Sie sind auf Seite 1von 132

section covers all elements of Sanskrit grammar, so that we can start using Sanskrit in daily life as a spoken language.

Grammar study has been divided into basic grammar andadvanced grammar chapters. These are further divided into different chapters for easy learning.
Grammar

Note: Currently only chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 13 and part of chapter 6 are finished. Other chapters are being written and will be available soon.
Basic Grammar

Chapter 1: Sanskrit Alphabets & Sentences Overview


o o o o Alphabets & Their Classification. Elements of sentences - Subject, Object and Verb. Words & Their Classification. Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Indeclinable, Adjective and Voices.

Chapter 2: Active Voice (

/ kartRRivaachya)

Chapter 3: Verb Forms (Tenses & Moods) - / tiN^antapada ( /


lakaara) o Present o o o o o Future Past Command -> -> -> -> / laTlakaara / lRRiTlakaara / laN^lakaara / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara / vidhailiN^lakaara

Should/May ->

Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1

Chapter 4: Noun Forms (Cases) o o o o o o o o o Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative Genitive Locative Vocative -> -> -> -> ->

/ suvantapada ( / vibhakti)

-> / prathamaa / dvitiiyaa / chaturthii / panchamii / ShaShThii / sambodhana / saptamii

Instrumental -> / tRRitiiya ->

Noun Forms - Practice Sentences 1

Chapter 5: Indeclinable o o o

(avyaya) (upasarga) (nipaata)

/ avyaya

Chapter 6: Verb Forms (Affixes) pryatya) o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o (tumun pratyaya) (ktvaach pratyaya) (lyap pratyaya) (lyuT pratyaya) (ktavatu pratyaya) (kta pratyaya)

/ kRRidantapada (

/ kRRit

(aniiyar pratyaya) (tavyat pratyaya) (yat pratyaya) (shatRRi pratyaya) (shaanach pratyaya) (ktin pratyaya) (ghJNj pratyaya) (khal pratyaya)

Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 2

Chapter 7: Verb Forms (Affixes) o (Nijanta pratyaya)


o o o o

(sannanta pratyaya) (yaN^nta pratyaya) (naamadhaatu pratyaya)

Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 3

Chapter 8: Noun Forms (Affixes) - (taddhitapada)


o o o o o o

(aN pratyaya) (tval pratyaya) (tal pratyaya) (mayaT pratyaya) (in pratyaya) (matup pratyaya)

Chapter 9: Adjectives (

/ visheShaNa) / karmvaachya) / bhaavavaachya)

Chapter 10: Passive Voice ( Chapter 11: Impersonal Voice (

Chapter 12: Miscellaneous Topics


o o o

(anusvaara) Rules Or Using

(anusvaara) vs. (m)

(Natva) Rules Or Using (Na) vs. (na)

(strii prakaraNa) - Gender Conversion Rules

Chapter 13: References


o o Noun Forms ->

/ sabdarupa

Verb Forms -> / dhaaturupa

Advanced Grammar

Chapter 14: Euphonic Combination ->


o o o

/ sandhi

/ svarasandhi / vyaJnjanasandhi / visargasandhi

Chapter 15: Compound Words (


o o o o o o

/ samaasaH)

/ tatpuruSha / vahubriihiH / dvandva / dvigu

/ karmadhaaraaya

/ avyayiibhaava

Chapter 16: Alankara ( Chapter 17: Chanda (

/ alaN^kaara) / anvayarachanaa)
<< Prev

/ chhchandaH)

Chapter 18: Anvaya Rachana (

- Index - Next >>

Sanskrit language has scripts or alphabets for writing, and grammatical rules for sentence formation, just like any other language (English for example). In this chapter we will get an overview of this. The details with their grammatical rules will be covered in subsequent chapters.
Introduction:

In Sanskrit language Devanagari Script is the mostly used script for writing. Most of the Sanskrit literature are in this script. Following is the list of the alphabets in their correct order.
Alphabets & Their Classification:

a gh n

aa N^ p

i ch ph

ii chh b

u j bh

uu jh m

RRi JN y

RRI T r

e Th l

ai D v

o Dh sh

au N

k t th h

kh d ksh

g dh dny

Sh s

All these alphabets are classified into two major groups i.e.,

Vowels or

(svaravarNa):

Alphabets starting from

(a) till (au) are the (diirgha).

vowels. These are further classified into The (hrasva).


e ai o

(hrasva) and

(diirgha) are pronounced double the length (or time) of

hrasva diirgha
Consonants or

a ii

aa uu

i RRi

u RRI

au

(vyaJNjanavarNa):

Alphabets starting from

(k) till

(dny) are the consonants. Some of the consonants are further classified into different groups called (varga). Following table has this classification. Combination or Some of the gramatical rules for Euphonic (sandhi) and Compound Words or (varga).

(samaasa) are based on these

kavarga chaavarga Taavarga tavarga pavarga

k ch T t p

kh chh Th th ph

g j D d b

gh jh Dh dh bh

N^ JN N n m

We will refere these classifications, while covering the Euphonic Combination or (sandhi) and Compound Words or (samaasa).

In Sanskrit just like any other language (English for example) a sentence is made of different elements. The elements are "Subject", "Object", and "Verb". A sentence may or may not have an Object in it.
Sentence Formation Overview:

Lets study the following English sentence to understand these basic elements better.
The boy is reading a book.

In the sentence "boy" is the "Subject", "reading" is "Verb" and the "book" is the "Object".
The boy is --| Subject reading ------| Verb a book. ----| Object

If we ask the question "who is reading?", the answer that comes is "the boy". So, the "boy" here is the Subject. It is also called the "Noun".

The answer that comes in response to question "what is the boy doing?" is "reading". The "reading" here is the "Verb".

Similarly the answer to "what is the boy reading?" is "book". The "book" becomes the "Object".

Now study the following statement.


The boy is laughing.

In the sentence "boy" is the "Subject", "laughing" is "Verb". But, there is no "Object" in this sentence.
The boy is --| Subject laughing. ------| Verb

If we ask the question "what is the boy laughing?", no answer comes from this. So, laughing becomes an "Intranstive Verb".

However in the first sentence "what is the boy reading?" gives answer "book". In this case the "reading" becomes a "Transitive Verb".

Now that we have understood the basic elements of a sentence, we will begin with more details of Sanskrit language.

In Sanskrit:

Subject is called -> Object is called Verb is called -> ->

/ kartaa / karma / kriyaa -> / sakarmaka / akarmaka

Transitive Verb is called

Intransitive Verb is called ->

So, in the above statements:


The boy is --| Subject | /kartaa The boy is --| Subject | /kartaa
Words & Their Classification:

reading a book. ----------| | Verb Object | | /kriyaa( / sakarmaka) /karma laughing. ------| Verb | /kriyaa ( / akarmaka)

In any language a sentence is madeup of multiple words composed in a well defined structure giving a sensible meaning to the sentence. These words can be categorised into three different types viz.,

Noun Verb Indeclinable

Besides the above classifications nouns and verbs can also be part of following categories with minor derivations like addition of 'ility', 'ily', 'tion', 'ing' etc., as well as based on their usage and grammatical rules:

Pronoun Adjective Adverb

In Sanskrit also words are classified into similar categories. Following is a representation of the important classifications. We can see the classification is almost same as any other language. Each classification has been described in the coming chapters.

|--------------- Noun Root ( / shabda) | | | | | -------------------------------| | | | | suvantapada taddhitapada | | | | | ----------------------------------------------| | | | | Masculine Feminine Neuter | | puliN^ga striiliN^ga napuN^sakalinga Word ( / pada) ----| | |--------------- Verb Root ( / dhaatu) | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------| | | | | | | | | naamadhaatu | | | | | | | ubhayapadii | | |--------------- Indeclinable ( / avyaya) | | ---------------------------------------| | | avyaya upasarga nipaata parasmaipadii aatmanepadii | | | | ----------------------------------------------------------tiN^atapada kRRidantapada Nijanta sannanta yaN^nta

Noun is the word that represents someone or something in a sentence. Noun normally refers to person, place, thing, state or quality etc. A noun is the only word that can be used as the subject or object for a verb.
Nouns ( / shabda):

Noun in Sanskrit is called

(shabda) or noun-root. It is also called

(kartRRipada). Noun can be classified into (taddhitapada).

(suvantapada) and

This classification is based on the gender, number and case of the noun. The noun-forms are used to express something or someone etc. or suvantapada meaning - words ending with (sup) suffix. In this classification:
o

(suvantapada):

Nouns are categorised into three different "genders" ( liN^ga) viz., "masculine" ( ( / striiliN^ga) and napu.nsakaliN^ga). "neuter" (

/ /

/ pu.nliN^ga), "feminine"

Each noun also has three "numbers" ( "cases" ( / vibhakti).

/ vachana) and 7

Each noun has a different derivation based on the "number" and "case". Unlike other languages, in Sanskrit the noun has its different forms built into itself. The "noun base" is called (shabda) and the "derived noun forms" are called previous statement and

(shabdarupa). So, in the / shabda) of noun "BOY" / shabdarupa).

is the "base" (

is one of the derived noun forms (

In this classification special suffixes are added to the noun to get noun forms used as - subject, adjectives, indeclinable etc.

(taddhitapada):

We will start with first 2 cases and all three numbers of (suvantapada) BOY ( Once we know how to use noun forms (

/ shabda.

/ baalaka) and GIRL ( / vaalaa)

/ shabdarupa) in sentences,

we will cover all the cases and their usage rules. Boy / / baalaka (Masculine / / pu.nliN^ga)

Case / vibhakti Nominative (Subject) / prathamaa

Singular / ekavachana / baalakaH (the boy)

Dual / dvivachana / baalakau

Plural / bahuvachana / baalakaaH (the boys) / baalakaan

(two boys) / balakau

Accusative / baalakam (Object) (to the boy) / dvitiiyaa

(to two boys)

(to the boys)

Girl / / baalaa (Femenine / Case / vibhakti Nominative (Subject) / prathamaa Accusative (Object) / dvitiiyaa Singular / ekavachana / baalaa (the girl) / baalaam (to the girl)

Dual /

/ striiliN^ga) Plural / bahuvachana / baalaaH (the girls) / baalaaH (to the girls)

dvivachana / baale (two girls) / balae (to two girls)

Examples of noun form (


/ shabdarupa): / baalakaH / baalakaaH / baalakam / baalakaan / baalaa / baalaaH / baalaam / baalaaH

The boy Many boys To the boy The girl Many girls To the girl

-> -> -> -> -> ->

To the boys ->

To the girls ->

The complete noun form (

/ shabdarupa) for

(baalaka

shabda) will have 7 different forms for each number. The singular forms include "the boy", "to the boy", "by the boy", "for/tothe boy", "from the boy", "of the boy", and "in the boy". Besides these 7 forms an additional vocative ("O! boy") case is also their. All these we will study in detail in coming chapters. The complete (shabdarupa) is listed in Chapter 13. Followings are few more nouns ( sentences later in this chapter. School / Case / vibhakti Nominative / prathamaa Accusative / dvitiiyaa / vidyaalaya (Masculine / Singular / ekavachana / vidyaalayaH / vidyaalayam Dual / dvivachana / vidyaalayau / vidyaalayau / pu.nliN^ga) Plural / bahuvachana / vidyaalayaaH / vidyaalayaan / shabdarupa). We will use these in

Book / Case / vibhakti Nominative / prathamaa Accusative / dvitiiyaa *** In

/ pustaka (Nuter / Singular / ekavachana / pustakam

/ napu.nsakaliN^ga) Plural / bahuvachana /

Dual / dvivachana / pustake

pustakaani /

/ pustakam

/ pustake

pustakaani

/ akaaraanta nuter (

/ napu.nsakaliN^ga), both

Nominative and Accusative cases have the same form.

Me / Case / vibhakti Nominative / prathamaa Accusative / dvitiiyaa

/ asmad (All Genders / Singular / ekavachana / aham / maam / maa

Dual /

/ triliN^gaka) Plural / bahuvachana / vayam / asmaan / naH

dvivachana / aavaam / aavaam / nau

You / / yusmad (All Genders / Case / vibhakti Nominative / prathamaa Accusative / dvitiiyaa / tvaam / tvaa Singular / ekavachana / tvam

/ triliN^gaka) Plural / bahuvachana / yuuyam / yuShmaan / vaH

Dual / dvivachana / yuvaam / yuvaam / vaam

Words like he, she, this, that, these etc., are called pronoun. Pronouns in Sanskrit are called (sarvanaama
Pronouns ( / sarvanaama pada):

pada). The rules for pronouns are exactly same as the nouns (
Verb ( / dhaatu):

/ shabda).

Verb normally refers to action, state, existence or occurrence etc. Verb in Sanskrit is called (dhaatu) or verb root. It is also known as

(kriyaapada). It can be classified into (kRRidantapada).

(tiN^atapada) and

This classification is based on the tense and mood of the verb. The verb-forms are used as normal verbs to express some action or state etc. or tiN^atapada meaning - words ending with (tip) suffix. In this classification:
o

(tiN^atapada):

Each Verb can have any of the 10 tenses (

/ lakaara). / /

Howver only 5 are enough to use Sanskrit in daily life.


o

Each verb can be of three different numbers, Singular ( ekavachana), Dual ( bahuvachana). / dviivachana) and Plural (

Each verb can be of three persons viz., Third ( / prathama), Second ( / madhyama) and First ( / uttama).

Each verb can belong to categories (parasmaipadii), (aatmanepadii) or (ubhayapadii). Verbs of (parasmaipadii) category represent 'action whose result is for others'. (aatmanepadii) represents 'action whose (ubhayapadii) represents 'action result is for self', and

whose result is both for others and self'. Just like noun ( / shabda), each verb ( / dhaatu) also has

different derivations based on the "tense", "number' and "person". This is called "verb form" ( / dhaaturupa). The verb-forms differ based on this category. The "root" of a verb is called (dhaatu). (dhaatu) does not have any "gender".

In this classification special suffixes are added to the verb to get verb-forms used as - subject, pronoun, adjectives, indeclinable etc.

(kRRidantapada):

Followings are the (tiN^atapada) verb-forms ( / dhaatutupa) of

READ ( / paTH) (dhaatu) and GO ( / gam) (dhaatu) in present tense ( / laTlakaara). Once we are acquainted with the verb usage in Read / / paTh Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama / paThati (is reading) / Number / / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / paThanti (many are reading) / paThatha (you all reading) / paThaamaH (all of us reading) a sentence, we will cover all other different forms.

Dual / dviivachana / paThataH (both are reading)

/ paThathaH Second / paThasi (you two are / madhyama (you are reading) reading) First / uttama / paThaami (i am reading) / paThaavaH (both of us reading)

Go / Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama / gachchhati (is going) / gachchhasi (you are going) /

/ gam / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / gachchhanti (many are going) / gachchhatha (you all are going)

Number /

Dual / dviivachana / gachchhataH (both are going) / gachchhathaH (you two are going)

First / uttama

/ gachchhaami (i am going)

/ gachchhaavaH (both of us going)

/ gachchhaamaH (all of us going)

Lets study a sample use of shabdarupa and dhaaturupa using the above. These will help in learning the sentence formation rules.
the boy is reading - / baalakaH paThati / baalakaaH paThanti the boys are reading - the girl is reading

- / baala paThati / baalaaH paThanti / tvam paThasi

the girls are reading - you are reading

you all are reading - / yuyam paThata i am reading / aham paThaami / vayam paThaamaH

we are reading -

All the sentences above have the "Subject" ( / kartaa) and a "Verb" ( / kriyaa). In all the sentences, the number ( / puruSha) of the "Verb" ( person ( / vachana) and person ( / kriyaa) match number (

/ vachana) and

/ puruSha) of the "Subject" ( / kartaa). / baalakaH paThati), / / kriyaa) is also in

Say in the sentence "the boy is reading" ( the "boy" (

/ baalakaH) is in third person singular (

prathamapuruSha ekavachana). Similarly the "Verb" ( third person singular (

/ prathamapuruSha ekavachana).

However the verb does not change if the gender of the "Subject" change. This can be seen in the sentence "the girl is reading" ( / baalaa paThati). Rule 1: The verb ( / dhaatu) always follows number ( vachana) and person ( / puruSha) of the noun ( /

/ shabda).

Rule 2: The verb ( / dhaatu) remains same irrespective of the gender ( / liN^ga) of the "Subject" ( / kartaa).

Rule 3: The verb form ( / dhaaturupa) is always in second

person ( first person ( person (


Indeclinable (

/ madhyamapuruSha), if the noun used is

(asmad shabda). The verb form ( / dhaaturupa) is always in / uttamapuruSha), if the noun used is (yusmad shabda). All other nouns will always be in third / prathamapuruSha).
/ avyayapada):

Indeclinable in Sanskrit is called

(avyayapada). Unlike shabdarupa and dhaaturupa

/ avyayapada do

not change in its form. It remains same irrespective of gender, number, person and tense. Followings are few examples:
kutra / atra / tatra / api / - where - here - there - too

Few sample statements using indeclinable (


where is the boy going the boy is going there - -

/ avyayapada):
/ baalakaH kutra gachchhati / baalakaH tatra gachchhati / baalakaaH kutra gachchhanti

where are the boys going - the boys are going there -

Note that the

(avyayapada) remains the same irrespective of the

/ baalakaaH tatra gachchhanti

number, and person of the "Subject" ( / kartaa). Rule 4: Indeclinables ( / avyayapada) never change in form and remain same irrespective of the person and number of the "Subject" ( /kartaa). Adjective is the word that expresses an attribute or property of something or someone. Only nouns can be used adjectives. In Sanskrit it is called (visheShaNa). Adjective always follows the gender
Adjective ( / visheShaNa):

/ liN^ga) and number (

/ vachana) of the subject or the word for

which it is an adjective. Followings are few examples:


blue sky - / nilaH aakaashaH / svetaH meghaH

white cloud -

In above sentences the words blue and white represent an attribute of sky and cloud. So, these are adjectives for the words sky and cloud respectively.

In Sanskrit sentence can be in any of the following three voices. 'Impersonal Voice' is specific to Sanskrit language only and this sentence formation is normally not seen in other languages like English.
Voice ( / vaachya):

1. Active voice or 2. Passive voice or

(kartRRI vaachya). (karma vaachya). (bhava vaachya).

3. Impersonal voice or

Now that we know the basics of Sanskrit sentence formation, their different elements, classification of alphabets and words, we will study the rules in detail in subsequent chapters.
<< Prev

- Index - Next >>

We will study "Active Voice" in this chapter with examples. Other two sentence formations will be covered in chapter 7 and 8 later. All subsequent chapters are in active voices except chapter 7 and 8.
Active Voice ( / kartRRIvaachya):

Study the following statements.


/ English 1. The going boy / Sanskrit is baalaH gachchhati aha.n gachchhami is baalaH pathati aha.n pathaami 5. The boy is going to school baalaH vidyaalayam Subject ( / kartaa) Verb ( / kriyaa) / Object ( / karma)

The boy going / baalaH gachchhati I am / aha.n going gachchhami

2. I am going

/ -

3. The reading

boy

The boy reading / baalaH pathati I am / aha.n reading pathaami

/ -

4. I am reading

/ -

The boy going / baalaH gachchhati

to /

school / vidyaalayam

gachchhati I 6. I am going to aha.n vidyaalayam school gachchhami am / aha.n going gachchhami to / school / vidyaalayam book / book /

boy reading The 7. The boy is / reading the book baalakaH pustakam paThati baalakaH pathati I 8. I am reading aha.n pustakam the book paThaami am / aha.n reading pathaami

the / pustakam the / pustakam

These are all examples of Active Voice or

(kartRRivaachya). (karma) in them. So these

Sentence 1 to 4 do not have any "Object" or are intransitive or Rule 5: In a

(akarmaka kartRRivachya).

(kartRRivaachya) the "Subject" or

(kartaa) is always in the "nominative case" or (prathamaa vibhakti). Sentence 5 to 8 have "Object" or (sakarmaka kartRRivachya). Rule 6: In a (karma) like

(vidyaalayam),

(pustakam) in them. So, these are transitive or

(kartRRivaachya) the "Object" or

(karma)

is always in the "accusative case" or vibhakti).

(dvitiiyaa - Index - Next >>

<< Prev
Verb Forms ( / tiN^antapada):

In chapter 1 we were introduced with verb (

/ kriyaa) and its use. We learnt that in Sanskrit (dhaatu) is the base or root of all verbs. Each verb is a derivative or (dhaaturupa) of it's root. We also learnt that in a sentence the verb ( / dhaatu) always follows the person ( etc. / puruSha) and number ( / vachana) in which the Subject or (kartaa) is. Verb normally refers to action, state, existence or occurrence

In this chapter we will study the 5 mostly used verb-forms or

(lakaara)

out of 10 verb-forms that a verb can have. The 5 verb-forms covered are enough for day-to-day use of Sanskrit. Verb or (dhaatu) has 10 different as

(tiN^antapada) forms known

(lakaara) and they are listed below. / laTlakaara / lRRiTlakaara / laN^lakaara / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara / vidhailiN^lakaara

/ lRRiTlakaara / aashiiliN^lakaara / luN^lakaara / lRRiN^lakaara

/ liTlakaara

We will study the first 5 verb-forms in detail, in coming chapters. Followings are some common features of different (lakaara) in Sanskrit. Each (lakaara) has verb-forms for three persons ( / vachana). So, in total each / puruSha) and

three numbers (

(lakaara) has 9

different verb-forms or (dhaaturupa) in it. The persons are third person ( ( / prathamapuruSha), second person / / /

/ madhyamapuruSha) and first person (

uttamapuruSha). (dhaaturupa) in first person ( uttamapuruSha) are always used with (asmad)

i.e., 'Me' as the

Subject in the sentence. (dhaaturupa) in second person (

madhyamapuruSha) is always used with (yusmad) Subject in the sentence. The third person ( used in all other cases. Similarly each person ( which are singlar ( plural ( / puruSha) has three numbers (

i.e., 'You' as

/ prathamapuruSha) is

/ vachana),

/ ekavachana), dual (

/ dviivachana) and

/ bahuvachana). / vachana) of the (dhaaturupa) always follows the (shabdarupa) in the / liN^ga) of the Subject does not affect the

The number ( number (

/ vachana) of the Subject or

sentence. The gender ( (dhaaturupa).

In coming chapters we will study the different verb-forms ( / dhaaturupa) in detail. For easier and simpler study while describing the different verb-forms we have used / paTh (read) and / gam (go) / dhaatu for sentence formation.
At the end of each chapter Practice Sentences are given using many commonly used nouns and verbs. Studying the Practice Sentences will help building a good vocabulary for day-to-day conversasion in Sanskrit.

<< Prev

- Index - Next >>

/ laTlakaara (Present Tense):

(laTlakaara) represents verb-forms in / kriaa) has to be in

present tense ( (laTlakaara). The complete

/ vartamaanakaala). So, while forming a sentence

which is in present tense, the verb (

/ laTlakaara of / paTh (read) and

/ gam (go)

/ dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in (vartamaanakaala) or present tense. / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Present Tense - Third Person Singular / vartamaanakaala prathamapuruSha ekavachana 1. The boy is reading. 2. The girl is reading. 3. Rama is reading. 4. Sita is reading. 5. The boy is going. 6. The girl is going. baalakaH paThati baalikaa paThati raamaH paThati siitaa paThati baalakaH gachchhati baalikaa gachchhati baalaka baalikaa raama siitaa baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh paTh paTh gam gam -

Present Tense - Third Person Plural / vartamaanakaala prathamapuruSha bahuvachana 7. The boys are reading. baalakaaH paThanti baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh paTh paTh gam -

8. The girls are baalikaaH reading. paThati 9. Students are reading. 10. Clearks are reading. chchhaatraaH paThati lipikaaraaH paThanti

chchhaatra lipikaara baalaka

11. The boys are going. baalakaaH

gachchhanti 12. The girls are going. baalikaaH gachchhanti baalikaa gam -

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular ( person / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always ( / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). follows the number and peson, the verb ( / paThati) is also in 3rd singular

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural ( verb / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb ( / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of (paTh). / paThanti) is also in

One thing we can note that the gender of Subject does not affect the verbform in use. Only the number and person are followed by verb. In case sentences 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10 and 11 the Subject are in musculine ( / puN^linga) gender. In case of sentences 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 the Subject are in feminine ( / striiliN^ga). However in neither case the verb depends upon the gender. / prathamapuruSha). All the above sentences were in third person (

Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person ( / madhyamapuruSha) and first person ( / uttamapuruSha). / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Present Tense - Second Person Singular / / vartamaanakaala madhyamapuruSha ekavachana 13. You are going. tva.n gachchhasi yusmad gam -

14. You are reading.

tva.n paThasi

yusmad

paTh

Present Tense - First Person Singular / vartamaanakaala uttamapuruSha ekavachana 15. I am going. aha.n gachchhaami aha.n paThaami asmad asmad gam paTh -

16. I am reading.

Present Tense - Second Person Plural / vartamaanakaala madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana 17. You all are going. 18. You all are reading. yua.n gachchhatha yua.n paThatha yusmad yusmad gam paTh -

Present Tense - First Person Plural / vartamaanakaala uttamapuruSha bahuvachana 19. We all are going. 20. We all are reading. vaya.n gachchhaamaH vaya.n paThaamaH asmad asmad gam paTh -

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular ( / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural ( / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is (yusmad) (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always (yusmad) (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular (

/ uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in kartaa is / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all (asmad) (shabda). In case of (shabda). always (asmad)

first person plural ( first person the

these sentences the Subjects used is

As we know unlike English or any other language, Sanskrit language has three different numbers viz., singular, plural and dual. This dual number is specific to Sanskrit and must be used accordingly. The followings are the dual number form of above sentences. Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ English

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Present Tense - Dual / vartamaanakaala dvivachana 21. Two boys are reading. 22. Two girls are reading. 23. Two boys are going. 24. Two girls are going. 25. Two students are reading. 26. Two clearks are reading. 27. Both of you are going. baalakau paThataH baalike paThataH baalakau gachchhataH baalike gachchhataH chchhatrau paThataH lipikaarau paThataH yuvaa.n gachchhathaH baalaka baalikaa baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh gam gam paTh paTh gam -

chchhaatra lipikaara yusmad

28. Both of you are reading. 29. Both of us are going. 30. Both of us are reading.

yuvaa.n paThathaH aavaa.n gachchhaavaH aavaa.n paThaavaH

yusmad asmad asmad

paTh gam paTh

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using / laTlakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns ( / shabda) and verbs ( / dhaatu) in those. (lRRiTlakaara) or future tense.

In the next chapter we will study

Read /

/ paTh :

/ laTlakaara

(Present tense / Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / paThati / paThasi /

/ vartamaanakaala) / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / paThanti / paThatha / paThaamaH

Number /

Dual / dviivachana / paThataH / paThathaH /

/ paThaami

paThaavaH

Go /

/ gam :

/ laTlakaara

(Present tense /

/ vartamaanakaala)

Person / puruSha

/ Singular / ekavachana

Number /

/ vachana Plural / bahuvachana / gachchhanti / gachchhatha / gachchhaamaH - Index - Next >>

Dual / dviivachana / gachchhataH / gachchhathaH / gachchhaavaH


<< Prev

Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama

/ gachchhati / gachchhasi / gachchhaami

/ lRRiTlakaara (Future Tense):

tense.

In

this

chapter

In previous chapter we studied about present we will study about future tense.

(lRRiTlakaara) verb-forms represent the future tense in a sentence. So, while forming sentences in future tense we need to use verbd-forms from (lRRiTlakaara). The complete / lRRiTlakaara of / paTh (read) and / gam (go)

/ dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in tense. / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu (bhaviShyatakaala) or future

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Future Tense - Third Person Singular / vartamaanakaala prathamapuruSha ekavachana 1. The boy will read. vaalakaH baalaka paTh -

paThiShyati 2. The girl will read. 3. Rama will read. 4. Sita will read. baalikaa paThiShyati raamaH paThiShyati siitaa paThiShyati baalikaa raama siitaa baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh paTh gam gam -

5. The boy will baalakaH go. gamiShyati 6. The girl will go. baalikaa gamiShyati

Future Tense - Third Person Plural / bhaviShyatakaala prathamapuruSha bahuvachana 7. The boys will read. 8. The girls will read. 9. Students will read. 10. Clearks will read. 11. The boys will go. 12. The girls will go. baalakaaH paThiShyanti baalikaaH paThiShyanti chchhaatraaH paThiShyanti lipikaaraaH paThiShyanti baalakaaH gamiShyanti baalikaaH gamiShyanti baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh paTh paTh gam gam -

chchhaatra lipikaara baalaka baalikaa

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular ( person / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always ( / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). follows the number and peson, the verb ( / paThati) is also in 3rd singular

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural ( verb / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb ( / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of (paTh). / prathamapuruSha). / paThanti) is also in

All the above sentences were in third person (

Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person ( / madhyamapuruSha) and first person ( / uttamapuruSha). / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Future Tense - Second Person Singular / bhaviShyatakaala madhyamapuruSha ekavachana 13. You will go. 14. You will read. tva.n gamiShyasi tva.n paThiShyasi yusmad yusmad gam paTh -

Future Tense - First Person Singular / bhaviShyatakaala uttamapuruSha ekavachana 15. I will go. aha.n gamiShyaami asmad asmad gam paTh -

16. I will read. aha.n paThiShyaami Future Tense - Second Person Plural

bahuvachana

/ bhaviShyatakaala madhyamapuruSha yusmad yusmad gam paTh

17. You all will go. yua.n gamiShyatha 18. You all will yua.n read. paThiShyatha

Future Tense - First Person Plural / bhaviShyatakaala uttamapuruSha bahuvachana 19. We all will go. 20. We all will read. vaya.n gamiShyaamaH vaya.n paThiShyaamaH asmad asmad gam paTh -

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular ( / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural ( / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is (yusmad) (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always (yusmad) (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular ( first person plural ( first person the kartaa is

/ uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all (asmad) (shabda). In case of (shabda). / always (asmad)

these sentences the Subjects used is

You may have observed that the verb forms in future tense ( lRRiTlakaara) are similar to present tense ( deviation. In case of a derived from the end. For most form by inserting verb (paTh dhaatu), the forms this

/ laTlakaara) with a minor form can be is true.

(iShya) before the (tip)

Rule: For most verbs, the inserting (iShya)

form can be derived from the before the (tip)

form by end.

However some verbs take a slightly different form in their overall formation. In case of (gam dhaatu) instead of / gachchhiShyati the correct form is kept in / gamiShyati and so on. This deviations should be mind for such specific verbs.

The followings are the dual number form of above sentences. / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Future Tense - Dual / bhaviShyatakaala dvivachana 21. Two boys will read. 22. Two girls will read. 23. Two boys will go. 24. Two girls will go. baalakau paThiShyataH baalike paThiShyataH baalakau gamiShyataH baalike gamiShyataH baalaka baalikaa baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh gam gam paTh paTh gam -

25. Two students chchhatrau will read. paThiShyataH 26. Two clearks will read. 27. Both of you will go. lipikaarau paThiShyataH yuvaa.n

chchhaatra lipikaara yusmad

gamiShyathaH 28. Both of you will read. 29. Both of us will go. 30. Both of us will read. yuvaa.n paThiShyathaH aavaa.n gamiShyaavaH aavaa.n paThiShyaavaH yusmad asmad asmad paTh gam paTh -

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using / lRRiTlakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns ( those. In the next chapter we will study (laN^lakaara) or past tense. / shabda) and verbs ( / dhaatu) in

Read /

/ paTh :

/ lRRiTlakaara

(Future tense / Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / paThiShyati / /

/ bhaviShyatakaala) / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / paThiShyanti / paThiShyatha / paThiShyaamaH

Number /

Dual / dviivachana / paThiShyataH / paThiShyathaH /

paThiShyasi / paThiShyaami

paThiShyaabaH

Go /

/ gam :

/ lRRiTlakaara

(Future tense / Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / gamiShyati / /

/ bhaviShyatakaala) / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / gamiShyanti / gamiShyatha / gamiShyaamaH - Index - Next >>

Number /

Dual / dviivachana / gamiShyataH / gamiShyathaH /

gamiShyasi / gamiShyaami

gamiShyaavaH

<< Prev

In previous chapter we studied about future tense. In this chapter we will study about past tense. (laN^lakaara)
/ laN^lakaara (Past Tense):

verb-forms represent the past tense in a sentence. So, while forming sentences in past tense we need to use verbd-forms from (laN^lakaara). The complete / laN^lakaara of / paTh (read) and / gam (go)

/ dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in / English (bhutakaala) or past tense. Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Past Tense - Third Person Singular / bhutakaala prathamapuruSha ekavachana

1. The boy was reading. 2. The girl was reading. 3. Rama was reading. 4. Sita was reading. 5. The boy was going. 6. The girl was going.

baalakaH apaThat baalikaa apaThat raamaH apaThat siitaa apaThat baalakaH agachchhat baalikaa agachchhat

baalaka baalikaa raama siitaa baalaka baalikaa

paTh paTh paTh paTh gam gam

Past Tense - Third Person Plural / bhutakaala prathamapuruSha bahuvachana) 7. The boys were reading. baalakaaH apaThan baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh paTh paTh gam gam -

8. The girls were baalikaaH reading. apaThan 9. Students were reading. 10. Clearks were reading. chchhaatraaH apaThan lipikaaraaH apaThan

chchhaatra lipikaara baalaka baalikaa

11. The boys were baalakaaH going. agachchhan 12. The girls were going. baalikaaH agachchhan

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular ( person / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always ( / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). follows the number and peson, the verb ( / paThati) is also in 3rd singular

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural ( verb / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb ( / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of (paTh). / prathamapuruSha). / paThanti) is also in

All the above sentences were in third person (

Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person ( / madhyamapuruSha) and first person ( / uttamapuruSha). / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Past Tense - Second Person Singular / bhutakaala madhyamapuruSha ekavachana 13. You were going. 14. You were reading. tva.n agachchhaH tva.n apaThaH yusmad yusmad gam paTh -

Past Tense - First Person Singular / bhutakaala uttamapuruSha ekavachana 15. I was going. 16. I was reading. aha.n agachchham aha.n apaTham asmad asmad gam paTh -

Past Tense - Second Person Plural / bhutakaala madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana) 17. You all were going. -

yua.n agachchhata 18. You all were reading. yua.n apaThata

yusmad yusmad

gam paTh

Past Tense - First Person Plural / bhutakaala uttamapuruSha bahuvachana) 19. We all were going. 20. We all were reading. vaya.n agachchhaama vaya.n apaThaama asmad asmad gam paTh -

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular ( / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural ( / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is (yusmad) (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always (yusmad) (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular ( first person plural ( first person the kartaa is

/ uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all (asmad) always (asmad) (shabda). (shabda). In case of

these sentences the Subjects used is

The followings are the dual number form of above sentences. / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Past Tense - Dual / bhutakaala dvivachana) 21. Two boys were baalakau reading. apaThataam baalaka paTh -

22. Two girls were reading.

baalike apaThataam

baalikaa baalaka baalikaa

paTh gam gam paTh paTh gam paTh gam paTh

23. Two boys were baalakau going. apaThataam 24. Two girls were going. 25. Two students were reading. 26. Two clearks were reading. 27. Both of you were going. 28. Both of you were reading. 29. Both of us were going. 30. Both of us were reading. baalike agachchhataam chchhatrau apaThataam lipikaarau apaThataam yuvaa.n agachchhatam yuvaa.n apaThatam aavaa.n agachchhaava aavaa.n apaThaava

chchhaatra lipikaara yusmad yusmad asmad asmad

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using / laN^lakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns ( those. In the next chapter we will study (aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara) or / shabda) and verbs ( / dhaatu) in

verb-forms representing commands and requests.

Read /

/ paTh :

/ laN^lakaara

(Past tense / Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / apaThat / apaThaH / apaTham /

/ bhutakaala) / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / apaThan / apaThata / apaThaama

Number /

Dual / dviivachana / apaThataam / apaThatam / apaThaava

Go /

/ gam :

/ laN^lakaara

(Past tense / Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / agachchhat / agachchhaH / agachchham /

/ bhutakaala) / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / agachchhan / agachchhata / agachchhaama - Index - Next >>

Number /

Dual / dviivachana / agachchhataam / agachchhatam / agachchhaava


<< Prev

In previous three chapters we studied about tenses. In this chapter we will study about verb-forms used in imerative mood. These verb-forms are used while giving commands or requests. (aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara) verb-forms
/ aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara (Imperative Mood - Commands & Requests):

represent The complete / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara of

these. / paTh (read) and

/ gam (go) / dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in imperative mood. / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Imperative Mood - Third Person Singular / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara prathamapuruSha ekavachana 1. Let the boy read. 2. Let the girl read. 3. Let Rama read. 4. Let Sita read. 5. Let the boy go. 6. Let the girl go. baalakaH paThatu baalikaa paThatu raamaH paThatu siitaa paThatu baalakaH gachchhatu baalikaa gachchhatu baalaka baalikaa raama siitaa baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh paTh paTh gam gam -

Imperative Mood - Third Person Plural / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara prathamapuruSha bahuvachana) 7. Let the boys read. baalakaaH baalaka paTh -

paThantu 8. Let the girls baalikaaH read. paThantu 9. Let the students read. 10. Let the clearks read. chchhaatraaH paThantu lipikaaraaH paThantu baalikaa paTh paTh paTh gam gam -

chchhaatra lipikaara baalaka baalikaa

11. Let the boys baalakaaH go. gachchhantu 12. Let the girls go. baalikaaH gachchhantu

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular ( person / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always ( / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). follows the number and peson, the verb ( / paThati) is also in 3rd singular

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural ( verb / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb ( / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of (paTh). / prathamapuruSha). / paThanti) is also in

All the above sentences were in third person (

Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person ( / madhyamapuruSha) and first person ( / uttamapuruSha). / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Imperative Mood - Second Person Singular / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara madhyamapuruSha ekavachana 13. You go. 14. You read. tva.n gachchha tva.n paTha yusmad yusmad gam paTh -

Imperative Mood - First Person Singular / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara uttamapuruSha ekavachana 15. Let me go. aha.n gachchhaani aha.n paThaani asmad asmad gam paTh -

16. Let me read.

Imperative Mood - Second Person Plural / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana) 17. You all go. 18. You all read. yua.n gachchhata yua.n paThata yusmad yusmad gam paTh -

Imperative Mood - First Person Plural / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara uttamapuruSha bahuvachana) 19. Let us all go. 20. Let us all read. vaya.n gachchhaama vaya.n paThaama asmad asmad gam paTh -

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular ( / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural ( /

madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is (yusmad) (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always (yusmad) (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular ( first person plural ( first person the kartaa is

/ uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all (asmad) (shabda). In case of (shabda). always (asmad)

these sentences the Subjects used is

The followings are the dual number form of above sentences. Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ English

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Imperative Mood Dual ( dvivachana) 21. Let the two boys read. 22. Let the two girls read. 23. Let the two boys go. 24. Let the two girls go. 25. Let the two students read. 26. Let the two clearks read.

/ aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara baalaka baalikaa baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh gam gam paTh paTh

baalakau paThataam baalike paThataam baalakau gachchhataam baalike gachchhataam chchhatrau paThataam lipikaarau paThataam

chchhaatra lipikaara

27. Both of you go. 28. Both of you read. 29. Let both of us go. 30. Let both of us read.

yuvaa.n gachchhatam yuvaa.n paThatam aavaa.n gachchhaava aavaa.n paThaava

yusmad yusmad asmad asmad

gam paTh gam paTh

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using / lRRiTlakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns ( those. In the next chapter we will study mood. (vidhailiN^lakaara) or optative / shabda) and verbs ( / dhaatu) in

Read /

/ paTh :

/ aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara

(Imperative Mood - Commands & Requests) Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / paThatu / paTha / paThaani / Number / / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / paThantu / paThata / paThaama

Dual / dviivachana / paThataam / paThatam / paThaava

Go /

/ gam :

/ aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara

(Imperative Mood - Commands & Requests) Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / gachchhaani / gachchhatu / gachchha / Number / / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / gachchhantu / gachchhata / gachchhaama - Index - Next >>

Dual / dviivachana / gachchhataam / gachchhatam / gachchhaava


<< Prev

In previous chapter we studied about imperative mood. In this chapter we will study about optative mood. (vidhailiN^lakaara) verb-forms represent sentences in
/ vidhailiN^lakaara (Optative Mood - Should or May):

optative mood. So, any sentence indicating possibility of something verbforms of (vidhailiN^lakaara) should be used. The complete / vidhailiN^lakaara of / paTh (read) and /

gam (go) / dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in or optative mood. / English Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu (vidhailiN^lakaara)

/ Sanskrit

Comments

Optative Mood - Third Person Singular / vidhailiN^lakaara prathamapuruSha

ekavachana 1. The boy should read. 2. The girl should read. 3. Rama should read. 4. Sita should read. 5. The boy should go. 6. The girl should go. baalakaH paThet baalikaa paThet raamaH paThet siitaa paThet baalakaH gachchhet baalikaa gachchhet baalaka baalikaa raama siitaa baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh paTh paTh gam gam -

Optative Mood - Third Person Plural / vidhailiN^lakaara prathamapuruSha bahuvachana) 7. The boys should read. 8. The girls should read. 9. Students should read. 10. Clearks should read. 11. The boys should go. 12. The girls baalakaaH paTheyaH baalikaaH paTheyaH chchhaatraaH paTheyaH lipikaaraaH paTheyaH baalakaaH gachchheyuH baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh paTh paTh gam -

chchhaatra lipikaara baalaka

should go.

baalikaaH gachchheyuH

baalikaa

gam

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular ( / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always ( / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). follows the number and peson, the verb ( / paThati) is also in 3rd person singular

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject ( / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural ( verb / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb ( / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of (paTh). / prathamapuruSha). / paThanti) is also in

All the above sentences were in third person (

Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person ( / madhyamapuruSha) and first person ( / uttamapuruSha). / Sanskrit Subject / shabda Verb / dhaatu

/ English

Comments

Optative Mood - Second Person Singular / vidhailiN^lakaara madhyamapuruSha ekavachana 13. You should go. tva.n gachchheH 14. You should read. tva.n paTheH yusmad yusmad gam paTh -

Optative Mood - First Person Singular / vidhailiN^lakaara uttamapuruSha ekavachana 15. I should go. aha.n gachchheyam asmad gam -

16. I should read.

aha.n paTheyam

asmad

paTh

Optative Mood - Second Person Plural / vidhailiN^lakaara madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana) 17. You all should go. yua.n 18. You all should read. yua.n paTheta yusmad yusmad gam paTh -

Optative Mood - First Person Plural / vidhailiN^lakaara uttamapuruSha bahuvachana) 19. We all should go. 20. We all should read. vaya.n gachchhema vaya.n paThema asmad asmad gam paTh -

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular ( / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural ( / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is (yusmad) (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always (yusmad) (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular ( first person plural ( first person the kartaa is

/ uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all (asmad) (shabda). In case of (shabda). always (asmad)

these sentences the Subjects used is

The followings are the dual number form of above sentences. / / Sanskrit Subject Verb Comments

English

/ shabda

/ dhaatu

Optative Mood Dual ( dvivachana) 21. Two boys should read. 22. Two girls should read. 23. Two boys should go. 24. Two girls should go. 25. Two students should read. 26. Two clearks should read. 27. Both of you should go. 28. Both of you should read. 29. Both of us should go. 30. Both of us should read.

/ vidhailiN^lakaara baalaka baalikaa baalaka baalikaa paTh paTh gam gam paTh paTh gam paTh gam paTh

baalakau paThetaam baalike paThetaam baalakau gachchhetaam baalike gachchhetaam chchhatrau paThetaam lipikaarau paThetaam yuvaa.n gachchhatam yuvaa.n paThetam aavaa.n gachchheva aavaa.n paTheva

chchhaatra lipikaara yusmad yusmad asmad asmad

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using / vidhailiN^lakaara are given.

You will know about many more nouns ( dhaatu) in those.

/ shabda) and verbs ( /

Read /

/ paTh :

/ vidhailiN^lakaara

(Optative Mood - Should or May) Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / paThet / paTheH / paTheyam / Number / / vachana Plural / bahuvachana / paTheyaH / paTheta / paThema

Dual / dviivachana / paThetaam / paThetam / paTheva

Go /

/ gam :

/ vidhailiN^lakaara

(Optative Mood - Should or May) Person / puruSha Singular / ekavachana Third / prathama Second / madhyama First / uttama / gachchheyam / gachchhet / Number / / vachana Dual / dviivachana / gachchhetaam / gachchhatam / gachchheva Plural / bahuvachana / gachchheyuH / gachchhet / gachchhema

/ gachchheH

<< Prev

- Index - Next >>

In the last five chapters we covered five different verb-forms, using / paTh (read) and / gam (go) / dhaatu. For better vocabulary the following is a list of different sentences using many more verbs and nouns for your reference. The sentences cover all the five verb-forms we have covered so far.
Verb Forms - Practice Sentences:

Present Tense -

/ laTlakaara

/ English The boy reads/is reading. The pupil is saluting. The elder brother speaks. The father looks.

/ Sanskrit baalakaH paThati shiShyaH namati agrajaH vadati janakaH pashyati putraH vidyaalaya.n gachchhati ashvaH dhaavati vRRikshaH phalati

Noun baalaka shiShya

Verb paTh nam

Notes or laTlakaara is the only verb-form to represent present tense. Unlike English where simple present (verb + s, verb + es) and present-continous (verb + ing) forms are possible, in Sanskrit laTlakaara represents both. So, "the boy reads" and "the boy is reading" will have sameverb-forms.

agraja janaka

vad

dRRish

The son is going to school.

putra

gam

The horse runs. The tree bears fruit.

ashva

dhaav phal sthaa

vRRiksha

The servant is sevakaH standing. tiShThati

sevaka

The beggar wanders. He is laughing. The mother cooks. The son is laughing.

bhikshukaH aTati saH hasati ambaa pachati sutaH hasati baalaa padyaani likhati saa dugdha.n pivati sandhyaa bhavati ajaH charati saa nayati puShpa.n vikasati phalam patati mitra.n yachchhati

bhikshuka () tad (pu.n) ambaa suta

aT

has pach has

The girl writes poems.

baalaa

likh

She is drinking milk. It is evening. The goat grazes. She is leading. The flower blooms. The fruit falls. Friend is giving.

( ) tad (strii) sandhyaa

paa bhuu char nii + vi + kas pat yachchh

aja ( ) tad (strii) puShpa phala mitra

Artists are sketching.

chitrakaara chitrakaaraaH likhanti

likh

Porters are bhaaravaahaaH carrying. bhaaravaaha vahanti

vah

Theives are choraaH running. dhaavanti Washermen are washing. Carpenters do carpentry. rajakaaH kshaalayanti takshakaaH takshanti

chora rajaka takshaka gaayaka naTa paachaka bhakta

dhaav kshaal taksh

Singers are gaayakaaH singing. gaayanti Dancers are naaTaaH dancing. nRRityanti Cooks are cooking. paachakaaH pachanti

gai nRRit pach dhyai

Devotees are bhaktaaH meditating. dhyaanti They smell flowers. te puShpaaNi jighranti te smaranti Barbers shave. naapitaaH muNDayanti tantuvaayaaH vayanti ajaaH charanti phaalaani sphuranti

() tad (pu.n) () tad (pu.n) naapita

ghraa smRRi muND

They remember.

Weavers weave. Goats graze. Fruits shake. You are

tantuvaaya

aja phala

char

reading the tva.n book. pustaka.n paThasi You are saluting. You are speaking. You see. tva.n namasi tva.n vadasi tva.n pashyasi yuuya.n patatha yuuya.n nayatha yuuya.n nindatha aham ichchhaami aham nRRityaami aham smaraami aham vasaami

yusmad

paTh

yusmad yusmad yusmad yusmad yusmad yusmad asmad asmad asmad asmad

nam vad

dRRish pat nii nind

All of you fall. All of you are leading. All of you rebuke.

I wish.

iSh nRRit smRRi vas

I am dancing. I remember. I reside.

I am asking a question. aham prashna.n pRRichchhaami We play. vaya.n kriiDaamaH vaya.n likhaamaH

asmad

prachchh

asmad asmad

krriD likh

We are writing.

We are drinking.

vaya.n pibaamaH

asmad

paa

Future Tense -

/ lRRiTlakaara

/ English

/ Sanskrit baalakaH paThiShyati

Noun baalaka

Verb paTh gam

Notes -

The boy will read.

The student will go to chchhaatraH vidyaalaya.n school. gamiShyati They will speak. te vadiShyanti

chchhaatra () tad (pu.n) chitrakaara sandhyaa guru puShpa naapita yusmad yusmad asmad asmad asmad

vad likh bhuu / paaTh

Artist will sketch the chitrakaaraH chitra.n picture. likhiShyati It will be evening. Teacher will teach. The flowers will bloom. Barber will shave. You will read. You all will play. I will go. I will write letter. We will play. sandhyaa bhaviShyati guruH paaThayiShyati puShpaaNi vikasiShyanti naapitaH muNDayiShyati tva.n paThiShyasi vaya.n kriiDiShyatha aha.n gamiShyaami aha.n patram likhiShyaami vaya.n kriiDiShyaamaH

+ vi + kas muND paTh kriiD gam likh kriiD -

Past Tense -

/ laN^lakaara

/ English The boy read/was reading. He played. She stood.

/ Sanskrit baalakaH apaThat saH akriiDat

Noun baalaka () tad (pu.n)

Verb paTh

Notes or laN^lakaara is the only verb-form to represent past tense. Unlike English where simple past and past-continous (verb + ing) forms are possible, in Sanskrit laN^lakaara represents both. So, "the boy went" and "the boy was going" will have same verbforms.

kriiD sthaa

( ) saa atiShThat tad (strii)

charmakaarah charmakaara yachchh paadarakshaam Past tense can also be ayachchhat represented using (tavat) prefix with the verbs. This has been covered in a different The lion chapter. killed the si.nhaH si.nha mRRi deer. mRRigam amaarayat Cobbler gave the sandal. vyaaghra khaad The tiger ate flesh. vyaaghraH maa.nsam akhaadat The cat saw the rat. maarjaara dRrish maarjaaram muuShakam apashyat

The friend wrote a vayasaH letter. patram alikhat One went to village. They laughed. ekaH graamam agachchhat te ahasan

vayasa

likh

eka () tad (pu.n)

gam

has

Students played.

chchhaatraaH akriiDan choraaH peTikaam aharan chchhaatraaH prashnam apRRichchhan mahiShaaH tRiNaani acharan mahilaaH agaayan sarpaaH maNDuukaan agilan bhaaravaahaaH bhaaram avahan dhivaraaH miinam anayan tvam adhaavaH tvam anRRityaH tvam apaThaH

chchhaatra

kriiD

Thieves stole the box.

chora

har

Students asked question.

chchhaatra prachchh

Bisons grazed grass.

mahiSha

char

Women sang.

mahilaa

gai

Snakes swallowed frogs.

sarpa

gil

Porters bore the burden.

bharavaaha

vah

Fishermen took away the fish.

dhivara yusmad yusmad yusmad

nii dhaav nRRit paTh

You ran. You danced. You read.

All of you saw the yuuya.n book. pustakam apashyat All of you yuuya.n ate. akhaadataH I saluted the teacher. aha.n guruum anamam yusmad dRRish

yusmad

khaad

asmad

nam

I remembered aha.n the viShayam matter. asmaram I smelt the flower. aha.n puShpam ajighram I saw the picture. aha.n chitram apashyam aha.n patram alikham vayam avadaama vayam akhaadaama

asmad

smRRi

asmad

ghraa

asmad

dRRish

I wrote a letter.

asmad

likh

We spoke.

asmad asmad asmad

vad

We ate.

khaad

We played. vayam akriiDaama

kriiD

Imperative Mood -

/ aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara

/ English

/ Sanskrit baalakaH paThatu baalakaH likhatu saH vahatu gaayakaH gaayatu saa dhaavatu sevakaH prakshaalayatu baalaa paThatu chchhaatra prashna.n pRRichchhatu naTaaH nRRityantu te vasantu bhikshukaaH aTantu mahilaaH pashyantu tva.n gachchha tva.n uttiShTha tva.n piba yuuya.n vadata

Noun baalaka baalaka () tad (pu.n) gaayaka ( ) tad (strii) sevaka baalaa

Verb paTh likh vah gai dhaav

Notes -

Let the boy read. Let the boy write. Let him carry. Let the singer sing.

Let her run.

Let the servant wash. Let the girl read. Let the student ask question. Let the dancers dance. Let them reside. Let the beggars wander. Let the women see. You go. You stand up. You drink. All of you speak. All of you go.

+ prakshaal paTh -

chchhaatra naTa () tad (pu.n) bhikshuka yusmad yusmad yusmad yusmad

prachchh nRRit vas aT dRRish gam sthaa paa vad

yuuya.n gachchhata All of you see. Let me go. Let me write. Let me read. Let us drink. Let us ask. Let us sing. yuuya.n pashyata aha.n gachchhaani aha.n likhaani aha.n paThaani vaya.n pivaama vaya.n pRRichchhaama vaya.n gaayaama

yusmad yusmad asmad asmad asmad asmad asmad asmad

gam dRRish gam likh paTh paa prachchh gai -

Optative Mood -

/ vidhailiN^lakaara

/ English The boy should/may read. It may rain today.

/ Sanskrit baalakaH paThet adya vRRiShTi.n bhavet

Noun baalaka

Verb paTh bhuu paTh nRRit pach kshaal

Notes or vidhailiN^lakaararepresents both should (should + verb)and may (may + verb) in the sentence. So, "the boy should go" and "the boy may go" will have the same verb-forms.

Students chchhaatraaH should study. paThet Dancers may dance. Mother may cook. naTaaH nRRityeyuH ambaa pachet

chchhaatra naTa ambaa

Servant should wash the cloathes. sevakaH vaastraaNi

sevaka

kshaalayet They may stay. te tiShTheyam She may go to saa school. vidyaalaya.n gachchhet Boys may eat the fruits. baala khaad baalaaH phalaani khaadeyuH mahilaaH gaayeyuH tvam gurum name tvam paThe You should go tvam to temple. devaalaya.n gachchhe All of you should remember the matter. All of you should see the picture. yuya.n viShya.n smareta yuya.n chitra.n pashyeta yusmad gam () tad (pu.n) sthaa

( ) tad (strii)

gam

Women may sing. You should salute the teacher. You should read.

mahilaa yusmad yusmad

gai nam paTh

yusmad

smRRi

yusmad

dRRish

I should read aha.n the book. pustaka.n paTheyam I may play. I should aha.n kriiDeyam

asmad asmad

paTh-

kriiD

write the letter. We should drink milk.

aha.n patra.n likheyam vaya.n digdha.n pivema vaya.n graama.n gachchhema

asmad

likh

asmad

paa

We may go to village.

asmad

gam

<< Prev - Index - Next >>

Noun

Forms

Or

with noun ( kriyaa)

In chapter 1 we were introduced / shabda), noun-form ( / shabdarupa), verb ( /


Cases ( / shabdarupa):

and

their

use.

To summarise - noun or shabda (

) is the word that represents someone

or something in a sentence. Noun normally refers to person, place, thing, state or quality etc. A noun is the only word that can be used as the subject or object for a verb. In Sanskrit shabda ( ) is the base or root of all noun-forms ( ).

Each noun-form is a derivative or shabdarupa (

) of it's root. For

example "boy" as a root can have different singular forms representing "the boy", "to the boy", "by the boy", "for/to the boy", "from the boy", "of the boy" and "in the boy". We will study noun-forms in detail. Followings are few features of nounforms.

In a sentence the verb always follows the number and case of the subject ( / kartaa). The subject's gender has no effect on the verb-form. Each noun can have 3 numbers ( vibhakti). So, a noun can have / vachana) and 7 cases ( / 21 different forms ( /

shabdarupa) each associating a specific meaning to thenoun. Besides the cases a vocative case is also added to the 7 different cases. This makes a noun to have 24 different forms.

The

3 numbers in /

a noun are singular ( dvivachana),

/ /

ekavachana), dual (

and plural (

bahuvachana). The dual form is specific to Sanskrit language and is not seen in any other language.

The followings are the 7 different cases of a noun.


Case 1 - Nominative -> / prathamaa Case 2 - Accusative -> Case 4 - Dative -> Case 6 - Genitive -> Case 7 - Locative -> Vocative -> / dvitiiyaa Case 3 - Instrumental -> / tRRitiiya / chaturthii / ShaShThii / saptamii Case 5 - Ablative -> / paJNamii

/ sambodhana

In coming chapters we will learn the noun cases or

(vibhakti) in

detail. For easier and simpler study while describing the different nounforms we have used commonly used nouns for sentence composition. The complete noun-forms of these nouns are listed at the end of each chapter for easy reference. At the end of each chapter Practice Sentences are given using many commonly used nouns and verbs. Studying the Practice Sentences will help building a good vocabulary for day-to-day conversasion in Sanskrit.

<< Prev
Nominative Case / (prathamaa vibhakti):

- Index - Next >>

Nominative Case or

(prathamaa vibhakti) represents the noun-form to represent the "who" or "what" on the verb in the sentence. In other words nominative case represents the subject or (kartaa) of the sentence. Study the following sentences. These are in nominative case. In the previous chapters we have already come across these sentence formations. These are mentioned again for completness. / English / Sanskrit baalaH gachchhati kaviH likhati guravaH vadanti baalaa paThati nadii vahati aha.n pRRichchhaami siitaa gaayati phala.n patati yaana.n chalati pustakam asti jala.n naasti Words like fruit ( / phala), vehicle ( / yaana), book ( / pustaka), water ( / jala) and flower ( / Notes

1. The boy is going. 2. Poet is writing. 3. Teachers are speaking. 4. Girl is reading. 5. River is flowing. 6. I am asking. 7. Sita is singing. 8. Fruit is falling. 9. Vehicle is moving. 10. The book is there. 11. There is no water.

12. Flower is blooming.

puShpa.n vikasati

puShpa) etc., are of neuter gender. They have the same noun-form or shabdarupa as boy ( / baala) except the nominative and accusative cases which have slightly different forms. Refer (phala) shabda below for thenominative case forms of these.

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "who is going?", the answer that comes is "boy". So, boy is the subject in the sentence and the noun-form is in nominative case or prathamaa vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 8, if we ask the question "what is falling?", the answer that comes is "fruit". In this fruit is the subject. So, answer to the question "who" or "what" is the subject of the sentence and is always in nominative case. The verb form follows the number or (vachana) of the noun. The followings are few rules where the nominative case must be used as the noun-form.
Grammatical Rule: In active voice statements the subject in the sentence is always in nominative case. Grammatical nominative Rule: In passive voice statements the object follows the case. The subject follows the instrumental case.

Nominative Case ( Word Gender

/ prathamaa vibhakti) Dual Plural Similar Words

Singular

Boy / baala Creeper / lataa River / nadii Fruit / phalam

M - F F N -

baalau late nadau phale

- Index - Next >>

baalah lataa nadii phalam

baalaaH lataaH nadyaH phalaani


<< Prev

Accusative Case /

(dvitiiyaa vibhakti):

Accusative Case or

(dvitiiyaa vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "to what" or "to whom" of the sentence. In other wordsaccusative case represents the object or (karmaa) in the sentence. Study the following sentences. These are in accusative case. / English / Sanskrit chitrakaaraH chitra.n likhati takshakaH kaaShTha.n takshati kavayaH padyaani likhanti shatravaH nagariim aakraamanti chchhaatraaH shlokaan Notes In these sentences portrait ( / chitra), wood ( / kaaShTha), songs ( / padya), city ( / nagarii), stanza ( / shloka), permission ( / anumati),

1. The painter is painting a portrait. 2. The carpenter is chopping wood. 3. Poets are writing songs. 4. Enemies are attacking the city. 5. Studetns are singing the stanzas.

gaayanti 6. Commette gave the permission. 7. Boy is going to school. 8. Girl is reading the book. samiti anumatim ayachchhat

baalaH vidyaalayam gachchhati baalaa pustakam paThati

school ( / vidyaalaya) and book ( / pustaka) are objects.

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "what is the painter painting?", the answer that comes is "the portrait". So, "portrait" is the object in the sentence and the noun-form is in accusative case or dvitiiyaa vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 6, if we ask the question "what did the commette gave?", the answer that comes is "permission". In case of sentence 7, if we ask the question "where is the boy going to?", the answer that comes is "school". So, answer to the question "to what", "to whom" or "to where" etc., is the object in the sentence and is always in accusative case. The verb form is independent of the number or (vachana) of the object.
Grammatical Rule: In active voice sentences the object always inaccusative case.

Besides the above rule there are few special rules where accusative case is used. Followings are examples of these. / English 9. Tigress lives in the forest. / Sanskrit / vyaaghrii vanam adhitiShThati / adhivasati Notes Verbs (tiShThati) and (vasati) prefixed with prepositions ( / upasarga)

10. Parvati lives in the Himalays.

paarvatii kailaasagiriim adhivasati 11. Rama lives in village. / raamaH graama.n upavasati / adhivasati himaalayam abhitaH araNyaani santi sarovara.n antaraa mandira.n asti gRRiha.n paritaH praachiira.n asti 15. Near the school there is a garden. vidyaalaya.n nikaShaa udyaana.n asti

(adhi) or

(upa).

12. Around the Himalayas there are forests.

13. Inside the pond there is a temple. 14. Around the house there is a wall.

Use of indeclinable (abhitaH), (ubhayataH), (samayaa), (nikaShaa), (antaraa) and (paritaH) to represent location.

16. Both side of river nadii.n ubhayataH there are hills. sopaanaani santi 17. Inside the pond there are blue lotuses. sarovara.n antaraa niilotpalaani santi 18. Near the school there are shops.

vidyaalaya.n samayaa aapaNaaH santi

19. Solders went on

both sides of the road.

sainikaaH maargam ubhayataH agachchhat pitara.n anu putraH gachchhati Use of indeclinable (anu), (upayupari),

20. Behind father son is going.

21. There are many fruits above (on top of) the tree.

(adhyaaghi), (adhodhaH) representing before, after, vRRiksha.n upayupari vahuni phalaani santi above, towards top location. baalikaa madhura.n gaayati Use of verbal adjective or (kriyaavisheShaNa).

22. The girl is singing beautifully.

23. The boy is looking baalaH saashcharyam with surprise. pashyati 24. It is raining everywhere in the country. desha.n sarvataH varShaa bhavanti

25. Madhu read grammar madhuH maasa.n for a month. vyaakaraNa.n paThitavaan 26. The mountain spreads two yojanas. giriH dviyojana.n varttate

Expressing spread of time or space.

27. Without teacher there is no knowledge. guru.n vinaa vidyaa naasti 28. Go upto home. 29. Tiger is running gRRiha.n yaavat gachchha

Use of indeclinable (vinaa), (RRite) etc. Use of words (prati), (yaavat) etc.

towards the goat.

vyaagraH chhaaga.n prati dhaavati murkha.n dhik


(tiShThati) and

30. Fie on fool.

Use of word dhik.


(vasati) meaning / upasarga) (adhi)

Grammatical Rule: If the verbs

lives or stays are prefixed with the preposition (

or (upa), then the word expressing the location will follow accusative case instade of locative case.

In sentence 9 above the answer to question "where does tigress live?" should be "in the forest". The noun-form should be in locative case i.e., (vane). However since the verb Sentence 10 and 11 (vasati) is prefixed with preposition follow the same (adhi) the accusative case (vanam) is used instade of locative case. rule.

Grammatical Rule: If the indeclinables

(abhitaH),

(ubhayataH),

(samayaa), (nikaShaa), (antaraa) and (paritaH) etc., are in use then the word expressing location will be in accusative case.

In sentence 12 above the answer to question "where are the forests?" should be "around Himalayas". Similarly in sentence 13 if we ask the question "where is the temple?", the answer will be "inside the pond". However in these case indeclinables (abhitaH) and (paritaH) are used to express the location. Hence the words expressing the location (Himalayas and pond) are inaccusative case. Sentences 12, 13, 14, 15, 15, 17, 18 and 19 follow the same rule.

Grammatical Rule: When indeclinables (anu), (upayupari), (adhyaadhi) etc., are used, words governed by these will be in accusative case.

Sentences

20

and

21

follow

this

rule.

Grammatical Rule: Verbal Adjective (

/ kriyaavisheShaNa) expressing

the characteristic accusative

or

attribute

of

the

verb

in

the

sentence

will

be in case.

In sentence 22 above if the question is asked "how is the girl singing?" the answer that comes is "beautifully". Here beautifully is an attribute or verbal adjective for the verb "singing". Since the word beautifully is a verbal adjective or (kriyaavisheShaNa) it is in accusative case. Sentence 23 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: When a word represents a spread of time or space then it takes the accusative form.

In sentence 24 above the word "everywhere" expresses a spread of space. So, the word country has taken the accusative case (desha.n) instead of locative case (deshe). Similarly in sentence 25 "for a month" expresses a span of time. So, the word month has taken the accusative case (maasa.n). Sentence 26 follow this rule as it expresses a span of space.

Grammatical Rule: When words (vinaa) or (RRite) meaning "without" is used, words governed by it will be in accusative case.

In sentence 27 the word (vinaa)

(guru) is in accusative case as the indeclinable is in use.

Grammatical Rule: If the words (prati) and (yaavat) are in use then the words governed by these will be in accusative case. Sentences 28 and 29 follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: When word in

(dhik) is used, words governed by it will be accusative case.

In sentence 30 the word (murkha) is in accusative case as the word (dhik) is in use.

Accusative Case ( Word Boy / baala Creeper / lataa River / nadii Fruit / phalam Gender M - F F N -

/ dvitiiyaa vibhakti) Dual baalau late nadau phale Plural baalaan lataaH nadiiH phalaani
<< Prev

Singular baalam lataam nadiim phalam

Similar Words - Index - Next >>

Instrumental Case /

(tRRitiiya vibhakti):

Instrumental Case or

(tRRitiiya vibhakti) of noun-form represents the instrumental form in a sentence. The answer that comes from the question "by what" or "with what" is the instrument in the sentense. The instrument is with what the subject or (kartaa) is doing something. The instrument is independent of thenumber and gender of the subject or object. Study the following sentences. These are in instrumental case. / English / Sanskrit kRRiShivalaH halena karShati aha.n parashunaa khaNDayaami guravaH lekhanyaa alikhan Notes Here plough ( / hala), axe ( / parashu), pen ( / lekhanii), hand ( / kara), teeth ( / danta) and food ( /

1. Farmer is ploughing with plough.

2. I am cutting with axe.

3. Teacher wrote using pen. 4. You are touching with

hand.

tva.n kareNa spRRishasi sarpaH dantaiH dashati atithayaH bhojanena modanti maalaa puShpaiH bhavati tva.n vidyayaa jivasi maalaabhiH devam alaN^karomi

5. Snakes bites with teeth. 6. Guest is happy with food. 7. Garland is made using flower. 8. You live with knowledge. 9. (I) will decorate God with garland.

bhojana), flower ( / puShpa), knowledge ( / vidyaa), garland ( / maalaa) are the instruments for the respective verbs and are in instrumental case.

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "what is the farmer is ploughing with?", the answer that comes is "with the plough". So, "plough" is the instrument in the sentence and the noun-form is in instrumentsl case or tRRitiiya vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 4, if we ask the question "what are you touching with?", the answer that comes is "with hand". In case of sentence 6, if we ask the question "what is the guest happy with?", the answer that comes is "with food". So, hand and food are in instrunmental case.
Grammatical Rule: The word expressing "by what" or "with what" pertaining to the verb will be in instrumental case.

Sentences

and

also

follow

this

rule.

Besides the above rules there are some special rules where insrtumental case is used. Followings are the examples of these. / English 10. Women / Sanskrit Notes Use of words

played with striyaH shishubhiH saha akriDan the children. 11. Teacher went with the guruH chchhaatraiH saakam students. agachchhat 12. Sita roams with Rama. siitaa raameNa saardha.n viharati

(saha),

(saakam), (saarddha.n) and (sama.n)

13. Krishna came with me. kRRiShNaH mayaa saakam aagatavaan 14. Gopal went with him. tena saaka.n gopaalaH gataH

15. Friendship with evil not durjanena sa maitrii na karttavyaa worth. 16. You will go with me. 17. Without effort knowledge is not achievable. / / / tva.n mayaa saha/saaka.n/samsa.n/saardsha.n gamiShyasi shrameNa vinaa vidyaa na labhyate Use of words (antareNa) and (vinaa).

18. Without water life is jalena antareNa jiivanam impossible. asambhavam 19. What is life without knowledge. 20. He is blind with eyes. 21. What shall mirror do to one vidyaa.n vinaa jiivanam kim saH akshNaa kaaNaH lochanabhyaa vihinasya darpaNaH

The words - eyes ( / lochana), ears ( / karNa) and foot ( / paada) are

without eyes. ki.n kariShyati 22. He is deaf with ears. 23. He is lame with foot. 24. Rama is naughty by nature. 25. He is running speedily. 26. Rama is living happily. 27. Named Rama 28. The girl is beautiful by face. saH karNaabhyaa.n vadhiraH saH paadena khaJNjaH / raamaH prakRRityaa / svaabhavena chapalaH saH vegena dhaavati raamaH sukhena tiShThati naamnaa raamaH baalikaa akRRityaa chaaruH

expressing lameness of organ or body part.

The words nature ( / prakRRiti), nature ( / svaabhava), speedily ( / vega), happily ( / sukha), face ( / aakRRiti), normally ( / praaya), quickly ( / liilayaa), quickly ( / tvarayaa), queue ( / krama), caste ( / jaati) and wish ( / svechchhaa) are expressing nature or characteristics.

29. Simple by nature. svaabhaavena saralaH 30. Haunters are normally poor. 31. Let the boy go quickly. shavaraaH praayeNa daridraaH / / baalaH liilayaa / vegena / tvarayaa gachchhatu

32. They came in one queue. ekena krameNa aagachchhata 33. I am kshatriya (warrior) by caste. 34. Boys are roaming by their wish. aha.n jaatyaa kshatriya baalakaaH svechchhayaa bhramanti

35. Rama is younger to you by one year.

raamaH tvat varSheNa abaraH

36. Gopala is younger to Shyama by a gopaalaH shyaamaat maasena paraH and younger ( month. / paraH) to 37. He is compare age. elder to me saH mat maasena puurvaH by a month. 38. Sage by matted lock. 39. Brahmin by sacredthread? 40. Body shivers due to cold. 41. He is heart broken due to sadness. 42. Hari is seen through merit. jaTaabhiH taapasaH upavitena vraahmaNa.n shiitena shariiram kampate duHkhena saH bhagnahRRidiyaH puNyena dRRiShTaH hariH

Use of words elder ( / puurvaH), younger ( / avaraH)

Use of words matted-lock ( / jaTaa), sacredthread ( / upavita) as mark of identification.

The words - cold ( / shiita), sadness ( / duHkha), merit ( / puNya), fever ( / jvara) and hunger ( / kshudhaa) are expressing the cause or reason of something.

43. He is suffering due saH jvareNa piiDitaH to fever. 44. He is crying due to saH kshudhayaa krandati hunger. 45. I have need of study. 46. What is the need of quarreling? mama paaThena prayojanam ? kalahena kim?

Use of words (prayojanam), (kim) and (alam) to

47. Quarrelling is waste. 48. Do not have need in wealth? 49. Less by knowledge. 50. Less by wealth. 51. He is less by wealth. 52. The temple was built in a year.

vivaadena alam ? dhanena prayojana.n naasti? dnyaanena hiinaH dhanena shuunyaH / / saH dhanena uunaH / shuunyaH / hiinaH mandira.n varSheNa nirmita.n abhavat

express the need or necessity of something.

Use of words (hiinaH), (shuunyaH) and (uunaH) to express lack of something. The words - year ( / varSha) and month ( / maasa) represent the time taken to achieve some result.

53. Rama read Sanskrit in a raamaH maasena sa.nskRRitam month. apaThat

The words - five 54. I bought the book with aha.n paJNchamudraabhiH pustakam coins ( / five coins. kriitavaan paJNchamudraa)and ten coins ( 55. He bought / dashamudraa) the toy with saH dashamudraabhiH kriiDanaka.n are representing the value or cost ten coins. kriitavaan of something. Giving something to perform some imoral or indecent act. In this caseinstrumental case will be used and notdative case. The word - path ( / maarga) is

56. The lustful person is giving money to the maid.

kaamukaH daasyaa sa.nyachchhate

57. Rama is going on a

raamaH anenna maargeNa

different rout.
Grammatical

gachchhati

representing the path followed.


(saha), (saakam),

Rule:

If

the

indeclinables

(saarddha.n), (sama.n) etc., meaning with or along with, are used then the words governed by these will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 7 - the word

(saha) is used to express that the women

played with the children. So, the word "children" is in instrumental case. Sentences 10 and 16 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: If the words (antareNa) or (vinaa) meaning without are used the words governed by it will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 17 - the word "effort" or the word

(shrama) is in instrumental case as

(antareNa) is used to express that without effort knowledge

can not be achieved. Sentences 18 and 19 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: If any word expressing lameness in any organ or body part is used then the word representing the organ or body part will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 20 - the word "eyes" or

(akshNaa) is in instrumental

case as this is the organ that has the lameness. Sentences 21, 22 and 23 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word someone or something

expressing the will be

nature in

or characteristics of instrumental case.

In sentence 24 the word "nature" represents a characteristics of Rama. So, the word "nature" or (svaabhava) is in instrumental case. Similarly in sentence 25 the word "speedily" is an attribute or characteristics of him running. Hence the word speedily or (vega) is in instrumental case. In sentence 33 also the word caste or (jaati) represents an attribute about me. So this word is in instrumental case. Sentences 24 to 34 follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: If words like (puurvaH), (paraH), (avaraH) etc., are used to express a comparision in time then the word expressing the sense of time will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 35 the word "younger" or (paraH) is used to compare time or age, and "year" or (varsHa) is the word expressing the sense of time. So, the word "year" is in instrumental case. Sentences 36 and 37 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing any mark of identification of a person will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 38 - sage is identified by "matted lock" or

(jaTaa). In other

words "matted lock" is the identification symbol to identify a sage. So, the word "matted lock" is in instrumental case. Sentences 39 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the cause of something will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 40 "cold" is the reason for which body shivers. So, the word "cold" or (shiita) is in instrumental case. Similarly, in sentence 41 "sadness" is the reason for his broken heart. Hence the word (duHkha) is in instrumental case. Sentences 42, 43 and 44 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: If words like (alam), (ki.n), (prayojanam) etc., are used to express a "sense of need or necessity" then the word representing the thing which is needed will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 45 "study is what I have need for". So, the word study or (paaTha) is in instrumental case. Similarly in sentence 47 - "quarrelling is waste" also means there is no need or necessity of quarrelling. Hence the word quarrelling or (vivaada) is in instrumental case. Sentences 46 and 48 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: If words like (hiina), (shuunya), etc., are used to mean lack of something of something, then the words governed by these will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 49 - there is a lack of "knowledge" or in instrumental case. Sentence 51 also

(dnyaana). Similarly follows this rule.

in sentence 50 there is a lack of "wealth" or (dhana). So, thes words are

Grammatical Rule: If the sentencec means achievement of some result after some time then the word expressing the time will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 52 the temple was built in a year. In other words the result was achieved in a year. The word "year" is expressing the time after which the result was achieved. So, the word "year" or (varSha) is in instrumental case. Sentence 53 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the value or cost of something will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 54 "five coins" express the cost or value of the book. So, it is in instrumental case. Similarly in sentence 55 "ten coins" is the cost of the toy. So, "ten coins" is in instrumental case.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the person to whom something is given to perform some imoral or indecent act will be in instrumental case and not in dative case.

In sentence 56 the lust person is giving money to the maid in return of an immoral. So, the word "maid" is in instrumental case instead of dative case.

Grammatical Rule: instrumental

Word

expressing

the

path

that

is

followed

will

be in case.

In sentence 57 the word "rout" or

(maarga) is in instrumental case as it

represents

the

path

that

is

being

followed

or

taken.

Instrumental Case ( Word Boy / baala Creeper / lataa River / nadii Fruit / phalam Gender M - F F Singular baalena latayaa nadyaa phalena

/ tRRitiiyaa vibhakti) Dual baalaabhyaam Plural baalaiH Similar Words -

lataabhyaam lataabhiH nadiibhyaam nadiibhiH phalaabhyaam phalaiH


<< Prev

N -

- Index - Next >>

Dative Case /

(chaturthii vibhakti):

Dative Case or

(chaturthii

vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "to whom" or "for whom" of the sentence. In other words dative caserepresents the dative in the sentense. Study the following sentences. These are in dative case. / English / Sanskrit bhikshukaayaH taNDuula.n dehi aha.n tasmai puraskaara.n dadaami vaidyaH rugNaaya Notes The words (bhikshuka), (yusmad), (rugNa) and (nirdhana) represent the person to whom something is

1. Give rice to the beggar. 2. I am giving prize to him. 3. Doctor is giving medicine to the

patient. 4. Let the rich give money to poor.

auShadha.n yachchhati dhanikaH nirdhanaaya dhana.n yachhatu

given.

5. The lustful person is giving money to the maid.

kaamukaH daasyaa sa.nyachchhate

Giving something to perform some imoral or indecent act. In this caseinstrumental case will be used and notdative case.

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "give rice to whom?", the answer that comes is "the beggar". So, "beggar" is the dative in the sentence and the noun-form is in dative case orchaturthii vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 3, if we ask the question "doctor gave medicine to whom?", the answer that comes is "patient". So, answers to the question "to whom" or "for whom" etc., is the dative in the sentence and is always in dative case. The verb form is independent of the number or (vachana) of thesubject or object.
Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the person to whom something is given will be in dative case.

Sentence

1,

2,

and

follow

this

rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the person to whom something is given to perform some imoral or indecent act will be in instrumental case and not in dative case.

In sentence 5 the lust person is giving money to the maid in return of an immoral. So, the word "maid" is in instrumental case instead of dative case.

Besides the above rules there are few special rules where dative case is used. Followings are examples of these.

/ English

/ Sanskrit lekhakaH patrikaayai lekha.n likhatu suvarNahaaraaya haaTakam dharmaaya patnii grahaNiiyaa eishcharyam ahaN^kaaraaya bhavati

Notes The words (patrikaa), (suvarNahaara) and (dharma) represent the things for which something is needed.

6. Let the author write for the paper. 7. Gold is for necklace. 8. Wife should be accepted for merit/dharma. 9. Wealth becomes egoism. 10. Power is to torment others. 11. Let power be for others' good. 12. Lakshmi hates the knowledgable. 13. He hates the clever. 14. King is angry on the enemies.

The words (ahaN^kaara), (parapiDana) and shaktiH parapiDanaaya (paropakaara) bhavati represent the thing into which shaktiH paropakaaraaya something else bhavatu transforms. lakshmiiH paNDitaaya asuuyati saH chaturaaya asuuyati raajaa shatruve kRRidhayati

Use of words (kRRidhyati), (dRRihyati), (iirShyati), (asuuyati) etc., expressing hate or dislike.

15. Gopala is angry on gopaalaH raamaaya Rama. dRRihyati 16. Do you like sweets? ? modaka.n tubhya.n rochate vaa?

Use of words like (rochate) etc., expressing

17. Girls like flowers. 18. Let everyone like knowledge. 19. Ladies like flowers.

baalikaaH puShpebhyaH spRRihayanti sarve dnyaaya spRRihayantu puShpaaNi taruNibhyaH rochante mahyaa.n dugdha.n rochate shishave kriDaa rochate ? kasmai modaka.n na svadate? gurave namaH naaraayaNaaya namaH indraaya svaaha agneya baShaT

fondness or liking for something.

20. I like milk.

21. Child likes to play. 22. Who does not like sweets. 23. Salute to teacher. 24. Salute to Narayana. 25. Offered to Indra. 26. Offered to fire.

Use of words like (namaH), (svasti), (svaaha), (ala.n), (baShaT) etc. Word Meanings: namaH - salute, svaaha - offered, baShaT - offered, svasti - let good happen. Word expressing the target destination for actions like going or coming can be

27. Let good happen to all. sarvebhyaH svasti /

28. Let the guest come atithayaH home. gRRihaaya/gRRiham aagachchhantu

29. I will go to village. 30. Shyama is borrowing one hundred from Rama.

/ aga.n graamaaya / graamam gachhaami shyaamaH raamaaya shata.n dhaarayati

in accusative case or dative case.

31. I do not owe anything to anyone.

aha.n kasmai kiJNchit na dhaarayaami

Word expressing the person from whom something is borrowed.

32. (Lord Vishnu) Hari owes liberation to hariH bhaktaaya worshippers. moksha.n dhaarayati 33. Mother is showing moon to son. 34. Tell Gangadatta about me. maataa puutraaya chandra.n darshayati gaN^gadattaaya mat sandesha.n kathaya The person with whom the subjectrelates something through his/her action.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressiong the purpose for which certain action is taken or something is needed will be in dative case.

Sentence 6 above means the author should write for the paper. In words the writing action is for the "paper". So, paper takes the dative Similarly in sentence 7 gold is needed for neckless. So, neckless the dative case. Sentence 8 also follows the same

other case. is in rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the object into which another object transforms will be in dative case.

In sentence 9 above - wealth turns or transforms into egoism. So, "egoism" is in dative case the object into which wealth transforms. Sentence 10 and 11 also follow the same rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the person (or thing) against whom (or which) anger or hatered is shown will be in dative case.

In sentence 12 above - Laxmi shows hatered towards the "knowledgable". So, the word knowledgable is in dative case. Similarly in sentence 14 the King shows anger towards enemies. So, the word enemy is in dative case. Sentence 13 and 15 also follow the same rule.

Grammatical Rule: When verbs meaning "liking" are used, the word expressing the person to whom it is a matter of liking will be in dative case.

In sentence 17 above - girls like flowers or in other words flowers are a metter of liking to the girls. So, "girl" is in dative case. Similarly in sentence 21 play is a matter of liking to "child". So, the child is in dative case. Sentence 16, 18, 19, 20, and 22 also follow the same rule.

Grammatical Rule: When the words (ala.n) and reference

(namaH),

(svasti),

(svaahaa),

(baShaT) are used the words expressing the object of their will be in dative case.

In sentence 23 above "teacher" is the object of reference of the word (namaH) or salute. So, the word teacher or Sentence 24, 25, 26 and 27 also (guru) is in dative case. follow the same rule.

Grammatical Rule: When verbs meaning going or coming are used the words expressing the destination will be either in accusative case or dative case.

In sentence 28 above "home" is in dative case (or accusative case) as home is the destination. Sentence 29 also follows the same rule.

Grammatical Rule: When something is borrowed from others the person from whom the thing is borrowed will be in dative case.

In sentence 30 above Shyam has borrowed money from Rama. So, "Rama" is in dative case. Similarly in sentence 32 Hari (Lord Vishnu) borrows liberation or (moksha) from the worshipper. So, the word (bhakta) or worshipper is in dative case. Sentence 31 also follows the same rule.

Grammatical Rule: The person with whom the subject relates something through his or her action will be in dative case.

In sentence 33 above mother is showing the moon to son. In other words mother the subject in the sentence with her action of showing is relating son with the moon. So, the word son or (putra) is in dative case.

Dative Case ( Word Boy / baala Gender M - Singular

/ chaturthii vibhakti) Dual Plural Similar Words -

baalaaya baalaabhyaam baalebhyaH lataayai nadyai lataabhyaam lataabhyaH nadiibhyaam nadiibhyaH

Creeper F / lataa River F / nadii Fruit / phalam N -

phalaaya phalaabhyaam phalebhyaH


<< Prev

- Index - Next >>

Ablative

Case

(paJNchamii

vibhakti):

Ablative Case or

(paJNchamii vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "from whom/what" of the sentence. In other words ablative case represents the ablative in the sentense. Study the following sentences. These are in ablative case. / English / Sanskrit / vRRikshaat parNa.n / patra.m apatat Notes The words tree ( / vRRiksha), tree

1. Leaf fell from the tree.

2. Fruits are falling from the trees. 3. He fall from the running horse.

phalaani tarubhyaH patanti saH dhaavataH ashvaat patitaH

/ taru) and

horse ( / ashva) represent the source of separation. The words school ( / vidyaalaya) and heaven ( / svarga) represent the source of coming or going.

4. I am coming from the aha.n vidyaalayaat school. aagachchhaami devataaH svargaat aagachchhanti

5. Gods come from heaven.

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "leaf fell from what?", the answer that comes is "the tree". So, "tree" is the ablative in the sentence and the noun-form is in ablative case orpaJNchamii vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 4, if we ask the question "where am I coming from?", the answer that comes is "school". So, answer to the question "from whom/what/where" is the ablative in the sentence and is always in ablative case. The verb-form is independent of the number or (vachana) of the subjector object. Followings are the rules where ablative case is used.

Grammatical Rule: When an object is separated from another the word expressing the object from which the separation happened will be in ablative case.

Sentence

1,

and

follow

this

rule.

Grammatical Rule: When someone or something is coming from a place the word expressing the source will be in ablative case.

Sentence

and

follow

this

rule.

Besides the above rules there are few more special rules where ablative case is used. Followings are the examples of these.

/ English

/ Sanskrit nirjharaH gireH sravati

Notes The words mountain ( / giri) and Himalayas ( / himavata) represent the origin or source.

6. Waterfall is flowing from the mountain.

7. (River) Ganges flows from Himalayas.

himavataH gaN^gaat prabhahati mRRigaH byaaghraat vibheti

8. Animal fears tiger.

The words tiger ( / byaaghraat), 9. Deer fears tiger. hariNaH vyaaghraat trasyati lion ( / si.nha) and 10. Elephants fear lion. police ( / gajaaH si.nhaat trasyanti aarakshaka) are the sources of 11. Thief fears chauraH aarakshakaat fear. police. vibheti 12. Police protects from thief. 13. Good work protects from fear of hell. 14. Solders protect citizens from enemies. 15. He accepts defeat from study. 16. Good people accept defeat from sin. 17. He is baring the / aarakshakaH chauraat traayate / rakshate saadhita.n tu dharmakaarya.n traayate narakabhayaat. sainikaaH shatrubhyaH naagarikaan rakshante The words thief ( / chaura), hell ( / narakabhaya) and enemy ( / shatruu) represent things from which protected.

Use of word saH adhyanaaat paraajayate. + (paraa + jayate) to dhaarmikaH paapaat express defeat. paraajayate The words paddy

cows from paddy.

saH dhaanebhyaH gaa.n vaarayati paapannivaarayaati kRRiShNaH maatuH niliiyate

( / dhaana) and sin ( / paapa) are things from which restrained.

18. Bars from sin and employs in merit. 19. Krishna is hiding from mother.

The words mother ( / maatRRi) and teacher ( / 20. Student is guru) represent hiding from teacher. chchhaatraH guruH niliiyate someone from whom hiding. The word lazyness or (aalasya) gaurii aalasyaat n apaThati represents the cause of something.

21. Gauri does not read due to lazyness.

The words 22. Fruit is created from flower. pueHpaat phalam parajaayate flower ( / pueHpa) and lotus ( / 23. Honey is created padma) are from lotus. padmaat madhu prajaayate sources of creation. Use of verbs 24. Good people hate like hate sin. dhaarmikaH papaat jugupsate ( / jugupsate), escapes ( 25. He escapes from / viramati) reading. saH paThanaat viramati. etc., expressing hate or dislike. 26. Mango is better than Guava. aamraphala.n daaNDimaat shreShTham Use of superlative or comparative

27. Kalidasa is better than Bhabhuti. 28. Lakshamana is elder to Satrughna.

kaalidaasaH bhavabhuuteH shreShThaH lakshamaNaH shatrughnaat puurvaH

29. Bhima is younger bhiimaH yudhiShThiiraat to Yudhisthira. paraH

adjectives like better ( / shreShTha) earlier ( / purvaH), later ( / paraH) etc., to compare.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the origin or source of something will be in ablative case.

In Sentence 6 - the waterfall flows from the mountain. In other words the mountain is the source of the waterfall. So, the word "mountain" is in ablative case. Sentence 7 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the source of fear will be in ablative case.

In sentence 9 - deer fears the tiger. In other words tiger is the source of fear. So, the word "tiger" is in ablative case. Sentence 10 and 11 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word something or someone is

expressing protected

something or someone from which will be in ablative case.

In sentence 12 - police protects from thief. That means thief is the thing from which the police protects. So, the word "thief" is in ablative case. Sentence 13 and 14 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the thing from which defeat is accepted, unable to tolerate or face it, with the use of preposition or (upasarga) before the verb (paraajayate) will be in ablative case. Note: If defeat is accepted after facing it bravely, then the word will

be

in

accusative

case.

In sentence 15 - word

(paraajayate) is used to express "his defeat

from study". In other words it also means - "he is not able to study" or "he is afraid of studies". So, the word "study" is in ablative case. Sentence 16 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word something is opposed or

expressing something from restrained will be in

which someone or ablative case.

In sentence 17 - the cows are being restrained from paddy. So, the word "paddy" is in ablative case. Sentence 18 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing someone or something from which one is hiding from will be in ablative case.

In sentence 19 - Krishna is hiding from mother. So, the word "mother" is in ablative case. Sentence 20 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the cause of something will be in ablative case. Note: If the subject is in feminine gender, then it can also be in instrumental case.

In sentence 21 - lazyness or

(aalasya) is the reason of Gauri not

reading. In other words lazyness is the reason of "not reading". So, it is in ablative case.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the source of creation will be in ablative case.

In sentence 22 - fruit is created from flower or in other words "flower is the source of creation" of fruit. So, the word "flower" is in ablative case. Sentence 23 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing something to which hate or dislike is expressed will be in ablative case.

Sentence

24

and

25

follow

this

rule.

Grammatical Rule: When superlative or comparative adjectives such like

(shreShThaH), (purvaH), (paraH) etc., are used the word expressing the thing to which the comparision is being made will be in ablative case.

In sentence 26 - mango is better than guava. So, guava is the thing from which mango is better. Hence the word "guava" is in ablative case. Similarly in sentence 28 - word "earlier" or (purvaH) is used to mean that Lakshamana is earlier to Satrughna. So, the word "Satrughna" is in ablative case. Sentence 27 and 29 also follow this rule.

Ablative Case ( Word Boy / baala Gender M -

/ paJNchamii vibhakti) Dual Plural Similar Words -

Singular baalaat

baalaabhyaam baalebhyaH

Creeper F / lataa River F / nadii Fruit / phalam N -

lataayaaH lataabhyaam lataabhyaH nadyaaH phalaat nadiinaam nadiibhyaH

phalaabhyaam phalebhyaH
<< Prev

- Index - Next >>

Genitive Case /

(ShaShThii vibhakti):

Genitive Case or

(ShaShThii

vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "whose" of the sentence. In other words genitive case represents thegenitive in the sentense. Study the following sentences. These are in genitive case.

/ English

/ Sanskrit dasharathasya putraH kRRiShNasya sakhaa suuryasya udayaH nadyaaH jalam chandrikaayaa dhavalataa agneH jvaalaa devaanaa.n guruH bRRihaspatiH shukraachaaryasya shiShyaaH asuraaH naariiNaam aabharaNam etat mama matam gaNapateH chatvaaraH hastaaH

Notes

1. Son of Dasaratha. 2. Krishna's friend. 3. Rise of sun. 4. Water of river.

5. Whiteness of moon.

6. Heat of fire. 7. Vrihaspati is the teacher of Gods. 8. Demons are the desciples of Sukracharya. 9. Women's jewellary. 10. This is my opinion. 11. Ganapati has four hands.

Peron or thing whose relationship with another is being expressed.

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "whose son?", the answer that comes is "Dasaratha". So, "Dasaratha" is the genitive in the sentence and the noun-form is in genitive case orShaShThi vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 4, if we ask the question "whose water?", the answer that comes is "river". So, answer that comes from the question "whose" is the genitive in the sentense and is always in genitive case.Followings are the rules

where genitive

case is

used.

Grammatical Rule: The word denoting a peron or thing whose relationship with another is being expressed will be in genitive case.

In sentence 1 to 11 the words expressing relationship to someone or something are in genitive case.

Besides the above rules there are few more special rules where genitive case is used. Followings are the examples of these. / English / Sanskrit paaNDavaanaa.n dharmaraajaH jyeShThaH vRRikshaaNaa.n naarikeraH shreShThaH arjunasya tulaa naasti raamasya upamaa 16. To the south of the school huge banayan tree is there. Notes

12. Among Pandavas Dharmaraja (Yudhisthira) is best. 13. Among trees coconut is the best. 14. There is no comparision of Arjuna. 15. Beauty of Rama.

Comparision in group.

Use of words (tulaa), (upamaa) etc., for comparision. Expressins direction or location in relation to another using words

vidyaalayasya dakshiNaat ekaH mahaan vaTavRRikshaH

17. In front of the teacher students are standing. 18. Child is playing behind mother. 19. Water flows below ground.

(puraH), shikshakasya puraH (purastaat), chchhaatraaH tiShThanti (purataH), (agrataH), maatuH purastaat shishuH kriiiDati (pRRiShThataH), / (adhaH), bhuumeH adhastaat/adhaH

jala.n barttate 20.To the north of the village hospital is there. graamasya uttaraat chikitsaalayaH asti

(adhastaat) etc.

Grammatical Rule: If a comparision in a group is being made then the word expressing the group will be in genitive case (or alternatively in locative case).

In sentence 13 above the sentence means - coconut tree is best "among the trees". So, the word trees is in genetive case (or alternatively locative case) as it represents the group in which coconut tree is best. Similarly in sentence 12 the word "pandavas" is in genetive case.

Grammatical Rule: If words (tulaa), (upamaa) etc., expressing comparision are used then word expressing the person or thing being compared will be in genitive case.

In sentence 14 the word "Arjuna" is in genitive case as this is being compared with the use of word or tulaa. Sentence 15 also follows the same rule.

Grammatical Rule: If the words (puraH), (purastaat), (purataH), (agrataH), (pRRiShThataH), (adhaH), (adhastaat) etc., are used to express direction or location of an object in relation to another, the word expressing the object will be in genitive case.

In sentence 16 the word south or

(dakshiNaat) is used to express

location of the banayan tree in relation to the school. So, the word school is in genitive case. Similarly in sentence 18 the word behind or (purastaat) expresses the location of the child in relation to mother. So, the word mother is in genitive case. Sentences 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 follow this rule.

Genitive Case ( Word Boy / baala Creeper / lataa River / nadii Fruit / phalam Gender M - F F -

/ ShaShThii vibhakti) Dual baalayoH latayoH Plural baalaanaam lataanaam Similar Words -

Singular baalasya lataayaaH nadyaaH phalasya

nadiibhyaam nadiinaam phalayoH phalaanaam


<< Prev

N -

- Index - Next >> (saptamii

Locative Case /

(saptamii vibhakti):

Locative Case or

vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "where" of the sentence. In other words locative case represents the locative in the sentense. Study the following sentences. These are in locative case. / English / Sanskrit kamalaani kaasare santi puShpaaNi lataayaa.n vikasanti gajaaH araNye saJNcharanti kaaryaalayaaH nagariishu bhavanti Notes The words lake ( / kaasara), creeper ( / lataa), forest ( / araNya), city ( / nagarii), bed ( / shajyaa), land ( / bhuumi),

1. Lotuses are in the lake. 2. Flowers bloom in the creeper. 3. Elephants roam in the forest. 4. Offices are in the city.

5. Child is sleeping on the bed. 6. Leaves fall on the ground. 7. There are many stories in Mahabharata.

shishuH shajyaayaa.n shete parNaani bhuumyaa.n patanti mahaabhaarate anekakathaaH vidyante sarvasmin aatmaa vidyate

Mahabharata ( / mahaabhaarata) and all ( / sarva) are expressing location of something or someone.

8. Atma is in everybody.

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "where are the lotuses?", the answer that comes is "lake". So, "lake" is the locative in the sentence and the noun-form is in locative case or saptamii vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 3, if we ask the question "elephants roam where?", the answer that comes is "forest". So, answer that comes from the question "where" is the locative in the sentense and is always in locative case. Followings are the rules where locative case is used.
Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the location of something or someone will be in locative case.

Sentence

to

follow

this

rule.

Besides the above rules there are few more special rules where loctive case is used. Followings are the examples of these. / English / Sanskrit saH aasande upavishati chchhaatraaH maargeshu dhaavanti Notes Expressing the thing on which one sits or stands etc.

9. He is sitting on the seat. 10. Students are running on the road.

11. Peackoks are dancing on the mountain.

mayuuraaH girishu nRRityanti

12. Young boys are swiming in the river. taruNaaH nadyaa.n taranti 13. Girls are playing baalikaaH kriiDaaN^gaNe in the play ground. kriDanti 14. I will go in the evening. 15. Holiday is on Sunday. 16. When sun rises, lotus blooms. 17. When moon rises, lillies bloom. 18. Among animals human beings are the best. 19. Do good as if death is holding by hair. 20. Friend made me sit by holding my hands. 21. Father loves son. 22. You trust me. 23. Respect father. aha.n saaya.nkaale gachchhaami viraamaH bhaanuvaasare bhavati suurye udite padma.n vikasati chandre udite kumudaani vikasanti / praaNinaa.n / praaNiShu naraaH shreShThaaH

Expressing the time of action.

Expressing the action of one resulting in the action of another.

Comparision in group.

gRRihita eva kesheShu mRRityunaa dharmamaacharet Expressing part of body held separately. sakhaa maa.n kare dhRRitvaa upaveshayat pitaa putre snihyati tva.n mayi vishvasihi Expressing trust, fondness, love, anger, worship etc., in someone.

pitari bhakti.n kuru


Grammatical Rule: The word expressing something on which someone or something sits or stands will be in locative case.

In sentence 9 if we ask the question "where is he seating?" or "on what is he seating?", the answer that comes is on the seat. So, the word "seat" or (aasand) is in locative case as it is expressing the thing on which someone is seating. Sentence 10 to 13 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the time of action in response to the question on verb as "when" will be in locative case.

In sentence 14 answer to the question "when shall I go?" is "in the evening" or "evening". So, the word "evening" or (saaya.nkaala) is in locative case. Sentence 15 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: When the action of one results in action of another, the thing whose action occurs first will be in locative case.

In sentence 16 - lotus blooms when sun rises. In other words the action of sun's rising results in the action of the lotus blooming. So, the word "sun" or (suurya) is in locative case. Sentence 17 also follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule: If a comparision in a group is being made then the word expressing the group will be in locative case or in genitive case.

In sentence 18 the word "animal" or

(praaNi) is in locative case (or

alternatively genitive case), as it represents the group in which human beings are the best.

Grammatical expressing

Rule: If the

a part part

of body will

is held separately then be in locative

the word case.

In sentence 20 - my friend is holding my hand (separately) to make me seat. So, the word "hand" or (kara) is in locative case as this is the part

of body which is being held separately. Sentence 19 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule: If verbs meaning trust, fondness, love, anger, worship etc., are used, the person in whom such trust or fondness is shown will be in locative case.

In sentence 21 the verb 23 also

(snihyati) is used to express father's love in follow this rule.

his son. So, the word "son" or (putra) is in locative case. Sentence 22 and

Locative Case ( Word Boy / baala Creeper / lataa River / nadii Fruit / phalam Gender M - F F -

/ saptamii vibhakti) Dual baalayoH latayoH nadyoH phalayoH Plural baaleShu lataasu nadiiShu phaleShu
<< Prev

Singular baale lataayaam nadyaam phale

Similar Words -

N -

- Index - Next >>

Vocative Case /

(sambodhana vibhakti):

Vocative Case or

(sambodhana vibhakti) of noun-form represents the word used to address or call someone or something. Study the following sentences. These are in vocative case.

O! Boy O! Creeper O! God

he baala he late he deva

Here boy ( / baala), creeper ( / lataa) and God ( / deva) are in vocative case or (sambodhana vibhakti)

All the above sentences address or call someone. So, the person or thing being addressed is in vocative case.
Note: I ( case. / asmad) and You ( / yusmad) words do not have any vocative

Vocative Case ( Word Boy / baala Creeper / lataa River / nadii Fruit / phalam Gender M - F F N -

/ sambodhana vibhakti) Dual baalau late nadyau phale Plural baalaaH lataaH nadyaH phalaani
<< Prev

Singular baala late nadii phalam

Similar Words - Index - Next >>

Verb Forms (

/ kRRidantapada):

In chapter 3 we studied (tiN^atapada).

We learnt that by adding (tip) suffix to the verb root we get (dhaaturupa) known as or tiN^atapada. The verb forms representing

the tenses and moods of verbs are or tiN^atapada. In this chapter we will study (kRRit) (kRRidantapada) meaning words ending with suffix.

In the following chapters we will study the following verb forms or (dhaaturupa).

(tumun pratyaya) (ktvaach pratyaya) (lyap pratyaya) (lyuT pratyaya) (ktavatu pratyaya) (kta pratyaya) (aniiyar pratyaya) (tavyat pratyaya) (yat pratyaya) (shatRRi pratyaya) (shaanach pratyaya) (ktin pratyaya) (ghJNj pratyaya) (khal pratyaya)

At the end of each chapter Practice Sentences are given using many commonly used nouns and verbs. Studying the Practice Sentences will help building a good vocabulary for day-to-day conversasion in Sanskrit.

<< Prev

- Index - Next >>

/ tumun pratyaya (Sense Of Wish):

In this chapter we will study the

(tumun pratyaya). The verb form with this suffix is used to express - the sense of wish or the intention to do something. In this the verb root gets (tumun) suffix. Study the following sentences. These are using (tumun pratyaya).

English 1. The boy goes to school to read.

Sanskrit

Verb + tumun + dhaatu + tumun + paTh + tumun

Comments

baalakaH paThitum vidyaalaya.n gachchhati pitaa graama.n gantum ichchhati baalaa paThitu.n vidyaalam agachchhat maataa paktum ichchhati saH kaarya.n kartu.n nagara.n gachchhati

2. Father wants to go to village. 3. The girl went to school to study.

+ gam + tumun + paTh + tumun + pach + tumun + kRRi + tumun = + (paaTh = paTh + Nij). It means "to make others read". (Nij pratyaya) will be covered in later chapters. It expresses the action being

4. Mother wants to cook. 5. He goes to city to work.

6. The teacher wants to teach.

shikshakaH paaThayitum ichchhati

+ paaTh + tumun

initiated by someone. 7. I went to hotel to drink milk. + paa tumun aha.n dugdha.n paatu.n upaahaaramandiram agachchhata

8. You go to market to buy the book.

tva.n pustaka.n kretum vipaNi.n gachchha baalakau kriiDitum ichchhataH baalike nartum ichchhataH

+ krii + tumun + kriiD + tumun + nRRit + tumun + pRRichchh + tumun + gam + tumun + gaay + tumun + kraSh tumun + puuj + tumun +

9. Both the boys want to play. 10. Both the girls want to dance. 11. Both of us went to school to ask questions. 12. Both of you want to go to school. 13. The girls want to sing. 14. Farmers went to plaugh.

aavaa.n prashna.n praShTum agachchhaava yuvaa.n vidyaalaya.n gantum ichchhathaH baalaaH gaatum ichchhanti kRRiShibalaaH karShTum agachchham bhaktaaH puujayitu.n shvaH aagamiShyanti

15. Worshippers will come to pray tomorrow. 16. Workers will

come to work tomorrow.

karmakaaraaH kaarya.n kartum shvaH aagamiShyanti aya.n paThitu.n samayaH

kRRi + tumun

17. It is time to read.

+ puuj + tumun

18. It is time to eat.

iya.n bhoktu.n velaa

+ kRRi + tumun

Use of words (samayaH) and (velaa) to express the time when the actions "read" and "eat" are due to take place.

In setences 1 to 16, the verbs "read", "go", "study", "cook", "teach", "work", "drink", "buy", "play", "dance", "ask", "sing", "plaugh" and "pray" are suffixed with (tumun pratyaya). The setences have multiple verbs besides the suffixed ones. These verbs "went", "go", "want" and "come" are in their respective tenses and not in (tumun pratyaya).
Grammatical Rule: The verb expressing the wish or intention to do something will be suffixed with (tumun pratyaya). Grammatical Rule: The verb with (tumun) suffix is independent of number and gender of the subject (noun) and is used as indeclinable.

In the above sentences the (tumun) suffixed verbs are independent of the subjects. They are not following the number and gender of the subjects.
Grammatical Rule: If words expressing the time when certain action is due, are used in the sentence, then the verb representing such action will have (tumun pratyaya) suffix.

In the sentences 17 and 18 the words

(samayaH) and

(velaa) are

used to express the due time of reading and eating. So, the verbs "read" and "eat" are using (tumun pratyaya).

Followings are the verbs.

(tumun pratyaya) form of few commonly used

Commonly Used Verb dhaatu tumun Verb dhaatu

(tumun pratyaya) Forms Verb tumun dhaatu tumun

speak kath sing gai kill han cry krand know dnyaa take nii

kathayitu.n gaatu.n hantu.n kranditu.n dnyaatu.n netu.n

bow nam give daa accept grah measure maa worship puuj travel bhram

nantu.n daatu.n grahiitu.n maatu.n puujayitu.n bhramitu.n

abandon tyaj listen shru sleep shii go gam wear dhaatu stay sthaa
<< Prev

tyaktu.n shrotu.n shayitum gantu.n ktvaach sthaatum

- Index - Next >>

/ ktvaach pratyaya (Sense Of Preceeding Action):

In this chapter we will study the (ktvaach pratyaya). The verb form with this suffix is used to

express - an action which preceeds another action. In this the verb root gets the (ktvaach) suffix. Study the following sentences. These are using pratyaya). (ktvaach

English 1. The boy wants to read after playing.

Sanskrit

Verb + ktvaach Suffix + (dhaatu + ktvaach) = +

Comments

baalaH kriiDitvaa paThitum ichchhati

kriiDitvaa = kriiD + ktvaach

2. Father went to office after pitaa eating. khaaditvaa kaaryaalayam agachchhat 3. The worker sleeps after working.

khaaditvaa = khaad + ktvaach

karmakaaraH kaarya.n kRRitvaa shete

= + kRRitvaa = kRRi ktvaach

4. Mother wants to cook after maataa snaatvaa taking bath. paktum ichchhati

snaatvaa = snaa + ktvaach = +

5. The teacher asked question shikahskaH after teaching. paaThayitvaa prashna.n apRRichchhan

paaThayitvaa = paaTh + ktvaachn

(paaTh = paTh + Nij). It means "to make others read". (Nij pratyaya) will be covered in

later chapters. It expresses the action being initiated by someone. = + (shaayitavati = shi + kta). (kta) is an alternative = + of past tense ( / paThitvaa = paTh + laN^lakaara), using which ktvaach past tense can be expressed easily. This will be covered in later chapters. = + -

6. The girl slept after reading. baalaa paThitvaa shaayitavati

7. I drink water after eating. aha.n khaaditvaa pivaami

khaaditvaa = khaad + ktvaach = +

8. You give answer after reading the book. 9. Both the girls dance after singing.

tva.n pustaka.n paThitvaa uttara.n dehi baale giitvaa nRRityataH

paThitvaa = paTh + ktvaach = + giitvaa = gai + ktvaach = +

10. Both the boys play after

going home.

baalau gRRiha.n gatvaa kriiDataH

gatvaa = gam + ktvaach

11. Both of us read the letter aavaam patra.n after writing. likhitvaa apaThat 12. Both of you write the essay after referring the book. yuvaam pustaka.n dRRiShTvaa rachanaa.n likhatam 13. Farmers water the land after plaughing. kRRiShakaaH bhuumi.n kRRiShTvaa siJNcjanti 14. The girls want to sing after worshiping. baalikaaH puujayitvaa gaatum ichchhanti

likhitvaa = likh + ktvaach

= + dRRiShTvaa = dRRish + ktvaach

kRRiShTvaa = kRRiSh + ktvaach

puujayitvaa = puuj + ktvaach

15. Workers karmakaaraaH will take wages kaarya.n after working. kRRitvaa vetana.n neShyanti 16. Worshippers come to pray after taking

= + kRRitvaa = kRRi + ktvaach

bath.

bhaktaaH snaatvaa puujayitum aagachchhanti baalakaH apaThitvaa vidyaalayam agachchhat

snaatvaa = snaa + ktvaach

17. The boy went to school without reading.

Use of to express = + + negative of an action. apaThitvaa = na + The (na) paTh + ktvaach is replaced with (a).

18. The worker karmakaaraH went without kaarya.n doing the work. akRRitvaa gRRiham agachchhat 19. The jackal fall in the water tank after entering the washerman's house.

= +

akRRitvaa = na + kRRi + ktvaach Verbs prefixed with preposition ( / upasarga).

shRRigaalaH rajakasya gRRihe pravishya jalabhaaNDe apatat tva.n gRRihaat pustaka.n aaniiya dehi

pravishya = pra + vish + lyap

20. You give the book after bringing from home.

+ +

aaniiya = aa + nii + lyap

In setences 1 to 16 there are two actions, one following the other. The verbs "play", "eat", "teach", "read", "work", "bath", "sing", "go", "write", "refer", "plaugh" and "worship" represent the action preceeding another action. So, these are suffixed with (ktvaach pratyaya).

In setences 3 and 14 the verbs "read", "sing" express the intent to do something. So, these are in (tumun) form. In all other setences the verb representing the proceeding action are in their respective tenses or moods.
Grammatical Rule: If a setence has two verbs then the verb expressing the earlier action will be suffixed with (ktvaach pratyaya). Grammatical Rule: The number and gender verb with (ktvaach) suffix is of the subject and is used as independent of indeclinable.

In the above sentences the of the subjects. the subjects. They

(ktvaach) suffixed verbs are independent the number and gender of

are not following

Grammatical Rule: If the verb with with replaced with (a) and is

(ktvaach pratyaya) is preceeded (naJnj) can be the verb. prefixed to

(naJnj) to express negative of an action then the

In the sentences 17 and 18 the verbs "read" and "do" are used with the ( / naJNj) to express the action not being done. So, to the the (tvaach) form of (a) has been these verbs. prefixed

Grammatical Rule: If the verb is preixed with preposition ( then the verb will follow (ktvaach).

/ upasarga)

(lyap pratyaya) instead of the

In the sentences 19 and 20 the verbs "bring" and "enter" have the prepositions ( / upasarga) (aa) and (pra) prefixed. So, instead of (ktvaach) the Followings are the verbs.
Commonly Used Verb dhaatu ktvaach Verb dhaatu ktvaach (ktvaach pratyaya) Forms Verb dhaatu ktvaach

(lyap pratyaya) has been used. (tvaach pratyaya) form of few commonly used

laugh hasitvaa has salute nam free much remember smRRi steal chur

serve sev eat natvaa bhaksh fall muktvaa pat forgive smRRitvaa ksham go chaurayitvaa gam

protect sevitvaa raksh worship bhakshitvaa puuj beg pativtaa yaach compose kshamitvaa rach gatvaa

rakshitvaa puujayitvaa yaachitvaa rachayitvaa

<< Prev

- Index - Next >>

In this chapter we will study the (lyap pratyaya). This verb form is used for the same purpose as
/ lyap pratyaya (Sense Of Preceeding Action):

(ktvaach pratyaya). In other words this represents the verb form to express - an action which preceeds another action. However, it is used only if the verb is prefixed with any preposition or (upasarga) like (pra), (niH), the verb (aa), (vi), (upa), (paraa), the (sam), (ni), (lyap) (abhi), suffix. (adhi), (nir), root gets (ut), (pari), (anu) etc. In this

Study the following sentences. These are using

(lyap pratyaya).

English 1. The boy slept after coming from

Sanskrit

Verb + lyap Suffix + (dhaatu + lyap) = + -

Comments

school.

baalakaH vidyaalayaat aagamya shete

+ aagamya = aa + gam + lyap = +

2. The teacher taught after shikshakaH reading the book. pustakam adhiya apaaThayat 3. The girl wants baalaa to play after sa.npuujaya worshiping. kriiDitum ichchhati 4. I asked the aha.n pustakam question after reading the book. adhitya prashna.n apRRiShTaH 5. You write the letter after tva.n likhaniim bringing the pen. aaniiya patra.n likha 6. Both the boys play after coming baalau gRRiham home. aagamya kriiDataH

+ adhitya = adhi + i + lyap = +

+ sa.npuujya = sam + puuj + lyap

+ adhitya = adhi + i + lyap = + +

aaniiya = aa + nii + lyap = +

+ aagamya = aa + gam + lyap

= + 7. Both the girls + sing referring baalike pustakam anukRRitya = anu the book. anukRRitya + kRRI + lyap gaayataH

8. Both of us worshipped after entering the temple. aavaa.n devaalaya.n pravishya puujitavaan

pravishya = pra + vish + lyap

= + 9. Both of you write the essay + yuvaa.n pustakam after reading the adhiya adhitya = adhi + book. pravandha.n i + lyap likhatam 10. The girls stitched the garland after collecting flowers. baalaa puShpaaNi.n sa.ngRRihya maalaam sitavaan = +

+ sa.ngRRihya = sam + grah + lyap = +

11. Students spoak after going chchhaatraaH near the teacher. durum upagamya avadaH

+ upagamya = upa + gam + lyap

In setences 1 to 11 there are two actions, one following the other. The verbs "come", "read", "refer", "enter", "collect", and "go near" are suffixed with (lyap pratyaya), as these represent the action preceeding the other action, and are prefixed with prepositions ( / upasarga).

Grammatical Rule: If the verb expressing the action preceeding another action, is prefixed with preposition or (upasarga) like (pra), (aa), with (upa), (paraa), (nir), (sam), (ni), (abhi), (niH), (lyap (vi), (adhi), (ut), (pari), (anu) etc., will be suffixed pratyaya).

Grammatical Rule: The verb prefixed with preposition ( / upasarga) can have a different meaning, than the original verb.

In the sentences 1, 5, 7 and 11 the prefixed verbs have a different meaning

than

the

original

verbs.

Grammatical Rule: The verb with (lyap) suffix is independent of number and gender of the subject (noun) and is used as indeclinable.

In the above sentences the

(lyap) suffixed verbs are independent of

the subjects. They are not following the number and gender of the subjects. Followings are the verbs.
Commonly Used Verb dhaatu lyap Verb dhaatu lyap (lyap pratyaya) Forms Verb dhaatu lyap

(lyap pratyaya) form of few commonly used

get aap save chi bring nii go gam

praapya saJNchitya aaniiya upagamya

go sthaa read i collect, accept grah

prasthaaya adhitya sa.ngRRihya

defeat ji enter vish salute nam

paraajitya pravishya praNamya

<< Prev

- Index - Next >>

/ lyuT pratyaya (Verb As Object):

In this chapter we will study the the sentence. action This in helps the

(lyuT pratyaya). Using this an object ( used to / karma) express in

(pratyaya) the verb can be expressed as substituting / kRRi) is sentence.

complex verb forms with simpler alternatives. The verb "do" ( the

In other words - the subject, object and verb of a sentence undergoes the following transformation, when (lyuT) is applied to the verb. Sentence Elements Subject kartaa Object karma Verb kriyaa Normal Form Nominative Case prathamaavibhakti Accusative Case dvitiiyaavibhakti tipN^tapada Form With (lyuT) Applied Nominative Case prathamaavibhakti Genitive Case ShaShThiivibhakti

lyuT pratya

Study the following sentences. These are using English 1. The boy will go. Sanskrit Verb + lyuT Suffix + (dhaatu + lyuT) = +

(lyuT pratyaya).

Comments

baalakaH gamanam kariShyati saa shayanam kariShyati

If the sentences were not in (lyuT pratyaya) form gamanam = gam the verb forms would + lyuT have been = + (gamiShyati), (shayaate) shayanam = shii + lyuT = + dhaavanam = dhaav + lyuT = +

2. She will sleep.

(dhaaviShyataH), (daasyanti), (paThiShyaami), (smatiShyaamaH),

3. Both of them will run. tau dhaavanam kariShyataH 4. They

(gamiShyasi), (paThiShyathaH) and (drakshatha).

will donate rice.

te taNDulasya daanam kariShyanti

daanam = daa + lyuT

5. I will read the aha.n pustakasya book. paThanam kariShyaami 6. Both of us will listen. aavaa.n shravaNam kariShyaavaH 7. We will remember the subject.

paThanam = paTh + lyuT =

shravaNam = shru + lyuT

vaya.n viShayasya smaraNam kariShyaamaH tva.n kaaryaalayasya gamanam kariShyasi yuvaa.n paThanam kariShyathaH yuya.n devaalayasya

smaraNaani = smRRi + lyuT

8. You will go to office.

= +

gamanam = gam + lyuT =

9. Both of you will read. 10. All of you will see the temple.

paThanam = paTh + lyuT = +

darshanam = dRRish + lyuT

darshanam kariShyatha 11. You should not speak tava kathana.n like na uchitam this. 12. Roaming in the evening is good. saaya.n bhramaNa.n hitakaram kathana.n = kath + lyuT = = + -

bhramaNa.n = bhram + lyuT

In setences 1 to 12 the verbs "go", "sleep", "run", "donate", "read", "listen", "remember", "see", "speak" and "roam" have been substituted with their (lyuT) form, converting them into object or represent the action or (kRRi dhaatu) (karma) of the setence. To been used. (kriyaa) the appropriate verb form of "do" or has

Grammatical Rule: The verb form is used as the object or (karma) in the setence, and has the same form as the accusative case singular of word "fruit" ( / phalashabda dvitiiyaavibhakti ekavachana). Grammatical Rule: If the sentence has case is replaced with the genitive case. a (object) then the accusative

In setences 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 the words "rice", "book", "subject", "office" and "temple" are the objects. Since, the (lyuT) form of the verbs are used in the setences, the objects are in genitive case form instade of accusative case form.
Grammatical Rule: The (lyuT pratyaya) can also be used as subject.

In setences 11 and 12 the (lyuT) form of the words "speak" and "roam" are used as subjects. Followings are the verbs. (lyuT pratyaya) form of few commonly used

Commonly Used Verb dhaatu lyuT Verb dhaatu

(lyuT pratyaya) Forms Verb lyuT dhaatu lyuT

read paTh sleep shii run dhaav take nii go gam remember smRRi

paThanam shayanam dhaavanam nayanam gamanam smaraNam

do kRRi roam bhram listen shru give daa speak vach be bhuu

karaNam bhramaNam shravaNam daanam vachanam bhavanam

drink paa speak bhaaSh see dRRish accept grah serve sev come + aa + gam
<< Prev

paanam bhaaShaNam darshanam grahaNam sevanam aagamanam

- Index - Next >>

/ ktavatu pratyaya (Past Tense):

In this chapter we will study the

(ktavatu pratyaya). The verb-form with this suffix is used in active voice ( / kartRRivaachya) sentences to express past tense. This is a simpler alternative to (laTlakaara) verb-form. (ktavatu

Study the following sentences. These are using pratyaya). English Sanskrit Verb + ktavatu Suffix (gender, number)

Comments

) dhaatu + ktavatu (liN^ga, vachana) = + The sentences are in active 1. I went to aha.n (, ) voice with temple. devaalaya.n gatavaan = gam + (ktavatu) gatavaan ktavatu (pu.n, eka) suffixed words expressing past = + tense. The 2. You went verb-forms are (, ) tva.n to school. same gatavaan = gam + vidyaalaya.n ktavatu (pu.n, eka) irrespective of gatavaan the person ( / puruSha). = + 3. He went (, ) saH to office. gatavaan = gam + kaaryaalaya.n ktavatu (pu.n, eka) gatavaan 4. The boy went home. baalakaH gRRiha.n gatavaan = + (, ) gatavaan = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, eka) = + (, ) gatavantau = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, dvii) = + (, ) gatavantau = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, dvii) = + (, ) gatavantau = gam +

5. Both of us went.

aavaa.n gatavantau

6. Both of you went.

yuvaa.n gatavantau

7. Both of them went.

tau gatavantau

ktavatu (pu.n, dvii) 8. All of us vaya.n went. gatavantaH = + (, ) gatavantaH = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, bahuu) = + (, ) gatavantaH = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, bahuu) 10. All of them went. te gatavantaH = + (, ) gatavantaH = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, bahu) The subject in each sentence ( , ) is in feminine gatavatii = gam + gender ( ktavatu (strii, / striiliN^ga). eka) The verb-form = + has taken the form of the ( , ) word "river" gatavatyau = gam + ( / nadii). ktavatu (strii, dvii) = + ( , ) gatavatyaH = gam + ktavatu (strii, bahu) = + (, ) gatavaan = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, eka) The subject in each sentence is in masculine gender ( / = +

9. All of you went.

yuuya.n gatavantaH

11. The girl went to baalikaa temple. devaalaya.n gatavatii 12. Both the girls went baalike to school. vidyaalaya.n gatavatyau 13. All the girls went home. baalikaaH gRRiha.n gatavatyaH baalakaH vipaNi.n

14. The boy went to market.

gatavaan 15. Both the boys went to baalakau school. vidyaalaya.n gatavantau 16. All the boys went home. baalakaaH gRRiha.n gatavantaH yaanam gatavat

puliN^ga). The verb-form has = + taken the form of the word (, ) gatavantau = gam + "you" ( / ktavatu (pu.n, bhavat). dvii) = + (, ) gatavantaH = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, bahuu) The subject in each sentence ( , ) is in neuter gatavat = gam + gender ( ktavatu (na, eka) / = + napu.nliN^ga). The verb-form (, ) has taken the gatavatii = gam + form of the ktavatu (na, dvii) word "sir" = + ( / shriimat). ( , ) gatavanti = gam + ktavatu (na, bahu) / kartRRivaachya) / vachana) = +

17. The vehicle went.

18. Both the vehicles yaane gatavatii went.

19. All the vehicles went.

yaanaani gatavanti

Grammatical Rule: In active voice ( sentences the verb with and gender (

(ktavatu) suffix is used to express

action in past tense; and it follows the number (

/ liN^ga) of the subject ( / kartaa). (ktavatu) suffixed word does not / puruSha) of the subject, and has the / uttamapuruSha), second /

Grammatical Rule: The follow the person (

same verb-form for first person (

person ( / madhyamapuruSha) and third person ( prathamapuruSha). The sentences 1, 2, 3 and 4 have "I" ( / asmad), "you" ( /

yuShmad), "he" ( / tad) and "boy" ( / baala) as subjects in singular ( all is are in dual ( in plural ( / ekavachana) form. The verb-form used for (gatavantyau) as the (gatavantaH) as the (ktavatu) verb-form is (gatavaan). Similarly, sentences 5 to 7 subjects ( / kartaa) / dviivachana) form with / bahuvachana) form with

(ktavatu) verb-form. The sentences 8 to 10 subjects ( / kartaa) are (ktavatu) verb-form. In all the sentences the not affected by the persons or

(puruSha) of the subject ( / kartaa). (puruSha) follows a different verb-

This makes (ktavatu) suffix a simpler alternative to (laTlakaara) where each person or form.

Grammatical Rule: The

(ktavatu) suffixed word follows the / /

noun-form of "you" ( / bhavat), "river" ( / nadii) and "sir" ( / shriimat) words to express masculine ( puliN^ga), feminine ( / striiliN^ga) and neuter ( napu.nliN^ga) genders respectively.

The sentences 1 to 19 are expressing action in past tense. In sentences 1 to 10 and 14 to 16 the subjects are in masculine gender ( / puliN^ga) and the corresponding (ktavatu) suffixed words are following the form of word "you" ( / bhavat). The subjects in sentences 11 to 13 are in feminine gender ( / striiliN^ga), and the respective (ktavatu) / suffixed words are following the form of word "river" ( / nadii). Similarly, in the sentences 17 to 19 the subjects are in neuter gender ( of word "sir" ( / shriimat). napu.nliN^ga), and the (ktavatu) suffixed words are following the form

Followings are the used verbs. Only

(ktavatu pratyaya) form of few commonly case singular ( /

the nominative

prathamaavibhakti ekavachana) form is given following the noun-form of "you" ( / bhavat), "river" ( / nadii) and "sir" ( / shriimat) words, for each gender.
Commonly Used Verb dhaatu ktavatu Verb dhaatu ktavatu (ktavatu pratyaya) Forms Verb dhaatu ktavatu

eat khaad

, , khaaditavaan, khaaditavatii , khaaditavat

go gam

sing gai

gatavaan, gatavatii, gatavat , , patitavaan, patitavatii, patitavat

giitavaan, giitavatii, giitavat , ,

take , , nii niitavaan, niitavatii, niitavat see ,

fall pat

worship puuj

puujitavaan, puujitavatii, puujitavat , , kathitavaan, kathitavatii, kathitavat , ,

, accep , t , dRRis dRRiShTavaan, gRRihiitavaan, h grah dRRiShTavatii gRRihiitavatii , dRRiShTavat , gRRihiitavat know dnyaa , , dnyaatavaan, dnyaatavatii, dnyaatavat , , bhiitavaan, do kRRi , ,

tell kath

ask

fear bhii

kRRitavaan, kRRitavatii, kRRitavat -

prachch pRRiShTavaan, h pRRiShTavatii , pRRiShTavat -

bhiitavatii, bhiitavat
<< Prev

- Index - Next >> (kta

/ kta pratyaya (Past Tense):

In this chapter we will study the

pratyaya). The verb-form with this suffix is used in passive voice and impersonal voice sentences to expresspast tense. This is a simpler alternative to (laTlakaara) verb-form. Study the following sentences. These are using Verb + kta Suffix (gender, number) + ( , ) dhaatu + kta (liN^ga, vachana) (, ) gataH = gam + / karmavaachya). The kta (pu.n, suffixed words are eka) following the number ( / vachana) and = gender ( / liN^ga) + (, ) likhitaani = of the objects ( / karma). likh + kta (na, bahu) = + ( , ) pRRiShTaa = pRRichchh + kta (strii, eka) = + Sentences are in passive voice( (kta pratyaya).

English

Sanskrit

Comments

1. The school was gone by Rama 2. The answers were written by the students.

raameNa vidyaalayaH gataH chchhaatraiH uttaraaNi likhitaani

3. The girl was asked shikshakena by the baalaa teacher. pRRiShTaa

4. The fruit was eaten by him.

= (, ) khaaditam = khaad + kta (na, eka) = + (, ) paThite = paTh + kta (na, dvii) =

tena phalam khaaditam

5. The two books were read by you.

tvayaa pustake paThite

6. The book was read by yuvaabhyaam both of pustakam you. paThitam 7. The fruits were yusmaabhiH eaten by all of you. phalaani khaaditaani 8. The village was mayaa graamaH gone by me. gataH 9. The game was played by both of aavaabhyaam kriiDaa us. kriDitaa 10. The books were asmaabhiH read by us. pustakaani paThitaani 11. Gone by

(, ) paThitam = paTh + kta (na, eka) = + (, ) khaaditaani = khaad + kta (na, bahu) = + (, ) gataH = gam + kta (pu.n, eka) = + ( , ) kriDitaa = kriD + kta (strii, eka) = + (, ) paThitaani = paTh + kta (na, bahu) = + Sentences are

Rama.

raameNa gatam

12. Laughed baalaabhiH by girls. hasitam

13. Written tvayaa by you. likhitam

(, ) in impersonal voice or / gatam = gam + ( kta (na, eka) bhaavavaachya). The = + (kta) suffixed words are innominative (, ) case singular( hasitam = has / + kta (na, prathamaavibhakti eka) ekavachana) of the = neuter word "fruit" + (, ) (phala). likhitam = likh + kta (na, eka) = + ( , ) kRRitam = kRRi + kta (na, eka) = (, ) kriiDitam = kriiD + kta (na, eka) = + (, ) niitaH = nii + kta (pu.n, eka) = + (, ) dattau = daa + kta (pu.n, dvii) = + (, ) paThitaaH = Senences are in active voice( / kartRRivaachya). The (kta) suffixed words are following the gender ( / +

14. Done by me. mayaa kRRitam

15. Played by us. asmaabhiH kriiDitam

16. I took money.

aha.n dhana.n niitaH

17. Both of us gave aavaa.n tasmai him. dattau 18. We read the book. vaya.n

liN^ga), number ( / vachana) and case ( / vibhakti) of the subject ( / kartaa).

pustakam paThitaaH 19. You took the book. tva.n pustaka.n niitaH

paTh + kta (pu.n, bahu) = + (, ) niitaH = nii + kta (pu.n, eka) = + (, ) dRRiShTau = dRRish + kta (pu.n, dvii) = +

20. Both of you saw the yuvaa.n chandra.n moon. dRRiShTau

21. All of you drank water.

(, ) yuuya.n jala.n niitaaH = pii piitaaH + kta (pu.n, bahu) = + (, ) gataH = gam + kta (pu.n, eka) = +

22. He went saH gRRIha.n home. gataH

23. Both of them went tau to school. vidyaalaya.n gatau te anna.n khaaditaaH

(, ) gatau = gam + kta (pu.n, dvii) = + (, ) khaaditaaH = khaad + kta (pu.n, bahu) = + (, ) sthitaH = sthaa + kta

24. They ate rice.

25. Rama stayed in forest.

raamaH vane sthitaH

(pu.n, bahu) 26. The girl laughed loudly. baalikaa uchchaiH hasitaa = + ( , ) hasitaa = has + kta (strii, eka) = +

27. Both the girls sat on the seat.

( , ) aaste = aas + baalike aasane kta (strii, aaste dvii) kannyaaH chalachitra.n dRRiShTaaH yaana.n gatam ( , ) dRRiShTaaH = dRRish + kta (strii, bahu) = + (, ) gatam = gam + kta (na, eka) = + (, ) patitam = patite + kta (na, dvii) = + = +

28. The girls were watching movie.

29. The vehicle went.

30. Two fruits fall from the tree.

phale vRRikshaat patite

31. The books were in the box. pustakaani peTikaayaam sthitaani

(, ) sthitaani = sthaa + kta (na, bahu) The (kta) suffixed words have been used ( , ) / datta.n = daa as adjective( + kta (na, visheShaNa) while eka) expressing sense = +

32. The given book. datta.n pustakam

33. The written poem.

likhita.n giitam

+ of past tense.

(, ) likhita.n = likh + kta (na, eka) = + (, ) kriitaani = krii + kta (na, bahu) = + (, ) pat = itrans_verb + kta (na, bahu) = (, ) khaaditam = khaad + kta (na, eka) (kta) suffix follows the / / +

34. The bought books.

kriitaani pustaka

35. The fallen leaves.

patitaani patraani

36. The eaten food. khaaditam khaadyam

Grammatical Rule: The verb with

noun-form of "boy" ( / baala), "creeper" ( /lataa) and "fruit" ( / phala) words to expressmasculine ( puliN^ga), feminine ( / striiliN^ga) and neuter ( napu.nliN^ga) genders respectively. In the sentences above all the verbs with (kta) suffix are following the noun-form of these words to express different genders.

Grammatical Rule: In passive voice ( case (

/ karmavaachya),

the subject ( / kartaa) will be in instrumental / tRRitiiyaavibhakti), the object( / karma) / prathamaavibhakti) and will be in nominal case (

the verb with

(kta) suffix will follow the number (

vachana) and gender (

/ liN^ga) of the object ( / karma).

The sentences 1 to 10 are in passive voice, and are following this rule.

Grammatical Rule: In impersonal voice or the verb with case singular ( of the neuter form.

(bhaavavaachya),

(kta) suffix follows the nominative / prathamaavibhakti ekavachana)

The sentences 11 to 15 are in impersonal voice, and are following this rule.

Grammatical Rule: In active voice ( sentence the verb with tense ( liN^ga), number (

/ kartRRivaachya) /

(kta) suffix expressing past

/ laN^lakaara), follows the gender(

/ vachana) and case ( / vibhakti) of

the subject ( / kartaa). The sentences 16 to 31 are in active voice, and the verb form in each follows the noun form of the subject ( / kartaa).

Grammatical Rule: The

(kta) suffixed word expressing past / visheShaNa).

tense can be used as adjective (

The sentences 32 to 36 express sense of past tense using (kta) suffix, and these words are used as adjective ( / visheShaNa).

Followings are the verbs. Only

(kta pratyaya) form of few commonly used case singular ( /

the nominative

prathamaavibhakti ekavachana) form is given following the noun form of boy ( / baala), creeper ( /lataa) and fruit ( / phala) words, for each gender.
Commonly Used Verb dhaatu kta Verb dhaatu kta (kta pratyaya) Forms Verb dhaatu kta

do kRRI

kRRitaH, kRRitaa, kRRitam , ,

go gam

gataH, gataa, gatam , , ukta, uktaa, uktam , , piitaH, piitaa, piitam

read paTh

, , paThitaH, paThitaa, paThitam

write likh

speak vad

likhitaH, likhitaa, likhitam , , niitaH, niitaa, niitam

tell kath

, , kathitaH,kathitaa, kathitam

take nii

drink paa

accept grah

, , gRRIhiitaH, gRRIhiitaa, gRRIhiitam

see dRRish

, ,

ask

, ,

prachchh dRRiShTaH, pRRiShTaH, dRRIShTaa, pRRiShTaa, dRRiShTam pRRiShTam play stay , , , , kriiD sthaa kriiDitaH, sthitaH,

be, , , happen bhuutaH, bhuutaa, bhuutam bhuu give daa , , dattaH, dattaa, dattam

kriiDitaa, kriiDitam know dnyaa , , listen shru dnyaataH, dnyataa, dnyatam

sthitaa, sthitam , , shrutaH, shrutaa, shrutam kill han , , hataH, hataa, hatam

<< Prev

- Index - Next >>