc fonn of thc nrodalclausc$81) rr t&).To indicatcthc crriphasis, this construction can bc translatcd as a clcft scntcncc ($ I I S): "ThatI uscdto go forthwas havingbccnpraiscd in thc palacc."
., l_ i i* l

N ,.. l:' . r,,('..'r'1 i\/\/r .''rii . (ld tw,h,, l1)s.t l1r sh n.1,ib=k n=k "That onc forcign land gavc you to (anothcr) forcign land was unclcr thc counsclof !'our own hcart."(Thc modal clauschr sh n.y ih=k n=k is thc crnphasisccl advcrbial cxprcssion.) Notc: - , ro. , , una' for' " asoftcnthc cascin hicratic tcxts. b. In theso-callcd Balanccd ($$49, 7 | .ld, 132): Scntcncc *',,. ',,a,,,,) *::-i-.prr=1nrp.tmnr.wt ,'it. ), ,1i,'''',"1 ,f' ,,*il prr=i hr tp.t lnh.w=tn "(lf) you asccnd to thc sky as vulturcs, I ascend uponthe top of yourwings."
,, l ,i.. , :r.. i ,/) a A N| -* i *-. . l N r\ $il 1l 'it" ,') ii\\ )

thcy givc him praise."

ni sw ntr.w dd=sn n=f i)w "(l\ the gods sce him,

and Syntax 38 Accidence Ibres.' lNomina, : Verbal.

I -

2. In the positionof a noun particularlyafterrh "to know", a. As the objectof anotherverb, i.e. in objectclauses, / wish": desire mri "to and "to command" mll "to see",wd

Utten n.'r



prr(=i) r !/s.t tn tps(.t) -] ,!.'t..:''i--l ni iw gr.twj.n hm=f

\ r-

that I go forth to this nobleforeignland." "Now, his Majestycommanded ($ 56) of an AdjectivalSentcncc b. As subjcct I\ ' ffii[l i] rs, ,r?rr=s "Hcr givingbirth is difficult."

Usage: l Nomin a. In thc sectlon c , ):

,t .'

mi "aSwhen, likc", r e.g.m "aS,in as much aS". prcpositions, ccrtain c. Following "when": ftr "bccausc", "as", "untiltt, f?y' cvcry pricst,evcry phylarchand cvcry femalephylarchwho "As for evcry wab-priest, ' '", ir'i.\'' t tn lr -l i i I l- 'i n r n t r r = t tw l p i - w ' ) . w t n t r =h willbeinthiscity, tt'l) in as muchas you lovc Wcpwawct, (so you may god, your dcarlybclovcd nrrw.t for Inc)." praycr offering speakan ',,'.,'l t''' 27 1) ',,, i;,1..'1;;, 1 rr'i, i , ,.t )lll ,,lt was like a drcam,,,,,.1 "l nri mll,rlr(| hirnsclfin E,lcphantinc." sccing m lbw ltkea marsh-dwcllcr iclh.y $ 7l I iri.n-J sQm.n'J PERFIICT c. (PRESENT) thcrcarc two s4lm=f Prcscttt to thc Aorist s/rr=f 1 in'=f'andthc Circumstantial Corrcsponding that andonevcrbal(alsocallccl"Circurrrstantial-.rr.1nt.n=t") s4m.n=yformsoncnorninal (sccPrcfacc). nrorphologically be clcarlyclistinguishcd always "onnoi Form of thc wcak stem:
llac gcm.: bb w'lln "to bc cool" "to cxist" '. l : t -t'-.'
::i: _'!

thc ond <

nl nl=s

hcrsclt b. Ina you shc c. Afte Thc di

tt ltt-c.t,



.-i. -

k h b . n t, k h . n 2 placc of *n'trri.rl) v'n'f't 1ir',

"You' d. In ltri.rt= wcnt 2. Ve

Illac inf.: iri iwi

"to scc"
"to do" "to come"


", -ti

a.Us Vert b.Pr Ina para


"to give"

"t 't--.l *:_l



Verb- Suffix Conjugation 39


\ominal verb form. I Verbal verb form; m)) irregular. * n (seeI 71.3). Oftennominalverb form; regularlyafter negative often verbalverb form (see g 71.2) andin performative (see$ 71.4). statements L-sage: 1, \ominal verb form a. In the Emphatic construction (cp. $ 70.1)the sQm.n--f stands at thc beginning of a :L'ction of text or in an indcpendcnt (seealso sccondcxamplcin I 46): scntencc . ::: l:l ,fl ,!a.r=,m mtc.t "tn trnthhavcI spokcn." ,,1 -iji T;lrtillir".".ll. ; "[.r r' iyi.n=i m !1nt lr tlmJ QiJ sip=iit.v,n1r.w :tl\'c colncfrom thc prcsencc of His Majcsty,hc ordaining thatI inspcct thc fathers of :ltcgods."(Emphasis on thc advcrbial subordinate clausc; Prcscnt /i=l'Circumstantial .Jrt=l'[$69.l] followcdbysip=iSubjunctivc .relny'[$75]). '!"t.,'. ,i ',." . , i' ,l -.... '\\*^^. i't t'tt=s n(.) Stpt"ln her nomeShetepet (-ll/acti Nutmn) hasyour mothcrNut sprcad r!-rsclfovcr you." (Notcgcminating lonn of llae gcrn.vcrbp^lJ.) 'i ttD ":, ',rt. " ,,. , "' -"", i1 gnti=k(5 b. In an object clause1uncorr.r-on;, "lf r ou should find thatit (thcstornach) hasknottcd ..-". c. Altcr prepositions (c.g.n-1.1t "aftcr", r "until",rri "likc",ffi "according to"): ul t'{.}.^-- (,,r Thc daughtcr of thc nomarchrulccl ,.tii'],,..ri;t,-' ,. s)=s nt ,tl-tt-c.w "until hcr sonhadb"9:,11: aq ldult (lit.: onc strong of arm)." -*1, "You will act in thc altcrlifc.','.1 rni iri.n=ktp t! llkc you did on carth." ' .-,---. .il "^-,it.'' ti,. , ,i,,t,. d. In the Batanced Sentcnce: ,-"] .-- l ... ,'l)li ii r p.t m hik.wpri.n=i hr !nh(.wy)=.rrl "(10 theywcnt up to thc sky as talcons, ltri.n=sn I n c n tu p o n t h c i r w i n g s(.c "p.S$ 49,10.1b , 8 ,1 3 2 ) I1 2. Vcrbal verb form (in vcrbalmainclauscs andsubordinatc clauses): a. Usually, thcslm.n=J' only takcs initialposition in a mainclausc aspart of a Complcx Verb Form ($g9la and95.1, butsccalsorS$ 123,126). b. Paratactically in a main clause: In a main clause, which is part of a longcr sectionof text, thc vcrbalsQm.n=f can paratactically follow a vcrb form at thc hcadof a section of text:

and SYntar 40 Accidence

i.FollowingtheComplexVerbFormChC.ns/m.n=f($95.1): SinuherecountswhathedidafterhisvictoryoverthcheroofRetenu:


his herd'" plundcred ^,r-n.r,=t "Then I fetchedhis properfyand ($ 9la): Verb Form iw sQm'n=f ii. Followingthe Complex


'il'-'N,1l,r$ * *-'-X,ilo.- 'h'.n ini'n=iif;'t=f htk'n=i

: Lrl}ji"li\: -;it'*. : on thc qb:l'*ilihir- \'l''-l,i[i1]*q1{ "I directedthe work

hlkr n nb=f iw !rp.n=i kl.t m nsm.tmsi'n=i in'w"s iri'n=i for its thc Haker-fcstival (of siris); I made its ropes,I performed Neshmet_barque lord (Osiris)." AoristI): (g 92 Cornplcx stJm=f iii. Followingthc ComplcxVerb Fonn iw(=fl

i't:" ii\\;ji'xi**ij li),,,\dh$i. .,$**rl'Ii^;jiT i\ i;\'i"r'

'!t- '

"I givcwatcrto .iji'ir=i t= nm 1\![t di=i$sztmwnihrcli.n i hrv:l.tnhm'n'icwli thc robbcd'" rcscucd thc thirsty,I setthc lostuponthc road'I clauses: c. In verbal subordinate with trunsitive vcrbs' In thc clauscsthc vcrbal sjm.n=f is only usccl In subordinatc utiliscd: ($ 81)^is of intrunsitivevcrbsthc Olcl Pcrfcctivc t' case Yii'i'1-^'' lf ;it:L' f it'\'ll"l-Followingthc king'slcttcrSinuhc "ontlnu"r,.I

.;.,illti')s{;ii',r r;]I',q::\-Y,,i',',

lcttcr rcachcd mc was standing in lhe di.n(=,itwi tlr b.t=i."This whw.t=i gfli.n,yy=J-n=i (as a mark of t having placed-mysclJ' on nty belty mitlst of, my tribe; it*u, i"u,l to mc in Ernphaticconstructions(thc rcspcctibr thc king).,,Two norninalsclm.n=.t''finlr'0.t"] thc by crnphasiscdvcrbal subordinatc clauscs' sccond n '1-passivc, S 76) arc followcd Thc 5611'n=f' vcrbal a sccond thc is intransitivc, first an old Pcrfcctivc, sincc thc vcrb posnlrcs:stontling in thc rnidst of his tribc' Sinuhc's bctwccn crnphasisis on thc c.rntrart to hirn' prurrrornwhcn the king's lcttcr is rcad

;ii spr.nw,Qpnr=ichc.kwmhr('v)-ib

o i'' ivi'n' i]"' l';ji:'--'-*]'i) lii " l-' 'ov'' ThccaravanlcaclcrSabni rctchcd having camc' Iri this -t' hr-s "Now' r hsit(=i) r,'ri+':,iii,i\;ii; i,;i ; ni=i)''4 clausc) subordinate a temporal (i:ni'n=fin ir'" of t"tuu" a p'ui'"'("-'"; a dccrce for (rnc) 'i;' jllil'1 l l' ' ;":ti; 'l'l *-i1 Ikhemofret: to writes Itt "'"1-i\ Kins Sesostris lkherhasdoncthis(cntrusted *t..,r=i xu m ikr slr "My Majesty ;;.;";;i;i:;; of counsel'" saw)you as onc cxccllcnt nofrctwith u turtl,'uit., i ,..ognir.a 1rit.' clause) subordinate (ml.n=i in a temporal

Verb - Sffix Conjugation 4l

3. Followingthe negation n^-i n sQm.n=f ("He doesnot/can not hear"). This is the negativeequivalentof both the Circumstantial Presentsdm4 and the ComplexAorist I iw(-fl sdrz=/($$136a, 142b; seeTable3 - p. 85). 4. In performative statements:In captionsaccompanying the rcpresentations of the king with the gods on temple walls, the vcrbal sQm.n=f appearswhcre onc of the persons (king or god) speaks in the lst person: In a sccne wherc Amun hands King Sesostris the sign of lifc: "words spokcn by :'' ,' I.11. Amun-Re,King of the Gods: :-"j- +:' di.r=(i) n=k ,nb wJs nb r lr.t=k ntr nfr I have(hercwith)givcn you all lifc and dominionto your nose,pcrfect god." d. (HISTORIC) PERFECT sQm-J / iri-J Form of the wcak stem:
llae gcm.:

E j2

,, lt llltl Ur, ru, khh "tobccoot" ' lliii;, .tL .!\

mll "to scc"
"to do" "to cornc" "to givc"

to iri

N .l; (frcqucnt); ,,'


IIIac inf.:

iri iw,i rdi

,rlr i\ iwl, ,l i | ^ iri . rdi

Usage: Thc (Historic) Pcrfcct sQm=J' is an Old Egyptian fonn which is occasionally uscdin Middlc Egyptian asa pasttcnscfonr in rnainclauscs: ' ,il):j'. .-.- "' 'i';tnt In a biographical tcxt of thc Midillc Kingdom: ,i iji rirctiw,i sI n.y tnt! "His Majcstyappointcd rncscribcof thecadastcr." fim=J'r Thc Pcrfcct sgJm=f is rnainlyuscdin spccific constructions: -o'l. Aftcr theNcgativc n,in thc ncgativc cquivalcnt of thc Pcrfcct sqlm.n=l: n s(m=J' "hc did not hcar"($ 138). 2. Aftcr ccrtain prcpositions, c.g.qlr"siltcc", nbht "aftcr",r? "when"andn "bccausc: fi..'"i. ,\: .,t* "* Qrgrg.twr,, tl p,t,,since thislandwasfoundccl.', Thc priestwill bring offcringsj\i',;.. A ./\ ^-11tpri-f "aftcr hc has gone forth (andhasperformcdthe ritualsin thc tcrnples)." i-:i: -' - ti''' ' m wn=f tp rj when hc was upon earth.,' "I was a priest with my turh". ir\

and SYntax 42 Accidence L sagt T:: F

bgtt ,..,a1 5;i! / \ fr,'iJ.

S 73

e. The Form s{m.t-f Form of the weak stem:

IIae gcm.: wnn mli IIIac inf.: it'i iwi
ttto * Wn.t

"to seett

rt)- -

),;\ , .
,f ...


t. \o a.I:':'

"to do" "to comc" "to give"



rdi Usage:

ri A, ) I A iyi .t '" ' ,,.'"rQi.l, i)'' ,!i.,

is used in only a limited numbcr of constructions: Thc sQm.t=f -o - n, to cxprcssan action that has not yet occurrcd: l. Following the ncgative n slm.t=l' "hc has not yct hcard / bclbrc hc hcard"' { } . ; . . .- ^ - l l , ] c a t n ci n t o b c i n g . . - b c f b r c t h c ! 1 p r . r t =. k. . n f i p r . t r r r r ' . r l , " Y o u

b. I:

Tlc '
T rr,f

godscamcinto bcing.'' until": r "until"and/r' "sincc, 2. Aftcr thcprcpositions '.^"'


"Atorchislitfbryouinthcnight, lnh.t=k until thc sun shincson your brcast."





r v'bn.t Iw hr

r r' .(


r'\ p i'

'ii '''l'' 'l:'r"lwasinthislanclunclcrhis(thcking's)commancl' uponhis anns(i.c. hc dicd)'" to pass carnc nrnitp r.wy4(9 until clcath iri('ylw)--l sQm(.ylw)41 l. FUTURE(PROSPECTTvE) Form of thc wcak stem:
khh v,nil ml', lllac inf.: iri iwi rdi tJrti rThc "to bc" "to scc" "to do" "to colnc" "to givc" ,,, . i , .. 1 "r 'ii' -"i"' -ii l)
ll lt, 11


l. \'' a. I:r
t t -lJ

$ 74

ri ill

ro ri: b.F Th.'

thc ,

rtrli iri, iri.y

il'ti rdt

Th c. ir Fcrll d. I

ltdi.w' "travcl downstrcant" thc cnding w i s noun, is a subjcct thc Whcn writtcn. not cndings arc oftcn Note: bcfiveen thc distinction thc timc of course thc y. In somctimcs found in place of lost. Future and Subjunctive s4m=f (5 75) was

Verb- Sffix Conjugation 43

Usage: The Future(Prospective) sQm-fis usedboth as a nominal and a verbal form. A morphologicaldistinctionbetwecnthe two hasnot beenidentified. 1. Nominal verb form a.In thc Emphatic (see Construction also$$ 70.1a,7l.l): ll-"i\qq*'-'i eat(lit.: swallow)?" '.'-\i f isst "v[/hat,thcn,willyou il !'" "' scmJ.kir= m

'- ' i\ }.fjl NN i\ ill " - Y "l , . s(m.wNN nt h(n\k.rtt.t bct.t dtr.r,,Beer oJ'red barley willNN drink (lit. swallow)." b. In an objcctclausc, scrvingas thc objcctof ccrtainvcrbs,c.g.r'lz"to know",nrli "to scc",ltrd"to command", mri "to dcsirc/wish", .sfii"remcmber": T h c k i n g s a y s o tf h e g o c l,:, t * - ' . t ' , . t l l i - - - ' ' r ! . n = l ' ! t , p = i1 1 = f ' s " tH c k n o w s t h a t I will governit (theland)for him." ^--l.,.tir,-... 702c) \t;\1 1iil;- ... I i l;,:.1iil:--ril,i m n .t.=tr(\ ... sttd.w=trt mlc=tn n hm.wt=tn "in as rnuchasyou wish . . . thatyou will tcll your wivcsaboutyour cxpcdition..." 2. Verbal verb form a. [n mainclauscs i ,i\,/,. :, j;ilr,{ Maat(usticc)will takc its placc,clisorclcr havingbccncastout; 'i', '..' ''it-i'.-.--..., ;11 .,'r'I --,..,tr,.y gnttt.t(y)--fy($r12) N,rur./(y)-jy ht lnts"hc who (it) will scc andwho will bc in thc cntourage of thc king will rcjoicc." " '--.-., i',t sQcl=i n iti.y "rwilt rccount your (clivinc) ,i lrj)ii'-(,.h!.w=k powcr to thc sovcrcign." particle b. Following thc non-cnclitic f ; ($ 37): Thc king would likc to sailovcr a canalbut is unablcto do so bccause thercis no watcr in 75'zt thc canal.Thc rnagician Djcdi thcn says: ijN .. . )jl i,i ^.:.-k) rqli=iltpr mw "ThcnI will lct watcrcorncinto bcing." c. In final or consccutivc purposc clauscs, cxprcssing or conscqucncc: '" ' , ,, iri nrll-k"Act, andyou willscc." Followingan impcrative: '."'l i;i i;:., (8{ l19-120). d.ln thc ir-Construction

44 Accidenceand SYntcLY I iri'y=f I iri.w + noun subject'This Futuren sQm(.w).f e. In the old Egyptiannegative mainly in ( 142c), which appears is thc equivaf.nilf tne MiAdte Egyptiannn sQm=f texts,e.g.the Coffin Texts. archaising f. Followingtheparliclcl' $ 75 ($ l3l'l)' "' in fulfillableconditions I

sQm'fI iri(.y)=f g. SUBJUNC'trYE Form of the weak stem: IIae gem.: kbh wnn mjj
Illac inf.;

"to bc cool" "to bc" "to scc" "to do"

"to corttc" "to bring" "to givc"


'i,'l! *

, !, . i \

! :, ,, \.. 'rA '. lilij 'i I ti:

iwi itti rdi

m l n , , ; : . . \ n i iri .y, t' iri iwt int di

-n )i ?,* . ,' I I

I thc bctwccn of timc,thc distinction oftcnnot writtcn.In thc coursc Note: Enclings lost' s/nr=/was 74) andthc Subjunctivc FuturcsQm=.|'($ Usage: particlc: with or withoutan introductory l. In wishes, a. withouta particlc: ." ,l'].--;. ',' . ,.1!. , , :* ji,1"*r'1;ii' ' iri.y n=k Hr.y-!i=f nh Nn-nswih=k fulfil 1bryou your wish!" of Hcraclcopolis, thc Lor<l "May Hcrishcf, b. with a particlc: ', tin -)' , ii ... kl iri=tw ltli ir.,! "May onc act accordingly!" 1i,., ,,, '.1. (r {'7b) r nb.rmi ,! :l ".,:,, i!1.t, ifi n)n=k 71=ft !;.,, , :-..',' i',1.'1.l thc to is according which that hp "May you scc (to iQ that cvcrythingis donc likc nb.tis thc lw-Passivc' $ 76). law."(iri.fw i!1.t verb' ic. asa nominalvcrb form scrvingas thc objcctof anothcr 2. In an objcctclausc, and "say" also lct"; to that, lrmt dd causc andits impcrativcinti "to in particulrrc_li plan": "intend,

Verb- PassiveForms 45
f\ I Il I -- -n { it I l,*-. d i = k i w t ( h c . wp =w i int)! "May you let this my lifetimereachthe achievingof veneration."

._ \

*.-.{) 'i .1 ,"


"y L4 ethimsinganddance." .lii iI.- r,li| f , :-l i m i h s i . y 4 h b i . -^". ''\ 1,ll'. t .'., lii (sec fightwithme.,, hewould 4rt.n4 l ti hn?-i,Hc said

2) rlso $ 124example purposc or conscqucncc: clauses, expressing 3. In final or consccutive $' /'tth ,;i,, i!1 iwt tt=i rmt.w tltr.w mt=snwi "May ii'l I I ;,, 1'i):;' rncnandgodscomcto rnc so thatthcy tnaysccmcl" '-. --" 1:11' {l !l 'tll y-srL' "t havccomc,rhat nttn=iwsir cnh=i iyi.n=i , " tll,]l I rnaysccOsirisandlivc at his sidc." -1.In thc ncgativc ($ 9a): nn s4m4' "hc of thc CornplcxFuturciwJ r sc-ln cquivalcnt scc$ 142c). rvill nothcar"(lit.:"thathc will hcardocsnot cxist", vcrb fonn n-spscln-J"it did not occur,thathc hcard"($ la2 a). 5. In thc ncgative 6. Following thc particlcif ({ l3l.l ). conclitions il in fulfillablc ')

VOICE 2. PASSIVE (with the passive elemcnt ; , a. fw-PASSIVE tw) $ 76

is usuallyformcdthroughaffixing thc passivc Thc passive of thc suffix-conjugation /lv "one",{ 27) to thc stemor to a to thc indcfinitcpronoun clcmcnt,r$,', rr, (rclatcd " n: the tense clcrncnt such as, for examplc, modifyingelcmcnt,
-r, -', (or ),=k,=k

' '' , iii\,,)'i

"you arc hcard" "you werc hcard", etc

to thatof thc activeforms,e.g.: of thc rw-Passive corrcsponds The usagc Usage: ($ 70.1): in thc Emphatic Construction '' !'f \| ",,^i':,'\.' Rc whenhe rises." ji n '. '' wbn4 "He (thc king) is secnlikc mi Rc.w

46 Accidenceand SYntax

($ 7l'l): PerfectsSm.ntw'Jin the EmphaticConstruction Present 'd"'N" S r hwi.t s1.tyw"Thathe (theking) was made ) m -', [] i: "'-',.,ofor''u) 3e 5$ ,8 isinordertosmitetheAsiatics."(r*infinitiv $5 . 2 ; Y d f o t T i , Forms: Passive Special S 77 I iri(.wlv)'f sQm(.wly)-J PASSIVE b. PERFECTIVE with both weak and strongverbs;with weak vcrbs appears Thc }|-cnding occasionally asa rule,no endingis written. i!. However, onealsofindsthc ending Form of the weak stem: ,,todo,,: iri lllac inf.: rdi Usage: prcdominantlyin advcrbial subordinate The perfcctive Passivcsdm(.wly)4 appears ($ Bl) is the Old Pcrfcctivc subject with a pronominal with a nominalsubjcct; clauses aftcr particlcsand in thc Emphatic uscd. Howcver,it also occursin main clauscs Construction. In mainclauscs: pi r)-pr.w n.y )hL.v,rdi(.w)n=k hmw.wr n.t-''w=f "Bchold,it hasbcen sw(b=k(\743) havebcen (lit.: purify) this templeof Abydos.Craftsmcn thatyou rcstorc commandccl it." (lit.: given)to you to organise assigncd of this form: thc first occursin an thrcc examplcs contains Thc following scntencc clauscs: two in subordinate thc follo'rving in a mainclausc, Construction Emphatic "to givc": ,,,.iJil iri.y )i. iri.w, tit rq!i.w,; ill rdi'y a t rQi, : , ,t). iri , ,,r.

T;r:jf\i - lirt::' " )lr iii *- i"ll. , ", l'l;'ri

wd(w) :1. -m=k

iitllrl ii**ii-,)r|,.,,,',,'ir*\\Llilil ]lil"-l^*il-*i'1 -[1.Lri'i,illl:'; ;ilij,\[',Vl cl smn! p)'wt=snm s!

m lms(.w) n(.y) nlr smn ,di.y rrt.*i(=i) m hw.t-nyr placcd in thc templein thc following of the grcat god, offerings wcre "(My) statues for havingbeenestablishcd them,their offeringbreadhavingbcenfixcd in writing."

fhqq$t' \\1 i, *

(3 ( | * l\: ,'r'),,ri.y=i "r s) RC.w'tmn.w-m'ht't I n(.t) m lti.t-sp

(Emphaticconstruction) was born in ycar I of the Sonof Re, Amcnemhet."

Verb - PassiveForms 47

In subordinate clauses:

7,t tl nhm.w'k.w=f df wcb.w=f"Let that temple nlr m sl n sl iwc n iwc pt!t(.w; t$st) office be takenfrom him from sonto son andheir to heir, they (the heirs)bcing castto thc ground (i.c. deprivedof their offices),his incomeand thc title deed of his meatofferinghavingbeenconfiscated." is pronominal. ($ 8l) is usedwhercthe subject .\ote: l. The Old Perfective by il"by" (cp. 79, last it is introduccd 2. lfthe logical subjcctis expresscd, cxample). sim.r=f I' c. PASSIVE Form of the weak stcm: Illac inf.:
iri msi Usage: (S 73). Thc following scntcncc This fonn is thc passivccquivalentof thc fonn sQm.t=J' containsan cxample of each: "to do" "to bcar"

1) l\ H l.)^l ,,* -- l'i, \ *- $ $' .: N Y.i-.1 * ti) i;\ b $ S.< rJ' $ " ' ri-1'-" I *- -" imi!


* (; \\ *'='-

$ 78

,.,ll,. ilil ",il ifi

'; (alsof,nl ,rsi.yr

ii -

-^-li , , I -^-fill]11..!1,1

ntr.w,,you rmte)rtftpr.t n !1pr.n=k

wasborn,beforcthc godscamcinto bcing." cameinto bcingbeforchumankind PASSIVE simm=fl iri.w-J d. FUTURE ($ 76). by formsof thc rw-Passivc form. It is largclyrcplaced This is an Old Egyptian rcligious or archaising in archaic found almost cxclusivcly In Middle Egyptianit is by thc geminationof the last tcxs, in particularthc Coffin Tcxts. It is charactcriscd foundwith both the fonniri.w=J'is for causatives); radicalof thc strongvcrbs(except vcrbs. wcak andcausativc S 79



\)'"'/l ,]il:ir.w**"fii*''l
:s Ai o )

pnhrmsf;n.r"o(you)silent ll r,.., ippNN

oncs! This NN will bc examinedupon the birthing stool." ,.r\ - !'. ' rdi(.w) 11=J'ck.w=s "Its (thc office's) income will be given to him." .1,

and Syntax 48 Accidence

-"- rl: Negationwith

Th Th

*ii,il-^_l\ T\ ]\, uifii* i\l''_i},'' n bf,=iin swn *^_.:, : :Xi,rf

s/m'!r{, sdm'kt4 sy'm.inJ, TENSES S S0 3. THECONTINGENT
Form: Thc clemcnt\* Usage: on is conditional Thc activitycxpresscd in mainclauscs. Thcscverbformsonly appcar action. a prcvious hc hcard"'" sdm.in4"Now/thcn PERFECT a. CONTINGENT Oftcn foundin narrativctcxts: to cry loudly: andbcgan wasbcatcn pcasant The cloqucnt said:'Do not raiscyour voicc,peasant!"' sfi./y"ThcnthisNcrnty-nakht

by the earth-gods." by Shu,I will not be grasped in lkr.w "I will not be grasped Jmm=i


': s1 7rr',


bctwccnstcmand subject. kl appears

'ir lr l,l pnm k)ifirw-k Nntr.y-nftt ,l ii1*-.$i:4)!i'*. \lr.,,tt:r.'il,'l'll.'ri'ir'

lcst you trcadon rny clothingl "Watchout, pcasant, saysto thc pcasant: Ncrnty-nakht '[ will do whatyou will praisc!"' said: thispcasant

, 1ii*--ilili.l;ii*.,,

r{te) iii;iilii ,, liil' " 16"n hsi.r=r'(5 ptt it'i.y=i s!1.ry

that thc lcctor pricst Djcdi bc broughtto him and thcn hc King Khufu corntnands i i - . ' . | , : - , i i i i f l y l s t l . i t l t w ' n = f ' D"c T th i cn h i r n s c l f g o c s i n t o r h c a u d i c n c c c h a mo ber: (rr'r-Passivc) ..." in to hirn Djcdi wasushcrcd "Thcnhc hcars "'" AORIST scJm.!1r-J b. CONTINCENT Thc pcrson for whom a particularritual is performed:"hc is powcrful amongstthe ..!l-',jjli]ti\* wnn.!1r-Jmi,ytcim=snthenheislikconcofthcm." go,lr,,..=.().--' by ) introduced clausc sQm.lrJ oftcnfbllowsa conditional ir' ($ I 3 I ):

l)t: I rl : thc thc Th


1] 'l)',,]db'

thenhe water, "If he drinks mw' f 1iii ,'L ;,. swi-J

Verb- ConlinpentTenses 49

The construction sQmy'has the samemeaning: !1r-J The deceased has successfully passed onc of the gatesof thc netherworld:"Thcn he rcaches another gate. He finds the two sisters standing there.

().il*._ jit t,lil -, _ -\,. . l * : ll*: ,. . , , , lt_ . , , , , * , \ * ^ - - l l * mi sn=n tw hr=sn !c=stt Ir.t hnc sp.ty n.t ltm rn.w=sn Thcn they say to him, 'comc, that wc may kiss you!' Then thcy cut off thc nose and lips of him who docs not know their names."

c . C O N T I N G E N TF U T U R E s Q m . k ) = l ' " T h ch n e w i l l / s h o u l dh c a r . . . " (cxprcsscs conscquencc): In a tornb inscription thc visitors to thc tornb arc callcd on to ntakc an offcring to thc tornb owncr frorn what thcy mav havc with thcrn:

'ii, "lt' you havc nothing with you, I l-!ilr ---- . shouls da y . . . "

..." dd.kl=tn nt rl=ttt

thcn you

Thc dcccased says:"lfyou do not Ict mc cscapc froln nry cncrnics.

. . / \ .; [ , , r i i l { - , . ,, : ; i i i;t ^. ;),lriiili., ,ii *.i

,. -.
) v




ii.\. ir..:l)

pri .B HCpyr p.t cnh=f'mnt)..t hli.k) (i)r=f'RC.w r ntw'n!=f m rm.w thcn Hapy will go forth to thc sky, that hc may livc off Maat, thcn Rc will dcsccndto thc watcr, that hc may livc ofTfish." Thc construcliors l1l=JscJm=fIk) s{m=f havc thc samc rncaning: 'i"',lrt ' ' i;l:t,,' : "May you clo as l say. ]' kl htp Mlc.t r s.t=s Thcn

Maat will rcst in hcrplacc." i /, '['l]!--* -"-' . ,, i,^.i "ls it a Nubian? kl iri-n mk.t=rt Thcn wc will protcct our' (' \\:jil ro,' " lil., $ 3 7 ) . sclvcs."

and SYntax 50 Accidence (rtcrtvr volcE) oF THEWEAKVERBS ovoRvtEw oF FORMS SrBir'rs

of the verb lbrms (active voice) TnBLB I - Weak vcrb: stems Notes I Nonrinal (s\7l ' l )' vcrb 1iln.u 2 Vcrbalvcrb lomr ($ 7l '2)' with a tlounsubjcct' t So,',.tc vcrbshavea -N'cnding Illac inf-. a rr ($5s 7l 3; 138)' j; t oftc't notniual t ' I rcgja'ly lirllowsncgation u.,u ru''t.,-'''i (s 7l'4) statcmcuts pcrformativc , oft",.,vcrbar t(u r.l .ni tbrm oi','eiiin vcrb r,,,r,"'"i-'',cii

Old Perfective 51

5) oLD PERTECTIVE (alsocalled"Stative", "Qualitative" or "pseudo-participlc") Forms and rvritingsof the endings: Forms sg. l.c. 2.c. .w(olderform .fti)



3.m. 3.f.
pl. 1.c. 2.c. 3.m./c. du. 2.c. 3.m. 3.f.

(oftcn not writtcn;


' , ir

(both rarclv attcstcd)

.w (sornctirncs .y)
.fii'ny .11y


lYote: Thc cndings ir', i' and (for rl) arc writtcn bcforc thc dctcnninativc,thc othcrs aftcr. Thc cnding cannot bc scparatcdfrorn thc vcrb stcrn by any othcr clcrncnt.Thcrc is also a rarcly-uscdcncling i 1ri; for thc 3rclpcrsonpl. fcm. Form of the weak stem:

llac gcrn.: IIIacinl-.: lrrcgular:

"to bc cool" "to dcsccnd" "to do" "to comg"

kb.ri h, iri.ku, iu,i.ti iyi ku'

"to give"

and SYntax 52 Accidence

Usage: a statc)' (expressing partlyasa Stative tense, is partlyusedasa perfect l. Theold Perfective Vcrbs: 2. Transitive mcaning: haspassiue vcrbsusually of transitivc thc old Perfcctive o In Middle Egyptian Intheinstructionstothevizicramcsscngcrisclirectedtointroducchismessage ''^*'iii:::-iii hlh.kv'm ttpw, n('t) sr ntn "I have rLl as follows: rl' "\ \\'r,',rr of thc officialso-and-so'" bcensentwith a message oActiveusagcwithtransitivcvcrbsisrarc,''tolcarn/know''isrcgularly t' 1; "l 1O 't-n ilt=sn i.rr('w')t\qe) r!1'ku' "ti ']'!"'l '- ." l'". uscdin this way: r: carth'" for thc onc who docsit on kncw thatit (usticc) is bcncficial Usagc: 3. IndePcndcnt InatnainclauscthcolclPcrf-cctivcisuscclindcpcn clcntly'i'c.withoutaprcccding Old llgyptianusagcin which thc Old^an only in thc l'st pcrson' particlc, asan acliveHistoricPcrl-cct: i'crfcctivefunctions (s7s2) -n('v') l.tu'n'w g!)nr.w ''r ,,il-,,,\., i\.,, :.,'r...,:''l')ill i i;1,,;1i, ,il, .1,. thata troopof youngmcn conlc"'" nfi.w "Icausccl 'l q/r/ A'iI saicl "'" with rnc' t confcrrcd rulcr "This rccounts: Sinuhc in a conplcx vcrb Fonn(g$ 91c,95'2)' it only appcars in maincrauscs othcrwisc, clauscs: 4. In subordinatc clattscs' is rnainlyuscdin subordinatc Thc Old Pcrfoctivc ' '"'' ''; ';ii iri'rvi hnt''w3 wci'kw"I l'' '..-;i Thc shipwrc.f.".r,uifo""to'"'' I bcingalonc'"(Stativc) spcntthrecclays, thc d'av will bc mlclc 13r "'.0":t"],' l: Sinuhcis tolcl:"A funcraryproccssion Y?' -".1 'il ' l ' ' th t ' k 4 t ' t \ t ) of lapislazuli. l .i t s )h c a d i n n c rc o f f i no l ' g e t c ( (Stativc) bccnplaccdon thc bicr." uuou"y,,u,yo,, hauing sky/ncavcn m mstp.tthc do thc likc "May yo.u9bt:y" 1ly*9,lolitics, of his biograpliy: thc readcrs Incni adclrcsscs '"t'l'" .*'i'i cn!t=1n tp ti w)h ' )j''l i'"ll for you, ;. ill-i' thcrcof;(it) will bc bencficial '" (Stative) on carth'you beingprosperous" will endure wQllwnyyourlit-e

Inlrnutve )5




\ -Yf I F ,', I .. gmi.n=isw r!(.w) s/ "I found him, he alreadyknowing it." Stative) 5. As an advcrbialpredicate ($$ 8G88). in the Pscudo-verbal Construction 6. In wishes: .n the2nd and3rd pcrson the Old Perfcctivc canbe usedto cxprcss a wish:
'it ' , - i''.;

ll l

)'tI iyi.ti n =l "You are come to me", i.e. "Welcome!"


i) f -i 'nb( w) wdl( w) snh(.w) "May hc livc, prosperandbc healthy!" ln the sct phrasc .11,

F.',,.r.:f w8t.ri snb.ti l,i ltll cn!1.ti

")INFINITIVE Forms: \\'ithout ending: 3-radical: IIac gem.: 2-radicalr: 4-radical: causative 3-radical: I sdm khb nn w,sttl {nb
tl'I "-* ^ l.!t.r, .;' 't')\ "to hcar"


,f jl I lii

,,to bc cool,,
"to rcmain" "to stricle" "to vivify"

Exccption: Thc2-radical vcrb ljrr i,)\ /j .fill "to go" hasthc /-ending:.fn./

r-ending: causativc 2-radical

smn.l ' "to makc [irm"

t-endingor (infrequenQ without ending: lIIae inf.: hli.t bdi

lVae inf.: m)wy

)r', -ar ,i) -,'L


"to fall" (l-endingprcdorninant) (also/rty tr,[.)\"to "to traveldownstrcam" seek"and tri --^il,lil ",o become old") "to bc ncw" "to sit"

hmsi.t ii



and SYntax 54 Accidence

Irregular: "to do" "to givc" "to comc" "to bring,fctch" T h c i n f ' r n i t i v c i s a n o m i n a l f o r m o f t h c v c r b a n d a s s u c h i t S h a r c s t nto a n cxprcss yofthccharaccan bc l"ll:.*"9 !1,.,1.^t:lttx-pronoun tcristics of nouns' c'g' it posscssion($28.1),itianfonnpartofadircctgcnitivcconstruction(sl8)andcan i..u" u. thc objcctofccrtainvcrbs' INFINITIVI] OFTHE, AND OBJECT A) SUBJECT $ 83 l. Subjcct bY '';'- ... irl "bY": a. introduccd ,:,r1l,i;,,'.i;"it*--ir',,tr.v/!r.w,inttr.r--ttlh(.t)"Rccitingoftransfigurationsby thc lcctorPricst'" b.lfthcsubjcctispronominal'aninclcpcndcntpcrsonalpronounisuscd(S26): with thcir ""' togcthcr ' nt-slt'rm-kl4' ,.,.r :lrll- ... l.ttfpri't iltstt i - . -,,it-, goingforth bchindhis ka-pricst'" his saying ,.rli1i' "through nr tltl st nrf r-y,'.y-.r.{nr u,iii;i! jt,l l ii , -t,.. ij pronounobjcct) ('rrclcpcnclcnt it in thc p'"'"*t of thc official" cithcr as a suffixappcars thc subjcctsomctilncs inlransilivevcrbs, of casc thc ln c. ' tp.t "at his first going fbrth" .-. \r' I , ,-A'i',') , m pri.t=.f pronoun: ' ' m pt'i't'T'fl "llt thc going rl ' gcnitivc -"' ^"^" " '-' ' ' constructton: or as a nounin a clircct forth of thc sem-Pricst'" d.Witlrtrqnsitivevcrbs,thcclircctgcnitivcconstructionisonlypossiblcifboth andobjcctarccxPrcsscd: subjcct andobjcctbothnouns: Subjcct ,t,.,-\' givingthe two lands'" rdi.t Mn!'w /3'wy "Month's

Inltnrlwe )5

.. subjectand object arc both pronouns,the subjectappears as a suffix-pronoun, the rtcct asa dependent personal pronoun: ti 'i ,\i .rQi.t4 sv,r it-.yp(.t hlt.y-(.w,,,His appointing hirn as princc ,::dCount." l, Objcct $ 84 -:lc infinitivcis a nominalfonn of thc vcrb, thcreforc the objcctof thc verbalcontcnt :'a transitivc vcrb is attachcd to thc infinitivcas a gcnitivc;if thc objcct is pror,rninal, it usuallyappcars |');D iyi.n=i as a suffix-pronoun: ;.r r )i;'l hr tnrs=f . carnc followinghirn." :.'.tcption: thc dependcnt pcrsonal pronoun ,' .r/ (S 27) stands for thc ncutral',it" or ' ..' 3rd pcrson plural. --'ssficqucntly, if thc sub.jcct fbllowsthc infinitivcasa noun,an indcpcndcnt personal i'r'trlloul-l or a suffix-pronoun, thc objcct can takc thc fonn of a noun or clcpcndcnt pronoun :--'rsonal (sccabovc $ 83 d). ',( )RD otlDER: suffix-pronoun, dcpcnclcnt pronoun, inclcpcndcnt pronoun, noun({ I l7) , USACE OFTFIEINFINITIVE l..\s thc ob-jcct of ccrtain vcrbs,sucha" llrl "to colrlnand,,, r/i ,,tocausc,,, ntl),,,to --'.-". ru'l "to wish",.fi "dctcrrninc, cornr.nand". ($72) llii- .ili,' ^l-. w,Q hnt-J schc ptt "His Majcsty cornrnandcd w,cl thc -:r'ction of thisinscription." l. Following prcpositions, c.g.: + inf.:Cornplcx AoristII accompanying circurnstancc, "whilc",{ 93 -l inf.: Progrcssivc with vcrbsof movcmcnt nt in placcof hr + infinitivc f inf.: purposc, r futurc -l-inl.: "at thc tirnco1,whcn" .li nr-ht + inf.: "aftcr" ,^-.-". nn "without"({ 136c,l43b) Following -1. llr J. In rccords of cxpcditions andmilitarycampaigns in "tclcgraph stylc"to sct thc scenc of (sccalsocxamplc .rncvent 2 in 138): $ g5

,5,i:,1t.jtl^ i

'il-. \ esty: I\ i;:*- i * " l."1^\\': ! . ' r I ) , q . . : . [ ' o , . ? ] < t t i ' ^ - ^t lili i i

and SYntax 56 Accidence



tr\ r'L:.'-,-*-.,+-: c.wt !/s.wtiwi't

inghs.tbkj.thr!m.thr=srrmt'whfthr'siwir.ty=shrmjhrs]s].nn Cn=sh]=srSpr-Sr to him of gameof n'ipn'n('y) nb-'nbpn Thedcscending y'wpn Sps r inr pn iwf 5.1'S gazcilc,walking (with) its facc towardsthe the hill country,thc coming of a pregnant it until toot infstraight ahcadwithout its looking behind peoplein front of it, li. "VEsrock, at this stone,it being in its (original)position, its arrival at this spteniid (determined)forthislidofthissarcophagus.''(Thetextthencontinueswiththc forms$ I l3 und S 95'3)' narrativc

j;li,,.i ] -\'.1,,4',, iS""

it in,. tr""'rt:;'"1i. +i


!*,,'I''J.' 1,,,':."'z''ii'' ':i'if'l ti'"

- .,.','',.' 'ii"

,liljilii'u,',.'.'i)\,t';,sprohnll ih=.f r ici.r t h.u'r nnv,Q)r Rl2w m-l3t i]. rNhrng,mi.thm=.f'cnh('w)v'dl('w)snb('w)lr'wpflsJskww'n'in11 21=flr-l'i'1(\e'{\'ftj'r to Rctcnuin ordcrto vent his Dcparting .J.t im-stt,,Aftcrthis-(ihcNubiun.un'paign): lands;uiriuat'of his Majcstyat Naharin;His Majcsty's t6" io.cign -prosperous wrath throug1rout and hcalthy- that cncmy;his opcningbattlc' finding - lnay hc livc, bc ThcnHisMajcstymadcagrcatslaughteramongstthcln.''(Thcaccountcontinucsin stYlc). narrativc 5. As a caPtion in a totnb: a scenc AccompanYing


l;l ,',,,,, i -*lti

irjf:,;q stlmlt h(.u'\ ih.nri .,.,,r,--i,i.rii.-^--l.

nfrmin.wn(.w)sb.wttl-mh'w'inv'nu''t(y)'lmn'ws'fNlrr"Distractingthchcart(i'c' takingrccrcation),IookingatthcbcautyofthcproductsofthcficldsofLowcrEgypt of Amun,thc scribcNakht'" by th! hourwatchcr ln thc titlc of a book' ' ' ,t forthby day" (titlc of thc Book of thc Dcad). pri.t nt hrw(.w),,Going ;; i;:\ .' \


CONSTRUCTION 7) THE PSEUDO-VERBAL P s e u d o - v e r b a l C o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h c t c r m u s c d f o r t h o s c s c nprcpositions t c n c c s w h ftr' ichhavcas or (2) an infinitivcfollowingthc eithcr(1) an old Perfectivc predicatc of arc Advcrbial Scntcnccs sentcnces nl or r. From a syntacticpoint of vie*, ihes" type2 ($ 44). ($ 89f0' and somereplaccccrtarn They belongto thc group of Complcx Vcrb Forms otherverb fonns, c.g.

Pseudo-verbalConstruction 5l l. iw{ LtrlmsQm(: complex Aorist II / progressive, 93) - mainly progressive in $ mcaning;canbe uscdin placeof the ComplexAorist I iw() sQm_-ff qZ) S 2. iw'J r sdm (: complex Future,s 94) - the commonlyusedfuture; can replace the Future(Prospective) selm46 j4. a) PREDICATE l. Old Perfectivc: a. with transitive verbswith passivc meaning (cxccption: r.! "to know", $ g l.2) - focuson rcsulting b. with vcrbsof movcmcnt situation - describcs c. with adjcctive-vcrbs a statcor condition (Stativc) 2- hr +infinitivc:complcxAorist|I / progrcssive Qg6 (m + inf.g 93,r+ inf. g 94) a. with transitivc vcrbswith activcrncaning - inficqucnt, b. with vcrbsof movcmcnt usualry cxprcssccl by m + inf. ($ 93) c. with adjcctivc-vcrbs d. with intransitivc vcrbswhichcxprcss an action("to spcak" etc.) Examplcs: l.a. b. c.'-' ' ,iir hlt.t rdi.t(i)hr tl "Thcbow-warp hasbccnpraccd ";') on rarrd.', ' " i,ll -i\ mtc pri(.w) "Thc arrnyhasgoncforth (andis now in thc flcld).,, t)' \i" ,''rio ! ih-J )wi(.v,) ,,Hishcartis widc (i.c.joyful).,, ; tr\i;t ]] i" ,,,'l ii [i iw nt.rc pn rrr mi] "Thisannywatchccr.', (progrcssivc)



hnk.t "he atc brcad... anddrankbccr."(Complcx Aorist II) 'i t, i t j l \ ' i \ l t i t ' o l l , , i , , b. ^ lL' i r y = ih r s ! 1 s n ! t-st=s h r r d . w y , , lr a n a f t c r hcr (themarc)on foot."(progrcssivc) iil )\'.,; '11 ,' 'j;.'til'l] ihw c. hr mrwi "Fceblcncss is rcncwed,,, (progrcssivc) j\: d. ; :i' )ji T'. ' jjl. " m=kwihr sprn=k"Loolq lappcalroyou!',(progressive) t, 'oi, ,; Note: Thc infinitive q1d is often not writtcn afterhr: ia it h, nt t , 'Hc nh=npw "Evcryonc (says), is our lord."'

" I i ,.i 1 iif;

... i _ -l i l " ,.r ::ijitl

' 1,,,ir ,,f t,,.wnm t... hr t,sr i{ $3s)

and SYntax 58 Accidence

s ss b) suBJECr
l f t h e P s c u d o . v c r b a l C o n s t r u c t i o n f o t m s a n i n d c p e n d everb; ntma incla u s also e , t hbc cntheprocan these p"rii.r".or an auxiliary uv supported be must sublect nominal " is a noun (cp' $$ 43' 44)' e'g': fi.r.nt whcn the subject iw: 1. Thc Particlc ' ' i,'i:' iji il.,' il iu'=l ltp 'kw "r am laden'" , ti,,.|.,, sct out in pcacc'" m l.ttp"This gocl iv'nlr prt wc-!l('w) , \. i,rl* \,' , i:)r ,:i (Insubordinatcclauscsthcparticlciwisonlyuseclwithapronominalsubjcct;s46b). r 27): pronoun rr' (with a depcndcnt 2. Thc particlc 'ti),ii 1' ' 'i;.' to you!" I appcal , i";::'. , m=k vrihr spr n= "Bchold' .ilr,, ;.rro, il tl .on bc uscdhkc m-k (5 37)' or tltt irt: 3. Thc ruxiliuryvcrbN'rtrt - cxprcsscs futurc: Construction ^. v'nn/ | Pscudo-vcrbal ')i:,';i (i'c' appcar '-1,' ., hnc=k"l will bc judgcdwith you i ,' ,, u'rtn-iv'c.!'.kv' . ;{ :-:
bcforc thc court)." in a scqucnccofcvcnts: Construction- tnarksclctncnts ls.v,'* Pscudo-vcrbal ' tt" "Thcn thcY thrcw v ' n . i n = s th t r r q l i ' ts t h r h . w , t - s n I lt',,'ll i : - - "j - . i l thcmsclvcsuPon thcir bcllics'"

of His ii'li::-. ih n'y trn=f Ab(u') "Thcn thc hcart v'rt'itt i--i:-r'i'-.-,,iljli ' -'t. cool (i'c' wasjoyful)'" Majcstybccamc

VERBFORMS $ s9 8)COMPLEX or auxiliaryvcrbs.ThcY lonl by particlcs introduccd arcthosc VerbFonns Complcx


$ 90

li BY THEPARTICLE lu' a) INTRODUCED ("lt is thc cascthat "'")'lt:::1* "' which containa statemcnt clauscs in,introduccs ch(.n, a ncw sectionof which introduccs i-o ln.ont.u.t account, an of the bcginning wit[in a longcraccount($ 95)' nurruti"u.

Complex VerbForms 59

1.PRESENTPERFECT a. iw -f sdm.n4 "he (has)hcard"- fonned predominantly with transitive verbs,nevcr - scc$ 9l c). rvithverbsof movement (in placcof which in,+ Old Pcrfcctivc In an "idealautobiography": ,..l.jl'Xiill

S 91

ti li. l[- \): li ),1'i,r)i.n(=i)rnhkrhhs.wtt|Bwly,,thavcgivcn brcadto the hungryandclothing to thenakcd." In a sequcncc of activiticsof an official at thc annualfcstivalof Osiris in Abydos ' 'l i "r i;i1i,'' jil (prcsumably hc regularly took part): | -.1a1;" " ,iililL t ,i-' -**liril) iv, w,l.v,ttllr r nt.ltc.t4. , tq':..',,, etsr.n=i bnt.(:,)tpkr iw ntJ.rt=i Wnn-nfrhrw.wpf n(.y) chl cl "I clcarcdthc way of thc god to his tornbwhich is in (on) thatday of thc grcatbattlc." tiont of Pckcr.I protectcd Wcnncfcr Thc scrvant Irisu writcsto his rnastcr hnpy saidto rnc: Si-ka-iunu: "Thc ovcrsccr -. ii ' )11' iw,rQi.n=i n-J hsh-J 'l havcgivcn hirn thrcc workcrs'."

b. iw + Passivc s/m(.v,)'J "hc hasbccnlrcard"

), , ) \ll' i ')'. ,, \' ,,;'' iw,r4i .w,n=k!lw, "Air has bccn givcn to you." 'r';' -"-'

c. i u' + Old Pcrfcctir"' iy,-J iyi.w,"hc catnc/hascornu"_-prcdominantlywith intransitivcvcrbs and vcrbs of nrovcmcnt(scc $ 9la). At thc start of a biography: "Thc trcasurcrand solc companion,caravanlcadcr and troop cornmandcrIntcf says: -l- *. ( ) ', ,\ iiij, i , ,, lliri. ,.i:- u NN iv,!rdi.k(w,)!ttti.k(w,) hn( NN 'l travcllcd downstrcarn and upstrcarnwith NN ...' " l. COMPLEX AORIST l: iw(-,|)s4m4 "hc can hcar/hears" This fonn is uscd for gcncrally acccptcdstatcmcnts, c.g. in a provcrbial saying:
jli * ,r L):

$ 92

,'' *;ii' f-) ,\*\\. I )i' iwr)n(.y)sinhm-J'sw"Thcrnouth(i.c.thewords)of a Inanrcscuc him." hcaring" 3. COMPLEX AORIST II or PROGRESSIVE: iw4'hrlm sQnt"he hcars/is Frorn a formal vicwpoint, thcsc constructions bclong to the so-callcdPscudo-vcrbal ($$ 8G-88). a statc Constructions Thcy are usedfor incornplctc actions or to dcscribe or condition. S 93



and SYntax 60 Accidence

Note the following distinctions: a. with transitiveverbs: iw-J hr sQm "he hears/ is hearing" verbsof movenlent:iw'J m iwi .t "he comes/ is coming" b. with intransitive $ 8l) "hc sits" adjcctive-vcrbs: iu'Jhmsi.w (old Perfcctive c. with intransitive Examples: a. iw=f * hr + infinitive

i ; i ; . i j i ' ? * . . \ , :l ; i i i i j i . . i i $ . i i n - * ' 1 , , . ! i


';l giuc my (officeof) controllcr phylc to my son'" of a (priestly) b. iv,-J+ ln + infinitive (alwaysProgrcssive) ti it ",,,.1^il,r.:i.t:i ,',, .,): iii-,, gmi.n-i ftfi.w,pwiw=f m iyi.t"l discovercd cotning." wasa snake in a ,,Hcfoundhim going out of thc door of his housc."(Hcrc thc forrn is embcddcd II, Aorist complcx thc of subjcct as the whoscouicct"y,, "hilll", scrvcs vcrbalslausc of iw=.f'.) in Placc i.e. stands c. iu' l'l OldPcrfcctivc

il'. .\.,
ilir'r. f? 'l )" :r. -/J\ il ';'t I

, iv'=ku'r'./(i)"You arcgrcat." 'i' on her , 'i iw=s t3l!1.ti ftr ,d.v'y-s "She (the rnare)was swift

S 94 iw4'r sr|m "hc will hcar" FUTURE 4. COMPLEX conto thc Pscudo-vcrbal alsobclongs From a fonnal point of vicw, this construction ($ 86, sccalso$ 85'2)' structions L1fi.,i ,.-,,f rcsidcncc." $ 95 lill,r, \Xll,i;,.1 , iw hnv,"A shipwill comcfrom thc

VERB Fa,h,.n By THEAUXTLTARY b) TNTRODUCED c/rc.n forms "narrativcforms" which mark the beginningof a With certainvcrb forms, ($ 90)' within a longcrpassage of narrativc new scction |.($71)-predominantlywithtransitivcvcrbs

Complex VerbForms 6l ThenIsis said to thesegods,'Why then havewe come,if not to do marvelsfor these ;hildren,that we may give an accountto their father,who sentus?'




. qll(.u) snb(.w) Then they formed three crowns (lit.: diadems of a lord), may he livc, :r-ospcrand be healthy!" l. 'h'.n + OLD PERFECTIVE(S 8l) :--iovcmcnt mostly with intransitivc verbs and verbs of

chc.n 3 n.y nb ,nb(w) h..w,

. hc ovcrseerHcnu saysthc king scnt him to Punt: ' "..1 ..4. til' i;,1.. \,.. ' I ./,..n pt.i]w m Gbtyw,,Thcn I sct out from Coptos.,'

+ PERFECTIVE 3. cl.rc.rr PASSIVEsrln(.wly)4 77) ''\'hilc thc mctnbcrs of an expcdition watch, a gazcllc givcs birth on a block of stonc .rhich thc cxpcdition is to quarry. *i, .lcrificcd)." t,,i' '{f,'' ]l,rll '4'., !c.w rtltb.t=s "Thcn its throat was cut (and it was

1. ' (HISTORIC)PERFECT sclm=f(g 72) ' -,hr.,, - i''))' )t J;', r r J i =w f i m r t = f " T h c n i t ( t h cs n a k c ) putrncin its nrottth." ; t INTRODUCED BY THE AUXILIARY n' (attcstcd only infrcqucntly) ' + (HISTORIC?)PERFECT sc_lmJ' has both contingcnt charactcr (g B0) and propcrticsof thc Aorist (S 70) and is found in narrativc tcxts; thc idcntiry of thc sdm4' torrn is unccrtain. Thc children of thc vizier rcad his tcaching and found that it was good. ' j:--,]-i,l-l,.'ll*'tr i; l"*1;', ( l1-\ii h n t s i = sh n J i ( . v , ) , , T h c nt h c y a c t c c l l l i t . : s t o o da n d s a t )a c c o r d i n g l y . " Thc king was told of Sinuhc'ssituation:


' '. 'tr or),1" '-'.ii. h l1-."!1 w, hnt4'htb4'tt=i ftr )w.t-c.w,,Thcn HisMajcsfy sent to mcwithgifts." t

62 Accidence qnd SvntcLr

$ 97

9) FINITE VERB FORMS INTRODUCED BY ln.ft AND lsr (S\ 37) a) m=K:THE PRESENTATIVE m=k attractsthe attcntion of the pcrson addresscdand can introduce every vcrb form: l. il;i. + PERFECT .sdm.n4(\ 71) nr=A tt ; ),.1 .-,,i' m=kph.rt-rt f n.w "Bchold, we havc rcachcdthe residencc!"

m=k can also prccedethc ncgativeparticlc "'"- n (s\$37,133): ',', r:s);r';.1 jir,il ,-^-i, .,',1 mn.t ir.y "Bchold,onc has , , , = t n u , c l = t tttN ^---... il . not comrnandcdto do thc likc thercof." ($ 77) PASSIVEsslnr(.w,l1t)=.f 2. nt=k+ PERFECTIVE ' 'illr" )jl nt=k ntsi(.u,) ,iil ' n=k llrd.v,-l "Bchold, thrcc chilclrcnhavc bccn ; born to you." b) THE PARTICLEl.r! (S 37) introduccsa clausc that providcs backgroundinforrnatiorr about thc action cxprcsscdin thc rnain clausc: s e l n . n = .(/$ ' 71) l. is1+ PERFECT My Majcsty cornrnandsthc construction of thc tcrnplc ,of 'l Tcmcnos of rny lathcr Amun. . ., that hc ntay appcar in it . . . Pjah, w h i c h is in thc 'l

'i,..:., ' '.j ':il i ist ,qnri .rt ltnt=i ltw.t-n[r tn nt kcl nr r]h.t n,!t).n, :" , .-..,. "Now, llly sb).v'y-5 n lrt n')i(.u') r u')slmli u'4! hnvi prl ls hr lm'.t-n1rttt nt nt":y-'.t wood lallcn and doors of thc colulnns of bricks, fbuncl this tcrnplc built having Majcsty this tcrnplc Ancw." ovcr thc cord bc strctchcd that into ruin, my Majcsty clccrccs ' + PBIIFECTIVE 7) PASSIVE s e l n r ( . u , l y ) . 1 .7 'G 2. is1 without inlorrttingthc with his cntoLrragc Thc king has rctumcd in hastcto thc rcsiclcncc
*, I ,.i,

i,,.,,] p':l) i,.r .; --..





i r;l \ :,


),.I ii.lii'

tc h,c r o y a l i s th l h . v , r n t s . r r ? . t ) , r " ' M c a n w h i l l,'. iii ,! anny. I (onc of thcm was callcd out to as I stood ncarby ...)." childrcn had bccn scnt to,

''r.,,. t I '.-' , .,, .; ! li,' ''i' , ' ;ri ill , ]- ,li I'iir..

c ) T E X T P A S S A G I iIl l u s t r a t i n g $$ 89-97

r--i. ';l:. .
r'i ltr.\ --

|^\ .n H r.w-nd-hr-is-J\t') iw rQi



rn hr=i r llnw r ini.t Hr.w Nln l.tnc r,i m hr.y im(w) mw.t+ ls.t m)c.t hrw rQi.n-J(t7t2c) e7 b'$7r'2c) c|c.p=! (w,)i m sr mnl n.y hu:.t-ntr--frs-tp hr sv,!ft).rt=f r07) is.t is! grt r!.n--f ($7l 2c) e5 2) ' pr,'.r, /?? ntl(w nfr tcti.n=i N ln ltr .v'l'Gi) ltnc nm,.t4 ldi .kw,($ "(Thc god) Harcndotus ordered me to the residcncc, in ordcr to fctch Horus of Nekhcn and his mothcr Isis, justificd. Hc appointcd mc (as) commander of a ship and crcw, having rccognised mc as an cfficicnt official of his temple, watchful ovcr that which he commanded. Thereupon I travcllcd north with a good wind, having taken up Horus of Nekhcn and his mothcr in (my) anns (i.c. having takcn chargcof thcm)."

I O )P A R T I C I P L E S a) ITORMS: Likc adjcctivcs,participlcshavc gender and numbcr with corrcsponding cndings.


Thcrc arc thrcc "tcnscs": a . l m p c r f c c t i v c : f o r a c t i o n st h a t a r c i n p r o g r c s s , w h i c h a r c r c p c a t c do r w h i c h occur rcgularly (corrcsponds to thc Aorist). b. Pcrfcctivc:foractionswhcrcthcdurationofthcactionisnotofirnportancc, u s u a l l yi n t h c p a s tb u t a l s o i n t h c p r c s c n t( c . g . i n c p i t h c t s ) . c . P r o s p c c t i v c : f o r p o s s i b l co r c x p c c t c da c t i o n s ;i n p a s s i v cl i k c L a t i n g c r u n d i v c . Thcrc arc both activc and passivcvoicc. l. Inrpcrfcctivc Participlc


3-raclica I 2-raclical I l l a ci n f llac gcur.


Active s(nr(.u,) 4d(..u') h | )(.u;1 h(. u')



ntji.w, I rr.w,

rdi i w , i ;i y i

iyi( n ' )


Thc singular cnding-w is scldomwrittcrrin thc activc,in thc passivc occasionally. A 'r i::.rili] full activc plural cncling-yr.r, is sornctirncs written: who ,i "q1r,.y",,"thosc ' lrcar"; othctwir", ,\i'l,ii mrr.(y)w"thosc who lovc" or only : ': u,ntt.(yw,)"thosc who

64 Accidenceand SYntar of the passive exist". In the passiveplural only one lv is written, i'e' the writing , o' Prr.t. formsonly havethe-r ending: Feminine andpluralis idcntical. singular of the IIae gem.and Illae inf vcrbs' Note'. gemination ParticiPlc $ 100 2. Pcrfcctive Active
3-radical Passive sdm.w



lllae inf.



qldd.y cJd.w,; mri.y',mri.w


ir ij

IIac gcm.


trt lrt.))

tw,i t y t
f '

:i ,rl , -x tlt'l


to thc fornqltl.w, thc bi-radical vcrbs show a furthcr lorm In thc passivc, in aclclition thc masculinc singular, thc IIIac inf. vcrbs usually with gcrnination:gtdd.yI t-lctd.v,.ln -w is solnctitncswrittcn in thc activc, scldorn havc thc cncling ll; f. fn" plural cncling in thc passivc.

$ l0l

P:rrliciPlc 3. Prospcclivc

by rcplaccd is almostcomplctcly participlc thc activeprospcctivc In Middlc Egyptian, ($ I l2). thcsdm.ty--fi-Fonn

Participles 65

b) USACEOF THE PARTICIPLE 1. Nominalusage: a. As a noun:';t i;;'j)t ,nr.r "onewho hears/a hearcr";oftcn with a dcterminativc: tt\ ,l \ ll I'i hmsi.w "seatcd oncs"(perfective activeplural "thoscwho haveseatctl " themsclves"). Note: Pluralstrokesarc written with fcmininc collcctives(g 16.51: i) "thatwhich hashappcned". b. As a prcdicatc in a NorninalScntcncc with an unstrcsscd ($ 50): subjcct ;' 8l) .'', ' , )i.Yr ink ri pri si 2 tttp(.wy)(N "l aln onc who causcd two rncnto go forth satisfi cd." (pcrfcctivc activc) ' .t',.irlu. ii "i;ii' ," p r i . ys i 2 h t p ( . w 1n ilk rlcJ "i.. -,t )pri.v,n.y that two rncndcpartsatisficd with what wcnt forth from his -r)f' "l arl onc who causcs rnouth. " (irnpcrfcctivc activc) 2. djectival usage: a. As an attributc, it agrccswith thc antcccdcnt in gcndcrand numbcr(cnclings not alwayswrittcn): 11,,'. i'.,, lji'."r '1'' s) sc-lm.v, "a sonwho hcars / a hcaring (impcrfcctivc) son,, * \ ".',rlijyll' .,t,,1iili jlil .A ,rpw.ry t:ctct(w) r ltnw !1nti(.w) "thc mcsscngcr who (rcgularly)travelsnorth or south to the Rcsidcncc". (withoutgramrnatical cnding,irnpcrfuctivc/gcmination) ''i' ii 'i.,,1.1'1t|i..,iil ^. ntr.w wrn.yw m !ms.wJ' ,,thcgods who arc (rcgularly) in his following".(impcrfectivc plural) ' i'"' | -' )1! ,ii'.1',).. .',,'t''l', ir.*,=ihpr(.r,) tlr-B.t ,,my fathcrswho existccl aforctimcs".(withoutgrammatical pcrfcctive cnding, plural) ti', ,,theuttcrancc ,,r\l\ f. sg.: i which issucd forth ry.trl pri.t m rl frorn the mouth".(pcrfectivcfcm.) '^ )i' f. pl.: N I \'. " ;i i . gmh.wr prr.(w)t n-J "thc wickswhich come "i.forth for him". (i mperfcctive/gcmi nation,fem.) m. sg.: g 103 hpr.t $ 102

66 Accidenceand Svntqx

invariable: ($ 56) and,like thoscadjectives, in an AdjectivalSentence b. As a predicate 'l*ti theTwo sw t).wvr irn "Heis onewho illumines shQ.w f l\);, f \\. .. .' more than the is he, Landsmore than thc sun." (i.e. "An illuminatorof the Two Lands sun.") such as cannotbc used adverbially.In Egyptian,in an expression Note: Participles a it expresscs since Pcrfectivc Old be an "standing,he spoke", "standing"would ($ 8l .4). state pronoun: by a depcndent is expresscd objectof a participle 2. Thc pronominal ''i. wcll for thc onc ' ,ti.r fi r,ri smi nli'n hth sw "one who rcported (scnt)him". who commissioned l,ijjli,, Participle(RelativcConstructionwithout a Subject) S 104 3. BxtendedUseof the Passive if thc noun adjcctivc participle canonly functionasan attributivc a passivc In English, of thc objcct direct logical is thc "gold") (in thc following exarnplc being dcscribcd gold". givcn (hcrc:"givc"):"thc vcrbalactionof thc participlc *t"t,i\ *rh* drl.r' !n,,',1," participlcis also uscd in this way: thc passivc In Egyptian, "gold" is thc dircctobjcctof thc the antccedcnt "thc givcn gold"; hcrc,as in English, "givc". vcrb of thc participlc can havc a diffcrcnt thc parliciplcand thc antcccdcnt Howcvcr,unlikc in E,nglish, objcct (in thc can bc an inclirecl For cxamplc,thc antcccdcnt rclationship. syntactic uporrthc which is dcpcndcnt rrsw"king").Within thc construction followingcxarnplc participlc(in thc following cxamplcthc phrasc passivc dd.w n4,t64', "givctl to hirn phrasc n-f, "to him") rcfcrsback prcpositional pronoun(l'in thc gold"),a rcsumptivc -..i','., * *nsw "thc king,givcnto hirn tJql.v,n4nbu' ] *tli,iiiiti"to thc antcccdcnt: "thc king to rclativc clausc: a as into English is translatcd golcl".Sucha construction whom gold is givcn". and thc vcrbalactionof thc participlccan the anteccdcnt bctwccn Thc rclationship .i."]"','' 'i;i.iii] i *11lr.t in "thchill country nhw im=s bc cvcnlooscr: " ,-:t il, 1nr=s cxprcssion in thc advcrbial pronoun s rcsumptivc Both thc gold is found". which "in it" anclthc participlcagrcein gcndcrand numbcr with !is.r . Thc rcsurnptivc pronounin thc abovc examplecan be omitted and rcplaccdby an advcrb (in thc '** ] ^,'-' rQi.yrn nsw liil',,'lLJi* x!r)s.r 'illl ,. "a1.,"rg";:*l'.'. followingcxamplc nbw im "The landwhcrc gold was givcn to thc king" (lit.: "Thc land,given to the

RelativeForm 67

king gold there").Here only the genderand numberof the participlerevealthc link with the antecedent. Note: Thepassive participle canalsobc formedfrom intransitive verbs: The king is on. 1."1"\i^',, \\ iVit-o oncgoes andcomcs". r l) THE RELATTVEFORM ",[l-t'..-.. prr.w h]r.wtlr sfir-J,'underwhose counsel

s 10s

Pafticiplcsare non-finitenominal forms of the verb, i.e. they do not havc a subject. Rclative Forms, by contrast,arc.finite nominal vcrb fonns, which havc their own subjcct.Likc participles, thcy arc usedadjectivallyand agrcc with thc antccedcnt in gcndcrand numbcr: 'l',,'lili"i . fL] i!.t nb.r dd.r sr nh nqls16{$r08) hi' "lrll'i r hw,.t-tltr "cvcrything thatany official(or) any citizcngivcsto thc tcmplc',. '' ' !;-t,14 .',.-,. t ;''' mw,.t mrr.tltrcl.w=s',the mothcr whomhcrchildrcn lovc,,. If, unlikethc preccding cxamplcs, thc antcccdcnt is not thc dircctobjcctof the action cxprcsscd in thc Rclativc Fonn,a rcsurnptivc pronoun mustrcfcr backto it: " ' n h i . t t u .n . t R C . w " r ".i l ' l l . t , lm ' !(.1 in=s "that balancc of Rc in which hc lifls up Maat". (m)c.tis thc dircct,mhl.t thc indircctobjcctoffii "to lift up"; rcsumptivc pronoun s; cp. {104) Thc rcsumptivc pronounis alsoncccssary with thc RclativcFonn of an intransitivc vcrb: j'ri r ' tr\:,r t:,a, .?' .l wj.t'rrr-s "thc roaduponwhich it (thc statuc) camc,,.
' ,r'n

In placcof a prcposition plus suftix-pronoun cxprcssing location, an aclvcrb can also bc uscd(not,howcvcr, in thc cascof h.and l_lr): ,l);..1 , ,.,'i')',1!\ au,v,r-t.w ib=i intJ' ,,theplacc in which rny hcaftdwclls,, 'i;\ jl)'f .\':\'t','1t)'iitj l, wrs.wib-i int ,,thcplaccwhcrcrnyhcartdwclts,,. "r A) "TENSES'' OfthERELATIVE FORM corrcspondingto thc Pcrfcct sjm.n-J (S 7l), thc Aorist sdm{ I irr-J ($ 70) and rhc Future(Prospective) sdm4 (5 74), thcrearc threeRclativcFonns.Like participlcsand adjcctives, they agreewith their antcccdent in gendcrand number(fcm. -1 pl. -ry).

$ 106

68 Accidence and Syntax

$ 107

l. Perfective sQm.(w)n-f Relative Form

IIae gem.

, 1,,,:.,

sQm.n4(m.) (f.) mt.rn=.f

"he, whom he heard" "she, whom he saw" "he, whotn he madc" "she. whom hc fbund" "hc, wholn I gavc" "hc, (from) whom thcY catnc"


IIIae inf.
li\ i-*
i lir

iri.nJ(m.) gmi.rn-J $.)

rli.n=i (n.) {i.n=i Qn.)
(m.) iyi.rt=srr



"to corrc"

ii ii, t.., ott"n

li lr,

$ l0S

2. Aorist sdm4l i77=fR'elativeForm

strong vcrb i llac gcm. Illac inf. rdi t",' lir )]i

sqlm(.w)=J' dd.v,y=i

"hc, whotn hc hcars" "that which I say"

w,nn4'; vJtlil.ll' + noun subj. " h c , w h o i s " mrr.vt -l noun subjcct

"hc, wholn NN lovcs" "shc, whotn hc bcars" "hc, whotn you givc"

f rtr=.t'
; !

$ 109

sdm4 RelativeForm 3. Prospective 3-rad., vb. strong

''n1)i;-. ,
' i:.'.l', Ii
without cnding, but also

sdn(.w)4 "hc, whotn hc will hcar" srJm.r(i)4 "shc, whotn hc will hcar" "thatwhichhc will sPcak" " h c ,w h ow i l l b c "
"hc, whom shc will bcar" "that which hc will wish" " t h a tw h i c h I w i l l g i v c "

IIac gcm.

I iilii, i l il,j.. -

eld.y4 dtl.ti..l'

IIIac inf.
rdi rrt

rftiil; '


' ':ii'
, -\*

i]ir. -fem' *ith Iq usuallY

mri.y-J eli.t=i iri.t=i

"thatwhich I will makc"

RelativeForm 69

b) USAGEOF THE RELATIVEFORM: The usagcof these "tenses"matchcsthat of the corresponding Suffix-Conjugation. Like participlcs, RelativeFormsareusedadjectivallyandas nouns: l. Adjectival usage a. As an attribute,agrccingin genderand numberwith the antecedent (cndingsnot alwayswritten): tt ' ' '" js=i "a tomb which I madcmysett',. . ia i-il I }itt 1l, , iri.rn-i rot\

$ 110

participles As with passive ($ 104), Rclativc Fonnsarealsoformcdfrom intransitivc vcrbs: '.;l i\ $"'i,,i,r,,L:* wt.t|hr=s"thcroaduponwhichhc camc".

b. witha finitc verb asobjcct: 1N-A:i"[flffi.'1[,.1"

rs) Qi.n=J';,,1($

hm=i m-bntT)-sty"the gold, which hc (Osiris)lct My Majcsty(Scsostris III) fctch from Nubia". 2. Usage as a noun Thc fcminineRclative Form,uscdabsolutcly, canexprcss an abstract conccpt. a. ln a dircctgcnitivc construction: ** ' \ | r: r) ' '.1 (') - (t't -*.. nh lnnl itn "lord of thatwhich/ whatthc suncncirclcs". b. As an objcct: "' L]|]li',li ,. ij'C' " iri.y=i hsi.t=k "[ willdo rhatwhichyou wii praisc,,.

$ rll

c. In a non-vcrbal (tri-partitc scntcncc 2n,-Scntcncc $ 54): ' ', ,,That . . ., " mrr.t=t pw irr..t=l )i:.:i',' whichyou do is thatwhich you wish',. d. As thc subjcct ina nfr sn,- Scntcncc (956): ':' , :* )ii' ci iri.tnJ'n=i "grcatwasthatwhich hc ctidfor mc". e. Absolutc useasan cpithct: '' . )l' )'i lil. mrr.w nw.tJ "onewhom his city lovcs". f. With a verb as objcct:
I i\ *,o'

"I did not neglect 1,,)r'. - , , iri.t thatwhich hc commanded to do."


Accidence and Syntax

VERBALADJECTIVEsdm.t(i'rt S 112 12)FUTURE Endings:

Form of the weak stem: IIae gem.: wnn '\ ',: with w) IIIac inf.: (occasionally Irregular: r]i iu'i Usage: ($ l0l), which it largcly Participlc is uscdlikc thc Prospcctivc The VcrbalAdjcctivc rncaning. passivc It usuallyhasactivc,occasionally rcplaccd. 'e-.' ltr nm'4 "thc forcign .' ;t' : ......11 a) As an attributc: lrls.t v, him)". (i.c. loyal to be landwhichwill bc uponhiswatcr "-' "thatwhich will happcn". l31tr'.ty=511 b) As a noun'{'}, , .''. S lt3 iyi.tpw iri-n-J l3) NARRATIVECONSTRUCTION It is actually in a narrativc. of a ncw cpisodc thc bcginning indicatcs This construction prcdicatc and thc ($ 54), with an intlnitivc as tri-partitc a non-vcrbal 7rw-scntcncc it is used almost PcrfcctivcRelativc Form of l'i as sub.icct; (always masculine) with vcrbsof movctncnt: cxclusivcly iil. " '"1': nci.tpv'iri.n.'nnt lrdi "Thcn wc travcllcdnofthwarcls ---l ... i":-l northu'ards)'" (lit.: Thatwhichwc did wasa travclling thc RclativcForm(rarc): rcplaccs Participlc a Passive For thc passivc, 1":-'i' A)titl'" f '] f o r t h i sh u m b l e , u , i r i . y r h l k i m " T h c no n c c a r n c , r , , 1 " , i .p servant)." humblc tbr this a corning, (lit.: donc was was What scrvant. i
i.. _' l).\ ,rl

wrn.t(y)=t'y "who will bc" hfw$t)--fi rdi.t(Y)-.f ," "who will descend "who will givc"

itt'i.t(y)=fy "who will cotnc"

Adverbs 7l -'N pt;


s 114

The verb \\ \, pii, which canbe fully conjugated, hasthe meaning"to havedonc in thc past".The verb for which it serves as an auxiliaryfollows as an infinitivc. This vcrb formspart of a ComplexVerb Form follow ing iw or the negative particlcns p( $ 1 3 1 ) : * .', ll;\ ii .. ii i, ,,we ,'h,i( if havcheardrhelike.,, '" :rr '
(rr )'1, "
:1" :

, , 1 , , n - s pp ) i . t ( w ) i r i . t s t " N e v c r h a s i t b c e n d o n c . . . "


p)i as a Rclative Forrn:

- ^ - t ' i ' i t l . ' *^ L ''ti fi

'L ),;rl *i t'i ,,


nb=sn hsi.tst "Never did thc likc happento scruantswhom thcir lorcl had praised.;'

i.. , n tJpr m n b) k.w p) i.n

.I) ADVERBS l) Egyptian hasonly fcw truc,i.c. non-dcrivativc advcrbs, c.g.



"' ' ct "hcrc"

ntitt "today"
' 'i','

,', i,r

g/- "also", aftcr ncgativcs "furthcr"


/..!'y "cornplctcly,,,aftcr a n c g a t i v c" a t a l l "


1ir "whcrc? whcncc?"

2) Thcrc arc a numbcr of advcrbswhich arcrclatcd to prcpositions ($ 35): i im "thcrc"




"likswisc, accordingly"

; : ; \ . ' - " - ' .'. , tll , )1 carlicr" !r,rt.u,"bcforc, .:


I .- , ' Irl"

togcthcr hn,(.y) "thcrcwith, with" "accordingly"

ft1..y"undcr', ,,at an cnd" /r

)j' bti.v,

3) Othcradvcrbs corrcspond to compound prcpositions ($ 36): t,..., '" , ili, nt-h),lt local:,,infront,, .. ,''' ttr-hi.t "fotmcrly" temp. : "bcforc,fonncrly" i-i ,,il:, ,'i\ nt-fit "aftcrwards" hr-sl "subscqucntly,later"

72 Accidenceand Syntax

+ noun)that areusedasadverbs: (preposition 4) Fixed expressions \\ ! ;;


.."; -tN')

m min (llke min) "today"

,,.t' "yesterday" "tomo*ow" mdw)(.w)

m n r i . r /" l i k c w i s c "

:3b: . -iifii:$ "


r hr.w "np" r fint.w,'out"

also hr (.w

l\ r
f] '





dr-'.w "long ago"


n sP "at once,togcthcr"

(prcposition r + adjcctivc) that arc uscd as advcrbs: 5) Fixcd cxprcssions * f'\' l,l, tl r mn! "thoroughly" r w)Q "vigorously"
l 1- r ikr "cxcccdingly" r' ti./ "grcatly"

with -u.,cnding(cannot always bc from vcrbalroots,occasionally 6) Advcrbsderived : frornan Old Pcrfcctivc) clcarlydistinguishcd "grcatl!" - . l\r ,t:t1 c3.y, ')i,:r \it _ilt, !nm.w "chccrfully"

\1\. i l' .ti -l

.1 ;tr wrf "slowly" "frcquently" ' lrr' "rruch";)i 1' wr.r"vcry"

wcll" rrf' "pcrfcctly, is "quickly"


7) Nounsthatarc uscdasadvcrbs:


q/./ "ctcrnally"

thcy qualify. Advcrbsfollow thc cxprcssion ($ 42 ff) in AdvcrbialSentcnces a) As a prcdicatc of a vcrb: b) As theattributc min... "I havccomctoday... " tl{' S ! ';-.. .
r ,i) r\r. ,) r grcatly."


).'' iw hsi.n=fwi hr'J r'l.t

wr.t "Hc praised mc for it very

Word Order 73 c) As the attributeof a participle: ji/ , ': :'*i,'1N tl!dlt )\ smi nfi.n hlb sw "onewho reports/reportcd perfectly to the onewho scnthim." d) As the attributeof an adjective: .-t'",rilT){il..,' ;]}i'' lrr ss ikr wr.t "I amlwas a vcry exceilent scribe.,, e) Topicalisation of the advcrb: adverb (A 129) in initialposition Note: ln ccrtainfixcd cxpressions an advcrbcan servcas thc attributcof a noun: " 1;' !i i Lif rr;t im "yourhumblcscrvant (lit.: thc servant thcrc)." K) WORD ORDER l) For word ordcrin NON-VERBAL SENTENCES scc$g 42ff, 48ff, 53 54,56 57. S I 16

2) In VERBALSENTENCES with nounsubjcct andnounobjcct(s) thc word ordcris as $ I l7 - dircctobjcct- indircctobjcct advcrb/ advcrbial a rulc: vcrb - subject cxprcssion (for cxceptions scc$$ I I 8f0. Whcrca scntcncc contains pronouns thc followingrulcsapply: A pronominal objcctcomcs bcforca nounsubjcct: .t* . 1 fl;t ] * i;r',t'\t /?.ilr nt smr "Thc king madchim a cornpanion,,. ] ,,r, Dativc n * suffix takcsprcccdcncc ovcr a noun or pronounobjcct and also a noun subjcct: *-. , - ;1i' l',''] rQi.ttJ' n=inhw, "Hc gavcrncgold." *. 'n ] .---.:',,'" rq!i.n n=i ttsv, trbw "Thc king gavcmc golci."

Ordcrofprcccdcncc: 1. suffix-pronoun,2. pronoun, dcpcndcnt 3. noun. The word ordcrof a scntcnce canbc modificdin ordcrto eitheremphasisc a pafticular part of the sentcncc- subjcct, objcct, advcrbial expression by contrasting (Focalisation) or in order to mark thc thcmc of a scntcncc (Topicalisation). This is usually, in the cascof Topicalisation rcgularly, doncby ptacing partof the thc rclcvant sentencc at thc bcginning ofthe sentcncc.

74 Accidenceand Svntax

s 11S 3) FOCALISATION of cleft sentences: by means is achieved Focalisation that the name of her father lives." (Focuson subject "It is his daughterwho causes to the fatherhirnselfor a son') e.g. in contrast, "daughter" "It is his field that the fatherwill give his son."(Focuson object:"field" rathcrthan") to "today"in contrast cxpression on an adverbial "Thathc will comeis today."(Focus tomorrow.) arefoundin Middlc Egyptian: Thrcctypcsof cleft scntcnces - FOCUS ON THESUBJECT $ 119 a) THE/n-CONSTRUCTION thc subjcct' is usedin ordcrto crnphasisc l. Thc ir-Construction and cornbinations Thc fbllowing possibilitics WORD OI{DER:Subicct- Prcdicatc. occur: Subjcct: by in, introduccd a) nounsubjcct, pronoun in initialposition. pcrsonal indcpcndcnt subjcct: b) pronorninal Prcclicatc: ($ 99) (prcscnt) participlc ct) irnpcrfcctivc (S 100)(past) participlc B) pcrf-cctivc 74) (futurc) se/rry'($ y) prospcctivc Subiect
d i l





c'g': is possiblc' andprcdicatc of subjcct Evcrycombination "n Itishissonwhogivcshirnthiswhitebrcacl." a)+cr):'insl4'e!c!(.w)n4tlQp pn "lt is he who givcshirn thiswhitc brcad." n=ft hcJ b) + cr) :. ntf 44(.w,) a) + P) ..-in si-J r/i n=f'th8 pn b) + y) :. nrf Qi-J'nl't hQptr "lt is his sonwho gavchirn thiswhite brcad." "He will give him thiswhitebread'"

Word Order 75

Note: In this construction the participleis invariable: l* ii lives." f+ ; in snlJ' s(n!1 rn{ "ttis his sisterwho hascaused rhathis name

Thc interrogative pronounr? "who?" ($ 3a) is often used in the in-constructionand rncrges with in to form a ncw word:J\ ! ]\ i. me?" , rfl. > i\* . in-m> trn (CopticNrr):

t'i li * in-. ir4 ini4 n=i sy "Who is it, who will bring it (thebox) to

2. Negation of the lr-Construction a. Ncgation of thesubjecl by " ... I rt ... is

$ 120

-o*,').,l i ] i l ; , . . , r ; . 1 j t :i " , . 1 1 , 1 i . 1 , , , ' r i i - . . , , . , i ! X]] nirtkist.ttn=knwin

Ghb eldn=knw hncWsir "lt is not I who saidthis to you. it is Gcb who saidthis to you, andOsiris." b. Ncgation of thc verbby thc Ncgativcvcrb ., rrr ({ l-12),which is followccl by thc vcrb in thc form of a Ncgativc Complcmcnt: -*],.("i,;' -i, .,., sl=ktnt ini(.v,) -l n-k sy "It is your sonwho clidnot bring it to you." ( tnt pcrfcctivcparticiplcc\ 100)
b) TRI-PARTITE F or OBJECT 2w-SENTENCE : O C U SO N S U B J E C T In thcsc scntenccs thc third clcmcnt of thc sentcnccis a participlc or a Rclativc Form; thcsc rcfcr to thc subjcct or thc objcct: l. Focus on thc subjcct: ' ".-NN \l' ,,,' i,\:r NN pv, m) nts(u,).t=1n lTi "lt is NN, who saw your birth." (rri pcrlcctivc participlc S 100) 2. Focus on thc objcct: ti l2l

'"" , ,tlil ,l il. ':, .* r'ji lil . ,.,,i). .l II L

iSstpw ir=l'iri.t(i)=k n=i m isw

ir(.y) "What is it thcn,that you will do for mc in rcl.urnfor it'."' (ili.ti=t - prospcctivc Relativc Fonn $ 109)

and Svntat 76 Accidence EXPRESSION ON ADVERBIAL FOCUS CONSTRUCTION: s 122 c) EMPHATIC Focus can be directcd upon an adverbial exprcssionby means of thc Emphatic Construction: /^)Y+Q -),-N* hr wtl "That the lt\\/,\''t\.t i\ gnti.n sv' v'pw.tyl4t "' 71.1,74.2,76). 70.1, (sce also road." (was) the on $$ foundhim messengers $ 123 4) TOPICALISATION at thc thcmestand that indicatc partsof the sentcncc those ln thc cascof topicalisation, or subject is thc it or topic.lf thc headof the icntcnccandthercbyhighlightits theme to $ 116 and 5\ as a pronounin its regularposition,according objcct,it rc-appcars or follow thc particlc clcmcntcan standwithout introduction 117.The topiCaliscd 'Ij < >

a) Withoutintroduction of thc subjcct $ 124 1. Topicalisation '.ir" wl s(y) r mh 2 "Hi,sbeevtl,irwas grcatcr ( ) ll ' ,\) :;'-:ll - I !tbsu,.r-J Scntcncc $ 56) than2 cubits."(Adjcctival

" .'-,i i. -i'!,; ll\ l^-,.,-,,,''

u,r n(.y) iw prt "ThcttHekenuoit which vou said yotr would bring, it is thc spcciality (lit.:thcgrcatncss)ofthisis|and.''(bi-partitc2w-Scntcnce$53) (thcking),irc llcw 1li.i ,..);\:, .J*- l.*'1 ,'$.. bikcb4trnctnts.wi "The.falcon sdnt4 \ 12) (Historic Psrfcct olTwith his rctinuc."

of thc objcct $ 125 2. Topicalisation -'., . ;\r.,,1ii" I ;1i", ti

n2) tn') ' . kl;n=J' iri.t($ .sr(i)r=i iri.n-ist (i)r=.| him" "That which he thoughtlo do againstnte,I did il against

of an adverbialcxprcssion $ 126 3. Topicalisation If thc main clauscis formcdwith a complcx vcrb Form ($$ 89 96)' thc advcrbial at thc hcadof thc clausc subordinatc by placingthc advcrbial is topicaliscd cxprcssion s c n t c n ce c.g.:

Word Order 77 ch'.nsjm.n-J ($ 95) o preceding


"After she had openedthe chamber, she hcarda sound..." (advcrbial exprcssion: sQm.n-J in a subordinate clausc $ 71.2) prcceding iw * Passivc ($ 9l b) scJm(.w,)-J u',,1*. . , i ; i ' . , 1 , , 'I t i t . , , r l ' 1 . I , iwiri(.w)mi he!.n(i)r4'tlclw)sp2 qld-J'"Whenthe earlh haclhecome light, very early,it was (alrcady)donc accorcling to whathc said."(adverbial cxprcssion: Circumstantial s/m.n=l'tn a subordinatc clausc $ 71.2) o prcccding a Cornplcx Aorist| (iu,-J'sQm=J) ($ 92) ') ol,r'i i;., ' . '-'1 ).sft-.f .i;.,." ; I ii : 'iil iv,--i skt=i)st1-i,,As he reaps,sol plough (advcrbial andI rcap." cxprcssion: Circurnstantial Prcscnt.ralrr=l'{ 69.1) o prcccding thc Cornplcx Futurciv'=t'r.ra/nr ($ 94) ' :;""-r'--*' --' jl{)il ntri=lncnhnts{i=1n iil lliif 1,,---. ll'i _,. ttp.t iw=tttt'drp n=i "As vou love li/'eand hole death,so you will rnakcoffcringfor rnc." (advcrbial cxprcssion: Circurnstantial Prcscnt s<1nr=l'S 69.l) /) b) Introduccd by (J .,-., ir' l. Topicalisation ofthc subjcct !i 127 -, 'iui !ii' 11 i ' i..,t wsir pw,"A.s.fitr itis osiris." ve,sterdov, 'il;,'A ''".'\' il "' ;r" lliii';l :-li i,...' it. sn(.w) gt.g iu,=J ntnt=f',,As./itr hinr who.follow's hc gocsastray." falsehoocl, Othcr particlcscan prcccdcir, c.g. l.q: Thc tcxt rccounts Ncrnty-nakht's dcsircto scizc thc posscssions ofthc pcasant andthcncontinucs: ll1,,- ii {";l!i'*-"f ",,.*;iiir,l,,-,isl(i)r.7r$n),,.ct25)1tt..wNm.ry.


i i. . . . - . o . !i\L i i i l w n . n = s t t ( . t ( h c . n hn+, sQm.n=s

nlrt pn hr sml-tl n(.y)r(l)-wi(i).r "Now, a^s forthe housc (it) lay atthc of thisNcmty-nakht, sidcofthe road".Theposition of thchomcprovidcd him with thcpossibility to do so. 2. Topicalisation of theobject ' ? ' -' i',\ lJl : ' - \.', I\\ l' . , ir n.t1y|t t. nb(.t)m ss hr tfd.w sQm sr ',As for everything in wriling on the bookroll, obey it!" $ l2S

78 Accidenceand Syntar

ofan adverbial expression $ 129 3. Topicalisation

.:N1.":..'r\'#**[$ ;, ,,2-l,r i\:l;; ". i -i., :." f -,- Ni;,.,.1,i'l11! pn n.y hm=i "After thegod has been pn n1r m i[.wt-J m-b]h fw,t.w htp-ntr htp(w)
satisfiedwith his things, this god's offcring is placed in front of this statueof my + Pcrfective Passive sdm(.wly)4 $ 11) Majesty". (Adverbialexpression: m-!1t $ 130 s) CONDITIONAL CLAUSES (S$ 118-122).They alson bclong to the category of Focalisation Conditional clauscs 'l arc cithcr introduccd by - ir or appear without an introduction. $ l3l a ) w l T H I N T R O D U C T o nQ Y l. Fulfillablccondition: lr * Futurc(Prospcctivc) sQn-J($ 7a) il ,, .".,,!il, irv,ctfrkntcldn=i ini rw \\ ^_l.. - ,X:li' )t1 i1,,. l;li r l.., I r iw pn rQi=ir!1=la in tclling rnc who broughtyou to this island, rn' "lf you hcsitatc will causc thatyou know yoursclf!" 1r+ Subjunctivc.rq/nrl($ 75) 'i,;,ri lf -.rl:t;',.' , i;,r"r.lL ir iv, htj.fu,)t nb(.t) m(w)t.kt RC.w i,l.r----, 1i",.';,,,. "If you should comcasanysnakc, thcnRc will dic." 2. Unfulfillablccondition: (controvcrsial) cxarnplc: This construction is rathcrunccrtain; thc only attcsted says: ir + Perfcct sdm.n4'($ 7l) King Amcncmhct ir

'il, ' ,lt'i' J1(;...ii;.1. , ii.l,'1.,-")it',., i,rrJ;\ ,.i$}) li(,,..i),, _' ,;il -'..,,'i,i.

ir tsp.n-i )sltl !c.u, m dr.t=i iv, /i.n=i ltt hm(.u,) m-'(.w) blhl "Had I graspcd spccd (i.c. hurricd), thc wcapons in my hand, I would havc madc thc cowards rctrcat with thc lancc." Anothcr possible intcrprctation would bc to scc ir as introducing an cmphasised adverbial exprcssion ($$ 126, 129) which has bccn placed at thc head of the scntencc bccausc thc main clausc is forrned by a Cornplcx Vcrb Form: "Having graspcd spccd, thc wcapons in rny hand, I made thc cowards rctrcat with thc lancc."

$ 132 b) wrrHour TNTRODUCTTON typcs, c.g. Conditions canalso bc expresscd by othcr scntcncc ( S $ 4 9 , 7 0 . 1 b , l . b y t h eB a l a n c e Sd entence 7l.ld) ($ 126). Future 2. by ancmphasiscd advcrbial expression followed by thcComplcx

Negation of the Verb 79 L) NEGATION of the VERB NEGATIVE PARTICLESAND NEGATIVE VERBS The verb is negatcd in differentways,depending on the verb form:
-J a) with the negative particles -6- r or b ) w i t h l h c c o n s t r u c t i o n- c) with thc negative re.b, nl n-spor tm or "jii., "-, l; l)\ ilrli. S 134 ,,r,

$ 133

Both thcsc verbs arc followed by the vcrb that is negatcd in a spccial form, thc socallcd Negative Complement. Its -r.r,cnding is usually not writtcn. Frorn thc Ncw Kingdom onwards, and somctimescarlicr, thc Ncgativc Complemcnt can bc rcplaccd by thc infinitive. , , tm can bc fully conjugatcd.woRD ORDER: pronominal subjcct (sullix-pronoun) lbllows /ln, norninalsub.jcct follows thc Ncgativc Complcmcnt:

'' ')'r ll'i jt: mt=thn(.v,) rtr m "wrtycroyou not row?"(Aorisrsdnt4'F 70.1a) ' "Do not bc strongin your powcr,' 1i..,., /,,, 1, . ^. tm spr(.w)bw lw r-k ,, ,. , ,,,'r,.thatcvil rnaynot rcachyou" (Subjunctivc sc!m4' \ 15.3) ' ilr ' if Thc choiccof ncgation dcpcnds on thc syntactic lunctionand thc typc of vcrb fbnn (i.c.nominalvs. vcrballbrm, ovcrvicwin Tablc2 p. 83). l) NEGATIONof thc IMPERATIVE (S 67) Thc impcrative is ncgatccl hy 1,, (thc irnpcrativc of thc Ncgativc ycrb tnt $ 134), whichis followcd by thc Ncgativc Cornplcmcnt (S 134). 'iii\(\:l ijl m snd(.w) "Fcarnot!" 2) NEGATIONof thc CIRCUMSTANTIAL(PRESENT) sQm-J / iri--f (g 69) a) n sjm.nJ- idcntical with thc negativc complcxAoristI ({s 71.3,92, l42b). In advcrbial subordinatc clauscs: I 136 S 135

' i , -. .i ", . 11;iji,'.;ji*-i,1..;.'i,, lf )l.) . iii - NN_^-.. ..1, ',i-u-. s!.ty pn'h'.w r htw.w l0 hr spr nNN n rQi.nJmlc-J(l)r.=s"Thenthis pcasant spcnt a period of up to l0 days pctitioningNN, wiloal im (NN) paying attention (tit.: granting him his temple,"

and SYntax 80 Accidence

r,'..';: l-\* r r$ c.t

cn!t(.w) r hhi n'i s't-kb'tn gmi'n=isy "I wdl(.w)snb(.w) iw dhn.n=i pr.w nsw andhealthy- to of thc palace may it live, bc prosperous went aroundeverychamber withoutfnding it'" find for myself entcrtainment, clausc($ 47.1)(lessfrcquent) b) nn + adverbial ,'lt (thc snakc)spokcto me (the shipwreckcd sailor),*l!;';ji" it." sjm st withoutme hearing .,': i:tttt"" nn wi hr

fi--^;'\\sli" l i )r$ i'", f'-1" r 1..,',t?ii''--

is obvious, $ 85' 143b) c) nn + infinitivc(whcrcthc identityof thc subjcct '' tt '"' ,,n tti't hr %i withoutdcsisting frorn ,,I lct his wcapons -rt off, *: bc carried fighting." of the with thc subjcct by an objcctthat is idcntical lf thc inflnitivc is followccl lYote: asa passivt-': canbcstbc translatcd thc construction mainclausc, i')',,l,',.-4\*f t cntcr, -\.^, pri=kck-knn hnln=k "May you go forth and backnot cxisting)'" withoutbeingturncdback(lit': your turning AORISTslm-J I irr'f ($ 10) $ 137 3) NEGATION of thc tm=fsQm(.w) (cp' I 70'l): Construction a) In thc Emphatic r;- '' tnt=ktr sQm(.w) '" :.: hr m l.''i\'r ll..' listcn?" b) As a nominalvcrb form: (cp. $$ 70'2a): 1. [n an objectclause . , ll, ,: T\ ll* y11.n=1; "You know thcy arc not mild." tm=snsJ'n(.w) i .-j i. t 1l;1

"Why thcn do you not

l l i f i \f *ti ;..

l l ,.l i , i , ,)l *

i' ,'


"Gcbhas /r s iwwQ.nGhbtm=iwnm( ' w)

that I do not cat cxcrcmcnt'" decrecd ($ 53): of apw-Scntcnce 2. As thc predicate 'i,^,, i1 $r34) , N \-. 11 ;' " ll fi.ty pw "As for ir cmdib tm mdw.linr' ;,1 i slacknessoftheheart,itis(i.c.signifies)thattheheartdoesnotspeak.''

Negation of the Verb 8l 4) NEGATION of the (PRESENT) PERFECTsjm.n=f (g 7t) a) Nominal/ Emphaticverb form: 'tm.n--f (this form is, however,not attested) sjm.,4,

$ 138

b) Verbal Form: n sQm--f (seeg 72.1) l. In a mainclause: The examples arc not unequivocaln sjm-J negates sQm.n{ in a paratactic main clause ($ 71.2)as well as the ComplexVerb Form lw sdm.n4thatintroduces an initial main clause. one would expcctn sQm-J, llkc sQm.n-J, to appearin a paratactic main clause,
e 'g':



r )r

..' /


7.:. ^ ,|' " /,r- n ink mrr.y h())wJ sdmi n lnl lb.t-J n hhs-i hr r n.ty m h),k.w "l was one whom his family loves, who was attachcdto his clan; I did not hicle (my) facc from him who was in scrvicc." Thc thcmc of thc negatcd clausc continuesthat of thc irrfr-Scntencc; sincc h(l)w, lh.t and m hik.w fonn a progrcssionfrom a close circlc to a widcr circle of pcoplc, it is rnore likcly that hcrc n hhs=i introduccsa paratacticmain clausc, rathcr than an initial main clausc. 2. Ina subordinatcclausc:


','\; ,li,:;-^-'" !,:il)11' z, i;\riili lji ^ '-"-l ,{}ii.+;" {}'t';- .'lli.,' :''

i1.i .y=i(issa) lm.t m l.1nty.t n kli=i spr.r Inw pn hmt.n=i$tr.zb) r?Qct=icn!1 !1pr lt]$75.2) r-sl=f"MY going south: I did not intcnd to rcach this rcsidcncc,having thought that a disturbanccwould takc placc and not cxpccting to livc aftcr it (thc disturbancc)." Thc section bcgins with an infinitivc that scrvcs as a hcading introducing a ncw cvcnt ($ 85.a); n kli-i introduccs a main clausc($ 142 a), lmt.n=i andn dd=iarc in subordinate clauscs.

--_..i i,", *,, ,it. .,, \i,1qit,i;\),,)I,ii-"^*, , )il

iri.n(=i) hsw.t n rm! nh rh.w mi hm.w, n stni=i "l showcd favour to all pcoplc, knowledgcableand ignorant alikc, without my discriminating."

andSYntax 82 Accidence (PROSPECTM)sdm4 (5 7a) of theFUTURE $ 139 5) NEGATION verbform:tm('w)4sdm('w) / Emphatic a) Nominal * * t'h"' i 'it' t't \\''i s* )';*l ^-!\il, tl ($ 37):' ^ \i\'l' Following' we army of our i:+iiu=, i-rl ph n ( y) ply=nm{ For rear-guard {$ ," ,t.he tm(.w)=nrli.1 after" ')!" ourheart/thoughts (lit.:we will norpiace conccm will nothave

lil ib''' ll*1;" clause: object Inan

/rs "Gcb' thc father of Osiris' has commanded iw wQ'n Ghb it Wsir tm('w)=i wnm('w) that I will not eat excretnent'" b) Verbal lbrm:Ncgativc Verb ir; i iili-^ (in negativewishes,prohibitions)

;ilil " l''il''- 'ii r "' ','' -\"!i 11


it'" i!.t r=s "You will not do a thingagainst imi(.w)=kiri(.v') sm-ft iri('D4 75) of thc SUBJUNCTLYE s 140 6) NEGATION sdm('w) vcrb form: tm='f a) Norninali Ernphatic tsrzr' li following il In a final clause .,n\ (, . ll i1i 1 ." , propcrty' my mc "Give says: pcasant Thc cloqucnt tm-i sbh(.w)thatI may not cry out'"

i,;rr''j rl .i ).-.-


jl ill

b)Vcrbaltbrm:NcgativcVcrblrrrii.'linncgativcwishcs,prohibitions) ' t hr=s "Lct not (rnaynot) your hr'w=rn l imi=tn hcll('v') li xij'' lt :" faccsbcdowncastbccauscofit(i.c.dorr'tbcdcprcsscd).'' 't=s "May you not bc strongin hcr body'" nr l-1 ., " l' inti=ku'sr(.w;) $ l4l sdm('wlv)4($ 77) (old Egvptian) PASSIVE 7) NEGATIONof thc PERFECTIVE vcrb lbnn: tm''f sclm('u') a) Nominal / Emphatic ih=ktn.t4cttti(.u'),'Do1't!canogant "), ,ir:,' ,;tl.'o rrftii(.N)(\t"t !;,l.,.,,[11,'1i':i (finalclausc) notbc hunrblcd!" hcart) ivyour (lit.: (lit.:lct notyourhcartbc high),thatyou l-l.. li,-1;'t .*- 1il' tl;t'' ':" iii ,,Lcthi' bc dcprivcd of his tcmplcofficc, "' tmslti.trtt-|ntr].pr.wpttthathisnarncnotbcrclncl-nbcrcdinthistcmplc.'' b) Vcrbal form: rr scJnr4 i v ' =r f{ i . w n = i n n l t m = . | ' ' 1 - e 1 ' w = i ) " H e l"'ljti;'. ,,ii-^i.,lti-^--;jii.,4l. my hand'" from taken not was he mc; (the cncmy)hasbcengivcn to

Verb- Sufix Conjugation 83

OvnnvrnwoF THE Sur,nlx CoNlucarron

Nominal Verb Forms: Emphatic Construction affirmative

VerbalForms: main clauses and subordinate clauses

affirmativc negatcd


Aorist Circumst. sQm-Jl Old Pcrf.

Active irr=f Passivc Activc

Passivc Activc


iri4' Old Pcrf.2


n iri.n{' , .2 nn
srt, ltr sdm

iri .ru'-f iri.n=f iri4{trt iri.nrwJ iri(.u,)L

tm.n-Jiri(.w) tnrJ iri(.w)QK) ynr.nsa,=f iri(.w) iri.nJ ms.) Old Pcrf. (intr. movcm.) rr'l + noun Old Pcrf.
(pron. sub.ject)

@n + inil2 n iri.nfw=f '

n trt=f



(rt iri.r--fl
t1 iri-Jtor't rt tt'

Passivc Future
( Prospcctivc)


h iri.t=l\
not attestcd


tm(.u')=.f iri(.w)


Passivc iri(.u,)ty,=f

rm(.w)rw,=J' iri(.u,) iri(.w,)tw,J tm4' iri(.u,)

it i-f


Activc Passivc


ieli=f iri(.u)
not attcstcd'4'
2 - SuFplx CON.Ilrc,tt'l0N

Notcs: I Also in rnain clauscs,sit.tcc thc ncgativc fbnns of thc Circunrstantial (prcscnt) sqlm=.|'an d c C o m p l c x A o r i s t I i v , ( = . fs th l r J m = fa r c i d c n t i c a l ( i \ 5 s 1 3 U ,1 4 2 , T a b l c 3 ) . I I In advcrbial subordinatcclauscs. Al.o in main clauscs,sincc thc ncgativc fbrrns of thc Complcx Vcrb Fonns iw slm.n=J' I iw s(m.ntw,J and thc vcrbal'arc iclcnrical(s$ l3g. l42,Tablc


and SYntax 84 Accidence 8) NEGATION of the COMPLEX VERB FORMS with iw ($$ 90-94)

$ 142

c): 9l Perfective a ) T h e f o l l o w i n g n e g a t i v e ' : T : - i"l a r e t h e n e g aora tive ' e q u i v a ($ len ts ofthePRESENT ts ponrr,rs iw slnt.n=f pERFEcr ""olw"+
' sdn'ny'$ 138) with n sdm| of the Perfcct identical n sdm-J(formalty an Asiatic did not turnmy backto \\Iii n rdi=i sl'i nclm"l *^--".!1,']lS*) (i'e' did not flee)'" sdny'$ 75) + Subjunctive o n-spsdm4 (n-sp$ 133 anvthing nh('t)"Nevcr did I do msdd'bt')r iri'v-i n-sp I 'lidl' -^- ,i.,{'{}jl{h hated'" . 78 3 'l ) n s{m.t'.1( i n t ob c i n g" ' t s " T h a ty o u c a r n c n fipr'trt1r'w ^ : ] , ' " ' i ' ! 1 p r ' n ' . . k { ' }: .... godscameinto bcing'" thc bcforc \ 8l) of iw + Old Pcrfcctivc n sdm=f(asncgativc

'il*'lii irll '^:t:' ' 'i : '--^11 of thc naoi of thc K h e o p s s a y s t o D j c d" i: l i ' l - , - t ' i ' ' \ l ; r ' ' l ' - -ul"i th: 't wrt Dhw'tv j-n('f) 'wt ip I-9". iw=k rb.ti trwn ' ' r rl ' n rb'i tnw' -' i,ligcr t' l''l -' -' answcrs:-^-, of Thoth''iDjcdi sanctuary numbcrthercof'" ir.y "I do not know thc ($ 92) AORISTI iv'(=f)sQnt='f of COMPLEX cquivalcnt prcscnt sQnt=f ' $ I36)' b) n s|nt.n-J- ncgativc Cl"umsianLiat 'it"ittt" n with (iclentical hc docs "' who rcturns; ctt pv'n r/i 'n='f'i;=f"Hc is onc 1''' ,.-' ,,\-^-*-i 1,1 back"" his turn not ($ 94) FUTtjRE irl'=fr sc^f'?r of COMPT'EX cquivalcnt -ncgativc c) nn sglnt=f forctcmity'" ---lL'"' nn ntsi=sr rtlrl "shcwill not givcbirth :-:iTlililil thcscconstructions: (Tablc3) sumrnariscs Thc foltowingtablc

Negation of the Verb 85 affirmative (g$ 90-94)


negated ( 142)
n sjm{ he hasnot heard n-sp + Subjuncrive sd.m4 he neverheard n sQm.t{ he hasnot yet hearcl

iw sQm.n=f iw sQm.n{ ix,+ Old Perfective iwJ iyi.w

iw-J iri.w

he (has)heard

he hascome n iyiJ' he hasnot come he hasbeenmacle n iri .tw4he hasnot beenmade he hears he will hcar n sjm.nJ he doesnot hcar

C'orrpLex AoRrsr I C'oupLEX FutuRB

iw(-$ sdmi iw-J r s{m

nn sQm{ gvlirtdle Egyptian.y r * Future sQmJ'pta Egypt.) he will not hear

T,rnlp3 - Covpr.nx VnneFonN,ts wlrtrrw - \EGATION of thc TNFTNTTIVE (g$ 82_35) .r' \\ irh thc Negarivc Vcrb , lz (\ I32) . '; takcs the fonn of thc infinitivc; thc vcrb that carricsthc mcaning follows as a Complcmcnt.This construction is usccl whcn thc infinitivecithcr l. scrvcs "'-gativc ... J nounor 2. lollows a prcposition: t. '' ili,ilif tm w,ttm(.v,) lis ,,Tonot cat cxcr'rcnt.,, titlc of a spcll; Thcsouthcrn boundary madcin ycar8, ... :,\

$ 143

.,.iorv thatanyNubian pass it." b)

'i,. i;\ a i ** -n'i -* i,,,,I ll,"i

r tm r/i(.w) sni sw Nltsy nh in ordcr not to

',without -ing,' -- rn + infinitivc ...

':1thls construction it is not the infinitivc as suchbut rathcrthc wholc clausc that is :rc-gtcd (cp. $$ 47, 57);primarilyuscdin adverbial subordinatc clauses: " . These thingsarc to bclongto your ron, l.jl i, iht. ':ttrqli.t pslJ st n fird.w-Jwithoutallowingthathc <lividc thcmfor his childrcn.,, '0)NEGATIoN of PARTICIPLES, RELATIVE FORMSandthcsm.(y)--f(y)-FoRM g 144 Thc ncgativcequivalcnts of thc participlcs,RcrativcFonnsand thc sQm.tlt)-_j(y)-Form 'rrc cxpressed with thc Ncgativc Verb tm. Thc NcgativcVcrb /,, takesonthc rclevant Ionn and the vcrb that bears the meaningappcarsas a Negative Complcmcnt(or g 134). infinitive,

and SYntax 86 Accidence

of thePARTICIPLES S 145 a) NEGATION 1. Active of tm are the in the active, the forms of thc impcrfectiveand perfcctiveparticiples not be distinguished: sameand thcy can therefore

ii*'"|'.{.;\ti. ,!'i* - !\., J\ li\,"


m m sQm(.w) nh-J l- , in ib s!1pr(.w)

tm(.w)s|m(.w)''Itistheheart(i.e.mind)thatformsitsowncraSonewhohearsor one who doesnot hcar." since,whcn usedin an It is not alwaysclearwhethettmin Egyptianis imperfective epithet,thc pcrfectiveparticiplecan alsohavcprcscntsense' ' 'l ',it which has ^ar.r mt(w).ttml swti(.w) "A ncw languagc )\\ ; Jt',, ft',.],,, \\ by)'" (lit.: passed to pass ncvercorne 2. Passivc a. ImPcrfcctive ParliciPlc ' tnt(-w)hnn(.w)wQ't-ntlw-J "onc, whosccommandis ncvcr , \;\ <1,*. ",, i transgressed." b. Pcrfcctivc ParticiPlc ''il v( \ 'ii' t^^(.*) st in kv'wvbi'tvw ,,Altlands;,' ),N:1" ii[],,i*' !nrt(.w) by otherkings'" which havcncverbccntrodden vcrb with gcmination' of a 2-radical participle passivc is the pcrfcctive tmm(.w) Note: 100FORM of the RELATIVE $ 146 b) NEGATION '.,'rl' " iri(.w)mn.wwln=s "Therc ll l\11 rtn s.t nh.ttm.rn(=i) -*,,,.,".,:: rjr" was not any placcin which I did not makcmonutncnts'" $ 147 c) NEGATIoNof the sQm.ty--fy-FORM

',, '. sw tm.t(y)"f(v) r,\ ir grt.l!.t(y)--fy l;..'rl'\- i \} ,1 I\ ":' ilA9\,e.' { ,. for it "'" fight not (thcbordcr), will who
'hl(w) hr'J"But as for him who will lose it

Questions 87 M) QUESTIONS Qucstionsare eithcr not specifically marked as such (i.e. they would have been indicated by intonation) l]* or they are introducecl by i, or the laterform i*i)i in-iw (g 34). Word ordcrand syntaxare the sameas in statcments. **.]\f , :, ir-i, ini.n=k ,fi- ! t,i' mi kd ,,Haveyou brought everything?,, Interrogative pronoun.s and adverbs ($ 34) occupythc samcpositionin a scntencc as corrcsponding partsof spccch in statemcnts, an AdjcctivalScntcnce ($ 56): 1i,;,t), ; i h ,,Whois he (lit. hc is who),thc ,, Hcrc onc who enters? . pw (for pw,/'r' "who?"$ 34) takcsthe placcoian adjectiu", ..g. ,,f, ($ SO) Thc cncliticparticlcs , (i)t 4 o. -- - 1 ,' to 3g)oftcnappcar in qucstions of all sorts: ', i , , " I l:11 isr, tr i!1.t,,What is thc thins?,, N) EPBXEGBSIS A pronominal subjcct canbe spccificd by a namcor nounat the encl of a scntcncc:

s 148

$ r4e

I b'i4'R''w "Mayherisc'(narncly) Rc."(thcnamc "Khcphrcn,', sccs r53) .li,l.. A, i*i;,.:,r,r il il ., rji msi=s ir4.sinw,Rwql_{d.t,,Arwhattimc thcn ri'illshcgivebirth, (namcly) Ruclj_djedet?,, 'l
O) RELATIVE CLAUSES Rclativcclauscsarc attribute clauses, i.c. they functionlikc adjcctives in that thcy qualifyan antcccdcnt (a prcccding nounor pronoun). Like adjectives, they canarsobe uscdas nouns. Not onryadjectives ($ 24b),pu,ti.ipt",is ro:) unaR"tu,iu"Forms(g r r 0), but also non-vcrbal and verbal ,".u" as attributcs. Although Egyptian "iuur"r'un parliciplcs and,in particular, Rclative Fonnsusuallyhavcto be translatcd into English as rclativc clauses, only non-verbal and vcrbal clauses which are uscdas attributes are trucRclativc Clauses. Thc word to which an adcctive, participlc or RelativeForm rclates(the antecedcnt) can bc eitherdeterminedor uncleterminid.with Relativ" ctuurlr, rrowcver,Egyptian distinguishes betwcenthesefwo typesof anteccclents.


t f

\ ]

$ rsO

and SYntax 88 Accidence e of a determinedantecedent Clause- as attribut $ 151 1) Relative this is indicatedbY the is known and specific in translation Here, the antecedent i'itttl;' The Relative lause is introducedby a Relative Adjective, definite u.ti.r. in genderandnumberwith the antecedent' which agrees

a)Ifthcantecedentisidenticalwiththesubjcctofth c R e l a t iitsclf: vcClausc,thcnthelatter Adjcctive in thc Rclative is not spccifi"utty.*ptt"tJU* is implicit who Egvptians rm! Km.t n.t(t)w im 1n'-J "the \.|q,,1; , i1,1. llli* advcrb) of RclativcClausc: wcrethercwith hirn"' (prcdicatc l i r n bo f a r r a nw h i c hi s ' ' t t t h ' tn ' r s i n ' t ( y ) m t r'ti"cach N\'ill :,,1',,']*yf -'.T Old Pcrt-cctivc) Clause: of Rclativc ,l.L';. lpr"dicatc b ) I f t h c a n t c c c d c n t i s n o / i d c n t i c a l w i t h t h c s u b j cresumptlvc c t o t ' n " - 1 -pronoun: t:1:"eClausc'thcnitis ofa by rncans to rcfcrbackto thc antcccdcnt ncccssary '1,,,. i.iji:,,- - ' ) inrJ"thc shipin whichthc princcwas"''r' u,1ll]-, *. , -. ] ** faccis (thatof) a dog"' .' \1" l A np' pw't1.i)hr'Jm lsnl"thisgodwhosc \i'1.., 1 t;l , ... r -i-l your "thcsc ip.n n;y yrll(\',n) im=sn ''il*, -..,,'l i;i. iil.',' "iiit;t ir'ry'1; .:.' Aoristsim=fl of RclativcClausc: cycswith whichyou '""';' (prcclicatc c ) T h c r c s u m p t i v c p r o n o u n ( s w i n t h c , f o l l^. o w i n e x a r n p l c ')'t )isalsoncccssarywhcnthc p; t hnk't"'n'ty ,'i,;q'"*. i ... ,,;i l{,,,,i'i1i.,'," oU1".,.l tfr" i, antcceclcnt rdi.n'in=tnSw,,Thcbrcadandbccr...*t'i.t,,Ihavcgivcntoyou.''(prcdicatcof nominalsQm'n=fl clausc: Relativc d)AnadvcrbcantakcthcplaccoIaprcpositionFrcsumptivcpronoun(cp.$S|04.105) godsare"' bw n.tyntr.v'im "theplaccwhcrcthc li$..... ] t i\ hi
dcpendent pronoun and Relative Clause appcars as a situationin which I am"' ., s.fn pn n.ty wi lr'J "this

Relative Clauses 89 It can also appearas a suffix-pronoun, particularlyrvhere the subjectis in the 2nd or 3rd person, in which case n.e4 is usuallywritten .1-l: t\\*''ri . , ) -...._ I ,\rr hw n.ty-J im "theplacewherehe is". Note:r,r..'' ' n./ynh "everyone who", "whoever', f) Like an adjcctive, a RclativeClausccan also be uscd as a noun, i.e. absolutclv. without an antecedcnt: ; , l .. lrro lr..r'i -,'.'. ,'I l\. n.tywm Sms{ n.t(y)tnb.t im{ "those who arc in his following"; "cvcrything that/whatcver is in him/it,,.

g) Ncgativc Rclativc Adjective: , ..\'., ,^,,,ir,.ry,t.,1,', ir,.tyt.,,onc who docsnot ...,'

" ^ | / i \ \

, .r lr :

-^- , ' ,\v. , i w . t y n - J " o n c w h o h a s n o t h i n g "( c p . $ 5 8 b ) , a l s o , . " i ) i i w . t y s w " a h a v c not, a paupcr". Note: i , i , , , , n . t y ti w , . t y t " t h a tw h i c h i s a n d w h i c h i s n o t " : " c v c r y t h i n g " .

iw.ty mi .tyJ "onc who docs not havc his cqual". '

2 ) R c l a t i v cC l a u s c- a s a t t r i b u t co f a n u n d e t e r m i n e d a n t c c e c l c n t A non-vcrbal or vcrbal clausc whosc fonn is idcntical to an indcpcndcnt clausc can function as a Rclativc Clausc. Thcsc "virtual Rclativc Clauscs" follow thcir antcccclcnt paratacticallybut arc not introduccdby a Rclativc Adjcctivc. Only thc context cnablcs onc to rccognisc thcm as attributcs of an antcccdcnt. In thcsc cascs, a rcsutnptivc pronoun always rcfcrs back to the antcccdcnr. ] \j' l^:-r1,,,' . n l r p w c r t t l n s r t . n w = f " H c i s i n d c c d a g o c lw h o s c s c c o n d (cqual) docs not cxist." (Rcsurnptivc pronoun l. Thc clausc could also bc translatcd paratactically: "Hc is indccd a god. His cqual docs not cxist".)

$ rs2

-lli' " .,"*,,f ]rlljl!f ;$ m i . s iw , r t m . r B t= .f w tt.w,tt.t ,,likc a m a nw h o has catcnthc fruit of thc sycamorc." (Rcsurnptivc pronoun w,nm.n-J is actuallya f; Pcrfcctsglm.nJ' in a subordinate clausc 71.2], which coulcl also bc translatcd "likc a tS rnan,aftcr hc haseatcnthc fruit of the sycamorc".) Advcrbialsubordinatc clauscs of time or circumstancc with iw (N 46 b) (l) or with an Old Pcrfcctivc (2) frequcntly occurassuchan attribute of an undctennincd antccedcnt:

90 Appendix- RoYalTitularY



\\i(i l.$,"" :Sq,\\.---

m ivi't "I pw iw-J g';.,=i ttft.w

which was approaching'" iiscoveredit was a snake

tbb.w md,mhnhn.t=sn l\." .' . tln.wy \\1L._1, -riiiil* I li.i.\,. (2)^*-l\hilil thc sky"'
m hr.t with ,,twoobelisks rningle of finc goldwhosepyramidions


sI53I.THETITULARYANDOTHE,RDESIGNATIONSoFTHEKING fivc titlcsandnalncs: King cornprises of an Egyptian nlrh.t,

ffi upon thc pa.lacc-fatod" l. Thc Horus narrc is usuallywritten vcrticallywithin Thc wcaringthc double-crown' Horusis p"n"a, somctimcs which thc Horus-falcon Thc namccan also bc falconon thc facadcis thc writing for thc titlc Hr.w "Horus"' without thc crown and facadc(sec following thJ Horus-falcon writtcn horizontally bclow). cxamplc fwo ,'Two Laclics,,-namc follows the titlc lulii, nb.ry, which refcrs to thc 2.The of Buto' of Elkab andW]cJ'yt of the crowns,Nfib't goddcsses ,,Goldcn follows thc titlc i''s Hr.r'-rhr" probably"Horus(madc) Horus"-name 3. Thc of gold". fbllows the titlc,l,fi' ,t, 4. Thc prcnomcn bl./v,"King of Upperand Lowcr Egypt"'

Theprenomenisusuallyformcdwiththcnamcofthesun-godRet.randiswritten withina cartouchc. Rc.w.It is also writtcn ,,Sonof Re,,-namc (nomcn)follows thc titlc \,. .s-l 5. The and conforms accession his beforc lt is the namcbomc by thc king within a cartouchc. Dynasty: l8th Sesostris; to the currcntdynastictradition(l2th Dynasty:Amencmhet, Scti'Ramesses)' lgth / 20th Dynastics: Thutmosis; Amcnhotep, to kings by their "Son of Re" Today, following thc ancientGrcek tradition,we rcfer namc,and thoscof tne ngyftians of the old Kingdom uscdthe Horus whercas names, bi.ty name,when referringto the the Middle ana N"*ingdoms prefcned the nsw king by only one name.

Appendix- Syllabic Writing 9l

Exampleof a complete titulary (ThutmosistII):

i,il ''.) I /

f i Ni;

ItltI i ,,i]i,",!] l\,

F""1 r .,I ., ,,


Hr.w kl n!,tt flci-m-W)s.t Nb.tyWlh-nsy.t mi RC.w m p.t Hr.w-nbwSfint-pl1.ty Qsrlc.w Nswbi.ty Mn-!1pr-Rc.v, nJ'r Si Rc.wQhwty-ms !1pr(.u,)

:,,K,7r,i] )

(,iri',. ihIr,) )

in Thebcs;Two Ladics:Enduringof king"Horus:Thc strongbull who appears ship likc Rc in hcaven; GoldenHorus:Mighty of strcngth, holy of diadcms; King ('Thefonn of Re endures'(?)); of UppcrandLower Egypt:Menkheperre Sonof Re: pcrfcctof forms". Thutmosis, (< Hcbrcw< Thc tcnn "Pharaoh" pr.v, () "Grcat Housc",i.c. palacc)is not uscdfor thc rulcruntil thc l8'nDynasty; cp. "DowningStrcct", "Thc Whitc Housc". (GROUP-) 2. SYLLABTCWRTTTNG In ordcr to writc wordssuchas forcignnalncs,loan wordsor magicalspcllsin sucha way that thcy might bc concctly pronounccd, thc Egyptianscript, which lackcd vowcls, gcnerally developcd its own distinctivc systcrn. Certaingroups, consisting of at lcasttwo Egyptiansigns,thc last of which is cithcr w, i or i, wcrc uscdto writc opcn syllablcs + vowel).Herethe(often (consonant unccrtain) vocalisation of somcof thcse: g 154


ct, I

rQ, n

rl \i.
r lI t \, l

,u nu

ri ru :,. '''', ha, hi, hu sa, si


-.rrZl '[\

ba, bi bu pct,pi ma, mi, mu na, la ni




rl )''\

la, lu ta, ti !a, !i, lu





/ + vowcl

92 Sign List


Eg'tptlist in Gardiner's The numbersfollowing the signsrefer to the more extensive designation alphabctic their ian Grammar,from *"6i"t th division into groupswith hasbecnadoPted. Ph'D' : D' : Detcrminative' Ph' : Phonogram' L. : Logogram(also: Ideogram), PhoneticDcterminative A. MEN yi A (l) malc occupations' man.L' i$ 'ri "man"'D' man'^1ale Seated Il' groups of pcople' L. suffix i "1" D. in l, people, names. pcrsonal manwith handto mouthor hcad'D' eat'be hungry'drink' Scated think,fccl. speak, D. sit. Man knceling. hidc' anns'D. worship; Man with raised D. hidc. Man hiding. D' pure,purily, purity' Man bcing(ritually)washcd. D. bc wcary,wcak' Man sinkingto ground. on hcad'D' carry,load,work' baskct Man stcadying "sail"',,. Man with oar.D. in sdw Soldicrwith bow andquivcr.L. l{ nl.(' "army".D. anny,cncmy'



)ji ),ii
lNs. 'lp

(3) (4)



;iil fil
r t{,

(e) (ro)
( 12)


ii' i{,

(r3 )

D. cncmy,rebcl' bound. Man with hands frornhcad'D' dic; cncmy' Fallingmanwith bloodstrcaming ' or fallcnman.L.'t' l,'' "fal["' D' fall' cncmy' Falling Man bowingdown.D. bcnd,bow' Chifd sittingon lap.L- llrd "child"' D' child;bc young' "cldest"' on staff.y.i'i\ il* "old", srtJl4' Bcnt manleaning D. old. wr "prince".



h lh }l

(16) (r7) (re)

Sign List 93

|fl |fi,

A (21) (22)

Man standing with staff.L. * sr "official".D. noble, courtier, friend,statue. Statue of a manwith staff and sceptre. D. in twt.w "stafue", i/i.y "sovereign". King with staffandmace. D. in iti.y"sovcreign". Man strikingwith stick.D. for actionsinvolving effort: strike, rob, teach,be strong. Man with stickin onehand.L. hw,i"smitc". Man with onc arrnraiscd. D. call. Man hastening with onearrnraised. In prcposition tS ir "by". Man with raiscd anns.D. joy, mourning, high.L. fr/i "bc high, cxaltcd". Man upsidc-down. D. shd"be upsidc down". Man with annsin attitudc of prayer. plcad,grcct. D. pray,praisc,
Man dancing.D. dancc,rcjoicc. Man with stick and bundle. D. wandcr, travcl. L. mniv,"hcrdsman". Man pounding,with mortar. D. flvr'.sl pound, build.

t 1l

Q, Qq (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30)

(32) (33) (34)




\ ij,|



;,r !t l,t ij


I l.ii , "il 1''l l, ' ;

t,l !)r

(35) (36) (40)

M a nb u i l d i S n . L . k d " b u i l d "D . . build. Man bcnding ovcr a vcsscl. L. D. cJ'.ty "brcwcr". god with bcard. Scatcd D. god.L. sufflx i "1" (whcna god spcaks).

m ry mh
f{ "t, ,.

41142) King with bcard, (andflail). D. king.L. sufflx i "1" (whcn uracus

nr;i a king spcaks) Variants: iii(a+:),,iji(n++),,,i(oot), 1a+o;.

, t,i



Scatcd hcrdsman with staffan<l mar.r-.'tliiti) rrnir,"hcrclsman". D. hcrdsman. L.D. sjN,"to guard; guard". Also for \jl tgAl.


(49) (50) (51)

Syrianwith stick.D. forcigncr. Seatcd manof rank;canreplacc A I or ,A.5 I . L. suffix I "1". A50 with flail. L. .fps"noble".Ph.Jps.D. noblcperson.

n qtl


94 Sign List


A (s2)

Noblesquatting with flail. D. noblc;alsousedin placeof A5l . Standing mummy.D. mummy, statuc, image,form. Recumbent mummy.D. death,coffin.

1,jj c ( 1 2 )



(s 3) (s4) (5s)


(l7) (l8)

Mummy on bed.D. lie, slccp, die; corpse. B. WOMEN


B (l) (2) (3) (5) (7) (8)

Seatcd woman.D. woman,fcmaleoccupations, fcmalepersonal namcs. L. suffix i "I" (whcna womanspcaks). Prcgnant woman. D. iwr "conccivc", bkl "be pregnant". Womangivingbirth.L. "givc birth".D. givc birth. Womansuckling child.D. sucklc, nursc, carc.
,ar '(t)'

D (1) (2) (3)

andflowcr. D. narnc of quccn. Quccnwith diadern (Gardincr A48) Wcavcrwith sticks . L. iri .t "wcavcr". Ph.iry. C. ANTHROPOMORPHICDEIl'IES

) ,,r. (J/6)


1 \

(l0) (17) (l8) (l9 ltt (2t) (24) ( 2 5t (26) (21\


c (l) (2) (3) (4) (6) (1) (ri)

Godwith hurnan (sun-god). hcadandsun-disk. L. Rc.N,"Rc" D. sun-god. Godwith falcon hcad, sun-disk andsignof lifc: likc Cl.



l.lir il

'ti; ;
tJ'l' ll


Cod with hcadof ibis.L. D. Qlm,.ty "(gocl) Thoth". Godwith hcad of rarn. L. D. Hnm.u, "(god)Khnurn". Godwith hcad of a caninc. L. D.',"(god) Anubis"Godwith hcadof Scth-animal. L. D. "(god)Scth". Ithyphallic god with f-cathcrs, raiscd llail. L. D. Mnw,"(god,r arrnancl Min".


) "I

..I )"1



Goddcss with homsandsun-disk. L.D. Hw.t-.Hr'.n, Hathor" "(goddcss) Coddcss with fcathcr on hcad.L. D. Ml'i "(godclcss) Maat".

','ri i;t I

llrl -r



( 1 1 ) Kncclinggod with annsupliftcd(supporting thc sky),with or without

on his head. L.Hh, "(god)Hch";hh numcral "rrillion".Ph hh.

( 2e)

Sign List 95


C (12) (17) (18)

Godwith double feather crown.L.D. Tmn.w "(god)Amun". Godwith falconheadanddouble feather crown.L.D. Mn!.w "(god) Month". homsandsun-disk. L.D. (Tl)-lrzn"(god) Godwith doublefcather, (Ta)-tenen". D. PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY


1:,1) D (1)

Hcadin profilc.L. /p "hcad". D. hcad,backof hcad, back; forchcad, front. Ph. tp.


(2) (3) (4)

Facc. L.

hr"facc".Ph. hr.

Lock of hair.D. hair,sorrow, widow; barc,crnpfy;colour. Eyc.L. l/'.r"cyc".D. cyc,scc,blind,cry, wakc,

D. scc,blind,wakc. or cycbrow. , " ' : ' ( 5 1 6 ) Eyc with cyc-paint


(10) (l 7 )

Eyc with tcars.L. rnl "cry". D. cry. hcad.L. D. u,ql).t "wed.jal-cyc". Hurnan cyc with markings of f'alcon's L. D. ti.t "figurc,irnagc" Lowcr partof Ear.L. D. r?.r4lr "car". joy; bc /rnr(liom /urr"facc"). facc,

' ';1

(r 8 )

(19t20) D. nosc,srncll, Noscwith cyc andchcck.L. firrl "nosc". (2t) (24)

Mouth.L. r'j "rnouth". Ph.r'.

Uppcrlip with tccth.L. r7./ "cdgc,borclcr". "lips".D. lips. Lips.L.. ': .!p.ry Lips issuing liquid.D. spit,vornit, blccd. Brcast. L. ' nlrrl "brcast". D. brcast; sucklc, nursc.

(26) (27) (2{J) 11 il ".1-

a fonn of Outsprcad arrns. L. k/ "thc Ka" (thc lit-c-forcc, thc soul). D28 on standard Rl2. L. ftj "thc Ka" as a divinccntity.


96 SignList

(p D ( 3 1 )

of D32 andU36. L. hm-kl "kc-priest"' Combination open' D. embrace, Arms in attitudeof embrace. in rowing.L. hni "row"' Ph' bn' Arms engaged L. ch) "fight; weapon,fighter". Arms with shieldandbattle-axe. L. n and nn "'*' "not"' itd'ly Arms in attitudeof ncgation. forgct'Ph' n' ignorant, be D. "who .... not". t' I (D37' . h. AlsoforaI'ii N'\''"' , h a n d "P L . " a r m "" Forearm texts' 38,40, 42), hicratic \ L. in the roott' t rQi "givc"' alsoin with'l\-brcad. Forcarm m' \'; , imi"givc"' Ph'd, d and thc impcrativ"lj D. in ini "givc"' Ph'nti andn' with roundbrcad. Foreann sacriticc' D' offcr,prcscnt, vcsscl. with sphcrical Forcann

(32) (33) (34)


(3 s)

(37) (38)

0l ()il


in placcof 11424' with stick in hand;usccl (40) Forcarm uppcrann bcnt'D' arrn' palmfacingdownwarcls, ( 4 1 ) Forcann, ., :)
'i" l

(42) (43) (44)

rcfusc' pausc' bcnd'sing'ccasc' shouldcr; L' ntlt "cubit"' D' cubit' Likc D4I but with uppcrarln straight' with f'lail.L. !v'i "protcct"'Ph' !w'' Forcarrn lcad"' guidc, L.D. lrp "control, Ann with'bi-sccptrc. holy"' L. D. /'rr' "splcndid, Arrn with a nhh.t-sccptrc. Hand.L. , ' c|r.t.Ph-d.

(46) (41)

Handwith curvcdpalm.D. r"/ "hand"'

(4e) Fist.D. grab,conqucr.

10'000' in nurncral (50) Fingcr.L. 4lt'"fingcr".D. fingcr'Ph' c-lbc
li ii I

cxact' D. straight, (504) Two fingcrs. takc' L. cn-t "nail,claw"'D' nai['claw'mcasurc' fingcr. ( s l ) Horizontal

(53) Ph.andD' i' D. rnalc. Phallus. L' in husband' poison; from it' D' urinatc; with fluid issuing Phallus N "in frontof'. I''.n-b;/z

SignList 97

D (54) i\\, il 'i1 \ r'Ii |,)\


g.L.A\t ir; "come". Legswalkin D. walk, approach, hurry, halt, hesitate. L. nmt.t "step,movement". Legswalking backwards. D. backwards, turn about;again. Lcg. L. rd "foot".D. leg,foot,thigh.Ph. tt) pd,127wcr, (3)sbk,(\ gh or ghs. Leg.Ph.. D58 combined with a vcsscl frornwhich watcrflows.L. w'b "purc". Tocs. L. sil "toe".D. toc.Ph..sll. E. MAMMALS

(55) (56) (s8) (60) (61)

jr,ot E (l) ;rl 'Il Q) (3)

Bull. L. t-i "bull,ox". D. cattlc,hcrd. Aggrcssivc bull. L. in,.'4 f ; nftl "strong bull" (cpithct of thc king). Calf. D. Calf,cattle. Horsc. L. ssm.t "horsc". D. horsc, tcam. Donkcy.L. D. ci "donkcy". Kid. D. smallcattlc. Ph.D.and Ph.ih. Ncw-bornantclopc.,. Rarn. D. ram,shecp. D. flnm.w "(god)Khnum". Pig.D. rri "pig".

i::tt (6)
5,t (i) llr,r,l (B)
,'it-,-,.t (9) i,l
'tt il

( 12)

fu (r3) Cat. D. ntiw "cat".

,\' ll 'l''\ (r4)
Dog (slughi). D. dog. jackalor dog.L. 'lnp.w"(god)Anubis". ( r 5 ) Recurnbcnt D. Anubis. likc E15.L. hr.ysJ/j "hc r l ; N , ( 1 6 ) El5 on a shrine; who is overthe sccrets".



judge". Jackal. L. D. slb'Jackal,

98 Sign List '};x E (18)

L. or D.wpi-w).w/ "the openerof wolf (? a canine)on a standard. WePwawet"' ways", the "(god) "(god) Seth".D. Seth,turmoil, L. Stft,Swty, The Seth-animal. storm,thunder. D. turmoil, storm. E20 recumbent. Lion.L. mJi"lion".D.lion. lion. L. ru, "lion". Ph. rw,ln(. Recumbent L.D. )hy "panther". Panther. Ph-D-ibw "Elephantine"' D. )hw "elephant". Elephant. Giraffe.D. sr "foretell",mmy "giraffe". hung aboutits neck.L. D. s'/r "rank, Goatwith cylindcr-seal honour". Descrthare.Ph. wn. F. PARTS OF MAMMALS


4,-J el)
1,r\" (22) -4'.\ (23) o.nrzr\ (24)



tr; ej)


F (l)

El ftl "ox" in offeringformula' Hcad of ox. Replaccs Ph' il' Ph.D.j.r "strcngth". Hcadof hippopotamus. ' front",hl.ty"heart" of a lion. L. hl.t "bcginning' Forepart Ph.D' in sJi' Ph.Jsl. Inaccuratcly Hcadof antelope. Likc F5. of anteloPe. Forepart ' ''74; .f / "ram,headof ram" and. - { {' ' tO Hcad of ram.D. in -. honour,worth, dignity". .f.yr "majesty, Forcpartof ram. Like F7. Writtenfwicc:L. "strength"' Headof leopard.

( , s)

(3) (4)



?l f 'f

(e) (l l)

( 1 0 ) Hcad and neckof an animal'D. throat;swallow'

Formof Fl0 in the Old Kingdom. Ph. wsr. Headand neck of a canine. Hornsof ox. L. ltp./ "crown of head,horns".Ph. wp'

1 v

1tz1 (13)

Sign List 99

:::_ F (16) N , (17) (18)

Horn. L. db"horn". D. Fl6 and a vesselfrom which liquid issues. L. D. cw"purification". Elephant tusk.D. tooth;bite, laugh.Ph. hh, hw. Tongue.L. rus "tongue";im.y-r) "overseer". D. tongue;taste.Ph. ns. Ear of ox. L. msQr"ear".D. ear;hear,be deaf.Ph. sQm, idn. Hind partof a lion. L. ph.wy"hindquarters". Ph.or, tdl. Forelegof an ox. L. bp! "foreleg,arm". D. forelcg,arm, strength. Leg of an ox.L. whm.t"hoof'. Ph.whm. Skinof goat.L. fin.t "hide,skin".Ph.ftn. Hide of ox. D. hidc,leather, mammal. Variantof F27.L. s3"dappled, variagated" in T],i slhlw.ty of fcathcrs"(cpithctof god Horus). "variagated Hide of ox pierced by arrow.L. D. s/i "shoot". Water-skin. Ph. Jd.

.l, ,..i

(22) (23)

ri;ii ' ', (26) (27) (28)

"r' r, ;i i

eg) (30)

( 3 1 ) Threefox skinstied togcther. Ph. ns.


Belly of anirnal with teats andtail. L. ./ "torso, body".Ph. lr. Tail. D. sd "tail" Heart.L. ib (occasionally alsoht.ty) "heart".D. hcart. Heartandwindpipe.Ph. nfr. Lung with windpipc. Ph.sml. Backbonc with ribs.L.D. il.t "back". Backbone with marrowissuingfrom it. Ph. iml!. Backbone with marrowissuingfrom both cnds.Ph. jw. Backbone with vertebrae. D. psj "back",Jc./"slaughter". Rib. L. .!pr"rib". Ph.spr.Confusion with Nl l. Leg boneof ox with meatattached. Originally two signs(seldom

\-\ "

(33) (34) (35) (36)

1r r) ,\ ,i

e:-) (39) (40) (41) (42)



100 Sign List distinguished) for:

F (44)

, ',' ,::\ tl

Ph'D' iwc' (") D 1;;;l;'thigh of o*"' Ph' and \'r)'l'" sw'/ "leg of beef'' Ph' isw' (b) D. in 1 D' turn around' ' Ph'klh' pftr' clbn' D' intestines Intestines' (4614'7) bodilypart' (51) Pieceof meat'D' meat' (52) D' lrs"excrerncnt"' Excrcment' G. BIRDS

.i h1


\\ c (r)

vulrurc'Ph' l Egyptian' Long-lcggcd

'i;\. (s)



\1., [,].\
l.\". ,!r!



\t ,

. (i... ,,farcon,,. ,, n :- 'i ,irt, bift I L. Hr.w' "(god)Horus"'D' in Falcon. usedin placc tcxtsregularly in hicratic D. gocl; (7) Falconon a standard. of A40. "(god)Ncmty"' (7A) Falconin boat'L' Nm'ty of Gold"(titlcof king' Sl53)' on Sl2. L' Hr'u'-nhw"'Horus Falcon (8) Rc-Harakhtc"' "(gocl) L' Rc'u-Hr'u'4t3'ty (e) Falconwith sun-disk' hrl"'Henu-Barquc"of Sokar' Sokar"; D' in r^l;r"(gocl) Sokar-barquc. (l0) c'frn "divincimagc"' (cl1m'cl3nl Imagcof falcon'D' in (l l) ntwl' mt' Ph'ru'ra" D. vulturc' ( 1 4 ) Vulturc. Mut"' ( l s ) Vulturewith flail' L' Mw't "(goddcss) Uto on baskets' Nckhbctand thc snakc-goddcss ( 1 6 ) The vulturc-goddcss (titlc of king' $ 153)' i.^,vfiy "rnJfwo Ladics" (17) (21) (22) (23) (24) O w l .P h 'n ' f-' guinea-fowl' Scnnr HooPoe'Ph' 4h' word' Ph'D' in the same commoners"' Lapwing'L' rlty't "subjects' Likc G23' Lapwingwith twistcdwings' 't;1; Ph' rlt' nh "neh-bird"'

\i: \,'\,.

SignList 101


G (25) (26) (21) (28) (29) (30) (31)

Crcsted ibis. L. )! " akh-spirit"(thetransfigured deceased). Ph. lb. Ibis on a standard. D. in Bhw.e "(the god) Thoth". Flamingo.D. flamingo.Ph. dJr. ph. bi. Stork. L. b) " ba-spt"(theempowered spiritof thedeceascd). Thrcestorks . L. bl.w "souls, power". Heron. D. hnw "phoenix". Heronon a perch.L. D. h(h "be inundated". Egrct(?).L. sdl "seda-bird". Ph.D.sdl "trcmblc". Cormorant. Ph. '&. Swallow. Ph.wr. Sparrow. D. small,cvil, incomplctc, empty,sick. Goosc or duck(not alwaysdistinguishcd frornG39).L. )pd "bird". D. goosc, (c.g.grasshoppcr). bird,flying anirnals Ph..qbin ?,,,. lliil Ghh "(goclofcarth)Geb". Pintail Flyingduck.L. , ',. r, , 'o-pj "fly". Ph. p). Duckalighting. D. alight, bird.Ph.D.lrr.Appcars as D. for no apparcnt rcason in various words;alsoin placcof G40. Duck.L. w.f i "fattcn".D. in dfl "provisions". Ph.w. Quailchick. Duckling. "duckling". Ph.ri. Thrceducklings in ncst.D. .fr "ncst". Threeducks' protruding heads from watcr.L. D. i",).r.{ "birdpool","nest". Egret(?) catching fish.D. to fish.

4_ F _T





(\ ,Ti\

(32) (33) (35) (36) (31) (38)



(39) (40) (41)


(42) (43) G7) (48) (4g) (51)

thlr g

102 Sign List (transitive)"' c (52) Goosepicking up grain'D' in snm"feed




' Bird with humanhead'L' b) "Ba-spirit"

(s4) Trussedgooseor duck.D' bird; offer' Ph' snQ'



H (l) (2) (3) (4)


D' w|n "wring neck Headof pintail duck.For G38' L' )ptt "bird"' (of a bird)". wSm' Headof a bird with a crcst'Ph'D' mic' tn'O' rtt:",., Hcad of a sPoonbill. i'l \i' nr"w "terror"' In a Hcad of in ' writing of rm1l|trJi"PcoPlc"' Wings.D. wings:flY. Ph' sw'mlc't' L. fJI sr.r "feather"' Fcather. L' sl "son"' Egg.D.cgg;goddcss' REPTILES T.AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS AND



(6) (8)




I (l) (3)

(6) (7) (8)

'Ji' mauritanica)'D' lizard' Ph' Lizard(Tarentola bc grccdy' D' crocodilc; L. msh "crocodile"' Crocodile. Ph' ' " iti'y "sovereign"' angry.Twocrocodiles: aggrcssive, (oncsclt)"' tail curvcdinward'Ph'D'slll "collcct Crocodile, Ph' km' tail with scalcs' Crocodilc Hckat"' "(goddcss) Frog.D. krr "frog";I-Ift'r Ph.hfn;numcral100'000' Tadpole. D' fathcr'Ph"f it' cerasles)' Horncd viper(Cerastes Cobra.Ph. a/. goddcss' D' uraeus' of attack' Cobrain position Wadjet"of Buto' D'Wl/'yt "(goddess) Cobraon basket.

(10) (l 2 ) (1 3 )

Sign List 103

i,.t- t (t+)

K (l) (2) (3) (4)

Bulti-fish (Tilapia nilotica).D. fish. Ph. in. taboo". A fish (Barbusbynni).Ph.D. in bw.l"abomination, E of a Ph. c/ in title r r 'd mr "administrator A fish (Mugil cephalus). district". s fish (Mormyrus kannume).Ph. hL Oxyrhynchu hane).D.rm.w "fish" A fish (Petrocephalus L.INSECTS AND SMALL ANIMALS


.t.\ t.t

L (l) (2) (6)

" . Ph. hpr. sacer).L. bpr "dung bcctle Dung bcctlc (Scarabaeus . Ph. hit. Bce.L. bi .t "bcc" Bivalveshell.Ph.!1t in !/w.t "offeringtable". Sclkis". L. SrA.r"(Scorpion-goddcss) Scorpion. M. TREBS AND PLANTS

r,\ .(


M (l) (2\

Trce.D. trcc.Ph. ilm, im. Hcrb.D. plant,,ls; rarc:for suffix-pronoun .i "I". lst pcrson singular. L.,, Branch. fil "wood,trcc".D. wood,objcctof



rnplsp (altcrnativc . Ph. rrtp.lnthc group)',:', Palmrib. D. bc young ycar" /r "timc"; oftencombincd rcadingltl.t-sp) "regnal '1 (M7).Alsoin ' (M5), | 1vo; o. i[ , with othcrsigns:.1, Tl-mri "Egypt". Ph.Ji; .li "lofuspool,mcadow". L. I'J'1 Poolwith lotusflowers. (scason)". )!1inthegroupi;, , lfr.r "inundation



104 Sign List a . - M (l l) I T ;fi f tZl f f :l (15) (16) (l7) (18) (19)

Floweron longtwistingstalk'L. D' wdn "offer"'; numeral1,000' column"'Ph'w)8,wQ' plant,papyrus stalk.L. wlQ"papyrus Papyrus watery with budshangingdown' D' papyrus, Clump of papyrus mh. i!, PhEgypt. Lower terrain,swamp, Ph.hl, alsomh (like Ml5)' Clumpof papyrus. R c e dP . h .i . with D54. ln rr'l;r,iyi "come"' Reedcombined L' D' in a sliccof brcadanda vesscl' bctwccn Conicalloaves i!.11 / l i,L,li , , cilr./ "offering". r,, , .j L. and D iilfli ', .sfi./ "marshland,flat Threcrccdsand thrcc shoots. of M21. land,ficld", in Placc signwith a loop at sidc.r-. ]!]r,T;ir\\ ,r,, "hcrb,plant". Likc prcvious Ph.sru. Two signs:I 1 ph. ,,. Rushwith shoots. ' '\ Ph. .sw. ".tlt./-plant". Plant.L. i with D2l M23 cornbined '- Ph.r's.

O0\ (21) l 1 i i ,] I ll! \i r \ Y i\ f'f i] $' Q2) fzfl (24) (26) tzq) f,ol


Jlllc. plant,pcrhaps form of M23.L. !m( "UppcrEgypt".Ph. flowcring swcct fruit-Ph.n!m. Podcontaining ' Swcctroot(?).L. D. in' n,rr"swcct".

Qll32) Rootof thc lotusplant.D. grow.Ph.D.rrl. L. i'" i/ "barlcy".D. com,grain. (33) Thrccgrains. (34) (35) (36) f+ol g2) iYna.,,uut' Yl'' "''"'bel't"crnmcr"' L. D. in li ', Earof cmmer. pilcs". "hcaps, Heapof Shcafof Qr. Ph. ls. Bundlcof rceds. by Zll)' (?).Ph.wn (oftcnreplaccd Blossom

Sign List 105

I"'h, u 1+:; Vine trellis on prop.D. wine, garden,figs. I 1++; Thorn.D. thom, sharp.Ph.spd.

' , N(t)


chief'. Sky.L. D. p./ "sky".L. hr.y."upper, suspcnded from it. L. grh "night".D. night, Sky with something darkness. Waterfallingfrom sky.L. ild.t "dew".D. dew,rain. (") i') is readsw. Sun.L. r'.h, "sun,day";hrw.w "day";in datcs pcriodof time. tomorrow, D. sun,rise,yesterday, Re". L. D. Rc.w"(sungod) Sunwith uracus. ro. ll .1 .-\t"' fir.r-lrr-,.w"what Sunon thc signT28.Abbrcviation bclongs to theday". hnmnt.t. rays;rise.Ph.w,bn, Sunwith rays.D. sunshinc, "Ncw-moon fcstival"; L. pscJn.Qw Moon with lowerhalf obscurcd. (nincprimacval gods;asscmbly ps! in psq!.t of gods)". "Enncad Abbr.


(.) r,"r

(5) (6)



() , \ /=\ ,r.


( 1 0 ) Moon partiallyobscurcd. Likc N9. ( 1 1 ) Crcsccnt othcrwisc moon.L. i% "rroon".In datcs:id "rnonth";
I \t , r: \

(12) ( 14)

confuscd with F42. usually writtcn .{ ,,r or i . D. moon.Somctimcs Dyn.). LikcNl l. Alsor.,, (l7th/ carlylSth pcriod(timc).Pl"t. sbl, cl(u,)) Star.L. " sbi "star".D. star,constcllation, in *rl dwl./ "ncthcrworld".

(l5) (16) (11) (18) (20)

Starin circlc.L. dwl.t (dl.t) "ncthcrworld". (also withoutthcsc '). L. rr tti "land, Flatlandwith grains of sand (41.r), thusalsoin 1.t Ph./t. D. land,carth, estatc earth". Likc Nl6. Sandy tract.L. foreignland. D. desert, o. ,,, iw "island".

Ph.wglh. shore. Tongue of land.D. sandbank,

106 Sign List


N (21)

(dual * :: idb.wy "thetwo Tongue of land.L. T,: idb "shore" geographic terms. land, "Egypt"), banks", D. inigatedland,alsoforN2l. Irrigationcanal.

\\ / t


pedestal. Ph-mic. (23A) (Gardiner Aal l). Moundof earth, (24) nome". L. ., sp-i./"district, canals. Plot of landwith irrigation garden. names of nomes, nome(province), D. district,
I i l tl l



mountains, forcignland".D. descrt, land.L. ,-. /tis./."desert, Desert foreignland,cemetery. Ph.q/w. L. 4/w "mountain". mountain. Sand-covercd L. Sunrisingovermountain. / sunsct, horizon". i/r I "placeof sunrise

r'" rtI
4' \\ ,/i

(26) (21)
(28) (29)

Ph.&t. Sunrisingovcra hill. L. &c "hill of thesunrisc". r7). hill-slopc.Ph.t (alsotranslitcratcd Sandy ' l/.I "mound". L. D. with bushcs. Moundof earth gcncral cxprcssion D. roacl, a^sccnd, L. , ," wl.t "road". Roadwith bushcs. Ph. hr,wl. (c.g. "hcrc"), distance. location of mcdicincs. mctal,mincrals, granular substanccs, D. sand, Grainof sand. Now U304. Ripplcof watcr.Ph.n. Thrceripplcsof watcr ll t. ^* "watcr".D. watcr,liquid;drink,wash.Ph.nw. ' D. river,lakc,sca(oflcn Canalwith watcr.L. ' ) ntr "canal". with ). togcthcr

"/'\. r,,', ,, .rI

(30) (3I ) (33) (34) (35)

(36), mi.
r, N39 rLijiriirrrr

, ',a'
tl,f j

(3'l) (40)

Pool. L.

i r, J (Ji) "pool". Ph. .f. Variants N38

of N37 andD54 in Jrn"go". Combination

D. wcll,,bi),ph. (41/42) Wcll filledwith watcr. O. BUILDINGS AND PARTSOF BUILDINGS

o (1)

House. L.

place. Ph.2r. building, pr'.n, D. house, "house".

Sign List 107

'J' o (2)

Ol andT3 combined.InT pr.w hd"treasury",lit.: of silver". "house Combination of Ol, P8,X3 andW22.In [! pr.t-br*"funeraryoffering". Shelter of mattingin field. Ph. ir.


(3) (4) (6)

(9) (10) (ll) (16)



Planview of rectangular enclosure. L. Nfl hw.t"largebuilding,templc, tomb." (V30) on top of house (06). Nbl-hw.r "(goddcss) Basket Nephthys". (06). Hw.t-Hr.w "(goddess) Falcon(G5) in house Hathor". P a l a c e . L . i l iI c f t " p a l a c e " . Gatesurmounted by uraei. L. inl""'l tly.ty "vizier". Openhut with ccntralpost. L. 1 ,h"hut, hall".D. hut,hall.Ph.sft

[xtl (22) 1,1[,] (23)

Thrones with canopy usedin thc Scd-fcstival. L. in l,li"if ,[] f <m and

0 hth-sct"Sed-festival".

A fl

e4) rzsl

Pyramid. L. mr"pyramid".D. in namcs of pyramidcomplcxcs. Obclisk. L.D. t[n "obclisk". Stele. L. D. wd "stele". pillar". Ph.iwn. Colurnn with tenonat top.L. iwr "column, Tent-pole.

\ /


. ,,ll es)
I ll

( 3 1 ) Door lcaf.L. ci "door".D. door,opcn.


Gatcway. D. door,gateway. t.]l sfrl "door". '" Bolt. L. r "boltrr.Ph.s, alsofor R22. Combination of O34 andD54. wordsimplyingmovement beginning or endingwith s: ,ll sbi "go, send",r',\ \'in \\ -,a' rzs "bring,offer". si "perish"; also





(36) (38)

Wall. L. llll inb "wall". D. wall. bulwark.fort. Comerof wall. D. comer,angle, councilof officials(L. gate,strcct. !,i krh.t1,

108 Srgr Zrst

O (39)



brick Block of stone.D.inr "stone"; 1e18hl stairway,e.g.,. ,,l ,var.,"I r(w)d "slairway"; Stairway.D.L.
\? .k\

c).. \,' (42) (44) (45) (4g) (.)

, vr.,

hill". terraced htyw "terrace,

Fence. Ph.Jsp. rank". Emblem of godMin. L. in Y'' andD. i" { !\ S''f ;rr., "office, .|: harim". ip.t "privateapartments andD. in Vault.L. in ' I t D. village, town, Townplanwith crossroads. L. nw.t(niw.t)"town". city, Egypt,nomc,cslate.



Ph.sp. Thrcshing-floor with grain.D. thrcshing-floor. P. SHIPSAND PARTSOF SHIPS

. . ,\ \';'

p (l) (lA)

travcldownstrcam/north. Boaton watcr.D. ship,boat,barquc; ovcrturn. upsct. PI upsidc down.D. capsizc, travclsouth. Sailingboat.D. sailupstrcam, D. in thc names of various L. n,ii "sacrcd barquc". Sacrcd barquc. sacrcd barques. Fishing boatwith nct.L. - l w&c "fishcrman".

\: *



(6) (8)

D. wind,storm, sail. Mast(P6)with sail.L. giw "wind,air,brcath". Mast.Ph. %c. Oar (alsowrittcnhorizontally. Ph.!uw,. ntlchtw). D. oar,ruddcr.


( rl )

post,to land.Also for Aa28( rl). Mooringpost.D. mooring Q. DOMESTIC AND FUNERARY FURNITURE ' placc" in J ^ Wsir(orisir')"(god) L. in ll '' .i./ "seat, Scat. Osiris"; i/rr. Ph.., in ,]"11 Wsir(or-islf "(god)Osiris". Portabfe seat. Stoolof reedmatting.Ph.p.

Q (l)

,'l r

(2) (3)

Sign List 109

r-r Q(6)


Coffin.L.D. lgrs.t "coffin,burial". Brazierwith flame. D. fire, flame; cook,be hot;torch,wick.



' 0, R(4)

(5) i't, (j)

Breadofferingon mat.L. htp ,,altar, offering,bc plcased,, .Ph.lttp. ' 'il Censer. f. ph. klp, kp. k)p ,,fumigate,,. Bowl for incense with smokcrisingfrom it.L. snyr ,,inccnsc,,. Also l'r. . ,.7 ln ,"i lri orl,\\ bi "a_spirit,,. Polc. wrapped in clothrvithcndof clothaspcnnant; old signfor a numcn. ph.n1r. L. n1r ,,god,,. Cornbination of Rg,T2gandpartof N25.L. ltr.t_ru.,,nccropolis,,. Columnof stalks or carsof com buncllcd togcthcr. L. /r1 ,,djcd_pillar,,. Ph.4d. Standard uponwhich rcligious syrnbors arcbomc.D. standard. Cornbincd with nurncrous signsfbr clcitics CZOil ). 1c.g. Falcon on a stanclard, in frontof hirnii fHO). I ,J",,, _,inur.[ ,,wcst, Fcathcr on a standarci. L. i' rrur./ ,,wcst,,, i: \,.1-..,. w,ttm.y,,right,,. Spear-standa.a. l. "i".1.,, i)h.t ,,cast,,"[ tl.)). i]h.y ,,lcft,,.Frorn the l8th Dynasgonwards ph. i through confusion wltn | ;f (U23). Sccptrc S40with lcathcr. L. .t Wj.s.r,,Thebcs,,. 'tt Two bclemnitcs? ,,(god) L. yf n, Min (of Coptos),,; ,.ro tl. theciry Lctopolisin theDclta.pi bm ^, Two bowsin a shcath. L. or D. ,tritiluf;) ,. ,,(goddess) Ncith,,. s. cRowNS, DRESS,STAVES


-1, (ro) jl rrrt


(13) (,0)

[ .t"




r/ ,,1,, s (ttz)

Whitecrownof UppcrEgypt.L. ,. hL.t,,thc White Crown,,. D. Whitc Crown.

ll0 SignList

V ,V

D. Red RedCrown". r.i{ asr.t"the Egypt. of Lower S (3/4) Redcrown


Doublecrown.L. !1, V,,V. 6) D. doublecrown.

sf;m.ty "thetwo mightyones(i.e.crowns)".


(j) (8)

The blue crown.L. fiprl "the blue crown". D. blue crown. TheAtdcrown. L. )f "theAtdcrown".D. Atef-crown. D. doublefeather. .L. Sw.ty"doublefeather". Two feathers Hair bandwith tiedbow. L. l\\ *lh.r"wreath"; bind,hew".Ph.mdh. { I , i rndfr"ro


(l l) (12)

t') rf'""]

broadcollar.L. ws! "broadcollar".Ph.wsfu. Omamental metals. L.',,,,,' nbw"gold".D. gold,precious Collarof beads. " glass". D. fiencc, faicnce. L.1if ; Pectoralof lhn.t "faicncc, gleam, glass, dazzle. collar.L.D. mni.t "counterpoise, for omamental Counterpoisc Menil". L. in 1' '\\ llt ., (alsorcads$.wty1 to nccklacc. attachcd Cylindcr-scal "Seal-bcarcr. trcasurcr". from front.L. filn "seal";D. in seen to necklacc attachcd Cylindcr-scal Ii ' Jt.ry a treasurer"; ; . I/ " fitm.w(alsoreads$.v,ty) "seal-bearcr, Ph.!tm. to seal. unit of value.D. scal,seal-ring;
a) / \


( l8)

l,) tl

(le) (20)


Q2) Shouldcr-knot. Knottedstripsof cloth.L. D. [$'11a^d "unitc". Girdleknot.L. .. Ph.1s. /.r./ "knot,vertebra".

il ,ii I


ei) (28) (zg)

of a fringe.L.D. mnfi.t "clothing". Stripof clothwith two strands cover, clothe, be naked, D. clothing; Pieccof clothwith selvedge. hide. uncover, Foldedcloth.Ph.s. Abbr. for snbintheformuluY ll 'nl,(.. ) wdl(.w) andhealthy". snh(.w) "may he live, be prosperous

SignList lll



S (32) (33)
l I

Pieceof clothwith fringededge. L. D. t Sandal. L.8 i th.t "foot,sandal".Ph. tb. Sandal strap(or phallus sheath ?)!.

sil.t "piece of cloth".Ph.sij.




(also ) sun shade madeof ostrichfeathers. L. i fan". D. shade. fan. standard. Fan.L. D. hw "fan".

/--l a

Jw./ "shade,

(37) (38)

(41) (42)

Ph.hkl. Also uscdfor S39. hkl.t "sccptrc". Peasant's crook. L. wls " WasSccptrcwith forkedbaseandheadof Seth-animal. sceptre". Ph.w-ls.Oftenusedin placcof 54l. U4l with spiralshaft.Ph.d(m.Also rcplaccd by S40. Sccptre L. D. 1t;(hJ "aba-sccptrc", slm lal"sekhemof authority. 12; cbl, (3)brp "to lead,guide".Ph. sceptre", sistrum, slm, ltrp. 1b) Walkingstick.L. mdw "stick,staff'. Ph.nzd. T. WARFARE. HUNTING. BUTCHERY

Shepherd's crook.L. I


T (l)

Prchistoric maccwith dish-shapcd mn in"*' nt n=k "takefor yoursclfl" Macewithpcar-shapcdhcad. L. hd"macc".Ph. hd(confuscdwithV24). Daggcr.Ph. tp. Compositc bow of hom.L. D., , ' ' pcl.t "bow". Ph.pd.


(3) (8) (9) (10)

Composite bow with string.Likc T9. ll, ' I f;-Sry "Nubia".

(10A) (Gardiner Aa32)Archaicbow.f-. in (l l)


Arrow. D. arrow.Ph.sin,swn. Bow-string. L.D. rvd "bow-string" -Ph.nvd, ir, ii. 'l\ ' Also in' lq $ labbreu n Sl dir "subdue". Pieces ofwood boundatjoint.





T (14) (17)

D.lgmi"throw-stick, tkow, weapon). Throwing-stick andclub (foreign Also for D50. Ph.(lm, cu,/. create". D. foreignpeoples. "chariot". chieftain(?). of prehistoric andknife; equiprncnt Crook(S39)with packagc L. i n .fnzs "following(n.);fbllow".


( 18)

(19) (21) (22) (24) (25) (28) (30) (31) ))

11 ,1,

Ph.lts,gn. Harpoon of bone.D. bone,harpoon. Harpoon with a barb.L. - . .wc"onc". L. 't' with two barbs. or arrow-head Spcar-hcad Fishingnct.D. nct.Ph.cft,i/r. Floatof rccds.Ph. dbt. Butchcr's block.Ph.llr'. slaughtct. Knifc.D. knife,sharp;cut, Ph.sJn. Knifc-sharpencr. of T3l andD54.Ph.s.fin. Combination Butchcr's
! ._1i-

"two". Ph..i/?. sn.nw

(32) (34\



..), U (l) \i (6)

...1r '';/r :i) ' \r '-. "'1' (9) Sicklc. Hoc.D. hoc(n.),cultivatc. pouring from it. L. , with grains Com-rncasurc measurc of grain. Ph.hb, Snc. Plough. D. plough. Ph.rm. Slcdgc. Ph.,qrg. Pick cxcavating a pool.L. gr3 "found,establish". Ph. nw. adze. Carpcntcr's Ul9 on a blockof wood.L. slp "cutup".Ph.s/p. graver.!. Chisel, D. grain, ill "barlcy".


( I 3) ( 15) ( 17) (19) (21)

Vr. rl,

lnl (-r



Sign List lt3 U (23) (24) (26) (28) Chisel(?). ph. mr, tb. ,i stone vessels. L. l. ,,lhm.t ,,craft, art,. " Drill usedto boreholes in beads.L. i .I i,l .trl ,,op"n,,.--"' Abbreviarion for w ,nb(w) Drill usedto hollow out kiln.


ri. (30A) (GardinerN34) Crucible. L..r.r copperor bronzc.


snh(.w),,May herive, prosper ,"nilili:formura ""a pottcr's ph.


bil (?),hm.r('/) "coppcr,,. D.


(33) (34)

Pcstlcandmortar.D. wcight; prcss down,bc hcavy. ph..rmn. Abbrcviation in .Ji ,,,,l1.smn,,natron,,, 1r.,,',,,, lrr^rr,,bronzc,,. ph.ti, t. Pcstle.


(3s) U34cornbinccl with 19.Likc U34. 6,azl1Warpstrctchcdbchvccr t two uprights'

to (a path),,. (4a24) Old Egyptian tbnn of Aa23. (36)

D' in ntrltl"hit(a mark)", "adhcrc


(38) |

Clubusccl by fullcrsin washing. ph. hm. Balancc. ,,balance L. D. n!11.t ,,. ph.D.r1.' ,,lilt up,carry. up,raisc,,.

(39/40)postof balancc. D. balancc; lift

v (l)
(2) (4) (6) (7)


^l?fi.1;Jtrirfph. n,i. Lasso.

warp ofship: ctrag, pult, bind, ph..r?; suround.

drawit. L. . .vj ,,clrag, pull,,.ph. .vi, is.

Bolt (o34) with corclto

V6 with endsdownward. ph.


ll4 SignList thc 4th and5thnames D' circuit'name'Surrounds Oval cartouche' ofaking,see$ 153' Ph' ct'k' looscn' roll of papyrus; Band.D. band,garland' Ph'1'Var' " ' (Vl4)' Tether. with D54' L' ill "to take'seize"' Vl3 combined Ph'sl' Hobble. tlli'si "protcction"' l' )(I , var' Lifeprescrver' L' D' ' md't "(cattlc-)stall" animals' Hobblefbr tcthering D. maqsack'shrinc'Ph' tml' l:rlr' in numcral10' Ph'mg! Vl9 withoutcross-bar' Whip.Ph.nft. T3'


V (10) (12) (13) (15)


(16) (17) (19)

)( I

rl '"

(20) \ e2)

t ,l

with on stick' Ph'w8' Canbc confuscd wouncl QU25) Corcl Ph'cQ'cnc-l necdlc' Nctting QO fzsl (2g) (30) (31) flax'Ph' lt' Wick of twistcd Swabof tuftsof fibrc' Ph'sk' u'1ft' baskct'L' ' ' Wickcrwork Ph'k' with handlc' Baskct Ph'rb' rrb'l "baskct"'

i I



tic up' pcrfutnc; of lincn'L' s'{r'"lincn'cloth"'D' cloth' l3ag infrcqucntlY 'q' Ph' 's'lr, Ph.ftn. Containcr. D' in Brurdagc'? Ph'D'in lrlr'"bandagc"'
rr rJ irlr' "hcrd".


(36) (37)

W. VESSELSOF STONEAND EARTHI']NWARE Y ii ' ,.), , W (l) (2) (3) (4) ungucnt"' "ointrncnt' D' mrl'r't'nlr'l'r vcsscl' ungucnt Scalccl Ph'bis' (calcitc)' ofalabastcr vcssel Scalcd Ph'hb' bowl'D' festival' (calcitc) Alabastcr (ci' O23)' Q 22)'D' fcstival with W3 combincd

SignList 115

W (5) (1) (9) (10) (1 l)

T28 andW3 combined. L. D. hJh,'festival,, ph.1, ib. Granite bowl.D. granite, Elcphantine. ph. l1nm. Jugwith handlc. Cupor basket. D. cup, i%, ws!, hnr. Ring stand for pottery vessels. Old form yy12J;l L D. : ,l rs.r ,,throne,,. Ph..e. Waterpot.Ph./rs.

(14) ' , : " " I I '

(15) Wl4 with watcrpouring fromit. D. bc cool,libatc. : "' _ '(' ph.hnt. , l " 17/18) Threcor four waterpotsin a stancl. (19) (20) (2l) Q4 (23) (24) Milk jug in a, mi. Milkjug. D. irt.r "milk". Wincjars. D. irp "winc". Bccrjug.L. hnk.t',bccr,,. D. bccr, dry mcasurc, tributc.1n ri;;f !i wdp.v,"butlcr". Uscdasa dctcrminativc likc W22;also forurlp.v, ,,butlcr,,. Sphcrical vcsscl. Ph.rrw;n in rrr' "I" 26.Appcars ln placc of l ) 't'i ,,build,,(phonctic if in,il,,il:" 4trJt.r,,council,,, " ../ clctcnnina!i] tivc r\ ll);archaicphonogranr n uscclas phonctic co'nplcrncnt in i lrrl "protcct". ' W24cornbincd with D54.In . rri "brins". X. I,OAVESAND CAKES


, it : ,,,

X (l)

' Brcacl. L. i,'

ph. r. t,"brcacl,,.

(213) Brcad.D. brcacl. (4) (6) ph. .sn. Loaf of brcad. D. brcad, food,off-crings. Loaf of brcadwith rnarkof bakcr's fingcr.D. in ,, , p).t ,,loaf,. I pi.I "prirncval timc".

116 SignList

x (7)

sn.w "food offering";l/ Half-loaf of bread.D. gs.w "half-loaves"; forwnm"eat". abbrev.


Conicalloaf. L. ri rdi and/n\qli "giu.".

Y. GAMES,INSTRUMENTS FOR WRITING AND MUSIC - ,, I V 1t; L. .. tied with stringandsealed. Roll of papyrus mQ).t "roll of

papyrus, book". D. in words that cannotbe picturedbut only written: for'jt'vL, ctc.;abbrev. adjcctives, "' dmd "total". nouns, abstract (2) i,il

replaccd Oldcrform of Yl withoutstring;after I lth Dyn. gradually b yY l .



rccdpen. pigments.and palcttc, bagfor powdcrcd Writing equipment: Ph' (sJi,oldcr.s/11) "to writc,writing",with D. )ir\ "scribc"' r- 14I .r.f
s.{ (sJ/, oldcr slri), nc'.


Garnc board with picces.Ph. ntn. Game picce. L. D. ihl "gamc piecc"; abbrev.lbl "dattccr".Ph'D' ibi' Sistrutn.L. D. s.l.l./ "sistrum". D. in sarneword.


(6) (8)

Z. STROKES,GEOMETRIC FIGURES, SIGNS ADOPTED FROM HIERA'I'IC '.: signin numcrals "onc"($ 39)' L. D. - ir ttc rronc'r; Strokc. Ph.n' (ascnding)' (2/3)Thrccstrokes. D. plural. (4) (5) (ascnding). D. dual.Ph.,v strokcs. Two obliquc Sec$10b. curvcd. Diagonalstrokc,

Z (l)

;I ;

(1) (S) (9)

Ph. n, derivcd liorn hicratic sign for "oval, circlc, circuit"' Oval. D. .fr?tr


tbn, Two crossedsticks. D. brcak, cross,rcckon. Ph. swi, sc-l,ltsh, wp, wr.

Sign List ll7



z (11)

ph. im, w(n)m.Sometimes Two crossed pranks. in placeof M42. Aa. UNCLASSIFIED

() {r

Aa (l) (2)

Basket,seenfrom above. ph. !. pustulc(?) grand(?) 'i':,r, bandage (?) L. D. bil ,r ,,embalm,,; .h,., , "cauldron." D. wound (n.), sickness; suffer,b;,*;]].,1;;r, ,".ton,,, cmbalm,stink, be nanow. ph. wht, gi. part of ship'sstearing gear? L. *, Up.,,,thehepet_implement,,. Ph. hp. An implement. D. in tmJ,,mat,.ph.D. tml,6. Doubtful. D.' .. .,or ,,s,,.,itc,,. " rpr

/^ ,\


AA ' tr

(6) (7) (8) (t l)

Canal(?) L. ,, Qlt t,,esratc,,. ph. dldl.t,,council,,. Wrongly rcplaces N24,V26, O34. SecN23A Doubtful.Olderform ' AaI4.L. ph. gs, gs ,,sidc,,. im, m.



'hlf ,

, ,t | (ll/18) Lid ph. st. of quivcr. Ii


(19) (20) (21)

ph.D. /rr. Doubtful. Tassel (?) ph. cpr.

ii ,r,

", Carpentcr's tool (?) L. or D. ,1,".. \) _ ,N,I wQ, ,,to judge,,. V \i, v \/ (23124) SceafterU35. ' ll' I (25) L. (?) sml "stolist,, (pricstly titlc). 1 IZAS (oftenreplaccd by f l4). ,0, (27) Doubtful. ph. nd.



'l Brick-makcr's striker. order form k(t.confused witn! pt t.

ornamcntal friczc atuppcredgeof walls, originally the boundends of reedsthat were uscd to reinforcemud wlls and which protruded from the top of the wall. L. o. O. lll ,,omament,. ftkr SceTt 0A.

n l,


IV. EXNNCISES SCRIPT !8 /l(|. X n 8* 55 \...-, A-rl a,(: \-A\; s; 1,i*\\ \ ! )'. .-(

' ,,.,11, ltf,, &e1rrN3; sss

(2) ( (3) (4)

5.E1, H, li-,


(-) "'",'.;., i"t,. .i]irr,: ;t."$,, [] !i,,.,,ji, ,l',-.,..o., , N,^-, _5''., l.'' 'iil,. ,, . ,,i\,.,.,., i* i lfN\\f,, ;{), ",'li,r'\,
i:', ,;.,., X 1i,,.,, l" . ''' \,;ri,i',,.,",'*'\\ ji-n, ij'i). i''r,',1 ll li,l l, !Xdir"l^1 '

l4\' ,,,,'tt^','\f ,i)'",,',i $ $ 6&l1r;r,\:il,l)r\

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) '

il,. ,, lli i li'r Yr', i\ ri.:'i,1, .J,,, - . ii;,,i^: :: , 1''lili;r,; ,\)1, '! -.\rii'i)' \ I' \'r''h,,riiJ, ;' 'l':l r':', ii, :i-::, -'',,r; I i \ Nr-\. "', l'. \ir'oll'N,t..)it, - , lll;,.. r\l , lil' , (, , ,o], I ,a, r,'i. !\\r\. i,!ii,0, r|.,.,\t.!\','''ili ,iil)i.'(, , t !\i'(, ,,,'l

(,;.,', illli ' ,)f'Xjb, l,l. q*, *ri, --ii, Lt-* Ii,'i, ?11\t;-., - r[{q..'y"" 'il.\A \l, ","\, ..''1, tiir'\} {ft1,\\l' "{\::ffil



Exercises l19

?li, T,I _!dl,





,.J.[\ . -. ; ,-'r;'r:

('3) l\*=:';,.'n,l\\ gor l ''' Nfiil, 1t,. ti. r ^ r l
t'rl ll'i''

.r,i1, }ti,(,,)\)/=j.*, ,.1_i, *..*,

, (. \::" 'll,' !\',. ii.,u,

l \\.

ll,$,,ill,ii, rii'.1\.,'',i

''il'li'' ''r r. litit'i i'.,. i'tYir ji, li ,i',i ., iiii].r,r ['\,,, i i \:\ ]i'., i'i),\

',1', (16) -I,'.r,,"1i, -!, fil,, ni'",. il i ,',ii'r, ...u, iiji,illi',. ll*'t,
1 r 1I I L \ } \ , ) .',),, . , l t l ' ( , N . . \ \ , ' ( , . j , o i i u , j i " , i , . , j " , ,\ (),

,,u,]1]',4, r'rr,{\irN I il';t\,ii[,i,,,,,, ;;,; I , ,' ,i! ili,iri, yii ,;\,,11, ,, * " ;.. , \, ",, ,1, t'qlli.,Nr., ir,\,f i1:.rrrr ? ]i!;,,
.'t.I i *];. (20) .* ,',,',, l,,',f";., ffiil,* 'l',[1], ",,1 1,r-^', t ,-, .,1,.,,JI. , i'.,r u sg7,e& i\; {,\, x)ji,,i 'ii'1, ', ' '-,n n,lf".r, I l, ,fi; ss
g l0 a) (l)i l; i ; tt, l, t", ',, [', ], ,, i,\:{, :: , ,,

''' l'."i, I trl:,'1, groc)l. N'o,'Ji, i,rr'Ji,

,lt) ,ll* ()

,s ,1,"t , ,, i , , , ' ,

g l 0 c )2 . i i i ; i i i l ' I , ;

groc)r. u.i)0 N,


I20 Exercises

-?; ; *;';'' l-,, ;', h, ?Jl $10c)r.u. ({*;..n,)(il;l".$) ("\\".-'$) fr",.'..J fl{i) (|*+--j$) (l',-: iX.- ) l\ ,?) ("ffi1 +b) f,,,. {'} ) ( ir
ACCIDENCE AND SYNTAX $$ 18 & 19 Genitive

t,l l'.t' lr ] rrl'h\,,

t', *:l


. liil. to I _^^" urL'"r (5) ,r,l! (+;f



t"[]\"-,' rrr\",,il"'; r'rI I l' 'ii,,, .' , '-' ( s ), , I


, * , ' , ' , , t t t tl j i

'l i i Y i ( 1 2 ) , \ N ,:,,. (r3) \i " *'

rrt,*.. ,. .,.1.,,,,

I l],F1,, 1,0;,v,')i_y; r,rr.' ", li

S$22-25 Adjectives

(r) .li trl, , i


":.J* (r).-''ruf.

'l o tl I\i i \\,, ,u, ''|i;ii 1z;L ] .1\\l il (ro)'^ilr] lf:l , iji. rnr
() a.
l ' :\ 'r




$ 28 Suffix Pronouns

(r) ]il

tt lT,* t' trl lit trl'- ";$" '''' (o)

l.,\:. . rtl*!ti,' lY,t (u)-',Ytq

Pronouns $$ 29-33 Demonstrative

(r) il..'l: (2)ll] rrr..( $lq'i ,0,:'',,'NN*li]llilt

Exercises 121

(oN(il"*='bft# 6X N,lil$'l$
S$ 42-47 AdverbialSentences

(r)',,' Nc{'l [\ rrr{* _N'o-., Nq N?!;g(| rrr{b

:-,-N" (a)Hesubduedtheforeignra'as,f lh,f.,'l .st...-'Nll,,\|,, l -i1.,j. | ,r,']lh-.l\ \\ir "ll ,Nf l.. (6)rheybesiegedthecity,ii/!.

\N. "f"jil,__ .! ,^.11 1{r:l ,;jiltyili\.',iXi ,r,t>,-..fii"''. ,\,ij;iiTN ,, rrlji:",1i,. !\ .l' *;*,.,.,, (e)*^-ffl
- il-''\,11

' llil.1f ( i.,-1,1) r,rr _'.Ft',,{i Tl\ )l - ..\i:* .t,'X I ll, \1. i\ i, .,.tt

1l , , r ( r 0 ) - : : , \ l ) . ! t ' . i r , f ' , i l *( r ) r g r c w u p i n E r k a b ,

,,tt: I

$ 48-52 NominalSentences

ir iit rrl),(,ol.i',1 (;. tf:j,.,),,Jii5 1r;Jl, . (r) li ,,\...],-. .'^'. /'].'^'.,.',1,, (4),.t)^ljt',1 .;jfil tullt]-l'!i,*N.{,flb.;. ,l,jl 1r;.t'-.,. l,\Lll ttr.ll,rll-,'i',ilil i I I rrrl;,'
' '. i.1in prace oris) ,f{ f !i" '
$$ 53-55 pw-Sentence

;}. fu )lt (s)-^-."^r!-i

fi ,,\fr:r}il * ililil 6rllll,i;it',f ,il lt \..1! " * rrr,{}''\\s. N[] l,jli$iir*-,,r,lN ror \')*,,,S'(,....,.*.n1.'. rrri'ri)N \\l-; N/l ,,, \\1.].='ll* to\',('(z)l\\ll \)' rnr,,,,,,jl

122 Exercises

$ 56 AdjectivalSentences

rrrAl-:: (2)>{n^$N*ffi(3)A=f^-=-: A=r:$ b : (4) =f I- ^b- 6 (o >ffi =l ^t : (s)

n^.a f\Af\\\*n

J]r H

tzl d | l l F *l 'o

+ suffix: "her ".. tsooo* pr cp. $ 35ltsl 1 r=t


of Possession $ 58 Expressions

*S$l'jffi (3)r\+blTtor (,)m (2)r\[l"+$? (D=N{l*:==-gR=: (a):$+ oP, (oYSS

- ft:qINq{ 'n'll[' ri ] 1i
THE VERB $ 6T lmperative

g<>TS*3 r,rq zN-=Sq pr$N J"S+ b (1) q=,Flnq:b$ ? +b- =7t; (5)zN ,o,Q-N\'

TT:rllW-UAb$-+NSJ'1f [N=fr*
-=$ - ] t T \ A3 "f,* -- )? - f- FlTuuu?['tQ

-*-b t : f N-" Iu S fIN - i:tq N 5\-11

tqNNf :tNT*['S-'fr lIN0t S-qR1[ 3ffils4s=,'q#-qK,:*3[,:

123 Exercises

$$ 69-70 CircumstantialsQm=f and Aorist sQm=fI irr=f

Subj suuj zs )l 3 = N t l )fiS E,T,,o75 (r)h $ > ^- $ z N F, ($

(2)e=e\\t\1 *.!t)a J ? l*+=9i?:fr=\qN \\t[ (3)=[JN]* toruNN^l*:J-N1^

N^$ N z\=iS=l * =;[l* : =Niq:N i ,oN -Tl* =;$? hl rll{3usF3te (6)[9=S$ -- f N = [ \ 8* S N = = ]* N ;' $
( 7 ): S :




f, al


t E-:<.-




sQm.n=f Perfect $ 71 (Present)


.-NY}? 21 (r+ Innn $8s

^ q:S$

g ^0 t:rh*l-lE=*{?i$ @ (2)$;++Yz-q gqT=ni$ z\ @-lzNB:S rorq$'NqNY$ gf ? +\N ? \\:$ (5):ffi* *NNTf,l ,.,., TR \V=S-N$? l;*N^ f-?=tr,'il,;
t zsiQ]m-*,l ;, --t E5b$l(suui.',er'-r o flfroNG

iS NX$.oN^SN5 : -N3trI\ \ oS4l rui

124 Exercises

9- ^



:.Nn -l

f +* l^Ll

M$ t l l^n i\ \ lil _l_f)\<>

a -

he (mrr.rJ"thatwhich

Form loves" Relative $ tot)

rl =S*RN:\gq:,oqq$

-,,',{b:A fr\fu \- h\n3&SUllr:rf HNln ^ q- :Nhv--'l\'[=:q-Tffq]tr

,-\ A t'""1 il_

3-'k* W-& 4 $:HlZ =S *f ; "XAf; tsr rsrdfl,r S \ F \ ->'* r,or {S($n'): IJ ?5: l) s "--= sRi

(\ \\\

rffir u lj |l\_

,.1 : | "*YT

| !


sim=f I iri=f $ 72 HistoricPerfect

S$[* e -- ;> (2)N5:-A*-$:HX$|XNATA ,', fi

,r,Iq*& =7 *ql^O6qq:e:-bp $s0a) SGdmi
"1";fo': .--$

(s,' Passivc N76) N X-

$ 73 The Form sQm.t=f

(r):hl;.- " A/$-^-8tr (2)8:--offilqq".o N : $q-^-$:li fl r,rN=S\::?fie'?fi;


X O,,r, I iri(.y/w)=f sQm=f $ 74 Future(Prospective)





rl *l

l ( 2 )c - : J r y t



fn:onrJf^ (3)qq$?nNg*-- (4)mf$fN

Exercises 125

-N ('l= b,TTn,T,lib=i Y#,7 + N 3^ f,ig b @',7,

r tl)(t t t

I iri(.Y)=f sQm=f $ 75 Subjunctive

N5* (,) i ; * I'!=e ** N T *: )N":--

* q (2) .?s - gqT S A:il.1; =oorQ K ffi or gNF 3-H: (4) [b^qq':tuh$ oqK--m$
j*$g= (7) A=,u,h*U0*:@,QIdN$= o'tQ$"b ? =*F\^* N"$: ) :: r'rJI f

uN^qq (e) { t;iir5nY*5 N n -Y ?:*q i=i * f-?,

* fl r'or5{{ *_r'c osiris) il,1 ^ q:'.fi M -? fl _$ Z i - rq "

r.rgNf (,,)H"=^ :qq{S*=-+SNJIJ].A "ASi:g

* x,:, r(S-- ?fl b i *- $\ P * |H: I b ;];* \o effi1 * (rr) Tjl lsz }S- ?'il*=: 3 tS
S 76 t' Passive _ ,n, \ < _ >_ ::*\Lot -, .i, ..' pcasant says of thcchicfstcward: (l) Theeloqucnt > N q tr N S *

script,- rr is writtcn (n"r", as in othcrtcxtswrittcnin hicratic

Q N [ :- 0 -- b L-1 A-,-!),r, u$ ror tr.=-{| I ; =: -.::>

to him:|]:: thc lcttcrof thc king brought rcgarding says i:; Sinuhc ff :j

126 Exercises ,^ p & erTS,,\o:,---,-^ r ^ ^ ^ - r L ^the ^+L ^r.i * 'v king: E1 describes Sinuhe ^ lH1+;

- nn*)"0 -}('{Nb^}W1f lT-NS

sQm(.wly)=f Passive $ 77 Perfective



v {

$, , '(zrFi$+:q*lbePN S .)NHrsn'offii.:Fe

Sri 8:-Es . __",:_

'on'o) It};i: .-#N T Ytr J-mllft { oQ^f $ tzrA (s e,)/tr$S[ J-fr KepK=$@ g^]' Q$ ror t*N,1,o*)?'oN_n " \0i (s)N=NVNV
H S $ Form$ 107"whichyou havcdonc") (u',.r.*Pcrfcctive Rclativc

Tenses $ 80 Contingent n, *0 ! *Xf * .,.x-,4*flliloy&

(l)-() )))\\H-*



n 0 | -.1- -.-nR\



..(Sil8"\i ? --: --':

has nocxit, fiornsr./in thcbcllywhich suffcring f T\ e $ S trl If yousccsornconc

o i, -1 A nF\ .x/

i , F\ \ C : i l l


-1 " '| (4)oncwhoclocsX,.



F, - ,<---rJ;rJr\^N
\ , X^ l l l l l , l )'.- i\ i



* |,, -l e \ L . i r ' [ \ f l. - , ' ] X _ 9 o T f \ l!\l ! .r- )$ t",8\ N\=f 15;ShouldXlrappcn.q; .:l

lrr S 81 Old Perfective (l)^F^S-N\\'*1,! I

0/l Y 0 \V\ rl \\\ l\ /l/l* " rX X a l l - b ^ rL t s \ ) r r L N h ' - ' , 1 3 > 4 : : <)uq nr., :'*^^_-,-;-Qx r i C

fi; -,"ISHN; b S$AHll e\--,,$


= Yr\\ : (3)

Exercises 127

:"S$-T+ .:^H$(4)A*=-U-fi:il ?lq?f Y >NlJ{l o>T"*S=:lqNm (6)TRg +N.-:$ g6?n'r3$S:F ^"-^Slffilq l+"Jr]l-glfi
$$ 82-85Infinitive

-NdAFrN*=Aq o -NIf ;;?A,,, iQf; -= or q*g*S +A.?i{l^: :.HIr,0, !-Nffi .'.*1"\N" :?AI--{IW*- of}flJ.*N=--,o j,0, JS^[J--N # *- : [l * T'= 3 r= =1T x : Ib ; :! "$:iad rzr t>N == ?lUl=* 3,'0, l{n$ : * N N q :n$.,ft
Construction $ 86-88 Pseudo-verbal

{I" } H .= bz -\ S[e*- qS ?[= ryo., ,,i Q*!:

il'1,= o: $ $, =- ?I : 0 $S $i ll rrr { b et !.! $s2-s3) rrr

H^-N= - roi N =SS'-- N .-":- +r': lll i $ ^F\\ S A q Sil * -- iq; \\ E ob., toi K $',.^,b ,'iQ -Njq; r'r{}S'-?,t'N; ,r,Y*[: --'"))n

128 Exercises

* N Nq*s$l; q$.:?*N\sb

q; s N3*Nrffi ^.* tn'?Y T A=b-*F: Nhqb; ?R: \\6Ut'orQlS:F? ffiKN$' giS'; t,,r{}n?T*>h:'}iQ> r'nfrJ)
S$ S9-97 ComPlexVerb Forms with iw Perfect $ 91 Present


Nl-l *lt{R prQb*\\S#}T un," r,rQQ^*KA

QbFl'!^E l rrt<--Ao trr{}+ *;-S[JNtl,,rr 1o;

Ntn^ K-qr? +:*lq::\\=l t'rqb:qfl; $S-3&

\N:-r- K=-ff ' (tl ^fo?: l-:llqJ-*\\q){'gelb orQb=*$i- t'r{}=}W--S--='bOS
g e r c .r , l Q l F . t J ] l = - b " ' - z \ " 4 - \
which is heard")

"that' e 8r ' 02 $$ 'o '{s'I't't

AoristI $ 92 CornPlex

g[= A=-="T]-Q *5-N"lN-l? fl?ii$ + (.',E'N

(}$ gqT tor *l?,a",lt$ ?$^},r{S ,r,Q

Exercises 129

llN$ll3 ;6::f,=*.q!
aJ t,t

fl$o r[*3


^ - __-,rr )- 1

$ 94 Complex Futureilat=fr sQm

(r) All who rcad',, { bl T, --L) S T*.S

qSESAq! ;

-t-*=N$q<:.} er:*q$\$
by %c $ 95 Introduced



q*flNb**11b,_, $ 96Introducedby

orFjfJl:"-q N$ (2)fl* A )*[J#i:i=[.?, (3) ?:6i:* [J =^ --8,, T (4) i : j*tl- b. jlp- lq: q ; o fljSz--N g $$--irg{^l^ rurF 4)o F:$'^'N g $61-:"+: bl (s) F:=:ffi --:-

(,) 5q*[": S=":S$ e)fr|V^S?tr*$m

$ 97 FiniteVerb Formsintroduced by m=kor. is1

&J.'iI fl$^^$' l',ii{;=

* I rr:1 rrr,\r.

:, (3)Statemcnrregardingfieldstakenat

130 Exercises

Q I listofbooty), (follows of Megiddo battle the


N I lX N C l'*'

tloql-=-S$fla$"''5f (4) NN

J1): .:.'3-'"-TzlrQ

{{ "'I * \\'i\ n b N Si^'.N +r=f h s ;'""'':"'1 !^-lFN4-$:lf;

?: $ NY ^S&? *s64*&?llH &?- qN6S =*\ : F -- m w N g $ t= e N W &?+ SN I = F -i = * =: * T K F N I \\ ts = h N :? $ tb N ^ A T >=:=i?: ;tbb S,-":--l--x?lH$i fn*8"+SN-A"T3-=Nil'J?fNEr :
$ 98-104ParticiPles

$$ 89-97 Text Passage

I H ^A A== ^t$ 3 lY *+tN = g ^ G==?Y or ,,,E+$HS:;Eb orQ>S+ffilhbNq

N^3 t'r$f^* ).n-+:ffiil *F,, '#^,T rorQl^tN G:=b":t'rjl e*r ,uif,=+bAl>\\= hb -:.^bll$ eu t,ri ? iqq*!J-q*'i?fi: (ro)'N*hlq: vl$hS*=tN:T ,n, r''r{S ,,,,fN .- &,XN,.P,I=N"+\HsN$XQ

Exercises 131

Itr:?g=NF @#=S#=tq=_Ng$=Ne
\lil lU l l\ ( .1 . .4. ) R >\ st- \ \ s
Forms S 105-111Relative

=+ (2)lTgS+:.? (,)g\qq+:>Sg'Wt":-ln - STR|

f (3)TNWY-fl +-bT5\*3 I *,Sil.nFb"Sf

('++*==B"*l l,*nS-N:Sil l""*==*|]*W

rurSSN+;l*qN (DAl;AAbf*S,',Qbl = - qNIJI^'rtXHl*A:h\ ,n,b::.-= h ? * r'or3iqqb*blSN:l$J;l r,,rf*Sln
N\=: (r2)Heisagod,ff u":TR$iqNu Hi rrr*o\

; (,4)^FN:&Xg-tl r'rrA$3=>qq*A q-N* r,oS^trf ll{:J (traN*hlq; r,,r3{ ^S)^+l:qN ?$*+, r'nr*A .S^-lq,r',F rror5lg : qI^lq; eullxN?^-I\:-:Xs-il

(23)*=-N\o^$ 112 Verbal AdjectivesQmly--fy



?,,,t:Sl$: ,',I$Ae=Sq^-Stl;N^f

132 Exercises

a + Nln.l:l+lN&f ; ?N e:=^f bi:h -T+l =fif, r ,!\rj^=+!fl :NXT +,. (3)q,\itr

<:i rs,'rll3nec.:
iyi.tpw iri-n=f $ 113NanativeConstruction


o$3-I)l ; =I.-:fi =t prF 3;F:l +TRlffi ,,, Q=.---,,,?^83:34 (ol$N^'b:l-l-Tn (5)T\\;"b:[tlR$:Nffi ^ qq--+: ffi:a (o*)
..-- 3|l* N r: ft > bH :|Q$ eNr'F N Jts'''r

pli $ 114ModalYerb

Word Order

gtNblWlblI t'rAl^<>Xqq^8

N*T1l r,r*Nbi-4'XNeia
$S 119-120The in-Construction

;Jl ,,,{*HSl*q- N#tr+:l* (2)q*Y$lrffi

'",Yji ,,,=? !-:, tor{*[S=11=":o3*Y+]N A.---p::.--==z (s)3SoX6-fllu,t,{*l'H

I\q=Kqq$*--il*3 (e)*\h"-tr{:.NL (s)

g?l'$Hl{ t,or*\ J $:=: ,,'rQ*K*=Sq

Exercises 133


(the box JFr q* ih * X N p b S ^,,N = * = -U[;a<--:1"

r,,r-NStjr3${f i*Jf "

withoutintroduction S$ 123-126Topicalisation

(,)g$=3$ (2)J; -l* (3)N51,=*+(4)='=)'N-C ojN ? B"q\+brurffiFE*f.. + *ll^ ,,,T$F*\3N +^Mt'rJb*Jb--*qiffi * tr$T* t $'q g f -- 8* tr Q$i{ "tr
introduced by ir$S 127-t29 Topicalisation

(-N:ln* b$[J -J":A-NUHg,XNT6ll t,r =qq-b t4|$NIE ,r,{--*f-lfi..-=::*f Nr1N HU.Nilu=z=fg:* S-*-'Xg+,,, {-_, i f,l,-N n q {: ; : \\ t4{? N = }.,r. "x "b* h +: ; N _N,0,
lr{ -tl.\l I ll 0

Sentences $$ 130-132Conditional $ 131Followingir

1,y(-q3=3 .s.:r':,r,Q:rN:f+:l



S: a:



134 Exercises

{-^FN:{JQN* l:S (s) *}l H$$ "bffi



types by othersentence or conditionexpressed $ 133 Without introduction


(2)\'Ti'Fl"F JN hq;= ')^FN-N:6>J Q q= I r==?=l,0, q-fr $: h,T...,r,5=5==#

: N $a \\=*QQ t^iS:6HS:I fl ,+*?qJ'S NqSSq N>=+^fl=l-t='l I ='N )F,-{@NN


" - *( 1

; tYAllJ



of theverb S 133-147 Negation of the irnPerative $ 135 Negation

f.\ + - -i\ n f) <n2<-> 'v(\

, , ' ,N -




r rt)*r#<-all"l

Aorist 1 iv'=J'sim'4 sy'm=J'(or $ 136 Negationof Circumstantial

- a'-aQ\\ ;I^,r, q-- S - :jS ') N = $#Y = ;

b S*IT K"=-{5 NN .--+ *- 1+qb..="--Nl' Y i

-a& @ : +b 3:: x s ": N S ': Pj N F N IH
$ 137Negationof Aorist sQm=f

: = :;:-? {}r' ;; ^b r +e+l Sl; g ?g }\q^q Q ,,,

K --ytr-A\l'r fl"\fl-'-srlUo'll

Exercises135 perfectsQm.n=f S 138Negationof (Present) 1. Paratactic main clause

o >< , - A l-x

F-Nn-z:b ?,*S ,"Nn$f ff,-a,*1)fr,nlNT - : $* * $ * : Ig *-'L-+ _N N $ N :q* N ,.--I lt t t: (Notc: thcsuffix.l stpers. sg.subject is gcneralry notwrittcn.)

q $: Y: (,) y btr:q -N @:I * T-cto- -^-

-^(l) Thisexample is preceded by examprc (2)of g r38.2(see E below) ,

2. In subordinate clauses

b NfqS=-$-Kld j =_ (,)q $H !x* ^ $=:qN

-.^b Kb ^b$-^+ .- & -- ?$-^z\,;ii,*.=..i li":\l''!..* z \ ^ ell$ lN;i\ S $

of FuturesQm(.y)=f $ 139Negation

(2) Sinuhc,ur,, R"$ .4"- b$?flt\+;b#J

: n: N.g=(r) .*-JeA3* Y,aKl" Y.t-,r.,'{]J

of Subjunctive $ 140Negation sQm=f Futurc) $ 142Negationof ComplexVerb Formswith i w

N u,{

--^* gN a)(,) tr F s$$K tr F x6 I\ ='* 4-G $ Jl^S.-,

l, | , 1r;---^q{$*^"^}--= S,-,(3)*8g:9

136 Exercises
-FFl :

| | l\tFlJ:-hh\o:

fl f\


{ l1-}

rrrQ-l{= Ao 1,... b)rrrQ-=N=7:'^-s\* -| * Iz N t S *F -- - q) g?b d -'- $Q truth)


s l{8

c ) ( r )* l ' o ) l f

0 6\Q\ il l-^-l\







* (2) The guardian saYS:


of infinitive $ 143Negation

,,',naN -= H N:"

7*NI-ANNil 1r;
+ $'^ tr

F'-N = * isit,Djcdi, what (4) asks: Khufu

: thcbordcr, maypass business S ,r',Nubians whoareon lcgitimatc

I [* : ll 6sffi: l-flN"l .:NQs*K ll} iN 3@(e * ($ 31 g-o = :l^ tr : ?tr S *-Hb=

of participles $$ 144-145Negation

6l+iNN &t -: (,) N:*:-d^E8N=-?fr ,',

S,r,3N=)KcN*"=S:E l^-!-T\'
$ 146Negationof RelativeForms g god, * (l) Amunis anefficacious SR F I 3 ;*


Exercises137 - Form $ 147Negationof the sQm.ty--fy (l) Maytheywhotransgress my command becutoff fromthisgod, ;:'

* 5N fl

5.1': ,.-, ts-&[nN I; |= s FS: :Hl)

qbqtsA-" (,)q*qbH*=effie:F (2)q*qEAlq q * q bz:i"$X N h (4) !*--fl N --ASN :; *-(3)
$ 148 Questions

.zN : e X,,, q - :: : -Nrn4 i YnX N = -$" z -!\I^

ll--|> q* ^$= ?: q* ^.,T Ns. Nf l**yf ,,, gq^**T\bq--+tr2\._'*= Il.. Nq* ob,r,43

Clauses $ 149 Relative

gqhsfl^ qN,"If, Jb^,,ll^ (4)E{ffi :;,F N*

i, | N^^ ;i) S';(6)
;: (8) ^S b"--;x osiris,

g$"| r,, 351 b* ; N Yl

(e);-'= Y{bc l

(,')obREil 15,,,,KN^HJ3=qq? NLfl_N

)^AY=qq ?,. LKx1lF:- gtrT

ExeRcrses V. RPeorNc

: + r lxd',i I q'$ i : )\.. a-Lqq") *- * ":":r N '..'N.l,.'-,


III) of Amenhotep l. QueenTiy (Scarab

'] :,l1 h ^ I ":]";:--.:'!l",..' i ),r'''til" '"' { I\

IV) 1tt*" of Thutmosis

I *' irf * A ,

' :,1'"rr rf t,, li"il,': :' :r"il-i:,li1,:11..'li,'(i"'l'l*l ' 'ii' *..$?i,,1li,

rr: ,

: l):iir ,.t',-*'

t-' o ;'t-.*^- li{it'ili -r, Nr^o\i).r.,',r ,i.,,,11


l t [ i l f ; : ' ) 1, r )x ' i ;

'niii.'' lll'lii'".J

4. Two Royal Inscriptionsfroln Schcl

',. ': ' ,. * ",1.1," r it rn rllil, , I tlri i lii. , .;'11 l . . i' ,,,,,\,;,.:l;.i,ii,)),\.'...'" ,'l)' ;, )i.lii il
L \. ...


*. ,,iiiii. ,,\5

' t

.l,l-- " :, i.: , r,l

''i ll ,\"'


ReadingExercises 139


-rtJ' 't $ -l - l"Jt\.q,r..

-rN, .,',' , []: il fl j . "'l L'ri -1 til F ii 1W [1,..', A+l] [,_ ','.. :,\ " ',*^!)l;,'*


)) -.4,.: .?-"-=ir''\,\ ll<".- ::'l !.rr.f ..1.t.._ i "-- * * ]__,' : 5=I ;

'r i, 11 "
/ /'.".'".,*".,*.

-,..(,' ,{r})? i,Iq*_N*I_-leil1,1T l[1I li\n,r'1 NAI N;."',


5. FromtheBiograph y otii)tt

t:, llhlr,tti[1*l;'i4tlt."^!i * \N,,..\iilil *i.' il"" \ 1i * i' ; l lif:;,'il\\ \'.: iii| \\ l I lf \: il,lq *. lll.. \, it *'

I) 1r,-" of Scsostris

',,,': - ,r'iiLl ll ,, I;lr: I il,1 ,.'- fi\ )i'( ] lujji |* *-; *- 'j,\ ' .. _.l ,..1, . llr,,i l.i {) -^_,l ,ii -^-i1 {,,}',, ^ |lil u'll'1111,*,; 'i'l\..,, 'i\! ,'tir-, .. l,l^*i'r....,),, .l ,r;, ljXil"--u,.;-i,Iq\,

'.. 11,,f,jh ,,iliTir _) i,il !\ il,r i;r .f \ ui \f ,,llil , l, ,.ttN ll -* -*

.*.;;,S , lN,-^\,\I$ ''ij't\'',,, \,:.,' - " )r'i;I\,"\i'll ,' ;,rr. *

jll-:l',.aT'i* qT i r;ir, . ; ! f:':' .,,r .,., \)!t, ti,r

j[\ll *!i'-;,.\\Fi' ,, ]{*ir N)\).** Trs--,, ,-1_!i: i.t,i,r,, _c,I\:iy$l ;1i'lXil . lf _lii!i'.* ri.;it,lii,T\|{f,,, *
.l..orl,! N'1,.""]).' :ll 0*yjlii ,,,t *r,"1,ijt ,I f Xd

140 ReadingExercises

":.'fi. j I'"11, ,\ "'- $ ^; t\ S.---= .--',,!?, JN I q N l.- i

j \r ..'}l]| .:l q\\ {.tN

S. <:

i\ M,,bl-_ : ll.. |

-''t)'u$,: $*"unt,t \\.) I{i}*t't,,.,t,},:}d}.{;l}* I i '),il. il::)"' \\,$.t',i r..o .'' | ,l:.1 $lq Jr ^- Yi{\ \\S l\rjir
).. \N"),'t\\",' i tt *'*' rn ::',,\'*'ln s..,, ).' ?'"'ir' i ii S * f-i''i,'!\,$lii'$,i,,uy'i\).. i\.1{j]'i } ,r\"}',i',tii ,,}..i -',.' ul'-,.,'_ i,.l.f ,.4J ,_,'ull,, \;l[',llif ,,. \1ol ]l'',, .. )l-,11, l" tlh\i.=".,lti\);,ilt,'. ,"ii'it: ll(;r,'1;\l..".,i 1"""_,: !t

-*'' r'rN Il fi * _b $i= ytr' ,,'i*

e1': ^-. \\ oj,lq \"\I - ,,-l\.11

*)\,,[ .5 ,,i ,i l"*,$ *-]\j-1,r,,' I;.;li .'r. 'Tl ,,fior$ \'-,,,..., \1,"-orl] :f ,, 1: if*:i) -]1 " ',\\\'.1{!i',,: I l"'" !x\\ 'i\ ll(,,'i\1,'"'.-'

')\. * )\,r1 lh.. .,\\ : 16 ,T,,, \ s:.;it ^ ji\"[T i] " ',, q\f'"-i:\ ,,i]{}.. I\.*-^,n$ i:l^ ...,y{i,,.,"."l,i;r 't'l' ' r,l "n I\ 4\' ,",'N. . u ** : -\f I lji' r'r.. l; l't\ir ;lb !i " ll\')ti/ i . I }ji' {'\i }ji'* .'.i;,ij: Tx li1.-\\r,[ ". .\r:*:

I rr. *Iii

\i5riIjiio \1..Iji,r.r-\i!i'\\:

I lr

^rfi.-,\') ,,iiu :;:11,. \\U,,\|l l - .,?;. '.-\.".;l '..' q\|... . t..;"' Ix. .i.\\ '1, 'i.,'ie,',r''.'

ReadingExercises l4I



^.& 1;.

",] )(
t'l l


1 1. t


l i) i r l ' ; r , iiri, l 'i

, \ 'li$.





i lxit \\

K )l)f'

l. fr,\

ilIt\- ir.l I;jh;ji ^ i\:/j ll), ; \\:l


tf* ]l'l''"'' N
. i,l ,,ni,


i[\." T-\

,,il \io'J il|' ,';

.. _ll
i \

\ , \ / - !

" ' i'''

,11',,'t,i, ? - * $i,
iil ,.ti,"\ . .

' / i

l!. . ,t(: l! t l . l l , ,

" I' 'Yi li ii


\,,.. - tt

r Ii\^h Ni;)f 'il

l::ll l/."jji.-,] lr;ji I\ ll r,t,$ I\l* I,l*;ji r,.\\,i:r.. '-\"'


...t'"Xji,rllir, [\hrry;;-l,l-r * l\ ,] iji ';'N ]ir\ll',,(,,i',.'l,l ,.;,fi.j.,lj',i;f ;,r,\),^*;, . l]ll i:i,,-tr '.rnr''


''.\\' . t'],",1---l.,r.i \\



i\ "*o}ll]

l*;ii ^ \\.^)..(,$i

142 ReadingExercises

"S ^ \ $ S.mler:f ?i'r;N^ =$$]'* )l'r-\N fr'= - | gq^ . -^ ]-:l._ h )$.. dlll^^F N $ ir,; -=-i.,. ?::"f Wll.,.9
- -l---,",'';h$t4.--,J. 5 *,Vi .,..t II.-,^ ;? \\ .l:, \ *,yjlfJ $i.i,e( -\,-TN:-^ \\:,,:-'l).;' f ':_;._1$",t\ .." N:j\ .Ji I l',.

?::-';$ft" .l ';jr' "S'$illxNT)]N-liq--,N1' "..--" ,',i) * li ';' " \,[{i]..: - Til\\d"_'\i,?1,.,,r^r\}.. -;"

"'..,,' ,,\l\" ,1, \1.''1.., ,, [\li].,'i llrll " ffi|, \J\'(\. _1i,.;

_ , N:l ;]il;1

".,lil , '^ql\fu n'trllll

I I / q0' ^'N:" ',, ,il.,;tli'i'l ' ''.---*ll1"'l\'ll-f

. .; ..=..* \l:i !.\ 1i,$h: $iil,. * {$ * - ;..'h ljj'?,;. i$t' ' r l\Y" lt-",""::l l" .ff X.,l \'i -.'l rn .'I/;,,--.,, rr"".\
cr l

r \[/ . .,\.f r.l\ifi",, ,._.* .r,ll..rr: : rl""_.]r ijt,,, \,]q,,Ti\r : f *yjie rJ-i\ fl}*fl,,t.*.\\, ..-,,*;_;,$tr_',,rXila '. | "' .)'-q(,i,..-$-','i. $"li {i\tl, , gll.l e e 1^'ii!t,l lS'.,' f *\:-, 1'' ^\iYt?r.,... .,,... S n,$.=J t' : I * $i, I\ Tt; e: ., : f :' ll I\ YJ \ ,nr *,: J1.. S,,,.,,..*,._,..._ ...:r$?ll \)*_,.^hni,.. .Nuft ')'/;
'.],_ 'N,l,l _..,*. .'izj; \\.l_--.].,,. . _^ * ,,:; rrc ; *.,' .,,,_, * . l

ReadingExercises 143

',"-:*[[["=f '*{(o{*:; I\ - Ft+"til

-\\ gq'*I tut-i-S$ N rn ir(,;.tir:_:.. ^l tT ,,\,\.._ >,r,\i-Ii-=\\l]f ._. NrllT__ rllTft

7. From the GebelBarkal Steleof Thuhnosis III

-^""r. . _jl: I : \)4 g'_',,,\,)'-^',"u \i Ix;.ill].' u )+, ,.. ,9) :fj1ll..N .,l'._ * ,i .-tji: .. }.lqf'.!i,Ji'. ll l* Nil \xil : i,t'r \r 1r i ,l
'. ' 'tri 11, -: {'}.'^'\\ ii,. ,'',* ,ill', ,Y}ijil ; \\ lt., ,\ .?.i:r lt ,.._^

:".|,'.,, \]"f ''L' i, i.,.. N, 'l\ !.;'" ,.|1\',,'li*,...,, hJi - ;? 'tN ",''-W'i,r*l ,n.;,'1iirt'l. i'',.,f 1] ,_l ^,lllii,^,11T,..,n :;(.".\) lI , ' l]\'\'..}}:."i*:.; .*^ ,.,.., l : sil] \$'* lt \\.,L ijh.. . "'l

,ll;;.,|i " ro,,,1,,\, 1lll,,,c.iii4,il q\)... i:\,, ;*,fI.^trq,\i-ir,, ;'f;-'\

,,{,.llll ).,t'.'$9"*ft,{"..1' " j,\1, [f .* i.,.,r1.]11.. ] h\ii])]. ii,nr

\\\)isl: i'J)",, \\ .[(q\i].[ N..*l.]'r'tiX I \f \\1,* ';

\\il'1,.,\\..',T', Irr: .:;.:,,

,";.'111,,\ii-. . , ,"1111. ',,,"*ti:ri,ii1f i.11\f *--lt** jitiiti')l{ii i

,r-.1 -*;*,.,.,,

144 Reading Exercises

8. Fromthc Autobiography of *$t:,1,",1.

ll) 1r,,n"Amcnhotcp

I X. () .. ','i, !f !;\'lltlt,rtjl Iil,lli. ' rljt---i),,-'.-)i1ii'',, '''-,.-.,1,'i'. ,, .,.\ u.,-l ii,.l:;,,r --.-l.t'r. r,,1"11 ill3l , ,!i?-:?i,,;;., ,!3{ *!,1lfilll). ,'f )it U,,;li.. ,. ,,.,'pl\ir,,n[i'iij. .."",, :*i,,1-:-i]'' ,,,,,iiill l" ]I-*:il, l\i,1..

\;l\i _- '''.1;:, it, i;1,,,r,,;iiu'iii'ti :l_*. _ ..,,,'t,,,,,|(ii:_:, -'; 1';',' :'ritl *,f ilir t / * l,'r11;lii:t ;-^.* l,. --*!i "'',' iL,li

.-''f i lilil Il.* l,i'-.'',1.. ., n* "*-' .*)ji i it,I !]{; l !*''',

t') ,(


..'o ri

: t,il".,]I .
9. From the Prophecy . "t ''..I!
" {r.


r,i,;'' :Ir.' l,i))Vf l! .. iro'....-:i{":":"".i /i nh

itt'.,11 :,r',,6"l)l . ,,{.} ,,, * ii ^ ,"

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ReadingExercises 145




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Indices 177


A. Men

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B. Women

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C. Anthropomorphic ll lji Dcitics | 2 D. Parts of thc Hurnan Bodyt23456g

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E,. Marnmals L;rt;rr "i,l|t{i, 1236789 ' ( , , , il, ' ' r . ' )' , \ i; 23 24 26 27 3t 34

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F. Parts of Mammals

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47 51 52 G. Birds

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178 Indices -V- tl x t2345 )

H. Partsof Birds

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I. Amphibious Animals. Reptiles K. Fish

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S. Crou'ns. D:.Staves P $.j_' -

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L. Insects and Lesser Animals

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U. Agriculru:; )'

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N. Sky, Earth,Watcr
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O. Buildings andPartsof Buildings

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andFuncrary Q. Domcstic Fumiture R. TcmpleFurniture and Sacred Syrnbols

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Indices 179 S. Crowns, Dress,

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U. Agriculture,Crafts

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Y. Games, Instruments for Writing, Music Z. Strokes, Geometric r Shapes,signsadopted I from Hicratic

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180 Indices

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