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Pascals Triangle

Pascals triangle is an array of natural numbers. The sum of any two adjacent numbers is equal to the number directly below them.
Sum of each row

1
1st Row 2nd Row 3rd Row 4th Row 5th Row

1 1 1 1 1 5 4 3 6 2

1 1 3 4 1 1

6th Row
7th Row nth Row

10 10 5 1 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

1 = 20 2 = 21 4 = 22 8 = 23 16 = 24 32 = 25 64 = 26 128 = 27
2n

1 1 1

1 2 1

The outer values are always 1 The inner values are determined by adding the values of the two values diagonally above

Pascals Triangle

Symmetrical down the middle Outside is always 1 Second diagonal values match the row numbers Sum of each row is a power of 2
i.e. Sum of nth row is 2n

Number inside a row is the sum of the two numbers above it

The Formula

Another way of calculating the numbers is by using the recursive formula: tn,r = tn-1,r-1 + tn-1,r n = the row number.

r = position on the row.


Row 0 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6

Example 1

Using the recursive formula, we can figure out what values are in row 9?

1.

First let tn= t9,1

*NOTE: We write tn= t9,1 because we are trying to figure out row 9 and since the position we are trying to figure out in row 9 is 1 we place 1 in the r, r =1.

2. t 9,1= t 9 -1,1-1+ t 9 -1,1


= t8,0+ t8,1
Recursive Formula: tn,r = tn-1,r-1 + tn-1,r

3. Then we go to Pascals triangle for reference and find row 8 position 0 and row 8 position 1 and we add them. We continue doing this for other terms in row 9.

Find: row 8 position 0 and row 8 position 1 and we add them.

row 8 position 0

row 8 position 1

=1+8

=9

Example 2
Determine the rule relating to the row number and the sum of that row?

1. First thing is to add all the numbers in the first row and continue until you have data.
2. Row 0 = sum of 1 Row 1 = sum of 2 Row 5 = sum of 32 Row 6 = sum of 64 Row 7 = sum of 128

Row 2 = sum of 4
Row 3 = sum of 8 Row 4 = sum of 16 Find any pattern yet.?

The answer to the question is 2n (n represents the row number)

Number Patterns in Pascals Triangle

Prime Numbers in Pascals Triangle


If the 1st element, excuding 1s, in a row is a prime number, then all of the numbers in that row, excluding the 1s, are divisible by that prime number.

Extending Pascals Triangle

Pascals triangle can be used to solve pathway problems. A Pascals Triangle 1 A 1 C


1

1 1 1 2 3 4 6 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1

There is only 1 path from A to C and only 1 path from A to D. This relates to Pascals triangle.

There are 2 paths from A to B. Again, this relates to Pascals triangle.

Use Pascals triangle to connect the corners of each square for each sum.

A
1 2

1 3 6