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Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination Physics

The following list of data, formulae and relationships will be provided in the question papers for candidates reference:

List of data, formulae and relationships Data molar gas constant Avogadro constant acceleration due to gravity universal gravitational constant speed of light in vacuum charge of electron electron rest mass permittivity of free space permeability of free space atomic mass unit astronomical unit light year parsec Stefan constant Planck constant Rectilinear motion For uniformly accelerated motion : v = u + at 1 s = ut + at 2 2 v2 = u2 + 2as R = 8.31 J mol1 K1 NA = 6.02 1023 mol1 g = 9.81 m s2 (close to the Earth) G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 c = 3.00 108 m s1 e = 1.60 1019 C me = 9.11 1031 kg 0 = 8.85 1012 C2 N1 m2 0 = 4 107 H m1 u = 1.661 1027 kg (1 u is equivalent to 931 MeV) AU = 1.50 1011 m ly = 9.46 1015 m pc = 3.09 1016 m = 3.26 ly = 206265 AU = 5.67 108 W m2 K4 h = 6.63 1034 J s Mathematics Equation of a straight line Arc length Surface area of cylinder Volume of cylinder Surface area of sphere Volume of sphere y = mx + c =r = 2rh + 2r2 = r2h = 4r2 =

4 3 r 3

For small angles, sin tan (in radians) Astronomy and Space Science Energy and Use of Energy E= illuminance A A(TH TC ) Q rate of energy transfer by conduction =k t d k U= thermal transmittance U-value d 1 maximum power by wind turbine P = Av 3 2 Medical Physics 1.22 Rayleigh criterion (resolving power) d 1 power = power of a lens f I L = 10 log intensity level (dB) I0 Z = c acoustic impedance 2 I ( Z Z1 ) = r = 2 intensity reflection coefficient I 0 ( Z 2 + Z1 ) 2

GMm U = r P = T 4
f v f0 c 0

gravitational potential energy Stefans law Doppler effect

Atomic World 1 me vmax 2 = hf 2


En =

Einsteins photoelectric equation

4 1 13.6 mee = 2 eV 2 2 2 n 8 h n 0 energy level equation for hydrogen atom

h h = p mv
1.22 d

de Broglie formula Rayleigh criterion (resolving power)

I = I 0 e x

transmitted intensity through a medium

A1. E = mc T A2. E = l m A3. A4.


pV = nRT

energy transfer during heating and cooling energy transfer during change of state equation of state for an ideal gas kinetic theory equation molecular kinetic energy

D1. D2. D3. D4. D5. D6.

F= E= V= E=

Q1Q2 4 0 r 2 Q 4 0 r 2 Q 4 0 r V d

Coulombs law electric field strength due to a point charge electric potential due to a point charge electric field between parallel plates (numerically) general current flow equation resistance and resistivity resistors in series resistors in parallel power in a circuit force on a moving charge in a magnetic field force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field Hall voltage magnetic field due to a long straight wire magnetic field inside a long solenoid induced e.m.f. ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage in a transformer

1 Nmc 2 3 3RT A5. EK = 2N A pV =

I = nAvQ

R=

l
A

B1. F = m

v p = Force t t
d moment of a force
gravitational potential energy kinetic energy mechanical power centripetal acceleration Newtons law of gravitation

D7. R = R1 + R2 D8. D9.

B2. moment = F B3. EP = mgh B4. EK =

1 1 1 = + R R1 R 2 P = IV = I 2 R

1 2 mv 2

D10. F = BQv sin D11. F = BIl sin D12. V = D13. B = D14. B =

B5. P = Fv B6. B7.

a= F=

v2 = 2r r Gm1 m2 r
2

BI nQt

0 I
2 r

0 NI

C1. C2. C3.

D y = a
d sin = n
1

fringe width in double-slit interference diffraction grating equation equation for a single lens

l D15. = N t Vs Ns D16. Vp N p

1 f

E1. E2. E3. E4.

N = N0ekt

law of radioactive decay half-life and decay constant activity and the number of undecayed nuclei mass-energy relationship

t1 =
2

ln 2 k

A = kN

E = mc 2

Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination Combined Science (Physics (Physics part)

The following list of data, formulae and relationships will be provided in the question papers for candidates reference:

List of data, formulae and relationships Data acceleration due to gravity speed of light in vacuum charge of electron electron rest mass permittivity of free space g = 9.81 m s2 (close to the Earth) c = 3.00 108 m s1 e = 1.60 1019 C me = 9.11 1031 kg 0 = 8.85 1012 C2 N1 m2

Rectilinear motion For uniformly accelerated motion : v = u + at 1 s = ut + at 2 2 v2 = u2 + 2as

Mathematics Equation of a straight line Arc length Surface area of cylinder Volume of cylinder Surface area of sphere Volume of sphere y = mx + c =r = 2rh + 2r2 = r2h = 4r2 =

4 3 r 3

For small angles, sin tan (in radians)

E = mc T E = l m

energy transfer during heating and cooling energy transfer during change of state

F= E=

Q1Q2 4 0 r 2 Q 4 0 r 2

Coulombs law electric field strength due to a point charge resistance and resistivity resistors in series resistors in parallel power in a circuit ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage in a transformer

R=
F=m

l
A

v p = t t
d

force moment of a force gravitational potential energy kinetic energy mechanical power

R = R1 + R2

moment = F

1 1 1 = + R R1 R 2

EP = mgh EK =

P = IV = I 2 R Vs N s Vp N p

1 2 mv 2

P = Fv