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SecondarySources Books

Albright,David.PeddlingPeril:HowtheSecretNuclearTradeArmsAmerica'sEnemies. NewYork:Free,2010.Print. ThisbookexplainedtousaboutA.Q.KhansexploitsoftheNPT.Thisbookhelpeduswrite ourA.Q.Khanpage. Chang,GordonG."KuKluxKorea."NuclearShowdown:NorthKoreaTakesonthe World.NewYork:RandomHouse,2006.N.pag.Print. ThiswebsiteaidedusbyprovidingafundamentalexplanationofKimIlJong'sgoalsand ambitions.Itshowedthathewaspowerhungryandwishedtochangetheworld. Corera,Gordon.ShoppingforBombs:NuclearProliferation,GlobalInsecurity,andthe RiseandFalloftheA.Q.KhanNetwork.Oxford:OxfordUP,2006.Print. WeusedthisdetailedsecondarysourceaboutA.Q.Khaninordertounderstandhis exploitsandproliferationattempts.ThisbookhelpeduswriteourA.Q.Khanpage. ElBaradei,Mohamed.TheAgeofDeception:NuclearDiplomacyinTreacherous Times.NewYork:Metropolitan/HenryHolt,2011.Print. ThisbooktoldusaboutMohamedElBaradeiroleinthemosthighstakeconflictsifour time.HehascontendedwithanadministrationcalledtheBushonnuclearaspirationsof NorthKoreaandastandoffwithIran.Thisbookalsotellsabouthowheencounters Pakistaninuclearsmugglersandtellsusaboutnucleardiplomacyatdangeroustimes. Gordin,MichaelD.RedCloudatDawn:Truman,Stalin,andtheEndoftheAtomic Monopoly.NewYork:Farrar,StrausandGiroux,2009.Print. Thissourcehelpeduswiththepage,TheManhattanproject.ItshowedStalin'splans concerningitandtheimportanceofespionage.ItshowedoftheSoviets'pointofviewon nuclearweaponsandAmerica'swayofdealingwithStalin.
Howard,RussellD.,andJamesJ.F.Forest."CanAlQaedaBeDeterredfromUsingNuclear Weapons?"WeaponsofMassDestructionandTerrorism.Dubuque,IA:McGrawHill,2008. 295317.Print. Throughthissource,welearnedaboutnuclearproliferationtoalQaedaandOsamaBinLaden. Usingthesenuclearweapons,OsamaBinLadenintendstokilltheUSbeforetheykill alQaeda.AlQaedahasmadeseveralattemptstoacquirethesedeadlynucleararms.In1998, 2001,2002,and2004,alQaedatriedtopurchaseasuitcasebomb.Theyhavealsomade contactwithPakistaninuclearscientistsintheyear2001aswellastheirseizingofnuclear documentsfromAfghanistanin2001and2002.BinLadensviewonnuclearweaponsissimply

defensiveJihad.Hehasalsomentionedtheuseofnuclearweaponsforrevengeagainsttheir mortalenemies,whichareChristians,ZionistJewry,andtheUnitedStates,GreatBritain,and Israel.Nuclearpossessionbutthenonuseoftheseweaponscouldopenupnewoptionsfor alQaeda.WeusedthissourcetowritethefirstparagraphofourFearpage,featuring alQaeda,andOsamaBinLadensnuclearweapons. Killingray,David.TheAtomBomb.St.Paul,MN:Greenhaven,1980.Print Thissourcewasusedforourbackgroundknowledge.Inthefirstpagesitshowedhowthe atomicbombcanaffectcivilianssuchasinHiroshimaandNagasaki.Forexample,theGamma radiationcancausedamageofthecellstructureinthehumanbody,internalbleeding,cancers, andpreventmenandwomenfromhavingchildren.ThenitexplainedthestartoftheManhattan projectthatstartedintheUS.TheUnitedStateswasthefirstcountrytogettheatombomb throughtheManhattanproject.Thisisonlythestartoftheproliferationofnuclearweapons,that wouldspreadthroughEuropeandAsia,lateroninhistory.Thenittalkedaboutthesecond countrytoacquirenuclearweapons,Russia,formerlyknownastheSovietUnion,duringthe 1950s.

Paul,T.V."NuclearWeaponsandtheProlongationoftheIndiaPakistanRivalry."The IndiaPakistanProject.N.p.:CambridgeUP,n.d.15678.Print.
OnourPowerpage,wefeaturedIndiaandPakistansrivalryaboutnuclearweapons.This sourcetaughtusallaboutthenuclearrivalrystartingin1947.By1987,PakistanknewofIndian nuclearcapabilityand GeneralAsamBegauthorizedtechniciansatkahutaresearchcenterforpakistaninuclear research.ThisbegantheIndiaPakistannuclearrivalry. Perkovich,George.India'sNuclearBomb:TheImpactonGlobalProliferation.Berkeley: UniversityofCalifornia,1999.Print. Throughthissource,welearnedofIndiasgoingagainsttheCTBT,alsoknownasNuclear NonProliferationTreaty.IndiafeltthattheCTBT,alsoknownastheNPTwasabiased documentasitpressuredIndiatosignthetreaty.Thissourcehelpeduswriteourpageonthe NPTasweshowedhowIndiadidnotsignthetreaty.Otherthanthis,thisbookgaveusdetailed informationonA.P.J.AbdulKalamandhisimpactonIndiasPokhranII,nucleartest. Rhodes,Richard.ArsenalsofFolly:TheMakingoftheNuclearArmsRace.NewYork:AlfredA. Knopf,2007.Print. ThisbooktoldusaboutwhyRussiahadalargebuildupofnucleararmsandwasabouttofire theirfirstdefensivenuclearbombonEuropeandNorthAmerica.ItalsotolduswhentheReagan Administrationfiguredoutabouthowlargeathreatitwasandthereasontowhydisarmamentof nuclearwarheadsbegan.ThisbookalsoshowedusthepeoplewhohadinfluencesuchasPaul Wolfowitz,DickCheney,DonaldRumsfeld,andPerle. Tellis,AshleyJ.India'sEmergingNuclearPosture:BetweenRecessedDeterrentandReady

Arsenal.SantaMonica,CA:Rand,2001.Print. Throughthissource,welearnedabouttheragingconflictinEastAsiabetweenIndiaandChina aswellasIndiaandPakistan.ThissourcetellsusthatIndiashouldnotbeworriedaboutChina andPakistansmodestnucleartechnology.WiththegreatdetailsoftheIndiannuclearprogram versusthoseofChinasandPakistans,Indiahasnothingtofear.Thissourcewasastrong componenttoourwebsitesPowerpage. Interviews "RequestforanInterview."Emailinterview. WeinterviewedUCIcollegeprofessorDavidMeyeronourtopic.Mr.Meyerisanexpertin ForeignPoliciesandhelpeduslearnaboutNuclearProliferationandthebombingof Hiroshima.WeaskedMr.MeyerquestionsaboutChina,Iran,theUnitedKingdom,Hiroshima, andtheIndia/Pakistanconflict.

Morgan,Patrick."InterviewwithNuclearWeaponsSpecialistProfessorPatrickMorgan." Interview.n.d.:n.pag.Print.
WhenourgroupmetwithProf.PatrickMorganatUCI,wewereimpressedwithhisbrilliant thinkingaboutthetopicofnuclearproliferation,thebombingofHiroshima,andthecreationofthe atomicbomb.Hemadeusseenuclearproliferationinawholedifferentway.Mr.Morgangaveus whattherestofoursourcescouldnotgiveus:thefullpictureofnuclearproliferation.Hence,we changedourtopicsnamefromNuclearProliferationignitedbytheBombingofHiroshimato NuclearProliferation:TheFullstory.Mr.Morgantrulyinspireduswithhisamazingknowledge aboutourtopic. Audio

AgeofWarTheme.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.Audio.
Weusedtheadventurelike,AgeofWarmusiconourhomepageofourwebsite.Thismusichas ablendofdramatism,action,andadventure. Pictures

Einstein's One Great Mistake. N.d. Photograph. Letters of A Note: Correspondence DeservingofAWiderAudience.Web.14Jan.2013. WeusedthispictureonourwebsitesIdeaspage.
EnricoFermi.N.d.Photograph.TheUniversityofChicagoLibrary.TheJohnCrerarLibrary. Web. WeusedthispictureofEnricoFermionourwebsitesseveraldifferentpages.Thispicture showsMr.Fermidrawingthescienceoftheatomicbombinadiagram.Mr.Fermiwasoneof thefourscientiststhatdiscoveredtheatombomb.

Pokhran021.N.d.Photograph.AeroIndia:2011.BharatRakshak.Web.13Jan.2013.

Pokhran1wasIndiasfirstnucleartest,thoughitallstartedabasicidea.SinceChinaattacked Indiaunexpectedlyduringthe1960s,Indiasoughtformoredefensivepower.Wedemonstrated thiseventasanideaonourIdeaspagebecausethisidearesultedinIndiasfirstnucleartest.

PresidentHarryTruman.N.d.Photograph.WhatWastheColdWar?Departmentof VeteranAffairs.Web.
PresidentHarryTrumandecidedthatthebestwaytomakeHiroshimasurrenderistobomb themwithatomicweapons.Therefore,weusedthispictureofHarryTrumansdecisiononour Ideaspage.

UnforgettableHistory,ZulfikarAliBhutto!N.d.Photograph.LEREVEAL.LEREVEAL...! Web.
WeusedthispictureofZulfikarAliBhuttoponderingaboutIndiasnucleartestin1974atPokhran onourIdeaspage.

Videos Khalid,Usamah.LittleBoyAtomBombHiroshima.N.p.:n.p.,n.d.Video. ThisvideowasaSummerSchoolprojectmadebyastudentnamedUsamaKhalid.Thisvideo wasadramaticversionoftheHiroshimabombing.TheatomicbombcodenamedtheLittleBoy wasdroppedonHiroshima,onAugust6,1945bythe12mancrewoftheB29Superfortress EnolaGay,pilotedbyColonelPaulTibbetsoftheUnitedStatesArmyAirForces.Itwasthefirst atomicbombeverusedasaweaponandwasdroppedthreedaysbeforethe"FatMan"bomb wasusedagainstNagasaki.

Pakistan'sAQKhanFatherofNuclearJihad.N.p.:TheNewYorkTimes,n.d.Video.
WeusedthefirsttwentyeightsecondsofthisvideoonoruAQKhanpage.Thisisa documentaryfeaturingAQKhansnuclearproliferationtoLibya,Iran,NorthKorea,andpotentially alQaeda. Websites "50FactsAboutU.S.NuclearWeapons."50FactsAboutU.S.NuclearWeapons.Ed.Stephen I. Schwartz.U.S.NuclearWeaponsCostStudyProject,Aug.1998.Web.17Oct.2012. <http://www.brookings.edu/about/projects/archive/nucweapons/50>. Thissourcehadlotsofinformationaboutourowncountrysnuclearbombs.Ithasfiftyvaluable factsabouttheUnitedStatesnuclearweapons.Someofthefactsinclude:Totalnumberof nuclearmissilesbuilt,1951present:67,500andtotalnumberofnuclearbombs:4,680. "AgniV."Articlesabout.TheEconomicTimes,18Dec.2011.Web.18Oct.2012.<"AgniV." Articlesabout.TheEconomicTimes,n.d.Web.06Dec.2012.>. ThissourcekeptusupdatedaboutIndiasnuclearweapons,suchastheAgniVwhichtook30

yearstodevelop.Itisapowerful,intercontinentalballisticmissile.ItalsotaughtusaboutIndias new,developingnuclearweapons,liketheSaraswatthatcantravel8,000km.Thisisimportant becauseIndiaiscurrentlyanuclearstateandamajornuclearpower. "ColdWar:ABriefHistory."Atomicarchive.com:ExploringtheHistory,Science,and ConsequencesoftheAtomicBomb.Nuclearpathways.org,n.d.Web.07Dec.2012. Thissourcecontainedinformationaboutproliferationtomanydifferentnuclearcountries.Firstit talkedabouttheUnitedStates,thenSovietUnion,ColdWar,UnitedKingdom,France,China, CTBTtreaty,andnewnationssuchasIndiaandPakistan.Thishelpedusinwritingourwebsite. "ChineseNuclearCapabilityLagsFarbehindtheUnitedStates."UnionofConcernedScientists. UnionofConcernedScientists,16May2011.Web.18Oct.2012. <http://www.ucsusa.org/news/press_release/chinesenuclearweaponsbehindUS0541.h tml>. WelearnedaboutacomparisonofnuclearweaponsbetweentheUSAandChina.Chinadoes nothavethematerialstocatchuptotheUnitedStatesnucleararsenalpower.TheUnited Stateshasabout1,700nuclearwarheadsthatcanreachChina.Chinasarsenalismuch weaker,though. "ColdWar:ABriefHistory."BritainGoesNuclear.AjSoftwareandMultimedia,n.d.Web.28 Nov. 2012.<http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/coldwar/page10.shtml>. ThissitecontainedinformationontheColdWar,Francesnuclearweapons,andtheUKs nuclearweapons.Ithelpeduswithourbackgroundknowledge.Italsohelpeduswriteour Eventsand"Timeline"pages.

"DoesDeterrenceReallyDeter?|DefusingtheNuclearThreat."DefusingtheNuclear Threat. N.p.,n.d.Web.20Feb.2013.


WeusedthisexcerptfromthissourcetolearnmoreaboutNikitaKhrushchev: Todate,ithasworkedsomewhatasadvertised,thoughfarfromperfectly.Ifnucleardeterrence reallyworked,wouldtheUShaveriskedSovietirebydeployingnucleararmedmissilesinTurkey in1961?AndwouldKhrushchevhaveriskedAmericanirebyplacingsimilarmissilesinCubathe nextyear?Morerecently,wouldtheUShaveplannedanEasternEuropeanmissiledefense systemthatraisedRussianire,includingathreattorespondbybasingnucleararmedbombers inCuba?

Dr.AbdulKalam.N.d.Photograph.FOLKSMAGAZINE.FolksMediaVentures.Web.13 Jan. 2013.


Dr.APJAbdulKalamplayedanimportantroleinkeepingIndiasballisticmissileprogrambetter thanPakistansduring1998.Hedesignedballisticmissiles,andothernewnucleartechnology

forthePokhranIItest.WeusedthispictureofAbdulKalamonourwebsitesPeoplepage.

"EnricoFermiBiography."Nobelprize.org.N.p.,n.d.Web.12Jan.2013.
EnricoFermiwasborninRomeon29thSeptember,1901,thesonofAlbertoFermi,aChief InspectoroftheMinistryofCommunications,andIdadeGattis.Heattendedalocalgrammar school,andhisearlyaptitudeformathematicsandphysicswasrecognizedandencouragedby hisfather'scolleagues,amongthemA.Amidei.In1918,hewonafellowshipoftheScuola NormaleSuperioreofPisa.HespentfouryearsattheUniversityofPisa,gaininghisdoctor's degreeinphysicsin1922,withProfessorPuccianti.Duringtheearlyyearsofhiscareerin Romeheoccupiedhimselfwithelectrodynamicproblemsandwiththeoreticalinvestigationson variousspectroscopicphenomena.Butacapitalturningpointcamewhenhedirectedhis attentionfromtheouterelectronstowardstheatomicnucleusitself.In1934,heevolvedthe decaytheory,coalescingpreviousworkonradiationtheorywithPauli'sideaoftheneutrino. FollowingthediscoverybyCurieandJoliotofartificialradioactivity(1934),hedemonstratedthat nucleartransformationoccursinalmosteveryelementsubjectedtoneutronbombardment.This workresultedinthediscoveryofslowneutronsthatsameyear,leadingtothediscoveryof nuclearfissionandtheproductionofelementslyingbeyondwhatwasuntilthenthePeriodic Table.WeusedthissourcetohelpuswriteaboutEnricoFermionourwebsite. "Iran'sNuclearProgram(NuclearTalks,2012)."Iran'sNuclearProgram(NuclearTalks,2012). N.p.,10Jan.2013.Web.10Jan.2013. Farr,WarnerD."Israel'sNuclearWeapons."Israel'sNuclearWeapons.AirUniversityMaxwell Air ForceBase,Alabama,Sept.1999.Web.16Oct.2012. <http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cpcpubs/farr.htm>. ThissourcetaughtusaboutIsraelsnuclearweapons.IsraelwashelpedbyFrancetocreate nuclearweapons.Israelhasnotconductedanynucleartests.Thisinformationhelpedusin makingourwebsite.

Fedewa,Peter."PloughsharesBlog:UnitedStates."PloughsharesFund.Ploughshares,2July 2012.Web.17Oct.2012. <http://www.ploughshares.org/blog/topic/unitedstates?gclid=CLiNs6Hb_rICFXSSPAodC FoABw>. InthissourcewelearnedaboutthedistinctionoftheUnitedStatesnuclearweaponsfromthe restoftheworld.TheUnitedStateshasthesecondmostnuclearweapons,behindRussia,and istheonlycountrytohaveusednuclearweaponsincombat. Freedman,LawrenceD."TreatyontheNonproliferationofNuclearWeapons(international Agreement)."EncyclopediaBritannicaOnline.EncyclopediaBritannica,n.d.Web.16Oct. 2012.

<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/417496/TreatyontheNonproliferationofN uclearWeapons>. OurtopicisProliferationofNuclearWeapons,but,thissourcetaughtusaboutthe nonproliferationofnuclearweapons.India,Pakistan,andIsraelhavenotsignedtheNPTor NuclearNonProliferationTreaty.China,SovietUnion(Russia),UnitedStates,France,United Kingdom,andpreviously,NorthKorea.Hereisanexcerptfromthissource,ofwhatwelearned: TheNonproliferationTreatyisuniquelyunequal,asitobligesnonnuclearstatestoforgo developmentofnuclearweaponswhileallowingtheestablishednuclearstatestokeeptheirs. Nevertheless,ithasbeenacceptedbecause,especiallyatthetimeofsigning,mostnonnuclear stateshadneitherthecapacitynortheinclinationtofollowthenuclearpath,andtheywerewell awareofthedangersofproliferationfortheirsecurity.Inaddition,itwasunderstoodin1968that, inreturnfortheirspecialstatus,thenuclearstateswouldhelpthenonnuclearstatesinthe developmentofciviliannuclearpower(althoughintheeventthedistinctionbetweencivilianand militarynucleartechnologywasnotsostraightforward)andalsothatthenuclearstateswould maketheirbesteffortstoagreeonmeasuresofdisarmament. "GlobalResearch."NewDelhi' sSecret BlackProject :India'sNuclearWeaponsProgram. GlobalResearch,n.d.Web.06Dec.2012. ThissourcetalkedaboutIndiaandspecificallyNewDelhi'snuclearprogress.Weusedthis sourcetohelpourbackgroundknowledge.IttoldusaboutIndiasnewnuclearinformation, includingNewDelhisBlackProject.ThissourcealsotalkedaboutIndiascapabilitytobuild longerrangemissiles. Gondal,QaisarF."ArePakistan'sNuclearWeaponsSecure?"TheWashingtonTimes Communities. N.p.,8Dec.2011.Web.3Dec.2012 <http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/letterspakistan/2011/dec/8/arepakista nsnuclearweaponssecure/>. ThissourcehadinformationthathelpedourbackgroundknowledgeonPakistansnuclear weapons.ItwaswrittenfromthePakistanipointofview,byaPakistaniauthor.Therefore,instead oflisteningtoanAmericanpointofviewonPakistansnuclearweapons,weheardabout Pakistanspointofviewontheirmissilesandnuclearweapons. History."Boeing:.N.p.,n.d.Web.10Jan.2013. ThissourcehastaughtathehistoryandmanyfactsabouttheBoeingB29Bomber,theaircraft usedtobombHiroshima.ThissourcestaughtusseveralfactsabouttheBoeingB29and helpeduswriteourBackgroundaswellasprovideduswithimportantinformationonthe BoeingB29.TheB29hadmanynewfeatures,includinggunsthatcouldbefiredbyremote control.Thecrewareaswerepressurizedandconnectedbyalongtubeoverthebombbays. Thetailgunnerhadaseparatepressurizedareathatcouldonlybeleftduringunpressurized flight.TheB29wasalsotheheaviestproductionplanebecauseofincreasesinrange,bomb loadanddefensiverequirements.

"HistoryofNuclearWeaponsTesting."HistoryofNuclearWeaponsTesting.Greenpeace,Apr. 1996.Web.16Oct.2012. <http://archive.greenpeace.org/comms/nukes/ctbt/read9.html>. Thissourcetaughtusaboutwhennucleartestingfirststarted.FirsttheUnitedStatestesteda nuclearweaponinNewMexico.Then,theSovietUnionstartednucleartesting.Thenwelearned aboutthethermonuclearage.Theexactnumberoftestsforsomenuclearstateswaswritten asshown: TheU.S.hascarriedout1,030nuclearweaponstests(thelastandfinalteston23September 1993).TheSovietUnion:715tests(thelaston25October1990(Russiahasnotexplodedany nuclearweapons).France:210tests(thelastandfinalteston27January1996).Britain:45 tests(thelastandfinalon26November1991).China:43tests(withsomefourmoretests reportedlyplannedfor19961997).

"HowDoesanAtomicBombWork?"WiseGEEK.ConjectureCorporation,n.d.Web.28 Jan.2013.
Weanalyzedthiswebsiteandquoteditonourwebsitesbackgroundpage.Thiswebsite explainedushowtheatombombscientificallyworked.weusedthisquotefromthewebsiteon ourbackgroundpageAnatombombworksbyinitiatinganuclearchainreaction,which releasesahugeamountofenergyrelativetoconventionalexplosives.Perunitvolume,anatom bombmaybemillionsorbillionsoftimesmorepowerfulthanTNT.Thefirstatomicexplosion occurredon16July1945attheAlamogordoTestRangeinNewMexico,duringatestcalled Trinity.ItwasdevelopedduringthetopsecretManhattanProject,whichwasdirectedbyGeneral LeslieR.GrovesoftheUSArmy. "KeyIssues:NuclearWeapons:Issues:Proliferation:IndiaAndPakistanConflict."KeyIssues: NuclearWeapons:Issues:Proliferation:IndiaAndPakistanConflict.NuclearAgePeace Foundation,n.d.Web.16Oct.2012. <http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/keyissues/nuclearweapons/history/postcoldwar/indiapakist an/indiapakistanconflict.htm>. Inthissource,welearnedabouttwocountries,IndiaandPakistan,bothwhofightforpowerand land.EversincetheUnitedKingdomleftthesecountries,therivalrybegan.Indiastarted manufacturingnuclearweapons.Pakistan,intimidatedbyIndia,startedmakingnuclear warheads,too.Thisraceforarmscontinuedandstillcontinues.Welearnedaboutthenuclear weaponsthatthetwocountrieshavetofightagainsteachothersuchastheAgni,Trishul,and PrithvimissilesofIndiaandtheGhaurimissilefromPakistan.Hereisanexcerptaboutwhatwe learnedfromthissource: Around30,000peoplehavediedinKashmirinthelast11years.WhathappensinKashmirisat theheartofthecontinuingtensionbetweenIndiaandPakistan.Thepossibilityoftheworld'sfirst directwarbetweentwonucleararmedstatesoccurringisveryreal.Thehistoryoftheconflict overKashmiriswelldocumentedwiththreeIndia/Pakistanwarstakingplacesince1947.But thistimeitwouldbewithbothsideshavingaccesstonuclearweapons.

Lewis,JohnW.,andXueLitai."China'sNuclearDilemma."China'sNuclearDilemma.Phys.org, 14 Sept.2012.Web.30Nov.2012. <http://phys.org/news/201209chinanucleardilemma.html>. ThissourcetalkedmoreaboutChinasnuclearweapons.Italsohelpedushaveabrief understandingofChinasnuclearpower.Itwasagreatsourceofinformationinsayingwhatthey weregoingtodowiththeirnuclearweapons.Therefore,thissourcehelpeduslearnabout anothermajornuclearpower,China,andhowtheyworriedIndia,causingthemtoacquire nuclearweapons.

"NikitaKhrushchevQuotes."BrainyQuote.Xplore,n.d.Web.27Dec.2012.
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/n/nikita_khrushchev.html OnourPeoplepage,weusedthissourcetodepictNikitaKhrushchevsviewonnuclear weapons.Hesaid,Bombswillnotchoose,theywillhiteverything.Hesaysthatnuclear weaponswillleadtochaos.HealsoknowsthatbylettingtheUSSRaccumulatenuclear weapons,heisallowingthemtodestroywholecities. N.KoreaTriedtoShipWeaponstoSyria.France24InternationalNews24/7.FRANCE24,n.d .Web.06Dec.2012. ThissourceprovidedinformationonhowaNorthKoreancompanywasshippingmissilepartsto Syria.ThepartswereaboardaChineseboatandviolatedtheUNSanctions.Theboatwas checkedandreportedbySouthKoreansecurityattheportofBusan.Asshownonthewebsite, Ashipmentofgraphitecylindersusableinamissileprogramandsuspectedtohavecomefrom NorthKoreawasfoundinMay,aboardaChineseshipenroutetoSyriainwhatappearstohave beenaviolationofU.N.sanctions,diplomatssaidonTuesday.NorthKoreansaretryingto smugglemissilepartstoSyria.ThissourcehelpedushaveabetterunderstandingofNorth Koreasillegaldeedsinthefieldofnuclearweaponsfortheircountry.Overall,welearnedmore aboutNorthKoreasnuclearweapons. NortonTaylor,Richard."ABriefHistoryofNuclearWeapons."InternationalCampaignto Abolish NuclearWeapons.N.p.,n.d.Web.16Oct.2012.<http://icanw.org/history>. Thissourcetoldusaboutafewthings.Itinformedusaboutthecoldarmsrace,whichwas foughtbetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion(Russia)whoeachtriedtoacquiremore nuclearweaponsandbecomemorepowerfulthantheother.ItalsotoldusabouthowtheSoviet UnionsleaderNikitaKhrushchevandJohnF.KennedyalsocausedothercountrieslikeFrance, theUnitedKingdom,China,India,andPakistantoacquirenuclearwarheads.Weusedthis sourcetowriteourwebsite,specificallyontheGuardiansofNuclearWeaponspage NortonTaylor,Richard."UK'sNuclearWeaponsintheFrame."TheGuardian.GuardianNews andMedia,01July0006.Web.16Oct.2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/defenceandsecurityblog/2012/mar/06/uknucleartrident>.

TheUnitedKingdomisanothermajornuclearpower.Oneoftheirmainnuclearweaponsisthe Trident.TheTridentistheultimatestrategicweaponfortheUnitedKingdom.Hereisan importantexcerptthatexplainsaboutthetrident: Tridenttheultimatestrategicweaponwasexcludedfromthecoalitiongovernment's"strategic defenceandsecurityreview"lastautumn. Andjudgingfromthe"shadowdefencereview"consultationpaper,justlaunched,thereisno differenceatallbetweenLabourandConservativesonthematter.Thissourcehelpedus understandmoreaboutourtopic. "NUCLEARBOMBINGOFHIROSHIMAANDNAGASAKI."AngelFire.THEGREENINGOF PRIPYAT,n.d.Web.1Jan.2012. <http://www.angelfire.com/planet/nuclearflower/nuclearbomb.htm>. ThissourcetalkedabouttheimpactoftheAtomicbombandothergeneralinformationonthe bombingofHiroshima.TheatomicbombingsofHiroshimaandNagasakiinvolvedtwonuclear attacksagainsttheEmpireofJapanbytheUnitedStatesofAmerica(USA)underUSPresident HarryS.Truman.OnAugust6,1945,thenuclearweapon"LittleBoy"wasdroppedonthecityof Hiroshima.ThissourcehelpeduswriteourEventspageandourTurningPointpageonour Website. NuclearWeapons.FASFederationofAmericanScientist.StrategicSecurityProject,n.d.Web 26Dec.2012. FromthissourcewelearnedaboutIndia'sbackgroundonnuclearweapons.Indiasnuclear weaponsprogramstartedinBhabhaResearchCenterinTrombay.Thewebsitetolduswhen andwherenumerousnucleartestingahavetakenplaceinIndia.Theseseriesoftestswere calledOperationShakti.WehavegainedknowledgeaboutIndia'snucleararsenal.Indiahas about3035nuclearwarheads,buthasenoughweaponsgradeplutoniumfor6090missiles andweaponsgradeuraniummoreanunknownbutsmalleramountofmissiles.Wealsohave foundtheIndiandoctrineonnuclearweapons.ThedoctrinestatesthatIndiawillnotfirethe nuclearweaponfirstandwillfireafter.

"NuclearWeapons."TheNewYorkTimes.TheNewYorkTimesCompany,20Dec.2012.Web. 20 Dec.2012. ThissourceshowedushownuclearweaponsproliferatedtoNorthKorea.Italsotoldusabout NorthKoreanMissilesfromtheAmericanpointofview.Thesenuclearweaponscanleadto seriousdamageandshouldbekeptoutofNorthKoreaspossession,accordingtheUnited States.

"NuclearWeaponsQuotes."ThinkExist.ThinkExist19992013,n.d.Web.
Weusedthissourcetofindopinionsofothersonnuclearproliferation. "OriginoftheForceDeFrappe."France'sNuclearWeapons.N.p.,24Dec.2001.Web.16

Oct. 2012.<http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/France/FranceOrigin.html>. ThebasicinformationaboutFrancesnuclearweaponswerepresentedtousinthissource.We learnedwhenFrancebecameanuclearstate,whyitbecameanuclearstate,andwhenit starteditsnuclearresearch.WelearnedaboutsomeofFrenchsspecificnuclearorballistic missiles.SomeofthemissilesaretheMirageorMururoamissilesthathavebeentested.The MirageIVPcarriedmuchofFrance'snuclearroleintheairfor32yearswiththeAN52nuclear bombandASMPmissile.InJuly1996theMiragewasretiredfromthisrole,but5havebeenkept forstrategicreconnaissancemissions.Theyareoperatedbythe1/91Gascognesquadronat MontdeMarsan,therestoftheMirageIVPareinstorageChateaudun.

PhotographofEnricoFermi.N.d.Photograph.Nobelprize.org.TheU.S.Archivesand RecordsAdministration.Web.
WeusedthisphotographofEnricoFermionourwebsite'sPeoplepageundertheparagraph onEnricoFermi.EnricowasascientistthattookpartinthesuccessfulManhattanProject.This pictureisacommonphotographofEnricoFermidrawingadiagramonablackboard. Ryall,Jullian."NorthKoreaCouldHaveFuelfor48NuclearWeaponsby2015."TheTelegraph. N.p., 20Aug.2012.Web.21Dec.2012. ThissourceshowsNorthKoreasnuclearcapability.Thismakesusawareofournationalplight, makingusknowwhywemustbeinformed.Ithelpeduswriteourbackgroundandshowedus moreabouthowtheProliferationofNuclearWeaponsaffectsustoday.NorthKoreaisaconcern ofnucleartechnologytoday.

"SpecialReport:NuclearCrisisNorthKorea."Atomicarchive.com.N.p.,n.d.Web.21Dec. 2012. ThissourceshowsthetimelineofNorthKoreabeingaffiliatedwithnuclearweapons.North Koreafirstraisessuspicionofnuclearweapons,butagreestostopmostactivitiesforaidand supplies.U.S.andNorthKoreareachmoreconflictsandeventuallyNorthKoreafiresa shortrangemissileovertheSeaofJapan.ThisstartsinternationalmeetingatBeijing.This sourcetellsalotonthehistoryofNorthKoreanrelatingtonuclearweapons. Szczepanski,Kallie."HistoryofNuclearWeaponsInAsia."About.comAsianHistory. About.com, n.d.Web.17Oct.2012. <http://asianhistory.about.com/od/warsinasia/a/HistoryOfNuclearWeaponsInAsia.htm>. Inthissource,welearnedabouthowtheNuclearbombswereintroducedinAsia.TheUnited StatesbombingofHiroshimaandNagasakiinJapanspreadthenewsoftheatomicbomb.This explainedhowthenuclearweaponsproliferatedtoChinaandRussia,twomajornuclearpowers. Russia,andally,alreadyknewofthistechnologythattheUnitedStateswascreating.Thiswas

animportantpieceofinformationforus,becauseitexplainshownuclearweaponsproliferatedto Asia. "TheDevelopmentandProliferationofNuclearWeapons."NobelPrize.org.N.p.,n.d.Web.21 Dec.2012. Thissourcecontainedlotsofinformationthatwefounduseful.Forexample,ittellsexactlyhow thestoryofnuclearweaponsbeganandleadintoourlifetoday.Welearntthat:Afterthe JapanesesurrenderonAugust15,1945,manypeoplecalledforabanonnuclearweaponsin ordertoavoidanucleararmsraceandtheriskoffuturecatastrophesliketheonesinHiroshima andNagasaki.BoththeUnitedStatesandtheSovietUniondeclaredthattheywereinfavorof puttingtheatomicbombunderfoolproofinternationalcontrol.Inspiteofthesedeclarations,the bigpowerswere,infact,neverreadytogiveuptheirownnuclearweaponsprograms.Bythe endof1946itwascleartoeverybodythattheefforttopreventanucleararmsracehadfailed. Indeed,theSovietUnionhadalreadylaunchedafullspeedsecretnuclearweaponsprogramin anattempttocatchupwiththeUnitedStates.Thanksinparttoespionage,theSovietscientists wereabletobuildablueprintoftheAmericanfissionbombthatwasusedagainstNagasakiand toconductasuccessfultestingofitonAugust29,1949.

"TYT:WhichCountriesHaveNuclearWeapons&HowManyDoTheyHave?(Map)." DemocraticUnderground.DemocraticUnderground,LLC,n.d.Web.04Nov.2012. <http://www.democraticunderground.com/101719819>. Thissourcetaughtusabouteachcountrysaccurateamountofnuclearweapons.Thishelpsus seethateventhoughsomecountrieshavenuclearweapons,theydonothaveasmanyasother states.Russiahas10,000nuclearweapons,theUnitedStateshas8,500nuclearwarheads, Francehas300,theUKhas225,Chinahas240,Indiahasaround80100nuclearweapons, Pakistanmayhavearound90110nuclearweapons,andNorthKoreahaslessthan10nuclear weapons.Israelmayhave80nuclearweapons,andthoughIranissuspectedtobeanuclear state,theyhavenonuclearweapons,asofrightnowandneitherdidIraqhavenuclearwarheads aswefoundafterthewar.

"WeaponsofMassDestruction(WMD)."A.Q.Khan.GlobalSecurity,n.d.Web.13Jan. 2013. ThissourcetalkedaboutAQKhan,animportantpersoninPakistaninuclearhistory.After givingPakistanthenuclearbomb,AQKhanisconsideredtheFatheroftheAtomicBomb forPakistan.Itsaid:In1975,followingIndia's1974nucleartestandwhileonholidayin


Pakistan,Dr.wasreportedtohavebeenaskedbythethenprimeministertotakechargeof Pakistan'suraniumenrichmentprogram.Inearly1976,Dr.KhanlefttheNetherlandswithsecret URENCOblueprintsforuraniumcentrifuge(oneofDutchoriginsfeaturinganaluminumrotor, andanotherofGermanmake,composedofmaragingsteel,asuperhardalloy).Convictedin 1983inabsentiabyacourtintheNetherlandsforstealingthedesigns,hisconvictionwouldbe lateroverturnedonatechnicality.WeusedthissourcetohelpuswriteourPeoplepagesAQ

Khansection. "WhyChina'sNuclearWeaponsStrategyCouldRapidlyEscalateConventionalWeaponsStrike to Nuclear."NewsTrackIndia.NEWSTRACKIndia,n.d.Web.30Nov.2012. <http://www.newstrackindia.com/newsdetails/2012/09/16/184WhyChinasnuclearweapo nsstrategycouldrapidlyescalateconventionalweaponsstriketonuclearwar.html>. ThissourcewaswrittenfromtheIndianpointofview.ItshowstheChina,Indiasenemy,is accumulatingseveralnuclearweapons.Thissourcehelpedusunderstandmoreabouthow nuclearcountriesthinkofothernuclearcountries.Thisalsohelpedourbackgroundknowledge. AccordingtoanewstudybyJohnW.LewisandXueLitai,ofStanfordUniversity'sCenterfor InternationalSecurityandCooperation(CISAC),China'suniquedeploymentofmodern conventionalballisticmissileshadadecisiveeffectonitswarplan.Thissourcehelpeduswrite ourTurningPointPage