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Mass & Balance

Exam 2, 30 questions, 60 minutes 1. An aeroplane with a two wheel nose gear and four main wheels rests on the ground with a single nose wheel load of 725 kg and a single main wheel load of 6000 kg. The distance between the nose wheels and the main wheels is 10 meters. How far is the centre of gravity in front of the main wheels? (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. 25 cm 57 cm 400 cm 40 cm

The operating mass of an aeroplane is: (a) (b) (c) (d) The empty mass plus the take-off fuel mass. The empty mass plus crew, crew baggage and catering equipment The dry operating mass plus the take-off fuel mass. The empty mass plus the trip fuel mass.

3.

What effect has a centre of gravity close to the forward limit? (a) (b) (c) (d) A A A A better rate of climb capability reduction in the specific fuel consumption decreased induced drag reduced rate of climb capability

4.

The specimen aircraft SEP1 described in Section II of CAP 696 is to be loaded with a box of heavy equipment evenly placed across baggage zones B and C. The dimensions of the box are 3ft 0 by 2ft 6 and the mass is 460lb. Before loading the box the total aircraft mass was 3120lb and the C of G position was 84.02 aft. After loading which of the following statements is true? (i) (ii) (iii) (a) (b) (c) (d) The total mass is less than the MTOM The floor loading is inside limits The C of G is inside limits (i) only (i) and (ii) only (ii) and (iii) only (i) (ii) and (iii)

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

5.

Use Annex A, if required, to complete this question A scheduled flight of three hours estimated flight time, within Europe, is to be conducted. Using the data for the maximum certificated mass given within CAP 696 for the medium range twin jet aeroplane, calculate the maximum extra mass of freight that may be loaded in the following circumstances: Performance limited take-off mass 67 900 kg Performance limited landing mass 56 200 kg Dry Operating Mass 34 960 kg Fuel on board at ramp 15 800 kg Taxi fuel 450 kg Trip fuel 10 200 kg Passengers (adults/each 84kg) 115 (children/each 35kg) 6 Allow standard baggage for each passenger (13 kg). Select your answer from the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) 1047 kg 857 kg 4987 kg 3347 kg

6.

JAR OPS permits the use of fleet masses and centre of gravity calculations under certain circumstances. With regard to the regulations concerning fleet values and centre of gravity positions which of the following is true? (a) (b) (c) (d) Aircraft covered by such calculations do not need to be weighed Only aircraft that express the centre of gravity as a %MAC can employ such methods Fleet mass evaluations must be carried out at least every nine years Centre of gravity calculations on aircraft treated as part of a fleet do not need to be modified by the effect of equipment changes on individual aircraft

7.

The MTOM of an aircraft is given as 167,000kg, the MZFM is 102,000kg, the MLM 108,000kg and the DOM 63,000kg. If the total fuel mass at take-off is 37,500kg of which 33,000kg is used for trip fuel what is the allowable traffic load? (a) (b) (c) (d) 66,500 39,000 40,500 61,500 kg kg kg kg

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

8.

Use the data for MRJT 1 in Section IV of CAP 696 to answer this question. The maximum fuel load for this aircraft is approximately: (a) (b) (c) (d) 1200 kg 1800 kg 16100 kg 32200 kg

9.

Use the data for MRJT 1 in Section IV of CAP 696 to answer this question. A load is to be placed in the central section of the forward cargo compartment between the basic moment arms (BA) of 286 and 343. The dimensions of the load are 30 by 30 by 30 and the mass is 480 kg. Which of the following statements is true? (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (a) (b) (c) (d) The The The The maximum compartment load is exceeded maximum compartment running load is exceeded maximum distribution load intensity is exceeded compartment centroid is exceeded

(ii) and (iii) (ii) and (iv) (i) (ii) (iii) and (iv) (i) (ii) and (iii)

10.

Use the data for SEP 1 in Section II of CAP 696 to answer this question. The distance of the main undercarriage from the firewall is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 97.0 58.0 87.7 48.7

11.

Use the data at figure 2.3 for SEP 1 in Section II of CAP 696 to answer this question. The weight of 63 US gallons of fuel is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 360 378 385 390 lbs lbs lbs lbs

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

12.

Use the data at figure 4.4 for MRJT 1 in Section IV of CAP 696 to answer this question. The aircraft centre of gravity is calculated at 22%MAC. With flaps 15 set for take-off the required stabiliser trim setting is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 3.6 3.3 4.7 2.4 units units units units

13.

An aircraft loaded so that the centre of gravity lies towards the rear of the approved envelope would, compared to an aircraft loaded with a forward centre of gravity, experience: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (a) (b) (c) (d) reduced range an decreased stalling speed an increased stalling speed a tendency for the nose to drop in the landing flare increased range increased induced drag a tendency for the nose to rise early on rotation (i) (iii) (vi) (vii) (i) (ii) (iv) (vi) (iii) (v) (vii) (ii) (v) (vii)

14.

An aircraft with two holds is loaded so that the total mass is 67,300kg and the centre of gravity at 573 aft of the datum. The holds are at 580 aft and 360 aft of the datum. How much mass would have to be moved from the aft hold to the forward hold to position the centre of gravity at 570 aft? (a) (b) (c) (d) 830 kg 917 kg 989 kg 1045 kg

15.

Use the data for MEP 1 in Section III of CAP 696 to answer this question. If the aircraft is at MTOM with full tanks and a pilot mass of 200lb what traffic load can be carried if 80 gallons of fuel are used in flight? (a) (b) (c) (d) none 1060 lb 602 lb 845 lb

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

16.

Use the data for MEP 1 in Section III of CAP 696 and Annex B to answer this question. The TOM is 4300lb and the corresponding moment is 399,900 lbin the centre of gravity position is (a) (b) (c) (d) 1.6 forward of the aft limit 92 aft of the datum 107 aft of the datum 5 aft of the forward limit

17.

Use the data for MRJT 1 in Section IV of CAP 696 and the partially completed load sheet at Annex C to answer this question. The allowed traffic load is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 13,000 14,000 18,400 18,100 kg kg kg kg

18.

Aircraft must be weighed (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (a) (b) (c) (d) On entry into service with an operator Every 4 years unless fleet averages are used If the mass and balance records have not been adjusted for modifications When the changes to the DOM exceed 0.5% of the MLM When the C of G moves through more than 0.5% of the MAC When the MTOM varies by more than 0.5% (i) (ii) (iii) and (iv) (ii) (iii) (iv) and (v) (i) (ii) (iv) (v) and (vi) (ii) (iii) (iv) and (vi)

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

19.

Use the data for MEP1 in Section III of CAP 696 and the following information to complete the manifest below. Pilot and front passenger Passengers (centre seats) Baggage zone 3 Baggage zone 1 Fuel load at start Taxi fuel Trip fuel
Mass (Lbs.) 3210

395 lb 350 lb 180 lb 90 lb 90 USG 4 USG 70 USG


Arm Aft Of Datum (IN) 88.5 85.5 118.5 157.6 22.5 178.7 MOMENT (IN/Lbs)

ITEM Basic Empty Mass Pilot and Front Passenger Passengers (Centre Seats) or Baggage Zone 2 (360 LB Max.) Passengers (Rear Seats) or Baggage Zone 3 (400 LB Max.) Baggage Zone 1 (100 LB Max.) Baggage Zone 4 (100 LB Max.) Zero Fuel Mass (4470 LB Max - Std) Fuel (123 Gal. Max) Ramp Mass (4773 LB Max) Fuel Allowance for Start, Taxi, Run-up Take-off Mass (4750 LB Max.) Minus Estimated Fuel Burn-off Landing Mass (4513 LB Max.)

284085 33773 41475 28368 2025 389726 +50544 440270

395 350 180 90 4225 540 4765

92.2
93.6

92.4
93.6

93.6

Use the information from the completed form to choose the correct answer from the options below (a) (b) (c) (d) Maximum mass limits are 92.3 aft for take-off Maximum mass limits are 93.6 aft for landing Maximum mass limits are is 93.6 aft for take-off Maximum mass limits are is 92.3 aft for landing exceeded and the centre of gravity is exceeded and the centre of gravity is not exceeded and the centre of gravity not exceeded and the centre of gravity

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

20.

Use the data for MRJT 1 in Section IV of CAP 696 and the completed section of a load and trim sheet at Annex D to answer this question. Choose the correct combination from the answers below to complete this statement: If ten passengers were moved from passenger Zone F to Zone A the centre of gravity would be at ..and the stabiliser trim setting for a Flaps 5 take-off would be.. (a) (b) (c) (d) 14.6%MAC 14.6%MAC 17.2%MAC 4.0%MAC 4.4 units 5.6 units 4.0 units 17 units

21.

Mass and Balance documentation (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (a) (b) (c) (d) must be prepared prior to each flight must enable the commander to determine the load and its distribution is such that the mass and balance limits of the aircraft are not exceeded must include the name of the person preparing the document must be signed by the person supervising the loading to the effect that the load and its distribution is in accordance with the data on the document must include the aircraft commanders signature to signify acceptance of the document (i) and (iii) only (i) (ii) (iii) and (v) only (ii) (iv) and (v) only (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) and (v)

22.

The Traffic Load: (a) (b) (c) (d) includes the mass of passengers and baggage but excludes any non-revenue load includes the mass of passengers, baggage and cargo but excludes non-revenue load includes the mass of passengers, baggage, cargo and nonrevenue load includes the mass of passengers, baggage, and non-revenue load but excludes cargo

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

23.

The aircraft shown below has a recorded force of 540 Newtons (N) on the nosewheel and 8920 N and 8880 N on each mainwheel.
Datum

84cm 264cm

The Total Mass is . and the centre of gravity is.. (a) (b) (c) (d) 24. 1834 1871 1797 1834 kg kg kg kg 172 cm behind the nose wheel 5 cm in front of the main wheels 256 cm aft of the datum 242 cm aft of the datum

Refer to the data for MRJT 1 in CAP 696 to answer this question. The datum point is: (a) (b) (c) (d) the aircraft nose the forward bulkhead 540 forward of the front spar body station zero

25.

Refer to the data for MRJT 1 in CAP 696 to answer this question. The moment of the unusable fuel in the centre and wing tanks is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 599 kg inches 1799 kg inches 31194 kg inches 22808 kg inches

26.

Refer to the data for MRJT 1 in CAP 696 to answer this question. The fuel index for a mass of fuel of 14080 kg at a SG of 0.79 is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 11.1 11.7 12.3 12.9

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

27.

Use the conversion data in Section I of CAP 696 to answer this question. The mass of 320 Imperial Gallons of JET A1 fuel with a specific gravity of 0.80 is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 1453 1816 1242 1162 kg kg kg kg

28.

An aircraft with a MTOM of 195,000kg, a MZFM of 142,000kg, a MRM of 195,500kg, a DOM of 112,600kg and a MLM of 154,000kg carries a fuel load of 65,000kg at the ramp of which 500kg is burnt during start and taxy and 57,000kg is trip fuel. The traffic load is 17,000kg, the underload is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 900 kg 12400 kg 16900 kg nil

29.

An aircraft has a centre of gravity 540 aft of the datum. The leading edge of the Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) is 526 aft of the datum and the length of the MAC is 57. The position of the centre of gravity expressed as a percentage of the MAC is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 23.8 24.6 25.7 27.2

30.

JAR OPS specifies that for fleet sizes of more than ten aircraft the number of weighings required between fleet weighings should be (n + 51) 10 where n is (a) (b) (c) (d) the the the the number number number number of of of of aircraft manufactured aircraft certificated in JAA states years between weighings aircraft in the fleet

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

Intentionally Blank

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

Mass & Balance


Exam 2, 30 Questions, 60 Minutes

A B C D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

A B C D

Name:

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 b c d b b b b c a b 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 b d d b c a a b d a 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 d c b c c b d a b d

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2

Prefix
Vlll

Adressees

Originator

Recharge

Date/Time

Initials

PASSENGER COMPARTMENT DIVISION


0a 0d 0f 18 21 - 23 24 24 16 - 20 11 - 15
Group/Cockpit Crew

Flight
0b 0c 0e 18 7 - 10 18 4-6

Annex A

/
ZERO FUEL
MAC at TOM Row 1-3

Date TAKE-OFF LANDING


Vlll
Cpt. No of Seats 15

Registration

Version

ALL MASSES IN KILOGRAM Crew Date


0g 18

DRY OPERATING MASS

MAXIMUM MASSES FOR

22 - 26

Take-off Fuel ................% C


DRY OPERATING INDEX: DRY OPERATING INDEX: 10 20 30 40 50 60 PITCH: 1000kg 70

+
Trip Fuel

/ =

Allowed Mass for Take-off Lowest of a, b, c

Cpt MASS/No
3 4 1 7 PITCH: 10 Pers PITCH: 10 Pers 10 Pers NO EFFECT 15 18 24 24 24 18 18 + 63,000 8 3 0 5

80

X 1000 kg

Bristol Groundschool
PITCH:1000kg 10 Pers PITCH:10 Pers PITCH:10 Pers

OPERATING MASS

Notes:

Allowed Traffic Load

Total Traffic Load

UNDERLOAD before LMC

=
0 F Y
FUEL INDEX

Dest.

No of

Ma

Fe

Ch

In

TOTAL

DISTRIBUTION MASS

Remarks PAX C

Tr

B .PAX/
Vlll

1 4 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 0g
_

+ FOR CREW ONLY: STAB. TRIM UNITS FOR T.O. FLAPS 5 ONLY

/ / /
.0/
60

.T
.PAX/

.1/ 10
55

Tr

.4/ 12 11

14 13

/ / /
Vlll

.T
LAST MINUTE CHANGES Dest Specification
45 50

.1/ .0/

.4/

15

16

17 % MAC

18

19 MZFM

20

21

22

23

24

25

T O T A L Cl/Cpt Plus Minus

Passenger Mass

TOTAL TRAFFIC LOAD

it l lim na tio era p o

Dry Operating Mass

ZERO FUEL MASS

Max
40

Take-off Fuel

3
op

TAKE-OFF MASS LOAD LMC (Total) TOF Adjustment TOTAL LMC +/=l

Max

n io at er

lim al

it

Trip Fuel

LANDING MASS

35

limit LIZFM LMC NOT INCLUDED


30 0 INDEX 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Max

SI

Prepared by:

Mass & Balance Exam 2

Approved by:

Annex B

4750 4600 4513 4470 4400 4200 4000 3800 3600 3400 3200 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200

MAX TO WT MAX LANDING WT MAX ZERO FUEL WT

90

88

86

84

82

AIRCRAFT WEIGHT - LBS

IT 82

Bristol Groundschool

IM FWD L

WEIGHT VS 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 CG ENVELOPE CG LOCATION (INCHES AFT DATUM)

Mass & Balance Exam 2

AFT LIM

IT 94.6

Prefix
Vlll

Adressees

Originator

Recharge

Date/Time

Initials

PASSENGER COMPARTMENT DIVISION


0a 0d 0f 18 21 - 23 24 24 16 - 20 11 - 15
Group/Cockpit Crew

Flight
0b 0c 0e 18 7 - 10 18 4-6

Annex C

/
ZERO FUEL TAKE-OFF LANDING
MAC at TOM DRY OPERATING INDEX: DRY OPERATING INDEX: 10 20 30 40 50 60 PITCH: 1000kg 70 Row 1-3

Date
Vlll
Cpt. No of Seats 15

Registration

Version

ALL MASSES IN KILOGRAM Crew Date


0g 18

DRY OPERATING MASS

33900
Trip Fuel
................%

MAXIMUM MASSES FOR

54900
+

22 - 26

Take-off Fuel

15900 6 7 2 0 06 2 8 0 06 6 9 0 0
3 4 1 7 PITCH: 10 Pers PITCH: 10 Pers 10 Pers NO EFFECT 15 18 24 24 24 18 18 + 63,000 8 3 0 5

51300 + 15900
A B

12000
=
C

Allowed Mass for Take-off Lowest of a, b, c

Cpt MASS/No

80

X 1000 kg

Bristol Groundschool
PITCH:1000kg 10 Pers PITCH:10 Pers PITCH:10 Pers

OPERATING MASS

Notes:

49800

Allowed Traffic Load

Total Traffic Load

UNDERLOAD before LMC

=
0 F Y
FUEL INDEX

Dest.

No of

Ma

Fe

Ch

In

TOTAL

DISTRIBUTION MASS

Remarks PAX C

Tr

B .PAX/
Vlll

1 4 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 0g
_

+ FOR CREW ONLY: STAB. TRIM UNITS FOR T.O. FLAPS 5 ONLY

/ / /
.0/
60

.T
.PAX/

.1/ 10
55

Tr

.4/ 12 11

14 13

/ / /
Vlll

.T
LAST MINUTE CHANGES Dest Specification
45 50

.1/ .0/

.4/

15

16

17 % MAC

18

19 MZFM

20

21

22

23

24

25

T O T A L Cl/Cpt Plus Minus

Passenger Mass

TOTAL TRAFFIC LOAD

it l lim na tio era p o

Dry Operating Mass

ZERO FUEL MASS

Max
40

Take-off Fuel

3
op

TAKE-OFF MASS LOAD LMC (Total) TOF Adjustment TOTAL LMC +/=l

Max

n io at er

lim al

it

Trip Fuel

LANDING MASS

35

limit LIZFM LMC NOT INCLUDED


30 0 INDEX 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Max

SI

Prepared by:

Mass & Balance Exam 2

Approved by:

Annex D
PASSENGER COMPARTMENT DIVISION
Cpt. No of Seats MAC at TOM Row 0a 15 1-3 0b 18 4-6 0c 18 7 - 10 0d 24 11 - 15 0e 24 16 - 20 0f 18 21 - 23 0g 18 22 - 26

Group/Cockpit Crew

................%

DRY OPERATING INDEX: DRY OPERATING INDEX: 10 20 PITCH: 1000kg 30 40 50 60

/ 2

= 45.0
70 80

Cpt

1 4 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 0g
FUEL INDEX

2 1 0 0
4 1 8 15 18

MASS/No 6 3 0
3 0 5

PITCH:1000kg PITCH: 10 Pers PITCH: 10 Pers 10 Pers NO EFFECT 10 Pers PITCH:10 Pers PITCH:10 Pers

20 20 10 15
18 18 + 63,000 24 24 24

- 9.9

+ FOR CREW ONLY: STAB. TRIM UNITS FOR T.O. FLAPS 5 ONLY

60

10
55

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

TOM

% MAC MZFM

50

op e ra n tio

X 1000 kg

al

45

lim it

5
40

3
op

io n at er

it lim al

35

limit LIZFM LMC NOT INCLUDED

30 0 INDEX 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Bristol Groundschool

Mass & Balance Exam 2