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The History of the Orthodox Church

ISOS LESSON II FALL 2003

SOURCES OF CHURCH HISTORY


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HOLY SCRIPTURE HOLY TRADITION SERVICE BOOKS OF THE CHURCH --SAINTS LIVES

THE HISTORIC RECORD

EARTHLY MINISTRY OF OUR LORD


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FROM THE ANNUNCIATION TO THE ASCENSION. WITNESSED TO BY THE EVANGELISTS IN THE GOSPELS. THE ACCOUNTS OF THE LIFE OF JESUS SPOKEN IN THE VOICES OF THOSE WHO SHARED THE EVENTS .

THE APOSTOLIC AGE


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BEGINS IN THE BOOK OF ACTS. STARTS WITH THE BIRTH OF THE CHURCH ON EARTH. ENDS WITH THE DEATH OF ST. JOHN THE THEOLOGIAN ON THE ISLAND OF PATMOS. TELLS THE STORY OF THE SPREAD OF THE NASCENT CHURCH.

PENTECOST

THE AGE OF THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS


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WORK OF THE APOSTLES CARRIED ON BY THOSE WHO HAD SAT AT THEIR FEET

THE CHURCH CONTINUES TO DEVELOP THE OFFICES AND FORM WE RECOGNIZE TODAY. EARLY DEFENSE OF CHURCH TEACHINGS AGAINST HERESIES BY THE APOLOGISTS.
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PERSECUTIONS OF THE CHURCH BEGIN.

CHRIST THE GREAT HIIGH PRIEST

FORMATIVE CENTURIES
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IMPACT OF CHRISTIAN HERESIES, THE CHURCH BEGINS TO DEFEND ITSELF AND TO DEAL WITH THE LAPSED. THE CHURCH SPREADS AND BECOMES AN URBAN SOCIAL FORCE. THE CANON OF SCRIPTURE WAS DEVELOPING INTO A FORM AND ORDER WE WOULD RECOGNIZE.

THE AGE OF THE GREAT COUNCILS

THE CHURCH DEFINES ITSELF

4TH - 9TH

CENTURIES

THE EDICT OF MILAN THE END OF PERSECUTIONS. EACH GREAT COUNCIL WAS CALLED TO CONFRONT SPECIFIC HERESIES OR TO SETTLE THE SPECIFIC QUESTIONS.
1. 2. 3.

WHO WAS JESUS ? WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE HOLY TRINITY ? HOW DOES HUMANITY RELATE TO GOD ?

FIRST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL

325 - NICAEA

ANSWERED THE HERESY OF ARIUS


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Jesus was created. Not of the same essence of the Father, The Spirit was also created the Holy Trinity was not of one essence.

Champions of Orthodoxy included the Fathers of the 1st Ecumenical Council. St. Athanasios, St. Spyridon, and St. Nicholas.
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z The

Rome, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem

THE FIRST PART OF OUR CREED WAS ADOPTED, DATE OF EASTER DISCUSSED, AND THE PRIMACY OF THE APOSTOLIC SEES -

PERIOD PEOPLE AND EVENTS


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FATHERS OF THE CHURCH: THE THREE HIERARCHS: THEOLOGY, LEARNING, LITURGIES and CHURCH PRACTICES. THE MONASTIC FATHERS AND MOTHERS SPIRITUAL GUIDES, HELPED TO DEVELOPE THE MONASTIC SYSTEM

CONSTANTINOPLE I (381)
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REAFIRMED NICEA I, COMPLETED THE CREED. TOPIC WAS THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE TRININARIAN RELATIONSHIPS. CONSTANTINOPLE The New Rome GIVEN RANK SECOND TO ROME.

COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON (451)


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REAFIRMS and FURTHER DEFINES THE COUNCIL OF EPHESUS. XC IS HOMOOUSIOS WITH BOTH GOD AND MAN. FULLY GOD AND FULLY MAN NEVER MIXED, CONFUSED OR DEMINISHED. RESULTS IN THE MONOPHYSITE SCHISM OTHER CANONS DEAL WITH POSITION OF CONSTANTINOPLE AND ROME.

LATER EVENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS


z DEATH OF THE BESSED AUGUSTINE

OF HIPPO. z EXPANTION OF THE LITURGICAL RITES ST. ROMANOS THE MELODIST. z THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN. z THE INSERTION OF THE FILIOQUE BY THE CHURCH OF SPAIN.

RAVENA

COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE III

( 680 681 6TH COUNCIL)

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CONDEMNED THE TEACHINGS OF SERGIOS AND HONORIOS , MONOTHELYTISM. CHAMPIONS OF ORTHODOXY ST. MAXIMOS THE CONFESSOR and ST. MARTIN, POPE OF ROME. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PERSONS ST. JOHN CLIMAKOS, and ST. ANDREW OF CRETE. ISLAM IS FOUNDED 622.

SEVENTH and EIGHTH CENTURIES


z AGE OF ICONOCLASM

LASTED ABOUT 120 YEARS IN TWO PHASES.

z CHAMPIONS OF THE FAITH ST. JOHN

OF DAMASCUS, ST. THEODORE THE STUDITE, THE ICONDULIC PATRIARCHS, STS. IRENE and THEODORA.

NICEAE II 787
z THE HUMANITY OF CHRIST WAS

REAFFIRMED. z THE PROTOTYPE IN ICONS ARE TO BE VENERATE; WORSHIP RESERVED FOR GOD ALONE. z THE POTENTIAL OF CREATION IS UNDERLINED z RESTORATION OF IMAGES NOT REALIZED UNTIL 843.

THE AGE OF PHOTIOS


z THE PHOTIAN SCHISM z THE SLAVIC MISSION z THE LITURGICAL EXPANSION OF THE

GREAT FAST

THE SPREAD of the FAITH


z BULGARIA

and KIEV

z TIES to CONSTANTINOPLE. z MOSLEM CONQUEST CONTINUE.

THE GREAT SCHISM


z 1054 ESTRANGEMENT NEARLY

COMPLETE. z SEPARATION SEALED WITH THE FOURTH CRUSADE. z ORTHODOXY SPREADS IN THE NORTH. z COUNCIL OF LYONS FALSE UNION z SERBIAN CHURCH BECOMES INDEPENDENT.

FIGURES OF NOTE 14TH CENTURY

z GREGORY PALMAS VS. BARLAAM z ST. ANDRE RUBLEV z ST. SERGIUS OF RADONEZH z ST. CLEMENT OF OCHRID z ST. NICHOLAS CABASILAS

THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST


z CONSTANTINOPLE

FALLS 1453 z BEGINNING OF PERIODS OF REPRESSION AND RELAXATION. z INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF AUTHORITY IN THE PATRIARCH. z LOSS OF INSTITUTIONS. z THE NEW MARTYRS

16 TH CENTURY
z IVAN THE TERRIBLE z UNIATE MOVEMENT

BREST LITOVSK. z PROTESTANT REFORMATION PATRIARCH JERMIAH II REACTION. z CATHOLIC COUNCIL OF TRENT.

- UNION OF

17TH CENTURY
z CYRIL LUKARIS

INFLUENCE. z PETER MOGILA WESTERN INFLUENCE. z OLD BELIEVERS SCHISM. z PETER THE GREAT WESTERNIZES THE CHURCH OF RUSSIA. z SERBIAN AND BULGARIAN CHURCHES FORCED INTO CONSTANTINOPLES SPHERE OF INTEREST BY TURKS.

- CALVANIST

18TH CENTURY
z MOUNT ATHOS LEADS REVIVAL OF

LEARNING AND BUDDING NATIONAL IDENTITY.

z RUSSIAN MISSIONARY ACTIVITY IN

ALASKA. 1794. z SAINT AUGUSTINE COLONY IN FLA. 1768.

19TH CENTURY
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BEGINNING OF THE NATIONALISTIC FURVOR IN THE ORTHODOX LANDS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. GREEK WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE. TURKISH REACTION. RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL RENEWAL. BEGINNING OF THE GREAT IMMIGRATION. NEW ORLEANS 1864, GALVESTON TX, 1864.

20TH CENTURY
z GROWTH OF ALL JURISDICTIONS IN

AMERICA. z WESTERN EUROPE z AUSTRALIA z COMMUNISM AND FREEDOM LATE IN THE CENTURY. z FOUNDATION OF HOLY CROSS AND ST. VLADIMIRS.

SUPPLEMENTAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
Yannaras, C. (1991) Elements of Faith: An Introduction to Orthodox Theology (Alphavtari ths pisths), trans. by K. Schram, T&T Clark, Edinburgh. Ware, K. (1997) The Orthodox Church, New Edition, Penguin Books, London. Hopko, T. (1973) The Orthodox Faith: vol. 3 - Bible and Church History, An Elementary Handbook on the Orthodox Church, DRE - OCA, Crestwood NY. Pelikan, J. (1977) The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600 -1700) - vol. 2, The Christian Tradition - in 5 Volumes - A History of the Development of Doctrine, University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London. Hussey, J. M. (1990) The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.